Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates neutrophil, monocyte, and memory T-cell adhesion to cytokine-activated endothelial cells. E-selectin recognizes sialylated carbohydrate groups related to the Lewis X or Lewis A family.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of fucose from a nucleoside diphosphate fucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid molecule. Elevated activity of some fucosyltransferases in human serum may serve as an indicator of malignancy. The class includes EC; EC; EC; EC
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
A blood group related both to the ABO and P systems that includes several different antigens found in most people on erythrocytes, in milk, and in saliva. The antibodies react only at low temperatures.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that mediates the adhesion of neutrophils and monocytes to activated platelets and endothelial cells.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Any chemical species which accepts an electron-pair from a LEWIS BASE in a chemical bonding reaction.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that associates with a variety of members of NK CELL LECTIN-LIKE RECEPTOR SUBFAMILY C to form heterodimeric receptors for HLA-E antigen.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together to form veins.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
Proteins that are chemically bound to a substrate material which renders their location fixed. The immobilization of proteins allows their use in chemical reactions without being diluted by solvent.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Movement of tethered, spherical LEUKOCYTES along the endothelial surface of the microvasculature. The tethering and rolling involves interaction with SELECTINS and other adhesion molecules in both the ENDOTHELIUM and leukocyte. The rolling leukocyte then becomes activated by CHEMOKINES, flattens out, and firmly adheres to the endothelial surface in preparation for transmigration through the interendothelial cell junction. (From Abbas, Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 3rd ed)
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A strong oxidizing agent.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar formed from GDPmannose, which provides fucose for lipopolysaccharides of bacterial cell walls, and for blood group substances and other glycoproteins.
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Sialyl-Lewis X Lewis antigen system Perkins, G.; Slater, E.; Sanders, G.; Prichard, J. (2003). "Serum tumor markers". American ... Goonetilleke KS, Siriwardena AK (April 2007). "Systematic review of carbohydrate antigen (CA19-9) as a biochemical marker in ... This is because of a deficiency of a fucosyltransferase enzyme that is needed to produce Lewis antigen A. CA19-9 was discovered ... In patients who lack the Lewis antigen A (a blood type antigen on red blood cells), which is about 10% of the Caucasian ...
... or stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA-1), is a tetrasaccharide carbohydrate which is usually attached to O-glycans on the ... Sialyl Lewis X was assigned the name CD15. CA19-9 (Sialyl-Lewis A) Pang, Poh-Choo; Chiu, Philip C. N.; et al. (18 August 2011 ... red blood cells led to the discovery of sialyl Lewis X. Sialyl Lewis x is a very important red blood cell antigen present on ... The sialyl Lewis X determinant is expressed preferentially on activated Th1 cells but not on Th2 cells. Sialyl-Lewis X is a ...
"Significance of Carbohydrate Antigen Sialyl-Lewis X, Sialyl-Lewis A, and Possible Unknown Ligands to Adhesion of Human ... Luber CA, Cox J, Lauterbach H, Fancke B, Selbach M, Tschopp J, et al. (February 2010). "Quantitative proteomics reveals subset- ... "Circulating sialyl Lewis x , sialyl Lewis a , and sialyl Tn antigens in colorectal cancer patients: multivariate analysis of ... Trinchera M, Aronica A, Dall'Olio F (February 2017). "Selectin Ligands Sialyl-Lewis a and Sialyl-Lewis x in Gastrointestinal ...
Muramatsu T, Muramatsu H (2004). "Carbohydrate antigens expressed on stem cells and early embryonic cells". Glycoconjugate ... RC1 antigen Rex-1 Sca-1 SCF Sialyl-lactotetra Side Population (SP) SOX10 SOX2 SOX9 SP phenotype SSEA-1 SSEA-3 SSEA-4 Stat3 ... Lamin A/C Lewis X antigen (Le(X)) LeX Lgr5 Lrp4 MCM2 MCSP Metallothionein (MT) crypt-restricted immunopositivity indices ( ... Boulter CA, Wagner EF (March 1988). "The effects of v-src expression on the differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells". ...
Another such adhesin, SabA, binds to increased levels of sialyl-Lewis x antigen expressed on gastric mucosa. In addition to ... Burkitt MD, Duckworth CA, Williams JM, Pritchard DM (February 2017). "Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric pathology: insights ... It adheres to the epithelial cells by producing adhesins, which bind to lipids and carbohydrates in the epithelial cell ... The O antigen of LPS may be fucosylated and mimic Lewis blood group antigens found on the gastric epithelium. The outer ...
... which bind to lipids and carbohydrates in the epithelial cell membrane. One such adhesin, BabA, binds to the Lewis b antigen ... binds to increased levels of sialyl-Lewis x antigen expressed on gastric mucosa.[43] ... Buckley MJ, O'Morain CA (1998). "Helicobacter biology-discovery". Br Med Bull. 54 (1): 7-16. PMID 9604426.. ... The O antigen of LPS may be fucosylated and mimic Lewis blood group antigens found on the gastric epithelium.[16] The outer ...
Endothelial selectins bind carbohydrates on leukocyte transmembrane glycoproteins, including sialyl-LewisX. ... Janeway CA, Travers P, Walport M, Shlomick MJ (2005). Immunobiology: The immune system in health and disease (6th ed.). New ... and is independent of specific cellular antigens. Cytokines released in the initial immune response induce vasodilation and ... Like velcro, carbohydrate ligands on the circulating leukocytes bind to selectin molecules on the inner wall of the vessel, ...
CA19-9) is a protein that is found in very small amounts on the surface of certain cancer cells. It may be found in the blood ... Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). CA19-9 is the common term for carbohydrate antigen sialyl Lewis a. It is a protein found on ... The highest levels of this antigen are most commonly seen in people with advanced pancreatic cancer. CA19-9 is not usually high ... Cancer information / Diagnosis and treatment / Tests and procedures / Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) ...
... similar progress in exploiting tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, such as sLeA, has been hampered by the lack of a ... Sialyl Lewis A (sLeA, also known as CA19-9), a tetrasaccharide selectively and highly expressed on advanced adenocarcinomas ... Antibodies targeting sialyl Lewis A mediate tumor clearance through distinct effector pathways. ... Antibodies targeting sialyl Lewis A mediate tumor clearance through distinct effector pathways. ...
Sialyl-Lewis X Lewis antigen system Perkins, G.; Slater, E.; Sanders, G.; Prichard, J. (2003). "Serum tumor markers". American ... Goonetilleke KS, Siriwardena AK (April 2007). "Systematic review of carbohydrate antigen (CA19-9) as a biochemical marker in ... This is because of a deficiency of a fucosyltransferase enzyme that is needed to produce Lewis antigen A. CA19-9 was discovered ... In patients who lack the Lewis antigen A (a blood type antigen on red blood cells), which is about 10% of the Caucasian ...
