Carbodiimides are chemical compounds containing two nitrogen atoms and one carbon atom, often used in biochemistry for the formation of amide bonds, particularly in peptide synthesis and cross-linking of proteins or other biomolecules.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands, east of Madagascar. Its capital is Saint-Denis. It was discovered in 1507 by the Portuguese and claimed by France in 1638. It was first colonized in 1662 as Isle de Bourbon but renamed Reunion in 1793. In 1946 it was made an overseas department of France. The name commemorates the reunion of the revolutionaries from Marseilles with the National Guard in Paris in 1792. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1011; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p454; French Embassy)
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.

Hairpin-shaped DNA duplexes with disulfide bonds in sugar-phosphate backbone as potential DNA reagents for crosslinking with proteins. (1/267)

Convenient approaches were described to incorporate -OP(=O)O(-)-SS-O(-)(O=)PO- bridges in hairpin-shaped DNA duplexes instead of regular phosphodiester linkages: (i) H2O2- or 2,2'-dipyridyldisulfide-mediated coupling of 3'- and 5'-thiophosphorylated oligonucleotides on complementary template and (ii) more selective template-guided autoligation of a preactivated oligonucleotide derivative with an oligomer carrying a terminal thiophosphoryl group. Dithiothreitol was found to cleave completely modified internucleotide linkage releasing starting oligonucleotides. The presence of complementary template as an intrinsic element of the molecule protects the hairpin DNA analog from spontaneous exchange of disulfide-linked oligomer fragments and makes it a good candidate for auto-crosslinking with cysteine-containing proteins.  (+info)

The effect of carboxyl group modification on the chromophore regeneration of archaeopsin-1 and bacterioopsin. (2/267)

Carboxyl group modification with DCCD and NCD-4 was employed to investigate the chemical environment of the side chains of archaeopsin-1 (aO-1) and bacterioopsin (bO). Some differences were observed between aO-1 and bO. Although DCCD or NCD-4 did not modify aO-1 in bleached membrane, they modified bO in bleached membrane and in mixed DMPC/CHAPS/SDS micelles at neutral pH, thereby affecting the opsin shift and the photocycle of the regenerated chromophore. On the contrary, after solubilization with SDS, aO-1 and bO were modified by DCCD and NCD-4, which decreased the chromophore regeneration. In particular, the reaction of aO-1 in SDS with NCD-4 proceeded in a 1:1 ratio at neutral pH. The fluorescence and CD spectra indicated that the modified site was located in the hydrophobic, asymmetrical region. Lysyl-endopeptidase digestion of NCD-4 modified aO-1 produced a fluorescent fragment and amino acid sequence analysis showed that Asp85 or Asp96 in helix C is a probable candidate for the modified residue at present. Kinetic CD measurements revealed that the introduction of N-acylurea at an Asp residue in helix C did not affect the formation of the transient intermediate but inhibited the side chain packing during refolding.  (+info)

Active site characterization of RNase Rs from Rhizopus stolonifer: involvement of histidine and lysine in catalysis and carboxylate in substrate binding. (3/267)

Chemical modification studies on purified RNase Rs revealed the involvement of a single histidine, lysine and carboxylate residue in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. RNA could not protect the enzyme against DEP- and TNBS-mediated inactivation whereas, substrate protection was observed in case of EDAC-mediated inactivation of the enzyme. K(m) and k(cat) values of the partially inactivated enzyme samples suggested that while histidine and lysine are involved in catalysis, carboxylate is involved in substrate binding. Active site nature of RNase Rs suggests that the inability of the enzyme to readily convert 2',3'-cyclic nucleotides to 3'-mononucleotides is probably due to the absence of catalytically active second histidine residue.  (+info)

Structural and kinetic studies of the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase/ferredoxin complex from Desulfovibrio africanus. (4/267)

The pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR)/ferredoxin (Fd) system of Desulfovibrio africanus has been investigated with the aim of understanding more fully protein-protein interaction and the kinetic characteristics of electron transfer between the two redox partners. D. africanus contains three Fds (Fd I, Fd II and Fd III) able to function as electron acceptors for PFOR. The complete amino acid sequence of Fd II was determined by automatic Edman degradation. It revealed a striking similarity to that of Fd I. The protein consists of 64 residues and its amino acid sequence is in agreement with a molecular mass of 6822.5 Da as measured by electrospray MS. Fd II contains five cysteine residues of which the first four (Cys11, Cys14, Cys17 and Cys54) are likely ligands for the single [4Fe-4S] cluster. A covalently cross-linked complex between PFOR and Fd I or Fd II was obtained by using a water soluble carbodiimide. This complex exhibited a stoichiometry of one ferredoxin for one PFOR subunit and is dependent on the ionic strength. The second-order rate constants for electron transfer between PFOR and Fds determined electrochemically using cyclic voltammetry are 7 x 107 M-1.s-1 for Fd I and 2 x 107 M-1.s-1 for Fd II and Fd III. The Km values of PFOR for Fd I and Fd II measured both by the electrochemical and the spectrophotometric method have been found to be 3 microM and 5 microM, respectively. The three-dimensional modelling of Fd II and surface analysis of Fd I, Fd II and PFOR suggest that a protein-protein complex is likely to be formed between aspartic acid/glutamic acid invariant residues of Fds and lysine residues surrounding the distal [4Fe-4S] cluster of PFOR. All of these studies are indicative of the involvement of electrostatic interactions between the two redox partners.  (+info)

