Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Members contain murrayanine, koenine, isomahanine, kwangsine, siamenol, murrayafoline A, murrayaquinone A and other cytotoxic carbazolequinones.
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
A plant family in the order Sapindales that grows in warmer regions and has conspicuous flowers.
A family of gram-positive, aerobic actinomycetes found in soil and animal tissue. Some species are the cause of infection in man and animals.
Pyrido-CARBAZOLES originally discovered in the bark of OCHROSIA ELLIPTICA. They inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis and have immunosuppressive properties.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Members contain anethole and CARBAZOLES.
Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 2 or 6 of the benzene ring structure.
A by-product of the destructive distillation of coal used as a topical antieczematic. It is an antipruritic and keratoplastic agent used also in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions. Occupational exposure to soots, tars, and certain mineral oils is known to be carcinogenic according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985) (Merck Index, 11th ed).
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.
Iron-containing proteins that transfer electrons, usually at a low potential, to flavoproteins; the iron is not present as in heme. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
A family of gram-negative, asporogenous rods or ovoid cells, aerobic or facultative anaerobic chemoorganotrophs. They are commonly isolated from SOIL, activated sludge, or marine environments.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.
Thiophenes are aromatic heterocyclic organic compounds containing a five-membered ring with four carbon atoms and one sulfur atom, which are found in various natural substances and synthesized for use in pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.
(Note: 'North Carolina' is a place, not a medical term. However, I can provide a fun fact related to health and North Carolina.)
Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
A synthetic hormone used for androgen replacement therapy and as an hormonal antineoplastic agent (ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, HORMONAL).
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to domestic national security.

Prior exposure to neurotrophins blocks inhibition of axonal regeneration by MAG and myelin via a cAMP-dependent mechanism. (1/1680)

MAG is a potent inhibitor of axonal regeneration. Here, inhibition by MAG, and myelin in general, is blocked if neurons are exposed to neurotrophins before encountering the inhibitor; priming cerebellar neurons with BDNF or GDNF, but not NGF, or priming DRG neurons with any of these neurotrophins blocks inhibition by MAG/myelin. Dibutyryl cAMP also overcomes inhibition by MAG/myelin, and cAMP is elevated by neurotrophins. A PKA inhibitor present during priming abrogates the block of inhibition. Finally, if neurons are exposed to MAG/myelin and neurotrophins simultaneously, but with the Gi protein inhibitor, inhibition is blocked. We suggest that priming neurons with particular neurotrophins elevates cAMP and activates PKA, which blocks subsequent inhibition of regeneration and that priming is required because MAG/myelin activates a Gi protein, which blocks increases in cAMP. This is important for encouraging axons to regrow in vivo.  (+info)

The ras oncogene-mediated sensitization of human cells to topoisomerase II inhibitor-induced apoptosis. (2/1680)

BACKGROUND: Among the inhibitors of the enzyme topoisomerase II (an important target for chemotherapeutic drugs) tested in the National Cancer Institute's In Vitro Antineoplastic Drug Screen, NSC 284682 (3'-hydroxydaunorubicin) and NSC 659687 [9-hydroxy-5,6-dimethyl-1-(N-[2(dimethylamino)ethyl]carbamoyl)-6H-pyrido -(4,3-b)carbazole] were the only compounds that were more cytotoxic to tumor cells harboring an activated ras oncogene than to tumor cells bearing wild-type ras alleles. Expression of the multidrug resistance proteins P-glycoprotein and MRP (multidrug resistance-associated protein) facilitates tumor cell resistance to topoisomerase II inhibitors. We investigated whether tumor cells with activated ras oncogenes showed enhanced sensitivity to other topoisomerase II inhibitors in the absence of the multidrug-resistant phenotype. METHODS: We studied 20 topoisomerase II inhibitors and individual cell lines with or without activated ras oncogenes and with varying degrees of multidrug resistance. RESULTS: In the absence of multidrug resistance, human tumor cell lines with activated ras oncogenes were uniformly more sensitive to most topoisomerase II inhibitors than were cell lines containing wild-type ras alleles. The compounds NSC 284682 and NSC 659687 were especially effective irrespective of the multidrug resistant phenotype. The ras oncogene-mediated sensitization to topoisomerase II inhibitors was far more prominent with the non-DNA-intercalating epipodophyllotoxins than with the DNA-intercalating inhibitors. This difference in sensitization appears to be related to a difference in apoptotic sensitivity, since the level of DNA damage generated by etoposide (an epipodophyllotoxin derivative) in immortalized human kidney epithelial cells expressing an activated ras oncogene was similar to that in the parental cells, but apoptosis was enhanced only in the former cells. CONCLUSIONS: Activated ras oncogenes appear to enhance the sensitivity of human tumor cells to topoisomerase II inhibitors by potentiating an apoptotic response. Epipodophyllotoxin-derived topoisomerase II inhibitors should be more effective than the DNA-intercalating inhibitors against tumor cells with activated ras oncogenes.  (+info)

A requirement for protein kinase C inhibition for calcium-triggered apoptosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. (3/1680)

We have evaluated the cytotoxicities of the combinations of calcium mobilizers and PKC inhibitors against human acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. Here we report that calcium mobilizers alone or PKC inhibitors alone do not induce apoptosis in human ALL cells. However, the combinations of calcium mobilizers with potent inhibitors of PKC cause significant apoptosis in ALL cells. Our results provide experimental evidence that PKC blocks Ca2+-triggered apoptosis in human ALL cells. Thus, PKC inhibitors can be used to enhance the antileukemic activity of chemical or biological agents that trigger an apoptotic calcium signal in ALL cells. The exquisite sensitivity of ALL cells to calcium-dependent apoptosis in the presence of PKC inhibitors could provide the basis for new treatment programs against ALL.  (+info)

Stimulation of ultraviolet-induced apoptosis of human fibroblast UVr-1 cells by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. (4/1680)

Damnacanthal is an anthraquinone compound isolated from the root of Morinda citrifolia and was reported to have a potent inhibitory activity towards tyrosine kinases such as Lck, Src, Lyn and EGF receptor. In the present study, we have examined the effects of damnacanthal on ultraviolet ray-induced apoptosis in ultraviolet-resistant human UVr-1 cells. When the cells were treated with damnacanthal prior to ultraviolet irradiation, DNA fragmentation was more pronounced as compared to the case of ultraviolet irradiation alone. The other tyrosine kinase inhibitors, herbimycin A and genistein, also caused similar effects on ultraviolet-induced apoptosis but to a lesser extent. Serine/threonine kinase inhibitors, K252a, staurosporine and GF109203X, rather suppressed the ultraviolet-induced DNA cleavage. Immunoblot analysis showed that pretreatment with damnacanthal followed by ultraviolet irradiation increased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases and stress-activated protein kinases. However, the other tyrosine kinase inhibitors did not increase the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases but stimulated phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinases. Consequently, the ultraviolet-induced concurrent increase in both phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases and stress-activated protein kinases after pretreatment with damnacanthal might be characteristically related to the stimulatory effect of damnacanthal on ultraviolet-induced apoptosis.  (+info)

Involvement of phosphodiesterase-cGMP-PKG pathway in intracellular Ca2+ oscillations in pituitary GH3 cells. (5/1680)

The present study investigates the potential role of the Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent type I phosphodiesterase (PDE)-cGMP-protein kinase G (PKG) pathway in spontaneous [Ca2+]i oscillations in GH3 cells using fura-2 single cell videoimaging. Vinpocetine (2.5-50 microM), a selective inhibitor of type I PDE, induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous [Ca2+]i oscillations in these pituitary cells, and at the same time produced an increase of the intracellular cGMP content. The cell permeable cGMP analog N2,2'-O-dibutyryl-cGMP (dB-cGMP) (1 mM) caused a progressive reduction of the frequency and the amplitude of spontaneous [Ca2+]i oscillations when added to the medium. KT5823 (400 nM), a selective inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), produced an increase of baseline [Ca2+]i and the disappearance of spontaneous [Ca2+]i oscillations. When KT5823 was added before vinpocetine, the PKG inhibitor counteracted the [Ca2+]i lowering effect of the cGMP catabolism inhibitor. Finally, the removal of extracellular Ca2+ or the blockade of L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) by nimodipine produced a decrease of cytosolic cGMP levels. Collectively, the results of the present study suggest that spontaneous [Ca2+]i oscillations in GH3 cells may be regulated by the activity of type I PDE-cGMP-PKG pathway.  (+info)

