Farm worker illness following exposure to carbofuran and other pesticides--Fresno County California, 1998. (1/31)In California, suspected pesticide-related illnesses and suspected work-related illnesses and injuries are reportable conditions. On July 31, 1998, the Occupational Health Branch of the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) received a report from the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) of a pesticide exposure incident in Fresno County involving 34 farm workers. CDHS investigated this incident by reviewing medical records of the 34 workers and interviewing 29. The findings indicated that the workers became ill after early reentry into a cotton field that had been sprayed with a cholinesterase-inhibiting carbamate pesticides (+info)
Proposal for a method for testing resistance of clothing and gloves to penetration by pesticides. (2/31)The paper presents the proposal for a method for testing the resistance of materials used for the production of protective clothing and gloves to penetration by concentrated chemical preparations of pesticides. It has been based to a large extent on the recommendations of European standards, with certain modifications resulting from the specific properties of non-volatile and non-water-soluble biologically-active components of pesticides. These modifications primarily involved the use of a solid sorption medium and adjustment of research apparatus to the research conditions consistent with the proposed method. The results of preliminary studies on penetration of the selected biologically-active components of pesticides (dichlorvos, 2,4-D, cypermethrin, carbofuran) through the selected protective materials (fabric coated with viton and butyl on both sides, rubberised fabric, butyl rubber) are presented. The study confirmed the usefulness of the proposed method for testing the resistance of materials protecting against the effect of pesticides. (+info)
Investigation of deaths in an area of groundnut plantations in Casamance, South of Senegal after exposure to Carbofuran, Thiram and Benomyl. (3/31)Between May and October 2000, the Regional Health Office of Kolda Region in the south of Senegal, West Africa, reported an epidemic of an unknown illness characterized by thoracic pain, dyspnea and edemas of limb and face. The epidemic covered a radius of approximately 40 km (24 miles) between the districts of Kolda and Sedhiou in Kolda Region. Cases were mostly men whose age ranged between 12 and 60 years old. Investigation revealed that they had been exposed to pesticides distributed by the government to groundnut farmers. The signs and symptoms suggested intoxication with carbamates, carbofurans, and possibly thiram, contained in the pesticides distributed with the groundnut seeds. Government distribution created an excessive use of pesticides in the farms, and consequently an overexposure of the subjects who handled the seeders, especially young males but also a small proportion of women who worked in the groundnut fields. Many of these subjects, not accustomed to handle pesticides, came to overestimate the quantity of product to fill the seeder. It should be noted that the policy of distribution of pesticides in Senegal, which presents risk of poisoning, was not systematically accompanied by sufficient information on the danger of the products and of certain precautions that should be taken during their use. (+info)
Reproductive toxicity of carbofuran to the female mice: effects on estrous cycle and follicles. (4/31)Carbofuran, a systemic N-methyl carbamate pesticide was orally administered with the doses of 0.4, 0.7, 1 and 1.3 mg/kg body weight/day to normal virgin female Swiss albino mice for 30 days. The vaginal smear and body weight of mice were recorded daily and mice were sacrificed on the 31st day. Estrous cycle was effected by showing a significant decrease in the number of estrous cycle and the duration of each phases of estrous cycle with concomitant significant increase in the diestrus phase in 1 and 1.3 mg/kg/d carbofuran treatment when compared with that of control mice. There was a significant decrease in the number of healthy follicles and a significant increase in the number of atretic follicles in 1 and 1.3 mg/kg/d treated groups when compared with the control. The histologic observations of the ovary revealed the presence of less number of healthy follicles and more number of atretic follicles in high dose of carbofuran treated mice. There was a dose dependent decrease in the body weight. The ovary weight was also decreased significantly in 1.3 mg/kg/d carbofuran treatment. There were no significant change in the weight of the organs such as uterus, kidney, adrenal, liver, spleen, thymus and thyroid. These observed effects of carbofuran on the estrous cycle and follicles may be due to a direct effect on the ovary or the hypothalamo-hypophysial ovarian axis causing hormonal imbalance. (+info)