S-layer-coated liposomes as a versatile system for entrapping and binding target molecules. (5/267)

In the present study, unilamellar liposomes coated with the crystalline bacterial cell surface layer (S-layer) protein of Bacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2 were used as matrix for defined binding of functional molecules via the avidin- or streptavidin-biotin bridge. The liposomes were composed of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and hexadecylamine in a molar ratio of 10:5:4 and they had an average size of 180 nm. For introducing specific functions into the S-layer lattice without affecting substances encapsulated within the liposomes, crosslinking and activation reagents had to be identified which did not penetrate the liposomal membrane. Among different reagents, a hydrophilic dialdehyde generated by periodate cleavage of raffinose and a sulfo-succinimide activated dicarboxylic acid were found to be impermeable for the liposomal membrane. Both reagents completely crosslinked the S-layer lattice without interfering with its regular structure. Biotinylation of S-layer-coated liposomes was achieved by coupling p-diazobenzoyl biocytin which preferably reacts with the phenolic residue of tyrosine or with the imidazole ring of histidine. By applying this method, two biotin residues accessible for subsequent avidin binding were introduced per S-layer subunit. As visualized by labeling with biotinylated ferritin, an ordered monomolecular layer of streptavidin was formed on the surface of the S-layer-coated liposomes. As a second model system, biotinylated anti-human IgG was attached via the streptavidin bridge to the biotinylated S-layer-coated liposomes. The biological activity of the bound anti-human IgG was confirmed by ELISA.  (+info)

An essential glutamyl residue in EmrE, a multidrug antiporter from Escherichia coli. (6/267)

EmrE is an Escherichia coli 12-kDa protein that confers resistance to toxic compounds, by actively removing them in exchange with protons. The protein includes eight charged residues. Seven of these residues are located in the hydrophilic loops and can be replaced with either Cys or another amino acid bearing the same charge, without impairing transport activity. Glu-14 is the only charged residue in the membrane domain and is conserved in all the proteins of the family. We show here that this residue is the site of action of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, a carbodiimide known to act in hydrophobic environments. When Glu-14 was replaced with either Cys or Asp, resistance was abolished. Whereas the E14C mutant displays no transport activity, the E14D protein shows efflux and exchange at rates about 30-50% that of the wild type. The maximal DeltapH-driven uptake rate of E14D is only 10% that of the wild type. The mutant shows a different pH profile in all the transport modes. Our results support the notion that Glu-14 is an essential part of a binding domain shared by substrates and protons but mutually exclusive in time. This notion provides the molecular basis for the obligatory exchange catalyzed by EmrE.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of a novel cAMP receptor protein in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. (7/267)

Three open reading frames of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 encoding a domain homologous with the cAMP binding domain of bacterial cAMP receptor protein were analyzed. These three open reading frames, sll1371, sll1924, and slr0593, which were named sycrp1, sycrp2, and sypk, respectively, were expressed in Escherichia coli as His-tagged or glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins and purified, and their biochemical properties were investigated. The results obtained for equilibrium dialysis measurements using these recombinant proteins suggest that SYCRP1 and SYPK show a binding affinity for cAMP while SYCRP2 does not. The dissociation constant of His-tagged SYCRP1 for cAMP is approximately 3 microM. A cross-linking experiment using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide revealed that His-tagged SYCRP1 forms a homodimer, and the presence or absence of cAMP does not affect the formation of the homodimer. The amino acid sequence reveals that SYCRP1 has a domain similar to the DNA binding domain of bacterial cAMP receptor protein in the COOH-terminal region. Consistent with this, His-tagged SYCRP1 forms a complex with DNA that contains the consensus sequence for E. coli cAMP receptor protein in the presence of cAMP. These results strongly suggest that SYCRP1 is a novel cAMP receptor protein.  (+info)

Comparison of the efficiency of various coupling systems in the acylation of model secondary amines with thymin-1-ylacetic acid. (8/267)

Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) make a promising group of DNA analogues. The backbone of typical PNA oligomers is composed of N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine units, linked by the peptide bonds. The backbone secondary amine groups are acylated with carboxyalkyl derivatives of nucleobases. One of the PNA synthesis step causing some problems is the acylation of the monomer backbone with the nucleobase derivatives. The aim of the study was to compare the efficiency of various coupling systems in the acylation. Simple model compounds (piperidine and proline) were used, as well as equimolar amounts of the coupling reagents. Selected systems based on carbodiimides, aminium or phosphonium salts, mixed anhydride, and active esters were tested.  (+info)

Carbodiimides are a class of chemical compounds with the general formula R-N=C=N-R, where R can be an organic group. They are widely used in the synthesis of various chemical and biological products due to their ability to act as dehydrating agents, promoting the formation of amide bonds between carboxylic acids and amines.

In the context of medical research and biochemistry, carbodiimides are often used to modify proteins, peptides, and other biological molecules for various purposes, such as labeling, cross-linking, or functionalizing. For example, the carbodiimide cross-linker EDC (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide) is commonly used to create stable amide bonds between proteins and other molecules in a process known as "EDC coupling."

It's important to note that carbodiimides can be potentially toxic and should be handled with care. They can cause irritation to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract, and prolonged exposure can lead to more serious health effects. Therefore, appropriate safety precautions should be taken when working with these compounds in a laboratory setting.

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, primarily Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The name "Chikungunya" is derived from a Makonde word meaning "to become contorted," which describes the stooped posture developed as a result of severe arthralgia (joint pain) that is a primary symptom of infection with this virus.