In vitro and in vivo characterization of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity in normal and heart failure rats. (6/1680)

Clinical studies conducted with carvedilol suggest that beta-adrenoceptor antagonism is an effective therapeutic approach to the treatment of heart failure. However, many beta-adrenoceptor antagonists are weak partial agonists and possess significant intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA), which may be problematic in the treatment of heart failure. In the present study, the ISAs of bucindolol, xamoterol, bisoprolol, and carvedilol were evaluated and compared in normal rats [Sprague-Dawley (SD)], in rats with confirmed heart failure [spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF)], and in isolated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. At equieffective beta1-adrenolytic doses, the administration of xamoterol and bucindolol produced a prolonged, equieffective, and dose-related increase in heart rate in both pithed SD rats (ED50 = 5 and 40 microgram/kg, respectively) and SHHF rats (ED50 = 6 and 30 microgram/kg, respectively). The maximum effect of both compounds in SHHF rats was approximately 50% of that observed in SD rats. In contrast, carvedilol and bisoprolol had no significant effect on resting heart rate in the pithed SD or SHHF rat. The maximum increase in heart rate elicited by xamoterol and bucindolol was inhibited by treatment with propranolol, carvedilol, and betaxolol (beta1-adrenoceptor antagonist) but not by ICI 118551 (beta2-adrenoceptor antagonist) in neonatal rat. When the beta-adrenoceptor-mediated cAMP response was examined in cardiomyocytes, an identical partial agonist/antagonist response profile was observed for all compounds, demonstrating a strong correlation with the in vivo results. In contrast, GTP-sensitive ligand binding and tissue adenylate cyclase activity were not sensitive methods for detecting beta-adrenoceptor partial agonist activity in the heart. In summary, xamoterol and bucindolol, but not carvedilol and bisoprolol, exhibited direct beta1-adrenoceptor-mediated ISA in normal and heart failure rats.  (+info)

Tolerability and efficacy of carvedilol in patients with New York Heart Association class IV heart failure. (7/1680)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the tolerability and efficacy of carvedilol in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class IV symptoms. BACKGROUND: Carvedilol, a nonselective beta-adrenergic blocking drug with alpha-adrenergic blocking and antioxidant properties, has been shown to improve left ventricular function and clinical outcome in patients with mild to moderate chronic heart failure. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 230 patients with heart failure treated with carvedilol who were stratified according to baseline functional class: 63 patients were NYHA class IV and 167 were NYHA class I, II or III. Carvedilol was commenced at 3.125 mg b.i.d. and titrated to 25 mg b.i.d. as tolerated. Patients with class IV symptoms were older (p = 0.03), had lower left ventricular fractional shortening (p < 0.001), had lower six-min walk distance (p < 0.001) and were receiving more heart failure medications at baseline compared with less symptomatic patients. RESULTS: Nonfatal adverse events while taking carvedilol occurred more frequently in class IV patients (43% vs. 24%, p < 0.0001), and more often resulted in permanent withdrawal of the drug (25% vs. 13%, p < 0.01). Thirty-seven (59%) patients who were NYHA class IV at baseline had improved by one or more functional class at 3 months, 8 (13%) were unchanged and 18 (29%) had deteriorated or died. Among the less symptomatic group, 62 (37%) patients had improved their NYHA status at 3 months, 73 (44%) were unchanged and 32 (19%) had deteriorated or died. The differences in symptomatic outcome at three months between the two groups were statistically significant (p = 0.001, chi-square analysis). Both groups demonstrated similar significant improvements in left ventricular dimensions and systolic function. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with chronic NYHA class IV heart failure are more likely to develop adverse events during initiation and dose titration when compared with less symptomatic patients but are more likely to show symptomatic improvement in the long term. We conclude that carvedilol is a useful adjunctive therapy for patients with NYHA class IV heart failure; however, they require close observation during initiation and titration of the drug.  (+info)

Membrane fusion promoters and inhibitors have contrasting effects on lipid bilayer structure and undulations. (8/1680)

It has been established that the fusion of both biological membranes and phospholipid bilayers can be modulated by altering their lipid composition (Chernomordik et al., 1995 .J. Membr. Biol. 146:3). In particular, when added exogenously between apposing membranes, monomyristoylphosphatidylcholine (MMPC) inhibits membrane fusion, whereas glycerol monoleate (GMO), oleic acid (OA), and arachidonic acid (AA) promote fusion. This present study uses x-ray diffraction to investigate the effects of MMPC, GMO, OA, and AA on the bending and stability of lipid bilayers when bilayers are forced together with applied osmotic pressure. The addition of 10 and 30 mol% MMPC to egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) bilayers maintains the bilayer structure, even when the interbilayer fluid spacing is reduced to approximately 3 A, and increases the repulsive pressure between bilayers so that the fluid spacing in excess water increases by 5 and 15 A, respectively. Thus MMPC increases the undulation pressure, implying that the addition of MMPC promotes out-of-plane bending and decreases the adhesion energy between bilayers. In contrast, the addition of GMO has minor effects on the undulation pressure; 10 and 50 mol% GMO increase the fluid spacing of EPC in excess water by 0 and 2 A, respectively. However, x-ray diffraction indicates that, at small interbilayer separations, GMO, OA, or AA converts the bilayer to a structure containing hexagonally packed scattering units approximately 50 A in diameter. Thus GMO, OA, or AA destabilizes bilayer structure as apposing bilayers are brought into contact, which could contribute to their role in promoting membrane fusion.  (+info)

Carbazoles are aromatic organic compounds that consist of a tricyclic structure with two benzene rings fused to a five-membered ring containing two nitrogen atoms. The chemical formula for carbazole is C12H9N. Carbazoles are found in various natural sources, including coal tar and certain plants. They also have various industrial applications, such as in the production of dyes, pigments, and pharmaceuticals. In a medical context, carbazoles are not typically referred to as a single entity but rather as a class of compounds with potential therapeutic activity. Some carbazole derivatives have been studied for their anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial properties.

Sphingomonas is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment. They are known for their ability to degrade various organic compounds and are often found in water, soil, and air samples. The cells of Sphingomonas species are typically straight or slightly curved rods, and they do not form spores.

One distinctive feature of Sphingomonas species is the presence of a unique lipid called sphingolipid in their cell membranes. This lipid contains a long-chain base called sphingosine, which is not found in the cell membranes of other gram-negative bacteria. The genus Sphingomonas includes several species that have been associated with human infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. These infections can include bacteremia, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections. However, Sphingomonas species are generally considered to be of low virulence and are not typically regarded as major pathogens.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Murraya" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is actually a genus of tropical and subtropical evergreen trees and shrubs in the family Rutaceae, also known as the rue or citrus family. The most common species is Murraya paniculata, which is often used as an ornamental plant and is commonly known as the "Orange Jessamine" or "Chinese Box."

If you have any questions about a medical condition or term, I'd be happy to try to help with that.

Dioxygenases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of both atoms of molecular oxygen (O2) into their substrates. They are classified based on the type of reaction they catalyze and the number of iron atoms in their active site. The two main types of dioxygenases are:

1. Intradiol dioxygenases: These enzymes cleave an aromatic ring by inserting both atoms of O2 into a single bond between two carbon atoms, leading to the formation of an unsaturated diol (catechol) intermediate and the release of CO2. They contain a non-heme iron(III) center in their active site.

An example of intradiol dioxygenase is catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, which catalyzes the conversion of catechol to muconic acid.

2. Extradiol dioxygenases: These enzymes cleave an aromatic ring by inserting one atom of O2 at a position adjacent to the hydroxyl group and the other atom at a more distant position, leading to the formation of an unsaturated lactone or cyclic ether intermediate. They contain a non-heme iron(II) center in their active site.

