Water Pollutants, Chemical
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Involvement of two plasmids in the degradation of carbaryl by Arthrobacter sp. strain RC100. (1/48)A bacterium capable of utilizing carbaryl (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate) as the sole carbon source was isolated from carbaryl-treated soil. This bacterium was characterized taxonomically as Arthrobacter and was designated strain RC100. RC100 hydrolyzes the N-methylcarbamate linkage to 1-naphthol, which was further metabolized via salicylate and gentisate. Strain RC100 harbored three plasmids (designated pRC1, pRC2, and pRC3). Mutants unable to degrade carbaryl arose at a high frequency after treating the culture with mitomycin C. All carbaryl-hydrolysis-deficient mutants (Cah-) lacked pRC1, and all 1-naphthol-utilization-deficient mutants (Nat-) lacked pRC2. The plasmid-free strain RC107 grew on gentisate as a carbon source. These two plasmids could be transferred to Cah- mutants or Nat- mutants by conjugation, resulting in the restoration of the Cah and Nah phenotypes. (+info)
Mitotic aberrations induced by carbaryl reflect tyrosine kinase inhibition with coincident up-regulation of serine/threonine protein phosphatase activity: implications for coordination of karyokinesis and cytokinesis. (2/48)The insecticide carbaryl and its metabolite 1-naphthol cause partial uncoupling of karyokinesis and cytokinesis in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts; karyokinesis is blocked in metaphase, the microtubules of the spindle depolymerize and the chromosomes and spindle remnants become displaced to the periphery of the cell. A high frequency of these disturbed cells elongate and a smaller fraction initiate a cleavage furrow. Here, we attempt to determine the potential targets for carbaryl and 1-naphthol in cytokinesis-specific signalling, led by the fact that the potential protein phosphatase inhibitor 1-naphthyl phosphate was previously identified in treated cells. We found that the typical cytological pattern induced by carbaryl and 1-naphthol could be obtained with tyrphostins, specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors, indicating that the carbaryl-induced effects could be due to tyrosine kinase inhibition. This was confirmed by tyrosine kinase assays showing that carbaryl, 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol were equally efficient at inhibiting tyrosine kinase activity as tyrphostin B44(-). As tyrosine kinases can act as regulatory factors in determining dephosphorylation rates, the activities of type-1 (PP1) and type-2A (PP2A) serine/threonine protein phosphatases were also determined. There was a clear up-regulation of the overall PP1/PP2A activities in cells treated with carbaryl, 1-naphthol or tyrphostin B44(-). This stimulation was shown to be indirect because these compounds had no effect on the activity of purified human PP1 in the test tube. 2-Naphthol, which has been found to be less efficient with regard to displacement of chromatin, did not cause up-regulation, but a significant decrease in PP1/PP2A activity. We suggest that a net decrease in tyrosine kinase activity in combination with a net increase in PP1/PP2A activity is a precondition for cell elongation and cytokinesis in mammalian cells and that the corresponding enzymes are targets in the network of activities serving to coordinate karyokinesis and cytokinesis. (+info)
Predator-induced stress makes the pesticide carbaryl more deadly to gray treefrog tadpoles (Hyla versicolor). (3/48)Global declines in amphibians likely have multiple causes, including widespread pesticide use. Our knowledge of pesticide effects on amphibians is largely limited to short-term (4-d) toxicity tests conducted under highly artificial conditions to determine lethal concentrations (LC50). We found that if we used slightly longer exposure times (10-16 d), low concentrations of the pesticide carbaryl (3-4% of LC50(4-d)) killed 10-60% of gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles. If predatory cues also were present, the pesticide became 2-4 times more lethal, killing 60-98% of tadpoles. Thus, under more realistic conditions of increased exposure times and predatory stress, current application rates for carbaryl can potentially devastate gray treefrog populations. Further, because predator-induced stress is ubiquitous in animals and carbaryl's mode of action is common to many pesticides, these negative impacts may be widespread in nature. (+info)
Dermal absorption and distribution of (14)C carbaryl in Wistar rats. (4/48)The level of (14)C carbaryl was determined in blood (leukocytes, erythrocytes, all blood cells, plasma) and organs (brain, heart, lungs, liver, spleen, skin at the site of exposure) of male Wistar rats after dermal administration. The application liquid was (14)C carbaryl solution in 96% ethyl alcohol. This preparation, possessing an activity of 670 kBq/ml, containing 1.67 mg of carbaryl, was applied to the skin of the tail according to Massmann's method in own modification. The amount of the preparation per 1 cm(2) of the tail skin was 0.19 mg of carbaryl (74.4 kBq). The tails of experimental rats were exposed to (14)C carbaryl by soaking for 4 h daily: once, twice or three times. Beta radiation from (14)C was measured in homogenized organs (brain, heart, lungs, liver, skin) and in blood by computer controlled Wallac scintillation counter Model 1409, using Multi Calc software. The dermal absorption of carbaryl at the site of exposure and in the surrounding area of about 2 cm was observed already during 4 hour exposure. Carbaryl reached plasma within 4 h of a single dermal exposure and penetrated into leukocytes, erythrocytes, heart, liver, lung, kidney and brain. The largest amount of (14)C carbaryl, about 2% of absorbed dose, was detected in liver (+info)