CHIKV infection typically causes a febrile illness, characterized by an abrupt onset of high fever, severe joint pain, muscle pain, headache, nausea, fatigue, and rash. While the symptoms are usually self-limiting and resolve within 10 days, some individuals may experience persistent or recurring joint pain for several months or even years after the initial infection.

There is no specific antiviral treatment available for Chikungunya virus infection, and management primarily focuses on relieving symptoms with rest, fluids, and over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, staying in air-conditioned or screened rooms, and eliminating standing water where mosquitoes breed.

Chikungunya virus is found primarily in Africa, Asia, and the Indian subcontinent, but it has also caused outbreaks in Europe and the Americas due to the spread of its vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The virus can cause large-scale epidemics, with millions of cases reported during outbreaks. There is currently no approved vaccine for Chikungunya virus infection.

Alphavirus infections refer to a group of diseases caused by viruses belonging to the Alphavirus genus of the Togaviridae family. These viruses are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes, and can cause a range of symptoms depending on the specific virus and the individual's immune response.

Some of the more common alphaviruses that cause human disease include:

* Chikungunya virus (CHIKV): This virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and can cause a fever, rash, and severe joint pain. While most people recover from CHIKV infection within a few weeks, some may experience long-term joint pain and inflammation.
* Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV): This virus is transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on both birds and mammals, including humans. EEEV can cause severe neurological symptoms such as fever, headache, seizures, and coma. It has a high mortality rate of up to 30-50% in infected individuals.
* Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV): This virus is also transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on both birds and mammals. WEEV can cause mild flu-like symptoms or more severe neurological symptoms such as fever, headache, and seizures. It has a lower mortality rate than EEEV but can still cause significant illness.
* Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV): This virus is transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on horses and other mammals, including humans. VEEV can cause mild flu-like symptoms or more severe neurological symptoms such as fever, headache, and seizures. It is considered a potential bioterrorism agent due to its ability to cause severe illness and death in large populations.

There are no specific treatments for alphavirus infections other than supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites through the use of insect repellent, wearing long sleeves and pants, and staying indoors during peak mosquito hours. Public health efforts also focus on reducing mosquito populations through environmental controls such as eliminating standing water and using insecticides.

"Aedes" is a genus of mosquitoes that are known to transmit various diseases, including Zika virus, dengue fever, chikungunya, and yellow fever. These mosquitoes are typically found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. They are distinguished by their black and white striped legs and thorax. Aedes aegypti is the most common species associated with disease transmission, although other species such as Aedes albopictus can also transmit diseases. It's important to note that only female mosquitoes bite and feed on blood, while males feed solely on nectar and plant juices.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

In the context of medicine, particularly in relation to surgery, "reunion" refers to the process or state of separate parts coming back together or healing into a solid mass. This term is often used in the context of wound healing, where it describes the closure and joining of the edges of a wound. It can also be used in orthopedic surgery to describe the reattachment or fusion of broken bones after a fracture. However, it's not a common medical term and might not be found in general medical dictionaries or resources.

Insect vectors are insects that transmit disease-causing pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria, parasites) from one host to another. They do this while feeding on the host's blood or tissues. The insects themselves are not infected by the pathogen but act as mechanical carriers that pass it on during their bite. Examples of diseases spread by insect vectors include malaria (transmitted by mosquitoes), Lyme disease (transmitted by ticks), and plague (transmitted by fleas). Proper prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and reducing standing water where mosquitoes breed, can help reduce the risk of contracting these diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "travel" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. In general, travel refers to the act of moving or journeying from one place to another, often over long distances. However, in a medical context, it might refer to the recommendation that individuals with certain medical conditions or those who are immunocompromised avoid traveling to areas where they may be at increased risk of exposure to infectious diseases. It's always best to check with a healthcare professional for advice related to specific medical situations and travel.