An example of extradiol dioxygenase is homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase, which catalyzes the conversion of homogentisate to maleylacetoacetate in the tyrosine degradation pathway.

Dioxygenases play important roles in various biological processes, including the metabolism of aromatic compounds, the biosynthesis of hormones and signaling molecules, and the detoxification of xenobiotics.

Rutaceae is a family of plants in the order Sapindales, also known as the rue or citrus family. It includes aromatic trees and shrubs, with around 150 genera and 2,000 species. Many members of this family are economically important, particularly those in the citrus genus (Citrus spp.), which include oranges, lemons, limes, grapefruits, and other citrus fruits. These plants contain essential oils that are used in perfumes, flavorings, and traditional medicines. Some other notable members of Rutaceae include rue (Ruta graveolens), a medicinal herb with a long history of use in traditional medicine, and Cascarilla bark (Croton eluteria), which is used to make a bitter tonic.

Nocardiaceae is a family of aerobic, gram-positive bacteria with branching filaments that are often found in soil and water. These organisms are known for their ability to form tough, persister colonies called "actinomycetoma" in human and animal tissue. They are opportunistic pathogens, meaning they primarily cause infection in individuals with weakened immune systems. Nocardiaceae includes several genera, the most notable being Nocardia, which is responsible for a variety of diseases in humans, including pulmonary, cutaneous, and central nervous system infections.

Ellipticines are a class of naturally occurring alkaloids that have been isolated from various plants, including those in the family Apocynaceae. These compounds have been found to exhibit various biological activities, including anti-cancer and anti-microbial properties.

Ellipticines have a unique chemical structure, characterized by a planar, aromatic core with two side chains that contain nitrogen atoms. This structure allows ellipticines to intercalate into DNA, disrupting its normal function and leading to cell death. As a result, ellipticines have been studied as potential anti-cancer agents, particularly for the treatment of drug-resistant cancers.

In addition to their anti-cancer properties, ellipticines have also been found to exhibit antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic activities. However, further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms behind these effects and to determine the safety and efficacy of ellipticines as therapeutic agents.

Environmental biodegradation is the breakdown of materials, especially man-made substances such as plastics and industrial chemicals, by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi in order to use them as a source of energy or nutrients. This process occurs naturally in the environment and helps to break down organic matter into simpler compounds that can be more easily absorbed and assimilated by living organisms.

Biodegradation in the environment is influenced by various factors, including the chemical composition of the substance being degraded, the environmental conditions (such as temperature, moisture, and pH), and the type and abundance of microorganisms present. Some substances are more easily biodegraded than others, and some may even be resistant to biodegradation altogether.

Biodegradation is an important process for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, as it helps to prevent the accumulation of harmful substances in the environment. However, some man-made substances, such as certain types of plastics and industrial chemicals, may persist in the environment for long periods of time due to their resistance to biodegradation, leading to negative impacts on wildlife and ecosystems.

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in developing biodegradable materials that can break down more easily in the environment as a way to reduce waste and minimize environmental harm. These efforts have led to the development of various biodegradable plastics, coatings, and other materials that are designed to degrade under specific environmental conditions.

"Clausena" is a genus of plants in the family Rutaceae, which includes various species such as Clausena excavata, Clausena lansium, and Clausena indica. These plants are native to tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, and Australia. They have been used in traditional medicine for treating various ailments, including gastrointestinal disorders, skin diseases, and fever. However, there is limited scientific evidence to support these claims.

The medical definition of "Clausena" would refer to the pharmacological or medicinal properties of the plants in this genus. Some studies have suggested that certain species of Clausena contain bioactive compounds with potential therapeutic benefits, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. However, more research is needed to fully understand the medicinal properties of these plants and their potential applications in modern medicine.

It's important to note that while some Clausena species may have medicinal benefits, they can also contain toxic compounds that can be harmful if ingested or applied topically in high concentrations. Therefore, it's essential to consult with a healthcare professional before using any Clausena-based remedies or supplements.

Ortho-Aminobenzoates are chemical compounds that contain a benzene ring substituted with an amino group in the ortho position and an ester group in the form of a benzoate. They are often used as pharmaceutical intermediates, plastic additives, and UV stabilizers. In medical contexts, one specific ortho-aminobenzoate, para-aminosalicylic acid (PABA), is an antibiotic used in the treatment of tuberculosis. However, it's important to note that "ortho-aminobenzoates" in general do not have a specific medical definition and can refer to any compound with this particular substitution pattern on a benzene ring.

Coal tar is a thick, dark liquid that is a byproduct of coal manufacturing processes, specifically the distillation of coal at high temperatures. It is a complex mixture of hundreds of different compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are known to be carcinogenic.

In medical terms, coal tar has been used topically for various skin conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, and seborrheic dermatitis due to its anti-inflammatory and keratolytic properties. Coal tar can help reduce scaling, itching, and inflammation of the skin. However, its use is limited due to potential side effects such as skin irritation, increased sun sensitivity, and potential risk of cancer with long-term use. Coal tar products should be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider and according to the instructions on the label.

Oxygenases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the incorporation of molecular oxygen (O2) into their substrates. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of many natural products, as well as the detoxification and degradation of xenobiotics (foreign substances).

There are two main types of oxygenases: monooxygenases and dioxygenases. Monooxygenases introduce one atom of molecular oxygen into a substrate while reducing the other to water. An example of this type of enzyme is cytochrome P450, which is involved in drug metabolism and steroid hormone synthesis. Dioxygenases, on the other hand, incorporate both atoms of molecular oxygen into their substrates, often leading to the formation of new carbon-carbon bonds or the cleavage of existing ones.

It's important to note that while oxygenases are essential for many life-sustaining processes, they can also contribute to the production of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) during normal cellular metabolism. An imbalance in ROS levels can lead to oxidative stress and damage to cells and tissues, which has been linked to various diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular disease.

Aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs) are a type of intracellular receptor that play a crucial role in the response to environmental contaminants and other xenobiotic compounds. They are primarily found in the cytoplasm of cells, where they bind to aromatic hydrocarbons, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are common environmental pollutants.

Once activated by ligand binding, AhRs translocate to the nucleus, where they dimerize with the AhR nuclear translocator (ARNT) protein and bind to specific DNA sequences called xenobiotic response elements (XREs). This complex then regulates the expression of a variety of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, including those encoding cytochrome P450 enzymes.

In addition to their role in xenobiotic metabolism, AhRs have been implicated in various physiological processes, such as immune response, cell differentiation, and development. Dysregulation of AhR signaling has been associated with the pathogenesis of several diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodevelopmental disorders.

Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of AhR activation and regulation is essential for developing strategies to prevent or treat environmental toxicant-induced diseases and other conditions linked to AhR dysfunction.

"Pseudomonas" is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely found in soil, water, and plants. Some species of Pseudomonas can cause disease in animals and humans, with P. aeruginosa being the most clinically relevant as it's an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat. It can cause a range of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections. In addition, it can also cause external ear infections and eye infections.

Prompt identification and appropriate antimicrobial therapy are crucial for managing Pseudomonas infections, although the increasing antibiotic resistance poses a significant challenge in treatment.

Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) is not a common medical term, but it is known in toxicology and environmental health. TCDD is the most toxic and studied compound among a group of chemicals known as dioxins.

Medical-related definition:

Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) is an unintended byproduct of various industrial processes, including waste incineration, chemical manufacturing, and pulp and paper bleaching. It is a highly persistent environmental pollutant that accumulates in the food chain, primarily in animal fat. Human exposure to TCDD mainly occurs through consumption of contaminated food, such as meat, dairy products, and fish. TCDD is a potent toxicant with various health effects, including immunotoxicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, and carcinogenicity. The severity of these effects depends on the level and duration of exposure.

Ferredoxins are iron-sulfur proteins that play a crucial role in electron transfer reactions in various biological systems, particularly in photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation. They contain one or more clusters of iron and sulfur atoms (known as the iron-sulfur cluster) that facilitate the movement of electrons between different molecules during metabolic processes.