Development of a simultaneous analysis method for carbofuran and its three derivative pesticides in water by GC/MS with temperature programmable inlet on-column injection. (5/31)A simultaneous analytical method was examined for carbofuran and its derivative pesticides in water. Since carbofuran derivatives are hydrolyzed to carbofuran in water, the liquid-liquid extraction method was used to obtain an accurate concentration value. Moreover, since these compounds are easily decomposed at the GC/MS injection port, temperature programmable inlet on-column injection was used. By combining the two methods, a sensitive analytical method was established without hydrolysis and thermal decomposition. As a result of recovery experiments using distilled water, river water and tap water, acceptable recovery rates and favorable reproducibility were obtained. This method was used in a field investigation to determine carbofuran and its derivative pesticides in river water taken from three points of the Y river over a period of one year. Carbofuran, benfuracarb, and carbosulfan were detected and corresponded to the period when these pesticides were used in the area. Although benfuracarb and carbosulfan using traditional methods are believed to easily hydrolyze and thermally decompose during the analytical process, by using our method they can be detected. (+info)
Carbofuran-induced acute pancreatitis. (6/31)CONTEXT: Carbamate insecticides are widely used in commercial agriculture and home gardening. A serious side effect of organophosphate and carbamate intoxication is the development of acute pancreatitis. CASE REPORT: A 36-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our hospital with cholinergic crisis and pancreatitis soon after the ingestion of a carbamate insecticide (carbofuran). An abdominal CT scan disclosed pancreatic necrosis with intrapancreatic fluid collection, consistent with the development of a pancreatic pseudocyst in a subsequent CT scan. No predisposing factor for pancreatitis was evident. Pseudocholinesterase levels returned to normal 7 days later and the patient was discharged in good physical condition one month after admission. DISCUSSION: Although acute pancreatitis is not infrequent after organophosphate intoxication, it is quite rare after carbamate ingestion and has not been previously reported after carbofuran intoxication. (+info)
N-nitrosocarbofuran induces apoptosis in mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (bEnd.3). (7/31)In this study, we investigated whether carbofuran, a commonly used carbamate pesticide, and N-nitrosocarbofuran (NOCF), the N-nitroso metabolite of carbofuran, have cytotoxicity in mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (bEnd.3). Results from the MTT assay in bEnd.3 cells showed that NOCF but not carbofuran caused a remarkable decrease in cell viability. The cell death induced by NOCF appeared to involve apoptosis, based on our results from annexin V staining and electron microscopy. To investigate the mechanism of the NOCF-induced cell death, we examined the effects of selective inhibitors for MAP kinase pathways, PD98059 (for MEK/ERK), SB202190 (for p38 MAP kinase), and SP600125 (for JNK), on the NOCF-induced cell death. The NOCF-induced cell death was significantly reduced by PD98059, but not by SB202190 or SP600125. NOCF increased ERK phosphorylation as early as 15 min after the treatment and this increase was maintained for 2 h. In summary, our results suggest that NOCF can induce apoptotic cell death, at least in part, through the ERK pathway in brain microvascular endothelial cells. (+info)
Carbofuran induces apoptosis of rat cortical neurons and down-regulates surface alpha7 subunit of acetylcholine receptors. (8/31)Carbofuran (CF), an anticholinesterase carbamate, is one of the most widely used N-methylcarbamate esters in insect and nematode control. Despite its serious adverse health effects on wildlife and humans, cellular and molecular studies of the damage of CF to CNS neurons are very limited. We have examined the cytotoxic effects of CF on cultured rat cortical cells, and the expression of the alpha7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7 nAChR) in hippocampal neurons. CF was cytotoxic with an IC50 approximately 730 and approximately 640 microm when assessed by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and propidium iodide (PI) staining, respectively, 3 days after treatment. CF induced DNA fragmentation and exposure of phosphatidyl serine (PS) on the cell surface. Surface labeling of the alpha7 nAChR with Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated alpha-bungarotoxin (alphaBgt) revealed a significant decrease in the density of the subunits in treated (500 microm CF) hippocampal neurons. Our data indicate that CF induces neuronal death by apoptosis and down-regulates nAChRs. (+info)
Carbofuran is a synthetic organic compound that is used as an insecticide and acaricide. It is a highly toxic chemical that is commonly used in agriculture to control a wide range of pests, including insects, mites, and nematodes. In the medical field, carbofuran is not typically used as a treatment for any medical condition. However, exposure to carbofuran can have serious health effects, including respiratory problems, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and even death. In some cases, carbofuran has been used as a suicide attempt, leading to severe poisoning and death. It is important to note that carbofuran is a highly toxic chemical and should only be handled by trained professionals. If you or someone you know has been exposed to carbofuran, seek medical attention immediately.