As weak bases, carbodiimides bind to Lewis acids to give adducts. Carbodiimides are reagents for the Moffatt oxidation, a ... 1-cyclohexyl-(2-morpholinoethyl)carbodiimide metho-p-toluene sulfonate is a carbodiimide developed for the chemical probing of ... Monagle, J. J. (1962). "Carbodiimides. III. Conversion of Isocyanates to Carbodiimides. Catalyst Studies". J. Org. Chem. 27 (11 ... though this mostly occurs with low melting point carbodiimides that are liquids at room temperature. Solid diaryl carbodiimides ...
Inorganic carbodiimides (or cyanamides depending on the NCN2- form) design a family of compounds containing the carbodiimide ( ... and transition metal carbodiimides TNCN (T= Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) and Cr2(NCN)3have been reported. Non-metallic carbodiimides are ... this means that HgNCN can have either carbodiimide or cyanamide structures. Recently, metal carbodiimides are explored as anode ... Starting from 2000s, rare earth metal carbodiimides Ln2(NCN)3 (Ln = La, Ce, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm and Tm) ...
... (EDC, EDAC or EDCI) is a water-soluble carbodiimide usually handled as the ... "Carbodiimide Crosslinker Chemistry - US". www.thermofisher.com. Retrieved 2019-05-10. López-Alonso, JP; Diez-Garcia, F; Font, J ... First, the carbonyl of the acid attacks the carbodiimide of EDC, and there is a subsequent proton transfer. The primary amine ... While other carbodiimides like dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) or diisopropylcarbodiimide (DIC) are also employed for this ...
The C−N=C=N−C core of carbodiimides (N=C=N) is linear, being related to the structure of allene. The molecule has idealized C2 ... Carbodiimide Jeffrey S. Albert; Andrew D. Hamilton; Amy C. Hart; Xiaoming Feng; Lili Lin; Zhen Wang (2017). "1,3‐ ... Carbodiimides" (PDF). Journal of Organic Chemistry. 43 (25): 4689-4690. doi:10.1021/jo00419a001. Campbell, T. W.; Monagle, J. J ... Jászay, Z. M.; Petneházy, I.; Töke, L.; Szajáni, B. (1987). "Preparation of Carbodiimides Using Phase-Transfer Catalysis". ...
DeTar, D.F.; Silverstein, R. (1966). "Reactions of Carbodiimides. I. The Mechanisms of the Reactions of Acetic Acid with ...
Ulrich, Henri (2007). Chemistry and technology of carbodiimides. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780470065105. ( ... and can be accessed by reaction of a carbodiimide with an organometallic compound such as methyl lithium. They are used widely ...
Weinshenker NM, Shen CM, Wong JY (1977). "Polymeric Carbodiimide. Preparation". Org. Synth. 56: 95. doi:10.15227/orgsyn. ...
... diafenthiuron carbodiimide and diafenthiuron urea. In aqueous systems, the carbodiimide was further observed to be photo- ... Diafenthiuron carbodiimide also affects mitochondrial porins, but due to the fact that the function of these mitochondrial ... Diafenthiuron is photochemically or metabolically transformed into a highly reactive metabolite, Diafenthiuron carbodiimide, ... its highly reactive metabolite carbodiimide (a result of S-oxidation → either non-enzymatic (light-catalyzed), P450 ...
Koller, J.; Bergman, R.G. (2010). "Highly Efficient Aluminum-Catalyzed Hydro-amination/-hydrazination of Carbodiimides". ...
Li, Zhen; Mayer, Robert J.; Ofial, Armin R.; Mayr, Herbert (2020-04-27). "From Carbodiimides to Carbon Dioxide: Quantification ...
Carbodiimides are produced by the decarboxylation of alkyl and aryl isocyanate using phosphine oxides as a catalyst: C 6 H 11 ... In terms of bonding, isocyanates are closely related to carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbodiimides (C(NR)2). The C−N=C=O unit that ... ISBN 978-0-470-77153-2. Li, Zhen; Mayer, Robert J.; Ofial, Armin R.; Mayr, Herbert (2020-04-27). "From Carbodiimides to Carbon ...
ISBN 978-0-07-032760-3. Li Z, Mayer RJ, Ofial AR, Mayr H (May 2020). "From Carbodiimides to Carbon Dioxide: Quantification of ...
N,N′-Diisopropylcarbodiimide is a carbodiimide used in peptide synthesis. As a liquid, it is easier to handle than the commonly ... "Reinvestigation of the reactions of carbodiimides with alkoxycarbonylamino acid symmetrical anhydrides : Isolation of two N'- ... Carbodiimides, Reagents for biochemistry, Biochemistry, Biochemistry methods, Isopropylamino compounds). ...
... and carbodiimide (HNCNH). Water molecules in star-forming regions can undergo a population inversion and emit radiation at ... "Interstellar Carbodiimide (HNCNH): A New Astronomical Detection from the GBT Primos Survey Via Maser Emission Features". The ...
... carbodiimide, also known as EDC, is a water-soluble carbodiimide that exhibits similar reactivity as CMC, and is also used for ... The carbodiimide moiety can also form covalent adducts at exposed nucleobases, which are uracil, and to a smaller extent ... 1-cyclohexyl-(2-morpholinoethyl)carbodiimide metho-p-toluene sulfonate, also known as CMCT or CMC, is the most commonly used ... Wang, PY; Sexton, AN; Culligan, WJ; Simon, MD (2019). "Carbodiimide reagents for the chemical probing of RNA structure in cells ...
Organic compounds called carbodiimides have the formula RN=C=NR. They are unrelated to imides. The PubChem links gives access ...
Conversely, the related carbodiimide 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) is often used for solution-phase ... Carbodiimide activation opens the possibility for racemization of the activated amino acid. Racemization can be circumvented ... Carbodiimides such as dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and diisopropylcarbodiimide (DIC) are frequently used for amide bond ... Some coupling reagents omit the carbodiimide completely and incorporate the HOAt/HOBt moiety as an aminium/uronium or ...
... carbodiimide and allene adducts of hexakis (Trifluoromethyl t-botoxy) ditungsten. A comparison of ligand binding to W2(Ot-Bu)6 ...
... s are closely related to biurets and related in structure to amides, carbamates, carbodiimides, and thiocarbamides. More ...
... via activation with carbodiimide and subsequent coupling with amine); thiol (e.g. via maleimide or iodoacetamides); azide (e.g ...