Ferredoxins have a relatively simple structure, consisting of a polypeptide chain that binds to the iron-sulfur cluster. This simple structure allows ferredoxins to participate in a wide range of redox reactions and makes them versatile electron carriers in biological systems. They can accept electrons from various donors and transfer them to different acceptors, depending on the needs of the cell.

In photosynthesis, ferredoxins play a critical role in the light-dependent reactions by accepting electrons from photosystem I and transferring them to NADP+, forming NADPH. This reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) is then used in the Calvin cycle for carbon fixation and the production of glucose.

In nitrogen fixation, ferredoxins help transfer electrons to the nitrogenase enzyme complex, which reduces atmospheric nitrogen gas (N2) into ammonia (NH3), making it available for assimilation by plants and other organisms.

Overall, ferredoxins are essential components of many metabolic pathways, facilitating electron transfer and energy conversion in various biological systems.

Dioxins are a group of chemically-related compounds that are primarily formed as unintended byproducts of various industrial, commercial, and domestic processes. They include polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and certain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Dioxins are highly persistent environmental pollutants that accumulate in the food chain, particularly in animal fat. Exposure to dioxins can cause a variety of adverse health effects, including developmental and reproductive problems, immune system damage, hormonal disruption, and cancer. The most toxic form of dioxin is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).

Indole is not strictly a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that can be found in the human body and has relevance to medical and biological research. Indoles are organic compounds that contain a bicyclic structure consisting of a six-membered benzene ring fused to a five-membered pyrrole ring.

In the context of medicine, indoles are particularly relevant due to their presence in certain hormones and other biologically active molecules. For example, the neurotransmitter serotonin contains an indole ring, as does the hormone melatonin. Indoles can also be found in various plant-based foods, such as cruciferous vegetables (e.g., broccoli, kale), and have been studied for their potential health benefits.

Some indoles, like indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane, are found in these vegetables and can have anti-cancer properties by modulating estrogen metabolism, reducing inflammation, and promoting cell death (apoptosis) in cancer cells. However, it is essential to note that further research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits and risks associated with indoles.

Alkaloids are a type of naturally occurring organic compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. They are often found in plants, and are known for their complex ring structures and diverse pharmacological activities. Many alkaloids have been used in medicine for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and therapeutic properties. Examples of alkaloids include morphine, quinine, nicotine, and caffeine.

Catechols are a type of chemical compound that contain a benzene ring with two hydroxyl groups (-OH) attached to it in the ortho position. The term "catechol" is often used interchangeably with "ortho-dihydroxybenzene." Catechols are important in biology because they are produced through the metabolism of certain amino acids, such as phenylalanine and tyrosine, and are involved in the synthesis of various neurotransmitters and hormones. They also have antioxidant properties and can act as reducing agents. In chemistry, catechols can undergo various reactions, such as oxidation and polymerization, to form other classes of compounds.

I'm sorry for the confusion, but "Palladium" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46. It is a rare and lustrous silvery-white metal discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston. It's used in various applications, including jewelry, dental work, electronics, and chemical reactions. If you have any medical terms you would like me to define, please let me know!

Sphingomonadaceae is a family of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in various environments such as soil, water, and clinical samples. They are characterized by the presence of sphingophospholipids in their outer membrane, which differentiates them from other gram-negative bacteria.

Members of this family are often rod-shaped or coccoid and may be motile or nonmotile. Some species have the ability to degrade various organic compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other aromatic hydrocarbons.

Sphingomonadaceae includes several genera of medical importance, such as Sphingomonas, Sphingopyxis, and Novosphingobium. These bacteria have been associated with various infections in humans, including bacteremia, pneumonia, meningitis, and urinary tract infections, particularly in immunocompromised patients. However, they are generally considered to be opportunistic pathogens, and their clinical significance is not well understood.

Cyclization is a chemical process that involves forming a cyclic structure or ring-shaped molecule from a linear or open-chain compound. In the context of medicinal chemistry and drug design, cyclization reactions are often used to synthesize complex molecules, including drugs, by creating rings or fused ring systems within the molecule's structure.

Cyclization can occur through various mechanisms, such as intramolecular nucleophilic substitution, electrophilic addition, or radical reactions. The resulting cyclized compounds may exhibit different chemical and biological properties compared to their linear precursors, making them valuable targets for drug discovery and development.

In some cases, the cyclization process can lead to the formation of stereocenters within the molecule, which can impact its three-dimensional shape and how it interacts with biological targets. Therefore, controlling the stereochemistry during cyclization reactions is crucial in medicinal chemistry to optimize the desired biological activity.

Overall, cyclization plays a significant role in the design and synthesis of many pharmaceutical compounds, enabling the creation of complex structures that can interact specifically with biological targets for therapeutic purposes.

Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 is an enzyme that is part of the cytochrome P450 family, which are a group of enzymes involved in the metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics (foreign substances) in the body. Specifically, CYP1A1 is found primarily in the liver and lungs and plays a role in the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are chemicals found in tobacco smoke and are produced by the burning of fossil fuels and other organic materials.

CYP1A1 also has the ability to activate certain procarcinogens, which are substances that can be converted into cancer-causing agents (carcinogens) within the body. Therefore, variations in the CYP1A1 gene may influence an individual's susceptibility to cancer and other diseases.

The term "P-450" refers to the fact that these enzymes absorb light at a wavelength of 450 nanometers when they are combined with carbon monoxide, giving them a characteristic pink color. The "CYP" stands for "cytochrome P," and the number and letter designations (e.g., 1A1) indicate the specific enzyme within the family.

Thiophenes are organic compounds that contain a heterocyclic ring made up of four carbon atoms and one sulfur atom. The structure of thiophene is similar to benzene, with the benzene ring being replaced by a thiophene ring. Thiophenes are aromatic compounds, which means they have a stable, planar ring structure and delocalized electrons.

Thiophenes can be found in various natural sources such as coal tar, crude oil, and some foods like onions and garlic. They also occur in certain medications, dyes, and pesticides. Some thiophene derivatives have been synthesized and studied for their potential therapeutic uses, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antitumor activities.

In the medical field, thiophenes are used in some pharmaceuticals as building blocks to create drugs with various therapeutic effects. For example, tipepidine, a cough suppressant, contains a thiophene ring. Additionally, some anesthetics and antipsychotic medications also contain thiophene moieties.

It is important to note that while thiophenes themselves are not typically considered medical terms, they play a role in the chemistry of various pharmaceuticals and other medical-related compounds.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

Dermatologic agents are medications, chemicals, or other substances that are applied to the skin (dermis) for therapeutic or cosmetic purposes. They can be used to treat various skin conditions such as acne, eczema, psoriasis, fungal infections, and wounds. Dermatologic agents include topical corticosteroids, antibiotics, antifungals, retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and many others. They can come in various forms such as creams, ointments, gels, lotions, solutions, and patches. It is important to follow the instructions for use carefully to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

A multigene family is a group of genetically related genes that share a common ancestry and have similar sequences or structures. These genes are arranged in clusters on a chromosome and often encode proteins with similar functions. They can arise through various mechanisms, including gene duplication, recombination, and transposition. Multigene families play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as development, immunity, and metabolism. Examples of multigene families include the globin genes involved in oxygen transport, the immune system's major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, and the cytochrome P450 genes associated with drug metabolism.

Carcinogens are agents (substances or mixtures of substances) that can cause cancer. They may be naturally occurring or man-made. Carcinogens can increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular DNA, disrupting cellular function, or promoting cell growth. Examples of carcinogens include certain chemicals found in tobacco smoke, asbestos, UV radiation from the sun, and some viruses.

It's important to note that not all exposures to carcinogens will result in cancer, and the risk typically depends on factors such as the level and duration of exposure, individual genetic susceptibility, and lifestyle choices. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies carcinogens into different groups based on the strength of evidence linking them to cancer:

Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans
Group 2A: Probably carcinogenic to humans
Group 2B: Possibly carcinogenic to humans
Group 3: Not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans
Group 4: Probably not carcinogenic to humans

This information is based on medical research and may be subject to change as new studies become available. Always consult a healthcare professional for medical advice.