Y. Obayashi, J. Fujita, T. Nishiyama et al., "Role of carbohydrate antigens sialyl Lewis (a) (CA19-9) in bronchoalveolar lavage ... Carbohydrate antigen sialyl Lewis is secreted from the bronchial gland apically. Obayashi et al. reported that carbohydrate ... antigen sialyl Lewis in BALF could participate in the process of lung injury and repair in pulmonary fibrosis by modifying the ... A. Jemal, F. Bray, M. M. Center, J. Ferlay, E. Ward, and D. Forman, "Global cancer statistics," CA: A Cancer Journal for ...
Sialyl Lewisa or carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9, is a glycosphingolipid of the Lewis blood group that has been proposed as a ... Potential role of sialyl Lewisa in adhesion and invasion of cholangiocarcinoma cell line. Sopit Wongkham, Apa Juntavee, Banchob ... High levels of sialyl Lewisa are frequently detected in serum and tissues of CCA patients. This project was aimed to ... KKU-M213, a CCA cell line with high expression of sialyl Lewis a, and HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) stimulated ...
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and carbohydrate antigens sialyl Lewis (CA 19-9) and ... A gradual elevation of CA19-9 and SLX was observed in a patient who showed a decrease in PaO2 level during the study period. In ... There was a significant inverse correlation between CA19-9 level in BALF and arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) in PAP patients. ... especially levels of CA19-9 and SLX, may reflect the severity of the disease in PAP patients. ...
Expression of Carbohydrate Antigens (SSEA-1, Sialyl-Lewis X, DU-PAN-2 and CA19-9) and E-selectin in Urothelial Carcinoma of the ... Feb, 2004 , Pubmed ID: 14718023 To characterize serum elevations of carbohydrate antigens; DU-PAN-2, CA19-9, sialyl Lewisx and ... We studied the expression of carbohydrate antigens (type 1 and type 2 blood-group antigens) and E-selectin in urothelial ... Type 2 antigens (SSEA-1 and sialyl LeX) are frequently expressed in the tumor cells regardless of atypical grade. The ...
Kannagi R (2007) Carbohydrate antigen sialyl Lewis A-its pathophysiological significance and induction mechanism in cancer ... Carbohydrate antigen sLea (CA19-9) is the most frequently applied serum tumor marker for diagnosis of cancers in the digestive ... Structures of three carbohydrate determinants, disialyl Lewis x (Lex), sialyl Lewis a and Lewis a (Lea). In panel, note that ... and sialyl-Lewis A (sLea). These selectins can also interact with tumor cells in a sialyl-Lewis-dependent manner and hence, ...
Carbohydrate antigen sialyl Lewis a-Its pathophysiological significance and induction mechanism in cancer progression ... Systematic review of carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) as a biochemical marker in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer ... Anti-sialyl Lewis a (SLea) and sialyl Lewis x (SLex) antibodies SLea and SLex are positional isomers and act as ligands for ... Anti-sialyl Lewis a (SLea) and sialyl Lewis x (SLex) antibodies SLea and SLex are positional isomers and act as ligands for ...
... a carbohydrate epitope expressed on a high MW (, 400kDa) mucin glycoprotein, is a sialyl Lewis,sup,a,/sup, structure which is ... In normal tissues, sialyl Lewisa antigen is present in ductal epithelium of the breast, kidney, salivary gland, and sweat ... a carbohydrate epitope expressed on a high MW (> 400kDa) mucin glycoprotein, is a sialyl Lewisa structure which is synthesized ... Summary report on the ISOBM TD-6 workshop: analysis of 20 monoclonal antibodies against Sialyl Lewisa and related antigens. ...
Expression of carbohydrate antigens (SSEA-1, sialyl-Lewis X, DU-PAN-2 and CA19-9) and E-selectin in urothelial carcinoma of the ... Kannagi, R. (2004). Molecular mechanism for cancer-associated induction of sialyl Lewis X and sialyl Lewis A expression-The ... Renkonen, J., Paavonen, T., and Renkonen, R. (1997). Endothelial and epithelial expression of sialyl Lewis(x) and sialyl Lewis( ... and sialyl-transferases which synthesize sialyl LewisX, the carbohydrate ligands for E-selectin, in human breast cancer. Int. J ...
The clinical utility of serum CA 19-9 in the diagnosis, prognosis and management of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: An evidence ... Kannagi R. Carbohydrate antigen sialyl Lewis a--its pathophysiological significance and induction mechanism in cancer ... 6 sialyl transferase during early stages of carcinogenesis leads to abnormal synthesis and accumulation of sialyl Lewis-a (CA ... Systematic review of carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) as a biochemical marker in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Eur J Surg ...
... beta 3Gal-T5 in cancer cells reduces sialyl-Lewis a and enhances poly N-acetyllactosamines and sialyl-Lewis x on O-glycans. ... Title: Lewis type 1 antigen synthase (beta3Gal-T5) is transcriptionally regulated by homeoproteins. ... beta3Gal-T5 is presumed to be responsible for the synthesis of CA 19-9 in pancreatic cancer tissue. Title: Association between ... may play an important role in the specific function of intestinal cells by modifying the carbohydrate structure of ...
The Lewis histo-blood group system consists of 2 major antigens-Lea and Leb-and a sialyl Lewis antigen-carbohydrate antigen (CA ... The Relationship between Lewis/Secretor Genotypes and Serum Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 Levels in a Korean Population / ... The Relationship between Lewis/Secretor Genotypes and Serum Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 Leve ... Le/Le, Le/le(59,508), and Le/le(59,1067) are frequent Lewis genotypes in Koreans. Because serum CA 19-9 levels are ...
The Lewis histo-blood group system consists of 2 major antigens-Lea and Leb-and a sialyl Lewis antigen-carbohydrate antigen (CA ... Lewis X Antigen/physiology , Lewis X Antigen/immunology , Lewis X Antigen/genetics , Lewis Blood Group Antigens , Bacterial ... pylori binding to inflamed gastric mucosa by recognizing sialyl-Lewis a and sialyl-Lewis x antigens. The expression of the BabA ... The Relationship between Lewis/Secretor Genotypes and Serum Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 Levels in a Korean Population / ...
... sialyl Lewis Xi antigen, Pro-GRP: pro-gastrinreleasing peptide, RPR: rapid plasma regain, TPHA: Treponema pallidum ... carbohydrate antigen 19-9, SCC: squamous cell carcinoma antigen, NSE: neuron-specific enolase, CYFRA: cytokeratin 19 fragment, ... CA19-9 (U/mL) SCC (U/mL) NSE (ng/mL) CYFRA (ng/mL) SLX (U/mL) Pro-GRP (pg/mL) 2.3 1.6 3.7 0.4 14.2 0.5 25.9 22.3 Bacterial ... VZV DNA PCR in CSF β-D-glucan Aspergillus IgG Ab Aspergillus antigen Candida antigen Fungal culture in CSF Cryptococcal antigen ...