... whose minor tautomer is carbodiimide, is an isomer of diazomethane. Less stable but still isolable isomers of diazomethane ...
These ligands are attached to the microbubbles using carbodiimide, maleimide, or biotin-streptavidin coupling. Biotin- ...
Various carbodiimide-, hydroxybenzotriazole-, and triphenylphosphine-based couplings have been reported specifically for this ...
Hubert, A. J.; Feron, A.; Warin, R.; Teyssie, P. (1976). "Synthesis of iminoaziridines from carbodiimides and diazoesters : A ...
His research focuses on the following topics: solid-state chemistry quantum chemistry nitrides carbodiimides guanidinates ... Metal Carbodiimides as Molecular Negative Electrode Materials for Lithium‐ and Sodium‐Ion Batteries with Excellent Cycling ... the First Carbodiimide of a Magnetic Transition Metal". Inorganic Chemistry. American Chemical Society (ACS). 44 (9): 3001-3003 ...
Carbodiimides, and Their Selenium, Tellurium, and Phosphorus Analogues". Science of Synthesis. 18: 65-320. doi:10.1055/sos-SD- ...
Azie O, Greenberg ZF, Batich CD, Dobson JP (June 2019). "Carbodiimide Conjugation of Latent Transforming Growth Factor β1 to ...
2012), "Interstellar Carbodiimide (HNCNH) - A New Astronomical Detection from the GBT PRIMOS Survey via Maser Emission Features ... "Interstellar Carbodiimide (HNCNH): A New Astronomical Detection from the GBT PRIMOS Survey via Maser Emission Features". The ...
The Ab is conjugated to the superparamagnetic iron oxide NP by different methods including the carbodiimide method. The ...
... amidinium carbodiimide, is formed in primitive Earth experiments and is effective in dilute aqueous solutions. When present in ...
As weak bases, carbodiimides bind to Lewis acids to give adducts. Carbodiimides are reagents for the Moffatt oxidation, a ... 1-cyclohexyl-(2-morpholinoethyl)carbodiimide metho-p-toluene sulfonate is a carbodiimide developed for the chemical probing of ... Monagle, J. J. (1962). "Carbodiimides. III. Conversion of Isocyanates to Carbodiimides. Catalyst Studies". J. Org. Chem. 27 (11 ... though this mostly occurs with low melting point carbodiimides that are liquids at room temperature. Solid diaryl carbodiimides ...
Interstellar Carbodiimide (HNCNH) - A New Astronomical Detection from the GBT PRIMOS Survey via Maser Emission Features. ... In this work, we have identified carbodiimide (HNCNH), which is an isomer of the well-known interstellar species cyanamide ( ... Interstellar Carbodiimide (HNCNH) - A New Astronomical Detection from the GBT PRIMOS Survey via Maser Emission Features, ... https://www.nist.gov/publications/interstellar-carbodiimide-hncnh-new-astronomical-detection-gbt-primos-survey-maser ...
The new methodologies for the synthesis of electron deficient carbodiimides were then applied to a series of intramolecular ... Use of more electron deficient carbodiimides makes these rearrangements more facile; however, there are not sufficient methods ... The synthesis of such carbodiimides was explored through new synthetic methodologies for the dehydration of ureas and ... Tertiary, allylic, amines nucleophilically add to the carbon of a heterocumulene (isocyanate, isothiocyanate, or carbodiimide) ...
Ethyldimethylaminopropyl CarbodiimideCarbodiimidesCME-CarbodiimideEducation, Medical, ContinuingCross-Linking Reagents ... Ethyldimethylaminopropyl CarbodiimideCarbodiimidesCME-CarbodiimideCross-Linking ReagentsDicyclohexylcarbodiimideSuccinimides ... Carbodiimide T0153523-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-1-Ethylcarbodiimide T015353EDAP Carbodiimide T015353EDAP-Carbodiimide ... ... CME-Carbodiimide Preferred Term Term UI ... CME Carbodiimide Term UI T008792. Date12/07/1977. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID UNK ( ...
... carbodiimide. CAS Number: 1000-70-0. Catalog Number: AA00005M. MDL Number: MFCD00051538. Molecular Formula: C7H18N2Si2. ... Title: Convenient syntheses of symmetrical and unsymmetrical glycosyl carbodiimides and N,N-bis(glycosyl)cyanamides.. Journal: ... Tags:1000-70-0 Molecular Formula,1000-70-0 MDL,1000-70-0 SMILES,1000-70-0 Bis(trimethylsilyl)carbodiimide ...
Address: No.3 Bldg., No.136 Yuixiu Rd., Songjiang Dist., Shanghai, 201699, P. R. C.. Phone: +86 021 6779 9023. Email: [email protected]. ...
Carbodiimide. 420-04-2. GS5950000. Carbofuran *. 1563-66-2. FB9450000. Carbolic acid. 108-95-2. SJ3325000. ...
Synthesis and characterization of chemically fueled supramolecular materials driven by carbodiimide-based fuels *Fabian ...
The use of carbodiimides as fuels to generate transient aqueous carboxylic anhydrides has recently been used in examples of new ... Structure-property effects in the generation of transient aqueous benzoic acid anhydrides by carbodiimide fuels Lasith S. ... total anhydride produced per equivalent of carbodiimide). For key properties there are diminishing returns with the addition of ...
Flow injection analysis for pyrogallol using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide as polyphenol chemiluminescence ... Flow injection analysis for pyrogallol using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide as polyphenol chemiluminescence ... Flow injection analysis for pyrogallol using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide as polyphenol chemiluminescence ... title = "Flow injection analysis for pyrogallol using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide as polyphenol ...
Posteriorly, each succinamic acid should be coupled with 1-H-2-aminoindole by way of coupling agents such as carbodiimides. The ...
Effect of pH on dentin protease inactivation by carbodiimide.. Seseogullari-Dirihan, Roda; Mutluay, Mustafa M; Tjäderhane, Leo ... A water-soluble crosslinking agent, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC), has been used as a pretreatment of ...