Crystallization is a process in which a substance transitions from a liquid or dissolved state to a solid state, forming a crystal lattice. In the medical context, crystallization can refer to the formation of crystals within the body, which can occur under certain conditions such as changes in pH, temperature, or concentration of solutes. These crystals can deposit in various tissues and organs, leading to the formation of crystal-induced diseases or disorders.

For example, in patients with gout, uric acid crystals can accumulate in joints, causing inflammation, pain, and swelling. Similarly, in nephrolithiasis (kidney stones), minerals in the urine can crystallize and form stones that can obstruct the urinary tract. Crystallization can also occur in other medical contexts, such as in the formation of dental calculus or plaque, and in the development of cataracts in the eye.

Metabolic networks and pathways refer to the complex interconnected series of biochemical reactions that occur within cells to maintain life. These reactions are catalyzed by enzymes and are responsible for the conversion of nutrients into energy, as well as the synthesis and breakdown of various molecules required for cellular function.

A metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions that occur in a specific order, with each reaction being catalyzed by a different enzyme. These pathways are often interconnected, forming a larger network of interactions known as a metabolic network.

Metabolic networks can be represented as complex diagrams or models, which show the relationships between different pathways and the flow of matter and energy through the system. These networks can help researchers to understand how cells regulate their metabolism in response to changes in their environment, and how disruptions to these networks can lead to disease.

Some common examples of metabolic pathways include glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and the pentose phosphate pathway. Each of these pathways plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and providing energy for cellular functions.

"Drug and narcotic control" refers to the regulation and oversight of drugs and narcotics, including their production, distribution, and use. This is typically carried out by governmental agencies in order to ensure public safety, prevent abuse and diversion, and protect the health of individuals. The goal of drug and narcotic control is to strike a balance between making sure that medications are available for legitimate medical purposes while also preventing their misuse and illegal sale.

Drug control policies may include measures such as licensing and registration of manufacturers, distributors, and pharmacies; tracking and monitoring of controlled substances; setting standards for prescription practices; and enforcement of laws and regulations related to drug use and trafficking. Narcotic control specifically refers to the regulation of drugs that have a high potential for abuse and are subject to international treaties, such as opioids.

It's important to note that while these regulations aim to protect public health and safety, they can also be controversial and have unintended consequences, such as contributing to drug shortages or creating barriers to access for people who need controlled substances for legitimate medical reasons.

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is not a medical organization or entity, so it does not provide medical definitions. However, I can give you some information about what the USDA is and what it does.

The USDA is a federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food. It was established in 1862 by President Abraham Lincoln and is headed by the Secretary of Agriculture, who is a member of the President's cabinet.

The USDA has several key missions, including:

* Promoting agricultural trade and production
* Ensuring the safety of the food supply
* Providing nutrition assistance to vulnerable populations
* Protecting natural resources and the environment
* Promoting rural development and economic stability

In terms of food and nutrition, the USDA plays an important role in setting dietary guidelines for Americans, establishing standards for school meals and other federal food programs, and regulating the safety of meat, poultry, and egg products. The agency also conducts research on agricultural and food-related topics and provides education and outreach to farmers, ranchers, and consumers.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "North Carolina" is a geographical location and not a medical term or condition. It is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I'd be happy to help with those!

A research subject, also commonly referred to as a "human subject" or "participant," is an individual who takes part in a research study or clinical trial. Research subjects are essential for the advancement of medical and scientific knowledge, as they provide data that can help researchers understand various phenomena, develop new treatments, and improve existing ones.

The term "research subject" emphasizes the ethical considerations involved in conducting research with human participants. It highlights the importance of protecting their rights, dignity, and well-being throughout the study. Researchers must obtain informed consent from subjects before enrolling them in a study, ensuring that they understand the purpose, procedures, potential risks, and benefits associated with the research.

Additionally, researchers are required to follow strict guidelines and regulations to minimize any harm or discomfort to the research subjects during the study. These guidelines may include requirements for data confidentiality, privacy protection, and monitoring of adverse events. Overall, treating research subjects with respect and care is crucial in maintaining the integrity of medical research and ensuring its societal benefits.

'Drug legislation' refers to the laws and regulations that govern the production, distribution, sale, possession, and use of medications and pharmaceutical products within a given jurisdiction. These laws are designed to protect public health and safety by establishing standards for drug quality, ensuring appropriate prescribing and dispensing practices, preventing drug abuse and diversion, and promoting access to necessary medications. Drug legislation may also include provisions related to clinical trials, advertising, packaging, labeling, and reimbursement. Compliance with these regulations is typically enforced through a combination of government agencies, professional organizations, and legal penalties for non-compliance.

Methyltestosterone is a synthetic form of the hormone testosterone, which is primarily used in the treatment of low testosterone levels (hypogonadism) in men. It has a methyl group attached to it, which allows it to be taken orally and still have significant effects on the body.

Testosterone is an androgen hormone that plays important roles in the development and maintenance of male sex characteristics, such as deepening of the voice, growth of facial and body hair, and increased muscle mass. It also helps maintain bone density, red blood cell production, and sex drive.

Methyltestosterone is available in various forms, including tablets and capsules, and its use should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and risks associated with its use, such as liver toxicity, increased risk of cardiovascular events, and changes in cholesterol levels.

It's important to note that methyltestosterone is not approved for use in women, as it can cause virilization (development of male sex characteristics) and other side effects.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the 'United States Department of Homeland Security' (DHS) is not a medical term or concept. It's a cabinet department of the U.S. federal government, created in response to the September 11 attacks, with the primary responsibilities of protecting the United States from terrorism and managing border control. The DHS includes several components, including the U.S. Coast Guard, Transportation Security Administration (TSA), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Customs and Border Protection (CBP), and Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), among others.