Sialyl Lewis A (sLeA, also known as CA19-9), a tetrasaccharide selectively and highly expressed on advanced adenocarcinomas ... similar progress in exploiting tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, such as sLeA, has been hampered by the lack of a ... Antibodies targeting sialyl Lewis A mediate tumor clearance through distinct effector pathways. ... maturation of antigen-presenting cells, antigen processing and presentation, B-cell selection and IgG affinity maturation, as ...
... the tumor surface marker Sialyl-Lewis A.. CA 19-9 can be elevated in many types of gastrointestinal cancer, such as colorectal ... carbohydrate antigen 19-9, also called cancer antigen 19-9 or sialylated Lewis (a) antigen) is a tumor marker that is used ... CA- 27.29 LabTest. Cancer antigen 27.29 (CA 27.29) is a blood test that is done specifically for people with breast cancer. It ... CA- 72.4 LabTest. CA 72 - 4 test is performed on a sample of blood to measure level of CA 72 - 4 in blood.It is performed to ...
Contribution of carbohydrate antigens sialyl Lewis A and sialyl Lewis X to adhesion of human cancer cells to vascular ... Sialyl Lewis A (sLeA, also known as CA19-9), a tetrasaccharide selectively and highly expressed on advanced adenocarcinomas ... We have focused on the TACA sialyl Lewis A (sLeA), a carbohydrate that belongs to the family of Lewis antigens (14). Patient ... Expression of carbohydrate-antigen sialyl-Lewis a on colon cancer cells promotes xenograft growth and angiogenesis in nude mice ...
Sialyl Lewis A (sLeA, also known as CA19-9), a tetrasaccharide selectively and highly expressed on advanced adenocarcinomas ... similar progress in exploiting tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, such as sLeA, has been hampered by the lack of a ... Antibodies targeting sialyl Lewis A mediate tumor clearance through distinct effector pathways. ... processing and presentation of antigens to T cells, trafficking of antigens to the germinal center, and selection of B cells ...
... or stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA-1), is a tetrasaccharide carbohydrate which is usually attached to O-glycans on the ... Sialyl Lewis X was assigned the name CD15. CA19-9 (Sialyl-Lewis A) Pang, Poh-Choo; Chiu, Philip C. N.; et al. (18 August 2011 ... red blood cells led to the discovery of sialyl Lewis X. Sialyl Lewis x is a very important red blood cell antigen present on ... The sialyl Lewis X determinant is expressed preferentially on activated Th1 cells but not on Th2 cells. Sialyl-Lewis X is a ...
Martensson S, Bigler SA, Brown M et al (1995) Sialyl-Lewis(x) and related carbohydrate antigens in the prostate. Hum Pathol 26: ... Goonetilleke KS, Siriwardena AK (2007) Systematic review of carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) as a biochemical marker in the ... Expression of sialyl 6-sulfo Lewis X is inversely correlated with conventional sialyl Lewis X expression in human colorectal ... Hanisch FG, Hanski C, Hasegawa A (1992) Sialyl Lewis(x) antigen as defined by monoclonal antibody AM-3 is a marker of dysplasia ...
Publications] Sunayama T: Elevated plasma levels of a carbohydrate antigen,sialyl Lewis X,in liver diseases J Hepatol. 19. ... Publications] Ueno T,Sato N,et al.: Partial characterization of a rabbit liver Ca^,2+,-calmodulin-dependent kinase with myosin ... Publications] Sunayama T: Elevated plasma levels of a carbohydrate antigen,sialyl Lewis X,in liver diseases J Hepatol. 19. ... Publications] Sunayama T,Tsuji T,et al.: Elevated plasma levels of a carbohydrate antige, sialyl Lewis X,in liver diseases. J ...
... including sialyl Lewis a (sLea, a blood group antigen), Lewis x and sialyl Lewis x (Lex and sLex, two blood group antigen ... Expression of carbohydrate antigen sialyl Le(a): a new functional prognostic factor in gastric cancer . J Clin Oncol 15 ( 2 ): ... Gaspar MJ , Arribas I , Coca MC , Diez-Alonso M ( 2001 ) Prognostic value of carcinoembryonic antigen, CA 19-9 and CA 72- 4 in ... Difference in prognostic value between sialyl Lewis(a) and sialyl Lewis(x) antigen levels in the preoperative serum of gastric ...
30 Larger carbohydrate epitopes, including blood group ABH- and Lewis-related carbohydrate antigens, have also been localized ... which show a decrease in sialic acid and sialyl-Lewis a in tears of dry eye patients, using HPLC and the CA 19-9 ELISA test.79, ... Expression of mucin peptide and blood group ABH- and Lewis-related carbohydrate antigens in normal human conjunctiva. Invest ... and Lewis-related carbohydrate antigens. Tissue- and cell-type differences in glycosyltransferase activities contribute to the ...
... sialyl-Lewis A, while others bound sialyl-Lewis A in addition to a related structure called sialyl-Lewis C and modification ... and a box is placed around the sialyl-Lewis A structure (the canonical CA 19-9 antigen). Diamonds indicate sialic acid ( ... In a much larger patient cohort, we confirmed the binding of sialyl-Lewis C glycan by one of the antibodies and showed that the ... A) A comparison of binding of sialyl-Lewis C between AB2 and AB5. After incubation of antibody arrays with 124 cancer patient ...
Expression of blood group-related antigens ABH, Lewis A, Lewis B, Lewis X, Lewis Y, and CA 19-9 in pancreatic cancer cells in ... Systematic review of carbohydrate antigen (CA 19-9) as a biochemical marker in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. Eur J Surg ... Glycan motif profiling reveals plasma sialyl-Lewis X elevations in pancreatic cancers that are negative for CA 19-9. Mol Cell ... sialylated tumor-related antigen), we treat the antigen with sialidase prior to detection (Fig. 1A). Both CA19-9 and sTRA ...
Carbohydrate (1989-1994). Public MeSH Note:. 1995; was see ANTIGENS, TUMOR-ASSOCIATED, CARBOHYDRATE 1989-1994; for Sialyl Lewis ... A, Sialyl Lewis Antigen CA 19 9 Antigen CA-19-9 Antigen, CA 19-9 Antigen, CA 19.9 Antigen, CA-19-9 CA 19 9 Antigen CA 19-9 ... Lewis A, Sialyl NAG-1,3-F-1,4-GN Neu5Ac-2-3-Gal-1-3-(Fuc-1-4)-GlcNAc Sialyl Le(a) Sialyl Lewis A Sialyl Lewis A Antigen Sialyl ... Lewis A, Sialyl. NAG-1,3-F-1,4-GN. Neu5Ac-2-3-Gal-1-3-(Fuc-1-4)-GlcNAc. Sialyl Le(a). Sialyl Lewis A. Sialyl Lewis A Antigen. ...