Histological and ultrastructural studies of rats exposed to carbaryl. (5/48)The aim of the study was to assess the general toxic effects of dermally applied carbaryl, based on histological and ultrastructural examinations of internal organs and to relate these effects to earlier own studies where 14C carbaryl was used for determining the pesticide penetration. The pesticide was applied in doses of 1/5 and 1/10 LD50, administered to the tail skin of male Wistar rats 4 hours daily, for 4 weeks except Saturdays and Sundays. After the experiment, the animals were anaesthetized and the following organs were taken for histological study: brain, lung, heart, liver, kidney, skin from the site of exposure and skin from a place at least 2 cm distant from the exposure site. Lung, liver, kidney, heart and skin were used for ultrastructural studies. Dermal application of carbaryl resulted only in slight histological changes in skin, liver, brain and lung. Even in brain and liver, where large amounts of 14C carbaryl, compared to other organs (lung, kidney, heart), where the intensity of histologic changes was earlier stated to below. Ultrastructural changes were observed in skin, liver, lung, heart and kidney. (+info)
Nucleotide sequence and genetic structure of a novel carbaryl hydrolase gene (cehA) from Rhizobium sp. strain AC100. (6/48)Rhizobium sp. strain AC100, which is capable of degrading carbaryl (1-naphthyl-N-methylcarbamate), was isolated from soil treated with carbaryl. This bacterium hydrolyzed carbaryl to 1-naphthol and methylamine. Carbaryl hydrolase from the strain was purified to homogeneity, and its N-terminal sequence, molecular mass (82 kDa), and enzymatic properties were determined. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed 1-naphthyl acetate and 4-nitrophenyl acetate indicating that the enzyme is an esterase. We then cloned the carbaryl hydrolase gene (cehA) from the plasmid DNA of the strain and determined the nucleotide sequence of the 10-kb region containing cehA. No homologous sequences were found by a database homology search using the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the cehA gene. Six open reading frames including the cehA gene were found in the 10-kb region, and sequencing analysis shows that the cehA gene is flanked by two copies of insertion sequence-like sequence, suggesting that it makes part of a composite transposon. (+info)
The use of the radioisotope method in studies of pesticide penetration into the eyeball. (7/48)The studies concerning the effects of pesticides on the human body focused mainly on their local action or chronic poisoning of the organism. In this study we examine the pesticide penetration into the eyeball resulting from direct contact with the eye. We used an isotope-labelled carbamate pesticide -- carbaryl. The determinations of the amount and concentration of this substance in the cornea, aqueous humour, vitreous humour and retina were performed using the method measuring beta radiation emitted by radioactive carbon. The results revealed measurable concentrations of labelled carbamate in the cornea and aqueous humour 10 and 30 min after application. The levels of this pesticide in the vitreous humour and retina were very low and difficult to analyse statistically. The described method appears to be useful in determining the range and rate of eye penetration by environmental toxins having direct contact with the eyeball. (+info)
Urinary levels of insecticide metabolites and DNA damage in human sperm. (8/48)BACKGROUND: Members of the general population are exposed to non-persistent insecticides at low levels. The present study explored whether environmental exposures to carbaryl and chlorpyrifos are associated with DNA damage in human sperm. METHODS: Subjects (n=260) were recruited through a Massachusetts infertility clinic. Individual exposures were measured as spot urinary metabolite concentrations of chlorpyrifos [3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPY)] and carbaryl [1-naphthol (1N)], adjusted using specific gravity. Sperm DNA integrity was assessed by neutral comet assay and reported as comet extent, percentage DNA in comet tail (Tail%) and tail distributed moment (TDM). RESULTS: A statistically significant increase in Tail% was found for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in both 1N [coefficient=4.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-6.3] and TCPY (2.8; 0.9-4.6), while a decrease in TDM was associated with IQR changes in 1N (-2.2; -4.9 to 0.5) and TCPY (-2.5; -4.7 to -0.2). A negative correlation between Tail% and TDM was present only when stratified by comet extent, suggesting that Tail% and TDM may measure different types of DNA damage within comet extent strata. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental exposure to carbaryl and chlorpyrifos may be associated with increased DNA damage in human sperm, as indicated by a change in comet assay parameters. (+info)
Naphthols are a class of organic compounds that contain a naphthalene ring with a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to it. They are commonly used in the medical field as dyes, stains, and disinfectants. Some naphthols are also used as pharmaceuticals, such as naphthol AS-D chloroacetate, which is used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant. Other naphthols, such as 2-naphthol, have been studied for their potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. However, some naphthols, such as 1-naphthol, are considered hazardous and can cause skin irritation, respiratory problems, and other health issues if they are inhaled or ingested.