In-situ crosslinking of electrospun gelatin-carbodiimide nanofibers: fabrication, characterization, and modeling of solution ... Carbodiimide hydrochlorides ; Electrospun scaffolds ; Gelatin nanofibers ; Morphological structures ; N-hydroxysuccinimide ; ... As per this approach, we prepared G nanofibers through mixing G, 1-ethyl-3-(3 dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride ( ... In-situ crosslinking of electrospun gelatin-carbodiimide nanofibers: fabrication, characterization, and modeling of solution ...
Carbodiimides: These reagents (EDC is one very common example) are used to create covalent links between amine- and carboxyl- ... Carbodiimides activate carboxyl groups, and the activated intermediate is then attacked by an amine (e.g. provided by a lysine ... Carbodiimides are rarely used to attach dyes or protein labels to antibodies, although they are important in the production of ...
Scheme 24. (A) Synthesis of Spirocyclic Amidines by Olefin/Carbodiimide Cross-Coupling; (B) Application in an Approach to ... Scheme 24. (A) Synthesis of Spirocyclic Amidines by Olefin/Carbodiimide Cross-Coupling; (B) Application in an Approach to ... olefin/isocyanate or carbodiimide cross-coupling; and (6) ionic Reformatsky-type reactions. In principle, the synthesis of ... β-unsaturated amides with carbodiimides to give spirocyclic amidines (Scheme 24A) [85]. In the model study, they found that SmI ...
0.45% (w/v) CMC Na-salt in 0.01 M Na-K-phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, was activated with 200 μM carbodiimide and 50 μM NHS end-to- ... 0.45% (w/v) CMC Na-salt in 0.01 M Na-K-phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, was activated with 200 μM carbodiimide and 50 μM NHS end-to- ... Layer-by-layer coating of 3-APTES and CMC followed by carbodiimide-mediated covalent protein immobilization (protocol 3) ... CMC was tested as platform for carbodiimide-mediated covalent streptavidin immobilization. As there are several protocols ...
Some carbodiimides afford a mixture of hydantoin and N-acyl urea. However, in situ addition of a 2 M aqueous NaOH solution ... Reaction of carbodiimides with α-Br(Cl)-aryl acetic acids produces N,N′-substituted 5-arylhydantoins under very mild conditions ... When the carbodiimides are generated in situ by Staudinger reaction, the process becomes a one-pot, three-component sequential ...
160] applied carbodiimide chemistry in order to functionalize graphene oxide nanosheets with BSA. They obtained a water-soluble ... scaffolds with high porosity and interconnected pores were synthesized through a crosslinking process by using carbodiimide ...
1,3-di(p-tolyl)carbodiimide 1,4-phenylenediamine + 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid ...
... carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC), and N-hydroxysuccinimide were purchased from Chengdu Kelong Chemical Co, Ltd (Chengdu, ...
1-ethyl-carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide were purchased from a certain chemical company. The Sgc8 aptamer ( ... and mix it with a suitable amount of carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide for the activation of carboxy groups ...
N-bromosuccinimide drastically decreased the activity of the enzyme, whereas diethylpyrocarbonate and carbodiimide strengthened ...
Ressnig, D.: The preparative decomposition of semi-organic crystals: metal carbodiimides become functional. Dissertation, ... Photochemical and electrocatalytic water oxidation activity of cobalt carbodiimide. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 3 (9), pp ...
Stage #1: aspirin With dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide In chloroform at 5 - 20℃; for 2h;. Stage #2: 2-(Diethylamino)ethanol at 20℃; ... Stage #1: aspirin With dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide In chloroform at 5 - 20℃; for 2h;. Stage #2: 2-(Diethylamino)ethanol In ... Stage #1: aspirin With dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide In chloroform at 5 - 20℃; for 2h;. Stage #2: 2-(Diethylamino)ethanol In ... With dmap; 1-ethyl-(3-(3-dimethylamino)propyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride In dichloromethane at 20℃; for 7h;. 99%. ...
Effect Of Talc And Carbodiimide On The Hydrolytic Resistance Of A Poly(L-Lactic Acid) Compound Nishant Singh, Celina Alvarado, ... Here, polymer blends containing 0-4wt% talc, a crystal nucleating agent and 0-1 wt% of a polymeric carbodiimide (CDI), an anti- ... In this work we examine the influence of talc and a polymeric carbodiimide on the hydrolytic degradation resistance of a ...
Synonyms: N -Ethyl- N ′-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide polymer-bound; EDC polymer-bound MDL No.: MFCD01867668 ...
... of lithio-aminofluorosilanes with trimethylsilylisocyanate or trimethylsilylthionylimide LiF is eliminated and carbodiimides ...
Cross Linking Agents Market by Chemistry (Amino, Amine, Amide, Aziridine, Isocyanate, Carbodiimide), Application (Decorative, ...
... carbodiimide method (Calbiochem, Woburn, MA, USA). The recombinant CHIKV wild-type and mutant (A226V) envelope 1 (E1) antigens ...
  • Here, polymer blends containing 0-4wt% talc, a crystal nucleating agent and 0-1 wt% of a polymeric carbodiimide (CDI), an anti-hydrolysis agent, were melt blended and compression molded into plaques. (4spe.org)
  • The formation of an amide using a carbodiimide is a common reaction, but carries the risk of several side reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A typical reagent for this process is mercuric oxide: (R(H)N)2CS + HgO → (RN)2C + HgS + H2O This reaction can often be conducted as stated, even though carbodiimides react with water. (wikipedia.org)
  • DCC (acronym for N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide) was one of the first carbodiimides developed as a reagent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbodiimide cross-linking reagent. (lookformedical.com)
  • O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) to derivatize the carbonyl products or 3-Ethyl-1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethylamine hydrochloride (TFEA) to derivatize the carboxylic acid products. (cdc.gov)