Presentation] SRM法を用いた血清糖鎖腫瘍マーカー候補core 1 sialyl Lewis Aの定量解析:癌患者血清での有意な上昇を認める2015. *. Author(s). 岡本三紀、藪政彦、宮本泰豪 ... Application of novel tumor associated carbohydrate antigen as tumor markerPrincipal Investigator. *. Principal Investigator. ... Journal Article] Elevation of CA19-9 related novel marker, Core 1 Sialyl Lewis A, in sera of adenocarcinoma patients
Difference in prognostic value between sialyl Lewis(a) and sialyl Lewis(x) antigen levels in the preoperative serum of gastric ... Lewis(y) (Le(y), also designated CD174, represents a carbohydrate blood group antigen which is strongly expressed in neoplastic ... Aarnoudse CA, Garcia Vallejo JJ, Saeland E, van Kooyk Y: Recognition of tumor glycans by antigen-presenting cells. Curr Opin ... This interaction is mediated through binding of Lewis(x) and Lewis(y) carbohydrates on CEA of colorectal cancer cells. In ...
  • The highest levels of this antigen are most commonly seen in people with advanced pancreatic cancer. (
  • Guidelines from the American Society of Clinical Oncology discourage the use of CA19-9 as a screening test for cancer, particularly pancreatic cancer. (
  • This is because of a deficiency of a fucosyltransferase enzyme that is needed to produce Lewis antigen A. CA19-9 was discovered in the serum of patients with colon cancer and pancreatic cancer in 1981. (
  • van den Bosch RP, van Eijck CH, Mulder PG, Jeekel J. Serum CA19-9 determination in the management of pancreatic cancer. (
  • All English language articles pertaining to the role of CA 19-9 in pancreatic cancer were critically analyzed to determine its utility as a biomarker for pancreatic cancer. (
  • Serum CA 19-9 is the most extensively validated pancreatic cancer biomarker with multiple clinical applications. (
  • CA 19-9 is the most extensively studied and validated serum biomarker for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer in symptomatic patients. (
  • However, non-specific expression in several benign and malignant diseases, false negative results in Lewis negative genotype and an increased false positive results in the presence of obstructive jaundice severely limit the universal applicability of serum CA 19-9 levels in pancreatic cancer management. (
  • Several types of cancer, especially epithelial carcinomas such as pancreatic cancer, commonly display particular carbohydrate alterations that have potential functional roles in cancer progression. (
  • The CA 19-9 antigen is currently the best individual marker for the detection of pancreatic cancer. (
  • Antibody arrays enabled multiplexed comparisons between five different CA 19-9 antibodies used in the analysis of plasma samples from pancreatic cancer patients and controls. (
  • Here we report a new biomarker for pancreatic cancer, called sTRA, which yields better performance than CA19-9, the current best biomarker for pancreatic cancer. (
  • Our approaches make heavy use of understanding the nature and functions of changes to carbohydrates in pancreatic cancer. (
  • Altered carbohydrate expression and aberrant glycan modifications are one of the hallmarks of cancer ( 4 , 5 ) and many tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) have been identified and routinely used in the clinic to monitor tumor progression and response to treatment. (
  • When sialyl-Lewisx is part of an O-glycan and attached to CD34 it can then bind to L-selectin. (
  • For sialyl-Lewisx to bind to P-selectin, an O-linked glycan near the N-terminus of P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 (PSGL-1) is modified with sialyl-Lewisx and in combination with nearby tyrosine residues modified with sulfate, forms the binding contact for P-selectin. (
  • For sialyl-Lewisx to bind to E-selectin it can be part of either an N-linked or O-linked glycan attached to cell surface glycoproteins such as PSGL-1, CD43 or CD44. (
  • Glycan array analysis revealed that certain antibodies were highly specific for the canonical CA 19-9 epitope, sialyl-Lewis A, while others bound sialyl-Lewis A in addition to a related structure called sialyl-Lewis C and modification with Nue5Gc. (
  • In a much larger patient cohort, we confirmed the binding of sialyl-Lewis C glycan by one of the antibodies and showed that the broader specificity led to the detection of an increased number of cancer patients without increasing detection of pancreatitis patient samples. (
  • We hypothesized that a glycan called sTRA (sialylated tumor-related antigen) is a biomarker for PDAC that improves upon CA19-9. (
  • The sTRA glycan was produced and secreted by pancreatic tumors and models that did not produce and secrete CA19-9. (
  • A molecular feature shared by most PDACs is increased levels of a glycan called the CA19-9 antigen. (
  • The H antigens are indirect gene products expressed as fucose-containing glycan units, residing on glycoproteins or glycolipids of erythrocyte membranes or on mucin glycoproteins in secretions and are the fucosylated glycans substrates for glycosyltransferases that give rise to the epitopes for the A , B and Lewis blood group antigens. (
  • The O-antigen is a glycan polymer and is the outer most section of the LPS structure [ 11 ]. (
  • ABSTRACT ABO, H, secretor and Lewis histo-blood system genes control the expression of part of the carbohydrate repertoire present in areas of the body occupied by microorganisms. (
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and carbohydrate antigens sialyl Lewis (CA 19-9) and sialyl SSEA-1 (SLX) were assayed with radioimmunoassay kits. (
  • We compared preoperative serum concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin 19 fragment, sialyl Lewis X (SLX), and pre- and intraoperative clinicopathological features of pN0 and skip N2 patients. (
  • The loss or degeneration of the H epitope/acetamido binding site and the reinforcement of the Le binding site of the GI.8 BV is a typical example of such change selected by the host Lewis epitope. (
  • The ceramide portions were found to contain C-18 sphingosine and predominantly C-16:0 fatty acids, All monosialogangliosides were homogenous concerning their terminal alpha 2-3Neu5Ac-sialylation, but different in their fucosylation status, Beside VI(3)Neu5Ac, V(3)Fuc-nLcOse(6)Cer, in two of the fucosylated polylactosaminyl ganglioside fractions the sialyl Lewis(x) epitope was found, whereas five species expressed the terminal VIM-2 motif. (
  • Thus, the loss in mAb reactivity may result from a loss of sialic acid residues from the mAb carbohydrate epitope. (
  • Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), also known as sialyl-LewisA, is a tetrasaccharide which is usually attached to O-glycans on the surface of cells. (
  • They are attached to either a galactose (Gal), or N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) unit via α2,3- or α2,6-linkage, or to a SA via α2,8- or 2,9-linkage on both N- and O-linked glycans. (
  • Suppression of beta 1,3galactosyltransferase beta 3Gal-T5 in cancer cells reduces sialyl-Lewis a and enhances poly N-acetyllactosamines and sialyl-Lewis x on O-glycans. (
  • Previous structural studies have suggested that the presence of a core fucose remarkably decreases the unique and favorable carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions between the Fc and the receptor N-glycans, leading to reduced affinity. (
  • Sialyl LewisX (sLeX) also known as cluster of differentiation 15s (CD15s) or stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA-1), is a tetrasaccharide carbohydrate which is usually attached to O-glycans on the surface of cells. (
  • Human ZP is coated with highly dense N- and O-glycans that are terminated with the sialyl-Lewisx sequence. (