If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

... (PCCZ) are a group of chlorinated organic compounds. They are derivatives of carbazole and nitrogen ... In environmental samples, mixed halogenated carbazoles are also found. Juliane Kirst: Synthesis of polyhalogenated carbazoles ... Polychlorinated carbazoles usually occur as a mixture of various isomers. This mixture can have a certain frequency pattern ( ... J. Guo, D. Chen, D. Potter, K. J. Rockne, N. C. Sturchio, J. P. Giesy, A. Li: Polyhalogenated Carbazoles in Sediments of Lake ...
In the third step, this compound is oxidized by red lead to carbazole itself. Another classic is the Bucherer carbazole ... Carbazole is a constituent of tobacco smoke. A classic laboratory organic synthesis for carbazole is the Borsche-Drechsel ... Carbazole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. It has a tricyclic structure, consisting of two six-membered benzene ... A third method for the synthesis of carbazole is the Graebe-Ullmann reaction. In the first step, an N-phenyl-1,2-diaminobenzene ...
The carbazole alkaloids are natural products of the indole alkaloid type, derived from carbazole. Carbazole alkaloids with ... Entry on carbazole alkaloids. In: Römpp Online. Georg Thieme Verlag, accessed May 31, 2020. Eberhard Breitmaier (1997), ... Some carbazole alkaloids, especially glybomin B, have been isolated from Glycosmis pentaphylla. Representatives include, among ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Carbazole alkaloids. (CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list, Commons category link is ...
The Bucherer carbazole synthesis is a chemical reaction used to synthesize carbazoles from naphthols and aryl hydrazines using ...
... (EC, CARDO) is an enzyme with systematic name 9H-carbazole,NAD(P)H:oxygen oxidoreductase ... Carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase catalyses the first reaction in the pathway of carbazole degradation. Nam JW, Nojiri H, Noguchi H, ... Gai Z, Wang X, Liu X, Tai C, Tang H, He X, Wu G, Deng Z, Xu P (April 2010). "The genes coding for the conversion of carbazole ... Carbazole+1,9a-dioxygenase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (EC 1.14.12 ...
... carbazole-6-carboxaldehyde) and three dihydroxylated metabolites (2,8-, 2,10-, and 4,8-dihydroxyindolo[3,2-b]carbazole-6- ... The double Fischer indolization for the synthesis of the parent system indolo[3,2-b]carbazole was first reported by Robinson ... In order to reach gram amounts in the multistep synthesis of this low solubility ring-closed carbazole (FICZ) the final ... 6-Formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) is a chemical compound with the molecular formula C19H12N2O. It is a nitrogen heterocycle ...
Victor Mair, "Wait Till You Hear a Weak Pyridaben Carbazole Sound", Language Log, 30 June 2010. Victor Mair, "4 Uygur Theater ... carbazole'). 4 Uygur theater is printed on the bilingual instructions for a Chinese 4-D film about dinosaurs. The Chinese term ... pyridaben carbazole' sound the installation is completed." The original Chinese has an onomatopoetic term dādā kǎzuò (噠噠咔唑; ' ... pyridaben carbazole' sound is found on translated instructions for a photographic light, "Install the battery into the battery ...
as a control to investigate the effect of the substitution site of the carbazole unit as an electron donor on the oxygen- ... It was found that the introduction of two carbazole units into the same benzene ring of the oxygen-bridged triphenylboron ... An example of using exciplex is grafting Oxadiazole and carbazole side units in red diketopyrrolopyrrole-doped Copolymer main ... Carbazole cations". Polymer. 24 (6): 733-738. doi:10.1016/0032-3861(83)90012-5. Partridge, R (1983). "Electroluminescence from ...
It is produced by the vinylation of carbazole with acetylene in the presence of base. Carbazole Lide, David R. (2008). CRC ...
Common impurities are phenanthrene and carbazole. The mineral form of anthracene is called freitalite and is related to a coal ...
This enzyme participates in carbazole degradation. It employs one cofactor, FAD. Buder R, Fuchs G (1989). "2-Aminobenzoyl-CoA ...
P. resinovorans, which can degrade carbazole. P. aeruginosa, P. putida, P. desmolyticum, and P. nitroreducens can degrade ... 2002). "Organization and transcriptional characterization of catechol degradation genes involved in carbazole degradation by ...
Cyclization of arylvinyl- or diarylamines provides indolines and carbazoles, respectively. In one interesting example, the use ...
Some species also contain the carbazole girinimbine. In July 2021, 14-year old Zaila Avant-garde of Harvey, Louisiana, won the ...
... carbazoles are the Indolo(2,3-a)pyrrole(3,4-c)carbazoles. These can be divided into two major classes - halogenated ( ... The most frequently isolated indolocarbazoles are Indolo(2,3-a)carbazoles; the most common subgroup of the Indolo(2,3-a) ... carbazoles and preparation of various functionalized derivatives". J. Org. Chem. 72 (19): 7207-7213. doi:10.1021/jo0711337. ... carbazole by palladium(0) catalyzed polyannulation". Tetrahedron Lett. 36 (43): 7841-7844. doi:10.1016/0040-4039(95)01644-w.{{ ...
"Engineering Solid-State Morphologies in Carbazole-Ethynylene Macrocycles". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 133 (35): ...
... derivatives containing carbazole units have been found to be luminiscent, with high emission intensity ... 3-benzothiadiazole with carbazole moieties". Synthetic Metals. 161 (9-10): 718-723. doi:10.1016/j.synthmet.2011.01.020. ... "Novel Electroluminescent Polymers Derived from Carbazole and Benzothiadiazole". Macromolecules. 35 (16): 6080-6082. doi:10.1021 ...
I. N-Substituted hexahydro-1H-pyrazino[3,2,1-j,k]carbazoles". Khimiko-Farmatsevticheskii Zhurnal (in Russian). 20 (3): 300-303 ... Carbazoles, Russian drugs, All stub articles, Nervous system drug stubs). ...
... is the central step in Borsche-Drechsel carbazole synthesis, where in the first step ... Bucherer carbazole synthesis Fischer indole synthesis E. Drechsel (1888). "Ueber Elektrolyse des Phenols mit Wechselströmen". J ... and in the final step the resulting tetrahydrocarbazole is oxidized to carbazole itself. The reaction has been described in the ...
... has the ability to degrade dibenzofuran and carbazole. Kubota, M; Kawahara, K; Sekiya, K; Uchida, ...
... carbazoles". J. Org. Chem. 70 (25): 10615-10618. doi:10.1021/jo0519920. PMID 16323886. Thongsornkleeb, C.; Danheiser, R.L. ( ...
228-767-9, CAS RN 6358-30-1) which differ in terms of the carbazole ring fusion. Pigment violet 23 is prepared by condensation ... It is member of the dioxazine family of heterocyclic compounds, but derived from carbazoles. It is prepared by condensation of ...
doi:10.15227/orgsyn.084.0163.Wei Zhang; Hyeon Mo Cho; Jeffrey S. Moore (2007). "Preparation of a Carbazole-Based Macrocycle via ...
This enzyme participates in benzoate degradation via hydroxylation and carbazole degradation. Rao PV, Moore K, Towers GH (1967 ...
Halogenated indolo(2,3-a)pyrrole(3,4-c)carbazoles have a fully oxidized C-7 carbon with only one indole nitrogen containing a β ... Of these, Staurosporine falls within the most common subgroup, called Indolo(2,3-a)pyrrole(3,4-c)carbazoles. These fall into ... It belongs to the most frequently isolated group of indolocarbazoles: Indolo(2,3-a)carbazoles. ... bond, while non-halogenated indolo(2,3-a)pyrrole(3,4-c)carbazoles have both indole nitrogens glycosylated, and a fully reduced ...
September 2018). "Phase I metabolism of the carbazole-derived synthetic cannabinoids EG-018, EG-2201, and MDMB-CHMCZCA and ... "Methyl (S)-2-(9-(cyclohexylmethyl)-9H-carbazole-3-carboxamido)-3,3-dimethylbutanoate". PubChem. U.S. National Library of ...
doi:10.15227/orgsyn.084.0163.Wei Zhang; Hyeon Mo Cho; Jeffrey S. Moore (2007). "Preparation of a Carbazole-Based Macrocycle via ...
"Dicyanovinylene carbazole based A-D-A type small molecules for organic solar cell applications" Communicated in Synthetic ... E. K. T. Sivakumar, Sathiyan G, Ganesamoorthy R, Thangamuthu R and Sakthivel P. "Synthesis and studies of carbazole based (A-D- ... "Synthesis and Studies of Carbazole Based (A-D-A) Polymers For Organic Solar Cell Applications" International conference on ... "Synthesis and characterization of fluorescence poly(carbazole-thiazolo[5,4-d]thiazole) copolymer and effect of different ...
Carbazole can be denitrogenated by hydrogen to yield bicyclohexyl as the main product. When cyclohexane is exposed to radiation ...