  • Tertiary, allylic, amines nucleophilically add to the carbon of a heterocumulene (isocyanate, isothiocyanate, or carbodiimide) to generate a zwitterion which then undergoes [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement. (uvm.edu)
  • In this work we examine the influence of talc and a polymeric carbodiimide on the hydrolytic degradation resistance of a commercially available Poly(L-Lactic acid) PLLA. (4spe.org)
  • A well known carbodiimide is dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, which is used in peptide synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In organic synthesis, compounds containing the carbodiimide functionality are used as dehydration agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • however, there are not sufficient methods for the synthesis of highly electron deficient carbodiimides. (uvm.edu)
  • The synthesis of such carbodiimides was explored through new synthetic methodologies for the dehydration of ureas and desulfurization of isothioureas and the carbodiimides were used in a series of intermolecular rearrangements with the strained, tertiary, allylic, amine. (uvm.edu)
  • The new methodologies for the synthesis of electron deficient carbodiimides were then applied to a series of intramolecular substrates, further expanding the 1,3-diaza Claisen rearrangement methodologies. (uvm.edu)
  • A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (lookformedical.com)
  • When the carbodiimides are generated in situ by Staudinger reaction, the process becomes a one-pot, three-component sequential synthesis of libraries of differently substituted 5-arylhydantoins. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • In organic chemistry, a carbodiimide (systematic IUPAC name: methanediimine) is a functional group with the formula RN=C=NR. On Earth they are exclusively synthetic, but in interstellar space the parent compound HN=C=NH has been detected by its maser emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. Chemical modification of hyaluronic acid by carbodiimides, Bioconjugate chemistry, 1991, 2(4):232-41. (creativepegworks.com)
  • The carboxylic acid moiety in DHICA also provides a motif for carbodiimide chemistry and confers additional control over pH and zeta potential, which are both important determinants of the cellular and extracellular microenvironments. (confex.com)
  • The dehydration of N,N'-dialkylureas gives carbodiimides: (R(H)N)2CO → (RN)2C + H2O Phosphorus pentoxide and p-Toluenesulfonyl chloride have been used as a dehydrating agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reaction of carbodiimides with α-Br(Cl)-aryl acetic acids produces N,N ′-substituted 5-arylhydantoins under very mild conditions and high yields. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • To this end, strained, tertiary, allylic, amine 2-benzyl-2-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene reacts with in-situ generated carbodiimides in the 1,3-diaza-Claisen rearrangement to afford structurally interesting bicyclic guanidines. (uvm.edu)
  • The rearrangements conducted with a carbodiimide generate guanidine-containing skeletons. (uvm.edu)
  • The use of carbodiimides as fuels to generate transient aqueous carboxylic anhydrides has recently been used in examples of new nonequilibrium materials and supramolecular assemblies. (hartleygroup.org)
  • Isocyanates can be converted to carbodiimides with loss of carbon dioxide: 2 RN=C=O → (RN)2C + CO2 The reaction is catalyzed by phosphine oxides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kinetic parameters allow trends in concentration-dependent properties to be simulated, such as reaction lifetimes, peak anhydride concentrations, and efficiencies (i.e., total anhydride produced per equivalent of carbodiimide). (hartleygroup.org)
  • Proposed carbonyl products for nitrate radical reaction of terpinolene are: 2-hydroxy-4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-one, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, and 4-oxopentanal. (cdc.gov)
  • The acid 1 will react with the carbodiimide to produce the key intermediate: the O-acylisourea 2, which can be viewed as a carboxylic ester with an activated leaving group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Posteriorly, each succinamic acid should be coupled with 1- H -2-aminoindole by way of coupling agents such as carbodiimides. (usp.br)
  • A water -soluble crosslinking agent, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)- carbodiimide (EDC), has been used as a pretreatment of acid -etched dentin to inactivate matrix-bound endogenous dentin proteases . (bvsalud.org)
  • From the perspective of bonding, carbodiimides are isoelectronic with carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The covalent immobilisation of antibody was achieved through the bonding of the carboxyl group of 11-MUDA and the amino group of the antibody using chemical linkers [1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide] and N-hydroxysuccinimide. (amrita.edu)
  • Following demineralization, polyphenol-rich extracts-including grape seed (GSE), green tea (GTE), and cranberry juice (CJE)-or chemical cross-linker carbodiimide with n-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) were applied to the demineralized dentin surfaces for 30 s. (cranberryinstitute.org)
  • N-bromosuccinimide drastically decreased the activity of the enzyme, whereas diethylpyrocarbonate and carbodiimide strengthened the activity slightly. (nih.gov)
  • Photochemical and electrocatalytic water oxidation activity of cobalt carbodiimide. (mpg.de)
  • Solid diaryl carbodiimides are more stable, but can slowly undergo hydrolysis in the presence of water over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solid diaryl carbodiimides are more stable, but can slowly undergo hydrolysis in the presence of water over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • To improve the hydrolysis stability of PU, carbodiimide hydrolysis stabilizer is often used. (carbodiimide.com)