  • 1 Traditionally, the biochemical analyses of carbohydrates on glycans have been impeded by the limited amounts of sample available. (
  • In N-glycans, the carbohydrate N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) is linked to the amide group of an asparagine amino acid in the consensus peptide sequence Asn-X-Ser/Thr where X denotes any amino acid except proline. (
  • O-linked carbohydrates (O-glycans) contribute to the hydrophilic character of mucins in mucosal tissues. (
  • Host glycans can contribute to a beneficial microenvironment for symbiotic microbes by providing carbohydrate sources or by serving as attachment sites [ 1 - 3 ], but glycans can in the same way also mediate pathogenic interactions [ 4 , 5 ]. (
  • Homozygosity for loss-of-function FUT2 mutations leads to loss of expression of ABO and H blood group glycans in secretions and is known as the "nonsecretor" phenotype, which is common in human populations [ 9 ]. (
  • Sialyl Lewis x (sLe x ) and sialyl Lewis a (sLe a ) glycans are expressed on highly metastatic colon cancer cells. (
  • Sialyl Lewis x (sLe x ) and sialyl Lewis a (sLe a ) are E-selectin ligand glycans expressed on the surface of many types of cancer cells, including colorectal, pancreatic, gastric, breast, prostate, and lung cancer ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Whereas the diagnostic utility of sLe x/a has been well established, therapeutic approaches targeting these glycans are not well developed, partly because molecular mechanisms of their expression have been only partially elucidated ( 9 ⇓ - 11 ). (
  • Since FUT1 provides the glycans necessary for glycosyltransferases conversion into the Lewis antigen in addition to ABH, the Lewis blood group determinants are structurally related to determinants of the ABO and the H/h blood group systems and the outcome of Lewis typing can also often be used for the de facto determination of ABH secretor status. (
  • Cell surface receptors for influenza viruses are sialyl glycans (α2-3 Sia or α2-6 Sia) with terminal sialic acid linked α2-3 or α2-6, respectively, to a penultimate galactose. (
  • The sialyl glycans are differentially recognized by the HAs of human and animal influenza viruses and are critical determinants of host range and tissue tropism ( 16 ). (
  • Regioselective One-Pot Multienzyme (OPME) Chemoenzymatic Strategies for Systematic Synthesis of Sialyl Core 2 Glycans. (
  • Various monoclonal antibody medicines related with adaptive immunity such as rituximab and infliximab have brought a wonderful curative effect in many refractory diseases including respiratory diseases [ 18 , 19 ]. (
  • Proceedings of the First International Workshop on monoclonal antibodies against human red blood cells and related antigens (Paris, 1987) published in: Blood Transfusion and Immunohaematology 30 (5), pp 353-720. (
  • Summary report on the ISOBM TD-6 workshop: analysis of 20 monoclonal antibodies against Sialyl Lewisa and related antigens. (
  • Diverse monoclonal antibodies against the CA 19-9 antigen show variation in binding specificity with consequences for clinical interpretation. (
  • The MUC1 glycoprotein was first identified as the antigen found in extracts of the human milk fat globule membranes, or in extracts of cancer cells, which induced a strong humoral response in mice, leading to the production of many monoclonal antibodies reactive with the TR domain [ 9 - 12 ]. (
  • Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to some TACAs, like those directed to the ganglioside GD2 and the neolactoseries antigen Lewis Y (LeY), are known to inhibit cell signaling that influences cell survival [ 2 - 3 ]. (
  • In addition, Lewis X antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen. (
  • Human noroviruses (huNoVs) recognize histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as attachment factors, in which genogroup (G) I and GII huNoVs use distinct binding interfaces. (
  • Some viruses within the Caliciviridae family initiate their replication cycle by attachment to cell surface carbohydrate moieties, histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), and/or terminal sialic acids (SAs). (
  • While progress in antibodies targeting tumor-associated protein antigens resulted in an impressive array of therapeutics for cancer treatment, similar progress in exploiting tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, such as sLeA, has been hampered by the lack of a detailed understanding of the singular characteristics of these antigens. (
  • However, in contrast to protein antigens in which hFcγRIIIA engagement was both necessary and sufficient to mediate tumor clearance in both preclinical and clinical settings, a similar selective dependence was not seen for anti-sLeA antibodies. (
  • Although computational predictions suggest that ALS2 encodes a protein containing multiple guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) domains [RCC1-like domain (RLD), the Dbl homology and pleckstrin homology (DH/PH), and the vacuolar protein sorting 9 (VPS9)], the functions of the ALS2 protein have not been revealed as yet. (
  • Enhanced discrimination of malignant from benign pancreatic disease by measuring the CA 19-9 antigen on specific protein carriers. (
  • For the production of antibodies against defined cell surface antigens such as these, the best approach has been described to include chemical conjugation of the antigen to a highly immunogenic carrier protein plus the use of a potent immunologic adjuvant. (
  • 3 4 5 Mucin-type O-linked glycosylation is initiated by a family of enzymes known as UDP- N -acetylgalactosamine:polypeptide N -acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GALNT) that transfer α- N -acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) to Ser/Thr residues in the protein backbone to form the Tn-antigen. (
  • The carbohydrate portion of the ganglioside GM1 is the site of attachment of cholera toxin, the protein secreted by Vibrio cholerae. (
  • The determinants of selectin ligands consist of sialylated tetrasaccharides, the sialyl Lewis X and A (sLe X and sLe A ), displayed on protein or lipid scaffolds. (
  • [5] The fucose residue of the sialyl Lewis x tetrasaccharide fits in the primary binding site and interacts with a Ca 2+ bound to the protein, with secondary contacts to the galactose residue and electrostatic interactions with the carboxyl group of sialic acid. (
  • COLOMB F, VIDAL O, BOBOWSKI M, KRZEWINSKI-RECCHI MA, HARDUIN-LEPERS A, MENSIER E, JAILLARD S, LAFITTE JJ, DELANNOY P, GROUX-DEGROOTE S. TNF induces the expression of the sialyltransferase ST3Gal IV in human bronchial mucosa via MSK1/2 protein kinases and increases FliD/sialyl-Lewis(x)-mediated adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (
  • Discovery of novel carbohydrate-active enzymes through the rational exploration of the protein sequences space. (
  • This project was aimed to investigate the role of sialyl Lewis a in the adhesion and transmigration of CCA cells via E-selectin mediated endothelial cells. (
  • KKU-M213, a CCA cell line with high expression of sialyl Lewis a, and HUVEC (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) stimulated with IL-1B, were used in this study. (
  • These results suggested that sialyl Lewis a plays a significant role in metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma by enhance cell adhesion and transmigration via E-selectin mediated endothelial cells. (
  • Sialyl-Lewisx is a necessary partner for the three selectins that bind the leukocyte and endothelial cells. (
  • This sialyl-Lewisx mediated binding to selectins allows circulating leukocytes to stick to and roll along endothelial cells lining blood vessels thereby enabling the leukocytes to accumulate at a site of vascular inflammation. (