Reaction of naphtols and hydrazines and sodium bisulfite in the Bucherer carbazole synthesis. Many phenols of commercial ...
Polychlorinated carbazoles (PCCZ) are a group of chlorinated organic compounds. They are derivatives of carbazole and nitrogen ... In environmental samples, mixed halogenated carbazoles are also found. Juliane Kirst: Synthesis of polyhalogenated carbazoles ... Polychlorinated carbazoles usually occur as a mixture of various isomers. This mixture can have a certain frequency pattern ( ... J. Guo, D. Chen, D. Potter, K. J. Rockne, N. C. Sturchio, J. P. Giesy, A. Li: Polyhalogenated Carbazoles in Sediments of Lake ...
Structure-guided design for carbazole antagonists of Toll-like receptors 7 and 8 (TLR7/8) for the potential treatment of ... Structure-guided design for carbazole antagonists of Toll-like receptors 7 and 8 (TLR7/8) for the potential treatment of ...
Timeline for Protein Terminal oxygenase component of carbazole CarAa from d.129.3.3: Ring hydroxylating alpha subunit catalytic ... Lineage for Protein: Terminal oxygenase component of carbazole CarAa. *Root: SCOPe 2.05 *. Class d: Alpha and beta proteins (a+ ... More info for Protein Terminal oxygenase component of carbazole CarAa from d.129.3.3: Ring hydroxylating alpha subunit ... Protein Terminal oxygenase component of carbazole CarAa from d.129.3.3: Ring hydroxylating alpha subunit catalytic domain first ...
9-Ethyl-3-nitro-9H-carbazole. Change simulation parameters The result was obtained by a proprietary SIELC algorithm. It may ... 9-Ethyl-3-nitro-9H-carbazole can be analyzed by this reverse phase (RP) HPLC method with simple conditions. The mobile phase ... Separation of 9-Ethyl-3-nitro-9H-carbazole on Newcrom R1 HPLC column ...
Carbazoles) Patents and Patent Applications (Class 548/440) Filed with the USPTO ... As the carbazole derivative that can achieve the above objects, a carbazole derivative in which a carbazolyl group whose either ... As the carbazole derivative that can achieve the above objects, a carbazole derivative in which a carbazolyl group whose either ... Carbazoles) Patents (Class 548/440) The Five-membered Hetero Ring Shares Ring Carbons With Two Benzene Rings (i.e., Carbazoles ...
... high quality carbazole,choose our products, warmly welcome new and old customers to visit and patronize! ... Carbazoles. Carbazoles are an important class of nitrogen-containing heterocycles with a planar tricyclic skeleton consisting ... Carbazole structural motifs are widely found in, but not limited to, a large number of natural alkaloids of plant or bacterial ... Acridines Anthracenes Azaspirocyclic Compounds Aziridines(Polycyclic) Carbazoles Dibenzofurans Fluorenes Imidazothiazoles ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (C18H10N2) from the PQR.
Pigment Carbazole Violet, Pigment Red 122, PIGMENT GREEN 7 and PIGMENT GREEN 36 offered by Alliance Organics LLP, Mumbai, ... Pigment Violet 27 are toners and Pigment Violet 23 is made from Carbazol, Our Pigment Violets are used in Ink industry, Paint ... Pigment Violet 27 are toners and Pigment Violet 23 is made from Carbazol, Our Pigment Violets are used in Ink industry, Paint ... Pigment Violet 27 are toners and Pigment Violet 23 is made from Carbazol, Our Pigment Violets are used in Ink industry, Paint ...
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CAS No. 1226860-66-7 is an important chemical used in the chemical industry and should be handled with caution. It should be stored in a cool, dry place, away from direct sunlight and heat, and should be kept in a tightly sealed container. It should be kept away from incompatible substances, such as acids and bases, and from oxidizing agents and sources of ignition.. ...
Home / Heterocycles / 3-Bromo-9-(4-fluorophenyl)-9H-carbazole. Carbazoles, Heterocycles. 3-Bromo-9-(4-fluorophenyl)-9H- ... Product Name: 3-Bromo-9-(4-fluorophenyl)-9H-carbazole. CAS No.: 922721-30-0 Molecular Weight:340.19. MDL No.: MFCD32184592 ...
9H-carbazole-1-carboxamide,N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxy- Molecular Structure: N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-9H-carbazole-1- ... 2-hydroxy-9H-carbazole-1-carboxamide,9H-carbazole-1-carboxamide,N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-,CAS 23077-61-4,336.77, ... carboxamide,9H-carbazole-1-carboxamide,N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-,CAS 23077-61-4,336.77,C19H13ClN2O2 N-(4-chlorophenyl)- ... Name: N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-9H-carbazole-1-carboxamide. CA Name: 9H-carbazole-1-carboxamide,N-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-hydroxy ...
Our 3-Bromo-9-(4-methylphenyl)carbazole CAS#731016-44-7 have the best quality. Want to buy 3-Bromo-9-(4-methylphenyl)carbazole ... carbazole CAS#731016-44-7, which can be used as pharmaceutical intermediate. ... Properties Of 3-Bromo-9-(4-methylphenyl)carbazole CAS#731016-44-7. Other Names. 3-Bromo-9-(p-tolyl)-9H-carbazole; 3-Bromo-9-(4- ... Aolisenchem provides chemical intermediates 3-Bromo-9-(4-methylphenyl)carbazole CAS#731016-44-7, which can be used as ...
Benz[g]indolo[2,3-b]carbazole, 7,9-dihydro-7-phenyl. ... 3-BroMo-9-dibenzothiophen-4-yl-9H-carbazole. Model NO.:CAS: ...
q. Carbazoles. Any compound containing a carbazole ring system with a substituent on the nitrogen atom and bearing an ... 1. Where the linkage connecting the carbazole ring system to the substituent if its 1, 2, or 3 position is any of the following ... 2. Where the substituent at the 1, 2, or 3 position of the carbazole ring system, disregarding the linkage, is any of the ... further substitution on the carbazole ring system to any extent. This class includes, but is not limited to, the following: ...
Among these was an aminopropyl carbazole, designated P7C3, endow … ... Among these was an aminopropyl carbazole, designated P7C3, endowed with favorable pharmacological properties. In vivo studies ...
1H-Carbazole-3-carb. oxylic acid, 6-fluo. ro-2,3,4,9-tetrahyd. ro-, ethyl ester [ACD/Index Name] ... dro-1H-carbazole-3-carboxylate. *Molecular FormulaC15H16FNO2 ...
1,2,3,9-Tetrahydro-9-Methyl-4H-Carbazole-4-One CAS NO.:27387-31-1> ...
Catalytic asymmetric Nozaki-Hiyama reactions with a tridentate bis(oxazolinyl)carbazole ligand. Chemical Record. 2008;8(3):169- ... Catalytic asymmetric Nozaki-Hiyama reactions with a tridentate bis(oxazolinyl)carbazole ligand. In: Chemical Record. 2008 ; Vol ... In this review, we describe the development of a tridentate bis(oxazolinyl)carbazole ligand for the catalytic asymmetric Nozaki ... In this review, we describe the development of a tridentate bis(oxazolinyl)carbazole ligand for the catalytic asymmetric Nozaki ...
Previous : 9-(1,1-bipheny)-4-yl-3-(4-broMophenyl)carbazole CAS#1028648-25-0 Next : N-[1,1-Biphenyl]-4-yl-9,9-dimethyl-9H- ... 9-([1,1:3,1-terphenyl]-5-yl)-9H-carbazol-3-yl)boronic acid Inquiry * ...
9H-carbazol-9-yl)benzene supplier, 1,3-bis(9H-carbazol-9-yl)benzene distributor, CAS 550378-78-4 , 1,3-bis(9H-carbazol-9-yl) ... benzene manufacturer, 1,3-bis(9H-carbazol-9-yl)benzene wholesale ... 1,3-bis(9H-carbazol-9-yl)benzene. CAS Number: : 550378-78-4. ...
The 2,7- substituted carbazole derivatives present stronger carbazole-chalcogenophene conjugation than 3,6-substituted ... Electrochromic Properties of Novel Selenophene and Tellurophene Derivatives Based on Carbazole and Triphenylamine Core Pander, ... The 2,7- and 3,6-substituted carbazole and triphenylamine chalcogenophene (Se, Te) derivatives and their electrodeposited ... One 3,6-substituted carbazole derivative and triphenylamine derived polymers were found to have promising electrochromic ...
8-Tetramethyl-9H-carbazole,Cas No.:6558-85-6, MOQ 1 gram, Molecular Formula:C16H17N ,Molecular Weight:223.31,IUPAC Name :1,3,6, ... 1,3,6,8-Tetramethyl-9H-carbazole. 1,3,6,8-Tetramethyl-9H-carbazole - CAS 6558-85-6. 1,3,6,8-Tetramethyl-9H-carbazole (Cat.No: ...
In this present study, the flexible and extra precision docking simulation were performed on twenty new carbazole tethered ... Molecular docking studies of novel Carbazole tethered pyrrole derivatives as potent inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Molecular docking studies of novel Carbazole tethered pyrrole derivatives as potent inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...
Carbazoles / pharmacokinetics * Carbazoles / therapeutic use* * Carcinoma, Large Cell / drug therapy* * Carcinoma, Large Cell ...