Carbamates are a class of organic compounds that contain a carbon-nitrogen double bond (C=N) and are derived from carbamic acid (H2NCOOH). They are commonly used as pesticides, insecticides, and fungicides. In the medical field, carbamates are used as anticholinesterase agents, which means they inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This can lead to an accumulation of acetylcholine in the body, which can cause symptoms such as muscle weakness, tremors, and difficulty breathing. Carbamates are also used as muscle relaxants and as sedatives. However, they can be toxic if ingested or inhaled in large amounts, and can cause serious side effects such as respiratory failure, seizures, and even death.
Hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of various substrates, including water, to break down complex molecules into simpler ones. In the medical field, hydrolases play important roles in various physiological processes, including digestion, metabolism, and detoxification. For example, digestive enzymes such as amylase, lipase, and protease are hydrolases that break down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, respectively, in the digestive tract. In the liver, enzymes such as alcohol dehydrogenase and cytochrome P450 are hydrolases that detoxify harmful substances such as alcohol and drugs. Hydrolases can also be used in medical treatments. For example, proteolytic enzymes such as trypsin and chymotrypsin are used in some digestive enzyme supplements to aid in the digestion of proteins. Additionally, hydrolases such as hyaluronidase are used in some medical procedures to break down connective tissue and improve tissue permeability. Overall, hydrolases are an important class of enzymes in the medical field, playing critical roles in various physiological processes and serving as potential therapeutic targets for various diseases and conditions.
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- Researchers from the University at Buffalo looked at the effects on the human body of two chemical insecticides: carbaryl and carbofuran. (institutefornaturalhealing.com)
- Discussion: This study adds to the known adverse health outcomes of exposure to carbofuran, a pesticide canceled in the United States in 2009 for most agricultur al purposes but persists in the environment and remains in use in some other countries. (cdc.gov)
- A comparative study on photocatalytic degradation of the pesticide carbofuran and its commercial product Furadan 35-ST in an aqueous suspension of ZnO, irradiated by long-wave light (315-400 nm), is presented in this study. (ac.rs)
- The two dead lions are underwent necropsies, which turned up traces of the pesticide carbofuran, according to Patrick Reynolds, manager of the nearby Governors' Camp, who mobilized the response. (focusingonwildlife.com)
- Results: The most notable association was for carbofuran, a carbamate (100 exposed cases, odds ratio 1.83, 95% confidence interval 1.34-2.51, P = .0002). (cdc.gov)
- Carbamate insecticides, such as carbofuran and aldicarb, are often used in poison-baits for predator control in numerous areas around the world. (raptorprotection.eu)
- Insights into peroxymonosulfate activation for carbofuran degradation under visible LED via a double-component photocatalyst of Fe (III) impregnated N-doped TiO2. (journalingeniar.org)
- Prediction of carbofuran degradation based on the hydroxyl radical's generation using the FeIII impregnated N doped-TiO2/H2O2/visible LED photo-Fenton-like process. (journalingeniar.org)
- Carbofuran is extremely toxic and has been banned for use in the U.S. since 2009. (institutefornaturalhealing.com)
- Our results in a male agricultur al population suggests that exposure to carbofuran is positively associated with sleep apnea. (cdc.gov)
- In Hungary carbofuran was detected in 85% of the 476 birds found poisoned by baits to illegally control predators between 2000 and 2015. (raptorprotection.eu)
- Abstract This study was aimed to investigate Carbofuran (CF)-induced pathological changes in cattle egret. (bvsalud.org)
- Soil application of Carbofuran 3G granules @ 20-25 Kg per hectare at 10-15cm distance from plants and 5-7cm deep in the soil and covered with mud. (agribazaar.com)