  • Carbodiimide hydrolysis stabilizers include monomeric carbodiimide (containing only one carbodiimide functional group in the molecule) and polycarbodiimide (PCD, containing two or more carbodiimide functional groups). (carbodiimide.com)
  • We present the first interstellar detection of carbodiimide (HNCNH) in observations towards Sgr B2(N) using data from the publicly available Green Bank Telescope \textbf{PR}ebiotic \textbf{I}nterstellar \textbf{MO}lecular \textbf{S}urvey project. (osu.edu)
  • As weak bases, carbodiimides bind to Lewis acids to give adducts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The group's paper titled 'Switchable Organocatalysis from N-heterocyclic Carbene-Carbodiimide Adducts with Tunable Release Temperature' has been accepted to Angewandte Chemie! (google.com)
  • A study of the reaction chemistry of both the monomeric and dimeric carbodiimides led to the conclusion that dimerization occurred via a (π2s + π2a) ground-state, symmetry-allowed mechanism, and that thermal decomposition of the dimeric species occurred via a (π2s +-π2s) excited-state, symmetry-allowed mechanism. (sdstate.edu)
  • Cyanamide (NH 2 CN) and its tautomer carbodiimide (NHCHN) are believed to have been key precursors of purines and pyrimidines during abiogenesis on primitive Earth. (researchgate.net)
  • Therefore, the addition of carbodiimide to polyurethane products significantly improves the hydrolytic stability of the products. (carbodiimide.com)
  • Carbodiimides are reagents for the Moffatt oxidation, a protocol for conversion of an alcohol to a carbonyl (ketone or aldehyde) using dimethyl sulfoxide as the oxidizing agent: (CH3)2SO + (CyN)2C + R2CHOH → (CH3)2S + (CyNH)2CO + R2C=O Typically the sulfoxide and diimide are used in excess. (wikipedia.org)
  • These methods include polymer-supported reagents, such as 1 -Ethyl-3-(3′-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide. (bestschoolnews.com)
  • One of the reagents used in the past was carbodiimides. (bestschoolnews.com)
  • In this method, amino acids are triggered using linking substances, like carbodiimides, and interact with an available amino cluster in the presence of a fitting base. (soft2share.com)
  • Currently, researchers use carbodiimides to different amino acids such as DCC and HOBt in the solid-phase synthesis to form essential protein peptides. (bestschoolnews.com)
  • A cross-linked porous silk fibroin (SF) material was prepared by freeze-drying.1-ethyl-3- (3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC), N- hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) and 2-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid (MES) were added in different concentrations of SF solutions. (global-sci.org)
  • O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) to derivatize the carbonyl products or 3-Ethyl-1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethylamine hydrochloride (TFEA) to derivatize the carboxylic acid products. (cdc.gov)
  • Some diaryl derivatives tend to convert to dimers and polymers upon standing at room temperature, though this mostly occurs with low melting point carbodiimides that are liquids at room temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pure-4,4-MDI is modified (reacted) into carbodiimides in order to create a stable, liquid MDI at room-temperature. (azelisamericascase.com)
  • In organic chemistry, a carbodiimide (systematic IUPAC name: methanediimine) is a functional group with the formula RN=C=NR. On Earth they are exclusively synthetic, but in interstellar space the parent compound HN=C=NH has been detected by its maser emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In organic synthesis, compounds containing the carbodiimide functionality are used as dehydration agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists use Carbodiimide alongside XOH additives suitable for trapping agents to make active esters ideal for boosting the outcomes. (bestschoolnews.com)
  • abstract = "The insertion of alcohols into carbodiimides mediated by benzimidazolin-2-iminato actinide complexes [(BimR1/R2N)AnN3] [N = N(SiMe3)2] is presented herein. (gtiit.edu.cn)
  • The preparation of several difunctional and bis-carbodiimides was attempted, but no products were isolated. (sdstate.edu)
  • Proposed carbonyl products for ozonolysis of terpinolene are: 4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-one, 2-hydroxy-4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-one, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, 3-oxobutanal, and 6-oxo-3-(propan-2-ylidene)heptanal. (cdc.gov)
  • The TMS, HPAEC, and carbodiimide methods provided comparable quantitative results for the specific neutral and acidic sugar content of the biomass, with the TMS method providing slightly greater yield of specific acidic sugars and high total sugar yields. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The TMS, HPAEC, and carbodiimide methods were shown to provide comparable quantitative data on the nine neutral and acidic sugars present in all plant cell walls. (biomedcentral.com)
  • synthesis, structural characterization, and catalysis of phosphine P--H bond addition to carbodiimides. (nih.gov)
  • Several N 1 -alkyl-N 2 -(N,N-dialkylamino)carbodiimides, which were found to form dimeric species, were prepared, and the structure of the dimeric species determined. (sdstate.edu)
  • The dehydration of N,N'-dialkylureas gives carbodiimides: (R(H)N)2CO → (RN)2C + H2O Phosphorus pentoxide and p-Toluenesulfonyl chloride have been used as a dehydrating agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • This approach was explored in the synthesis of no-carrier-added (NCA) [ carbonyl - 11 C]amides from [ carboxyl - 11 C]acids with a polymer-supported carbodiimide under microwave conditions. (nih.gov)
  • The development of a carbodiimide-based approach for the assembly of designer π-conjugated systems offers a unique opportunity to develop bioelectronic supramolecular materials with controllable formation of dynamic and stimuli-responsive structures. (biopacificmip.org)