  • P-selectin) is well documented, However, the involvement of endothelial cells E- and/or P-selectin mediated cell-cell adhesion via lipid bound sialyl Lewis(x) and/or VIM-2 epitopes on human granulocytes has to be proved in further investigations. (
  • This disease is a defect in fucose metabolism (lack of fucosylation of the carbohydrate selectin ligands) that results in failure to express the ligand for E and P selectin, sialyl Lewis-X (CD15s) expressed on leukocytes and endothelial cells. (
  • Immunoprecipitate obtained after immunodiffusion of MAb 19-9 and mucins isolated from an ovarian cyst of a Lewis A + B - patient (0Le). (
  • Mucins are complex and heavily glycosylated O -linked glycoproteins, which contain more than 70% carbohydrate by weight 1-3 . (
  • In addition to mucins, mucus layers also contain antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, and immunoglobulins 5-9 . (
  • This section documents what is currently known about P-selectin, its carbohydrate ligands, and how they interact to mediate cell communication. (
  • However, the precise carbohydrate structures that mediate binding of leukocytes to vascular selectins remain to be determined. (
  • Selectins on activated vascular endothelium mediate inflammation by binding to complementary carbohydrates on circulating neutrophils. (
  • Among TACAs that mediate cell survival signals are the neolactoseries antigen Lewis Y (LeY) and the ganglioside GD2. (
  • Tumor-Associated Carbohydrate Antigens (TACAs) mediate important signaling effects that underlie their role in tumor biology. (
  • Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) support cell survival that could be interrupted by anti-TACA antibodies. (
  • Expression of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) was analyzed in PCSCs by western blotting. (
  • This 121SLE antibody is specific to CA19-9, which can predict recurrence of disease prior to radiographic treatment. (
  • Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are an important class of therapeutic agents that harness the highly specific antigen targeting property of antibodies to deliver toxic drugs for targeted cell killing. (
  • This heptavalent-KLH conjugate plus QS21 vaccine safely induced antibody responses against five of seven antigens. (
  • Patients with leukocyte adhesion deficiency II manifest the Bombay phenotype (ie, negative for O and H blood group antigens with potential production of anti-H antibody). (
  • 4. Gold P., Freedman S.O. Demonstration of tumor-specific antigens in human colonic carcinomata by immunological tolerance and absorption techniques. (
  • Many more might be therapeutically relevant as tumor-specific antigens or might have been described in the literature, but they have either not proven to yield more accurate diagnostic information than the more established carbohydrate-dependent tumor markers, or are still in a very preliminary stage of validation. (
  • SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has been responsible for over 42 million infections and 1 million deaths since its emergence in December 2019. (
  • Sialyl Lewis a or carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9, is a glycosphingolipid of the Lewis blood group that has been proposed as a useful marker for epithelial type gastrointestinal cancers, especially those of the pancreas and biliary tract. (
  • We also establish the importance of both glycoprotein(s) and glycosphingolipid structures displaying sialyl Lewis X epitopes as potential E-selectin ligands on bone-metastatic prostate tumor cells. (
  • 400kDa) mucin glycoprotein, is a sialyl Lewis a structure which is synthesized from type 1 blood group precursor chains and is present in individuals expressing the Lewis a and/or Lewis b blood group antigens. (
  • Role of glycoprotein polymeric structure and carbohydrate side-chains in gel-formation. (
  • Reed-Sternberg cells display a characteristic pattern of Sialyl-Lewisx (CD15) positivity, with membranous staining combined with staining of the Golgi apparatus. (
  • HL60var also exhibits a concomitant increase in reactivity with mAb directed against the unsialylated Lewis X (Lex/CD15) structure. (
  • Previous studies have focused on antibodies targeting tumor-associated proteins, such as CD20 ( 9 ) and Her2/Neu ( 10 ), as well as antibodies targeting the checkpoint targets CTLA4 ( 11 ), CD40 ( 12 ), and PD-1/PD-L1 ( 13 ), establishing the mechanistic role by which such antibodies confer their therapeutic activity in vivo through engagement of Fcγ receptors (FcγRs). (
  • distinct sialyl Lewis X (or HECA-452 antigen)-bearing membrane proteins were resolved at M r 130,000 and M r 220,000 as well as others ranging from M r 100,000 to M r 220,000. (
  • Lectins are carbohydrate recognizing proteins originating from diverse origins in nature, including animals, plants, viruses, bacteria and fungus. (
  • Lectins, defined as proteins that recognize carbohydrates, perform numerous essential biological functions. (
  • Certain extra-cellular matrix proteins could play an important role in prevention of tumor cell migration and invasion 7 , 8 , 9 . (
  • In this study the crystal structures of the P dimers of a Lewis-binding strain, the GI.8 Boxer virus (BV) that does not bind the A and H antigens, in complex with the Lewis b (Le(b)) and Le(y) antigens, respectively, were determined and compared with those of the three previously known GI huNoVs, i.e. (
  • These Toll-like receptors (TLRs) don't recognize specific single structures, but specific patterns, termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns, like carbohydrates on glycoproteins and glycolipids and repetitive structures which are shared by different molecules and even organisms (e.g. (
  • Their targets are often conservative structures, in most cases carbohydrates. (
  • Peptides which are associated with carbohydrate structures are "self" structures and therefore, an education and memory does normally not occur. (
  • The patterns of intestinal carbohydrate structures, which vary along sites of the gastrointestinal tract, are the product of a combination of host glycosyltransferase expression programs as well as microbial influences [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • 9. Fujimoto Z, Tateno H, Hirabayashi J (2014) Lectin structures: classification based on the 3-D structures. (
  • Secreted and surface glycoproteins of a broad variety of adenocarcinomas commonly express Tn, T, sialyl-Tn glycotopes and increased levels of the different Lewis blood group glycotopes [1] (see Fig. 2 for structures of these glycotopes). (
  • The structures of a fragment of P-selectin containing the CRD and EGF domains in complex with a sialyl Lewis x -containing oligosaccharide as well as a glycopeptide from PSGL-1 that contains sulfated tyrosine residues have been determined. (
  • A number of studies have suggested that leukocyte binding to both E- and P-selectin may occur through direct interaction with the sialylated, fucosylated tetrasaccharide sialyl Lewis X (sLex) or closely related structures ( 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 ). (
  • The sialyl Lewis X determinant, E-selectin ligand carbohydrate structure, is constitutively expressed on granulocytes and monocytes and mediates inflammatory extravasation of these cells. (
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of HECA-452 antigen expression on normal prostate tissue and on low- and high-grade prostate adenocarcinoma shows that HECA-452 antigen expression is directly associated with prostate tumor progression and may indicate acquisition of E-selectin ligand expression. (