Because ORR operations have generated a variety of radioactive and chemical wastes, the ORR was added to U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys (EPAs) National Priorities List (NPL) in 1989 (EPA 2002b). DOE is conducting cleanup activities at the ORR under a Federal Facility Agreement, which is an interagency agreement with EPA and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). This agreement allows for input from the public. These parties are working together to investigate and remediate hazardous waste from past and present activities at the site. DOE is integrating required measures from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) with response actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA).. Contaminants such as uranium and mercury are present in old waste sites, which occupy 5 to 10 percent of the ORR. The abundant rainfall (an annual average of 55 inches) and high water tables (for example, 0 to 20 feet below ground ...
Gold-Catalyzed Regiodivergent Synthesis of Carbazoles. October 16, 2023. Catalyst- and substrate-controlled transformation via ...
... acyl halides and anhydrides on carbazoles, (ii) acyl halides on potassium carbazole and (iii) acyl halides on carbazole mag- ... acyl halides and anhydrides on carbazoles, (ii) acyl halides onpotassium carbazole and (iii) acyl halides on carbazole mag- ... Neuroprotective efficacy of aminopropyl carbazoles in a ... · Neuroprotective efficacy of aminopropyl carbazoles in a mouse model ... tion of carbazoles. In addition to its natural occurrences in alkaloids isolated from plants, the carbazole framework has been ...
  • They are derivatives of carbazole and nitrogen analogues of polychlorinated dibenzofurans. (
  • The 2,7- and 3,6-substituted carbazole and triphenylamine chalcogenophene (Se, Te) derivatives and their electrodeposited polymers are investigated using electrochemical and UV-vis-NIR/ESR spectroelectrochemical methods. (
  • The 2,7- substituted carbazole derivatives present stronger carbazole-chalcogenophene conjugation than 3,6-substituted derivatives. (
  • 23 However, we have observed that the reaction of carbazole ( 1 ) with various car- boxylic acids ( 2 ) in the presence of TFAA and H 3 PO 4 a ff orded the corresponding N -acyl carbazoles ( 3 or A , path a) instead of C-acylated derivatives (path b, Scheme 1). (
  • Solvatochromic effect in absorption and emission spectraof star-shaped bipolar derivatives of 1,3,5-triazine and carbazole. (
  • One 3,6-substituted carbazole derivative and triphenylamine derived polymers were found to have promising electrochromic properties with black electrochromism. (
  • In this present study, the flexible and extra precision docking simulation were performed on twenty new carbazole tethered pyrrole derivative against InhA by using Glide v5.6. (
  • Our anticipation was further supported by an earlier report that the carbazole derivative B (Fig. 1) was found to be cytotoxic when tested against mouse mammary carcinoma FM3A cells. (
  • Polychlorinated carbazoles (PCCZ) are a group of chlorinated organic compounds. (
  • Novel host compounds consisting of carbazole and nitrile groups are disclosed. (
  • In addition to its natural occurrences in alkaloids isolated from plants, the carbazole framework has been found to be an integral part of many bioactive compounds and therefore (like indole) is considered as a privileged sca ff old in the area of new drug discovery. (
  • A series of three star-shaped compounds containing both donor (carbazole) and acceptor (2,4,6-triphenyl-1,3,5-triazine) moieties linked through various linking bridges was studied theoretically at the linear response TD-DFT level of theory to describe their absorption and fluorescence spectra. (
  • Carbazole and dibenz(a,h)anthracene were absent in all samples. (
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  • benzo[b]carbazol-11-one carrying additional cyano, 4-(morpholin-4-yl)piperidin-1-yl and ethyl substituents at positions 3, 8 and 9 respectively. (
  • Juliane Kirst: Synthesis of polyhalogenated carbazoles and total synthesis of amaryllidaceae alkaloids pratosine and hippadine. (
  • 1,3,6,8-Tetramethyl-9H-carbazole (Cat.No:L004887) is a significant compound in organic synthesis and materials science. (
  • Carbazoles are an important class of nitrogen-containing heterocycles with a planar tricyclic skeleton consisting of two benzene rings fused on both sides of the central pyrrole ring, with a large aromatic system and a central nitrogen atom, showing broad of electron delocalization. (
  • Medicinal chemistry also uses carbazole motifs in synthetic drugs to combat hypertension, heart disease, and hepatitis C virus replication. (
  • Our Pigment Violet consist of 4 types of products , one is Pigment Violet 3 and Pigment Violet 19, Pigment Violet 23 and Pigment Violet 27, Out of these 4 Pigment Violet products Pigment Violet 3 & Pigment Violet 27 are toners and Pigment Violet 23 is made from Carbazol, Our Pigment Violets are used in Ink industry, Paint industry and Plastic industry. (
  • In environmental samples, mixed halogenated carbazoles are also found. (
  • Carbazole structural motifs are widely found in, but not limited to, a large number of natural alkaloids of plant or bacterial origin. (
  • Structure-guided design for carbazole antagonists of Toll-like receptors 7 and 8 (TLR7/8) for the potential treatment of autoimmune disorders was reported by Bristol Myers Squibb Co. TLR activation can induce proinflammatory pathway activation, which has been identified in patients with lupus. (
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  • Mo, Lingyun: Thermodynamic Properties of Polychlorinated Carbazoles by Density Functional Theory. (
  • Among these was an aminopropyl carbazole, designated P7C3, endowed with favorable pharmacological properties. (
  • We anticipated that small molecules based on N -acyl carbazoles ( A , Fig. 1) might show anticancer properties. (
  • China 9-(2-naphthalenyl)-3,6-Dibromo-9H-carbazole CAS:1221237-83-7 manufacturer supplier producer and factory-NINGBO INNO PHARMCHEM CO.,LTD. (
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  • Compounds derived from carbazoles and phenyl benzidines have been used as organic dyes. (
  • Based on this, two carbazoles and two phenyl benzidines are feasible compounds with semiconductor capacity to be used in solar cells. (
  • For the isolation of murrayanine, the very first report of a naturally occurring carbazole alkaloid, see: Chakraborty et al. (
  • 13. 2,4-Dimethyl-6 H-pyrido[3,2-b]carbazole, an isomer of the antitumor alkaloid ellipticine via the Combes-Beyer reaction. (
  • We also developed a novel synthetic method for 7-hydroxy-substituted carbazole sulfonamides . (
  • Type: FTP fabrication and characterization of blue and white light emitting devices based on two fluorene-carbazole containing dendrimers and para-sexiphenyl (6P) oligomers. (
  • J. Guo, D. Chen, D. Potter, K. J. Rockne, N. C. Sturchio, J. P. Giesy, A. Li: Polyhalogenated Carbazoles in Sediments of Lake Michigan: A New Discovery. (
  • 1,3,6,8-tetrachloro-9H-carbazole was identified as the major chemical of this type in the sediments, and quantified at levels as high as 25 microgram/g at one site. (
  • Bis[di(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]carbazole-capped indacenodithiophenes (IDTs) have been constructed as hole transport materials (HTMs) for perovskite solar cells (PSCs). (
  • Two IDT-based HTMs, one with 3,6-bis[di(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]carbazole (YK1) and another with 2,7-bis[di(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]carbazole (YK2), show different performances in PSCs. (
  • Polychlorinated carbazoles (PCCZ) are a group of chlorinated organic compounds. (
  • Diverse synthetic routes for carbazoles. (
  • Genetic Toxicity Evaluation of Carbazole in Salmonella/E.coli Mutagenicity Test or Ames Test. (
  • With the knowledge of the thermal properties obtained experimentally through thermal analysis, it is possible to establish the structureenergy relationship of carbazoles and phenylamines, as well as the thermal stability. (
  • 1965). For the intriguing structural functions and promising biological activities exhibited by a lot of carbazole alkaloids, see: Chakraborty (1993). (
  • Please use the form above to make an enquiry about 9-(3-bromophenyl)-9H-carbazole,CAS 185112-61-2 remembering to include the information regarding purity and the quantity you require. (
  • An overview of Genetic Toxicology Bacterial Mutagenicity study conclusions related to Carbazole (86-74-8). (