  • We examined sTRA and CA19-9 expression and secretion in panels of cell lines, patient-derived xenografts, and primary tumors. (
  • The Lewis (FUT3) and Secretor (FUT2) genes, corresponding to secretion of Lewis ABO (H) histo-blood group antigen CA19-9, are highly polymorphic with differences between populations. (
  • In this study, the FUT3 and FUT2 genes in 316 Chinese participants were sequenced to detect polymorphisms, and the associated CA19-9 antigen secretion was also measured. (
  • The term 'ABH secretor,' as used in blood banking, refers to secretion of ABO blood group antigens in fluids such as saliva, sweat, tears, semen, and serum. (
  • The other three enzymes of the sialyltransferase family ST3GAL3, ST3GAL4,and ST3GAL6 participate in the synthesis of the Sialyl-Lewis X precursor. (
  • Defective synthesis of the sialyl Lewis X antigen results in immunodeficiency (leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 2). (
  • The synthesis of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens, including LeY, is controlled by the specific glycosyltransferases. (
  • The B4galnt2 gene is responsible for the synthesis of the Sd(a)/Cad carbohydrate blood group antigen and displays variable tissue-specific expression patterns in wild mouse populations. (
  • Expression of FucT-VII has been shown to be a key regulatory step in the synthesis of functional ligands for E- and P-selectin 4 ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • Synthesis of carbohydrate building blocks via regioselective uniform protection/deprotection strategies. (
  • Such evidence suggest that the early steps of human sperm-egg binding may be mediated by lectins for sialyl-Lewisx present on human sperm. (
  • The recognition of sialoglycan SAMPs by inhibitory receptors on the surface of immune cells, such as sialic acid binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs) ( 19 - 21 ), may then lead to the downregulation of immune responses. (
  • We developed candidate biomarkers from sTRA and CA19-9 in a training set of 147 plasma samples and used the panels to make case-control calls, based on predetermined thresholds, in a 50-sample validation set and a blinded, 147-sample test set. (
  • Glycosylation changes are common in malignancies ( 12 , 13 ), and several carbohydrate tumor markers are diagnostically exploited as biomarkers, such as the CA 125 antigen that is elevated in serum of patients with ovarian cancer ( 14 ). (
  • Sialyl Lewis X is also one of the most important blood group antigens and is displayed on the terminus of glycolipids that are present on the cell surface. (
  • Lewis Y (LeY) is a difucosylated oligosaccharide with the chemical structure [Fucα1→2Galβ1→4(Fucα1→3)GlcNAcβ1→R], carried by glycoconjugates (glycoproteins and glycolipids) on the cell surface. (
  • A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. (
  • Several studies have suggested that the sialylated, fucosylated tetrasaccharide sialyl Lewis X (sLex) is an important component of leukocyte ligands for E- and P-selectin. (
  • Both E- and P-selectin are expressed on activated endothelium, and both bind carbohydrate ligands on the surface of leukocytes. (
  • Similarly, the carbohydrates that function as physiologic ligands for selectins have not been definitively identified ( 1 , 7 ). (
  • Lewis genotyping was performed for the 59T>G, 508G>A and 1067T>A polymorphic sites. (
  • Despite the knowledge of some structural variability of these carbohydrate antigens and their polymorphic levels of expression in tissue and exocrine secretions, little is known about their biological importance and potential applications in medicine. (
  • LeY oligosaccharide antigen linked to EGFR plays a critical role in dimerzation and activation of EGFR as well as downstream of the EGFR/MAPK signaling pathway. (
  • C2GnT catalyzes the addition of GlcNAc in a β1,6-linkage to the GalNAc of O-linked carbohydrate chains, resulting in the branching of the oligosaccharide structure, and is essential for binding to P-selectin ( 11 , 12 , 17 ). (
  • LPS is an important cellular component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, and has three distinct components: the core oligosaccharide, the lipid-A region, and the O-antigen [ 9 ]. (
  • Cytokeratin 19 fragments (CYFRA) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (
  • 9 Parasite Immunology 195 (1987). (
  • Aruffo and Seed, "Molecular cloning of a two CD7 (T-cell leukemia antigen) cDNAs by a COS cell expression system," The EMBO Journal 6:3313-3316 (1987). (
  • High levels of sialyl Lewis a are frequently detected in serum and tissues of CCA patients. (
  • In normal tissues, sialyl Lewis a antigen is present in ductal epithelium of the breast, kidney, salivary gland, and sweat glands. (
  • A well-described example is the FUT2 gene, which encodes an α-1,2-fucosyltransferase that directs the expression of the H antigen in mucosal tissues and bodily secretions. (
  • In order to optimize the CA 19-9 assay and to develop approaches to further improve cancer detection, it is important to understand the specificity differences between CA 19-9 antibodies and the consequential affect on biomarker performance. (
  • Two biomarker panels improved upon CA19-9 in the training set, one optimized for specificity, which included CA19-9 and 2 versions of the sTRA assay, and another optimized for sensitivity, which included 2 sTRA assays. (
  • Type and number of internal monosaccharides and their linkages determine fine specificity of virus receptors ( 19 , 20 ). (
  • The acceptor specificity and intraGolgi location of these glycosyl transferases determine the carbohydrate sequence of the GSLs eventually expressed on the plasma membrane. (
  • Additional conditions apply, see Terms of Use . (
  • Carbohydrate-to-carbohydrate interactions between a2,3-linked sialic acids on a2 integrin subunits and asialo-GM1 underlie the bone metastatic behaviour of LNCAP-derivative C4-2B prostate cancer cells. (
  • CA19-9 is commonly used as a tumour marker for some types of cancer of the pancreas. (
  • If CA19-9 levels have been higher than normal, a decrease in CA19-9 or a return to normal values may mean that the cancer is responding well to treatment. (
  • In people with pancreatic masses, CA19-9 can be useful in distinguishing between cancer and other diseases of the gland. (
  • CA19-9 can be elevated in many types of gastrointestinal cancer, such as colorectal cancer, esophageal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. (
  • The adhesion and transmigration activities were also reduced by inhibiting glycosylation of the cancer cells with benzyl-αGalNAC which reduced the expression of sialyl Lewis a . (
  • The prognostic value of preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA19-9 in patients with gastric cancer. (
  • To characterize the safety and immunogenicity of a heptavalent antigen-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) plus QS21 vaccine construct in patients with epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer in second or greater complete clinical remission. (
  • Cancer immunotherapies targeting shared antigens that we have identified to be frequently expressed across patients with a specific cancer type. (
  • We investigated the distribution of Lewis genotypes and evaluated the relationship between the Lewis/Secretor genotypes and the serum level of CA 19-9 in a Korean population to identify whether the serum CA 19-9 levels are influenced by the Lewis/Secretor genotypes . (
  • 188:9-17 (1989). (
  • 1989. CD Antigens 1989. (
  • Modulating Effects By Trichinella Spiralis Sensu Stricto Excretory/Secretory Antigens of Human Neutrophil Functions," Wiadomosci Parazytologizne 35:391-399 (1989). (
  • 2011) Surface plasmon resonance for real-time study of lectin-carbohydrate interactions for the differentiation and identification of glycoproteins. (
  • CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1) expressed on lymphocytes is known to play an important role in lymphocyte trafficking (adhesion to vascular endothelium), as well as interactions to antigen presenting cells (APC). (
  • Ovarian cancers express a rich array of cell surface antigens. (
  • LeY is a tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen (TACA) and its abnormal expression is frequently found in various cancers, such as breast, pancreas, gastric, ovarian and skin cancers ( 6 - 9 ). (
  • CA 19-9 serum levels can provide important information with regards to prognosis, overall survival, and response to chemotherapy as well as predict post-operative recurrence. (
  • Sialyl Lewis A (sLeA, also known as CA19-9), a tetrasaccharide selectively and highly expressed on advanced adenocarcinomas including colon, stomach, and pancreatic cancers, has long been considered as an attractive target for active and passive vaccination. (
  • sTRA is produced by pancreatic cancers that do not produce CA19-9. (
  • In this protocol, Life Extension® discusses 9 critical steps that may increase the likelihood of a successful outcome in the treatment of many cancers. (
  • Campbell BJ, Finnie IA, Hounsell EF et al (1995) Direct demonstration of increased expression of Thomsen−Friedenreich (TF) antigen in colonic adenocarcinoma and ulcerative colitis mucin and its concealment in normal mucin. (
  • We found that Rg3 did not only inhibit A375 melanoma cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, but also decreased the expression of fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) and its synthetic product Lewis Y (LeY), a tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen (TACA). (
  • We have developed potential TACA-directed vaccines based on carbohydrate-mimetic peptides (CMPs) that induce anti-tumor-reactive humoral [ 7 - 9 ] and cellular [ 10 , 11 ] responses in mice. (
  • The genes responsible for synthesizing carbohydrate blood group antigens frequently display signatures of balancing selection and are implicated in the co-evolution of hosts and their pathogens [ 8 ]. (
  • The blood levels of this antigen may also be at a higher than normal level in healthy people and in people with non-cancerous conditions such as pancreatitis or bile duct obstruction. (
  • CA19-9 is usually measured by a blood test. (
  • In patients who lack the Lewis antigen A (a blood type antigen on red blood cells), which is about 10% of the Caucasian population, CA19-9 is not produced by any cells, even in those with large tumors. (
  • The Lewis histo- blood group system consists of 2 major antigens -Lea and Leb-and a sialyl Lewis antigen - carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9. (
  • This review highlights the structural diversity, the biological importance and potential applications of ABO, H, Lewis and secretor histo-blood carbohydrates. (
  • ABO, H, and Lewis blood groups in 3 probands were screened out by the serological method, and saliva testing was performed on all the individuals. (
  • 1)HLA class I B44 restricted cytotoxic T cell population agaist HCV core antigen was identified in the peripheral blood of patients with type C chronic hepatitis. (
  • Sialylated Lewis(a) blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors. (
  • A hemolytic anti-LKE associated with a rare LKE-negative, "weak P" red blood cell phenotype: alloanti-LKE and alloanti-P recognize galactosylgloboside and monosialogalactosylgloboside (LKE) antigens. (
  • Determining ABH secretor phenotype and/or Lewis blood group status provides consistent and noteworthy findings that can be quite useful to the metabolically oriented clinician. (
  • If people are ABH secretors, they will secrete antigens according to their blood groups. (
  • In the most rudimentary sense, the secretor gene (FUT2 at 19q13.3) codes for the activity of the glycosyltransferases needed to assemble aspects of both the ABO and Lewis blood groups. (
  • Blood (2008) 112 (9): 3744-3752. (
  • The α(1,2)fucosyltransferase plays a key role for tissue expression of the H antigen-a common precursor for the blood group A and B antigens. (
  • Resting T- and B-lymphocytes lack its expression and are induced to strongly express sialyl Lewis X upon activation. (
  • MUC6 apomucin shows a distinct normal tissue distribution that correlates with Lewis antigen expression in the human stomach. (
  • In particular, E-selectin binding depends critically on expression of leukocyte α1,3-fucosyltransferases, especially FucT-VII, while P-selectin binding requires both FucT-VII and the Core2 transferase (C2GnT) ( 6 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ). (
  • Poplar carbohydrate-active enzymes - whole genome annotation and functional analyses based on RNA expression data. (
  • FUT1 encodes H type α(1,2)fucosyltransferase (H enzyme) that regulates the expression of the H antigen and thereafter A and/or B antigens in the erythroid lineage and in the vascular endothelia. (
  • FUT2 encodes Secretor type α(1,2)fucosyltransferase (Se enzyme) that regulates the expression of these antigens in the secretory glands and in the digestive mucosa. (
  • FUT3 encodes the Lewis α(1,3/4)fucosyltransferase that synthesizes the Lewis a and Lewis b epitopes, whereas the tissue expression of the FUT5 -encoding enzyme is not yet known. (
  • The executors are T lymphoid cells and B lymphoid cells, who can both recognize antigens specifically. (
  • Sialyl-Lewisx allows a sperm cell to recognize and fertilize an egg cell. (
  • Members of the Siglec family are heterogenously expressed in immune cells in a cell type- and differentiation-dependent manner, whereby different members recognize structurally distinct sialoglycans ( 19 - 21 ). (
  • Fig.1) Sialyl-Lewisx is important in leukocyte tethering and rolling. (
  • The CA19-9 biomarker is elevated in a substantial group of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but not enough to be reliable for the detection or diagnosis of the disease. (
  • CA19-9 is used for specific purposes, such as to confirm the diagnosis of PDAC, assess responses to treatment, or screen for recurrence, but it has limitations ( 1-3 ). (
  • For the binding to L-selectin to occur sialyl-Lewisx must undergo sulfation. (
  • Specialized epithelial cells known as microfold cells (M cells) overlie the MALT and are able to translocate luminal material to basolateral antigen-presenting cells located immediately beneath the M cell ( Kimura, 2018 ). (
  • Carbohydrate-Dependent Tumor Markers in Current Clinical Use, Mainly Detected Via Histology on Tumor Tissue T-Glycotope Probably the best-known family of tumor antigens of carbohydrate nature are based on the T-antigen (Galβ-1,3-GalNAc- α -Ser/Thr) [2]. (
  • GI.1 Norwalk virus (NV), GI.2 FUV258 (FUV) and GI.7 TCH060 (TCH) that bind the A/H/Le antigens. (
  • However, BNeV VLPs do not bind to terminal SAs on cell carbohydrates. (
  • Carbohydrate microarray analyses showed that 222G variants bind a broader range of α2-3-linked sialyl receptor sequences of a type expressed on ciliated bronchial epithelial cells and on epithelia within the lung. (
  • They initiate infection by attachment to cell surface carbohydrate moieties, HBGAs, and/or terminal SAs. (
  • 9. An agent as claimed in claim 8 wherein at least 800 of said phospholipids comprise phosphatidylserines. (
  • 9. The method of claim 8 wherein the ratio of HEA to AOD to SS is about 6 to about 3 to about 1. (