Carbaryl is a chemical compound that is commonly used as an insecticide. It is a member of the carbamate class of insecticides and is effective against a wide range of pests, including ants, beetles, cockroaches, fleas, and ticks. In the medical field, carbaryl is not typically used as a treatment for humans. However, it has been used in some cases as a pesticide to control insect vectors of diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. Carbaryl is also used as a pesticide in agriculture to control pests that can damage crops. It is typically applied as a spray or dust and works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system in insects. This leads to overstimulation of the nervous system and ultimately death of the insect. It is important to note that carbaryl can be harmful to humans if ingested or inhaled in large quantities. It is also toxic to fish and other aquatic organisms, so care should be taken when using it near water sources.
Toxaphene is a synthetic organic chemical compound that was widely used as an insecticide and rodenticide in the past. It is a complex mixture of related compounds, including chlorinated camphene derivatives, and has been associated with a range of adverse health effects in humans and wildlife. In the medical field, exposure to toxaphene can lead to a variety of symptoms and health problems, including skin irritation, respiratory problems, liver and kidney damage, and neurological disorders. Long-term exposure to high levels of toxaphene has been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly liver cancer and lymphoma. Toxaphene was banned in many countries in the 1970s and 1980s due to its toxicity and persistence in the environment. However, it continues to be a concern in some areas where it was previously used, and efforts are ongoing to monitor and reduce its presence in the environment and human populations.
Propoxur is a synthetic organophosphate insecticide that was first developed in the 1950s. It is commonly used as a pesticide to control a wide range of pests, including cockroaches, ants, and fleas. In the medical field, propoxur is not typically used as a treatment for any medical condition. However, it has been used in some cases as an insecticide to control pests in hospitals and other healthcare facilities. Propoxur is a potent neurotoxin that works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the nervous system. This leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine, which can cause overstimulation of the nervous system and result in symptoms such as muscle twitching, tremors, and convulsions. In severe cases, exposure to propoxur can be fatal. Because of its toxicity, propoxur is considered a hazardous substance and is regulated by various government agencies. It is important to handle and use propoxur safely and according to the instructions provided by the manufacturer.
Dieldrin is a synthetic insecticide that was widely used in agriculture and public health programs until it was banned in many countries due to its toxicity and persistence in the environment. It is a member of the chlorinated hydrocarbon class of insecticides and is structurally similar to other chlorinated hydrocarbons such as DDT and chlordane. In the medical field, dieldrin is primarily associated with its toxic effects on humans and animals. Exposure to dieldrin can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, dizziness, headache, and skin irritation. Long-term exposure to high levels of dieldrin has been linked to more serious health effects, such as liver and kidney damage, reproductive problems, and cancer. Dieldrin is also a persistent organic pollutant, meaning that it does not break down easily in the environment and can accumulate in the food chain. This has led to concerns about its impact on wildlife and ecosystems, as well as on human health through exposure to contaminated food and water.
Potassium iodide (KI) is a medication that is used to protect the thyroid gland from the harmful effects of radioactive iodine. It is typically prescribed to people who live in areas where there is a risk of exposure to radioactive iodine, such as after a nuclear accident or in areas where the soil is contaminated with radioactive iodine. KI works by saturating the thyroid gland with non-radioactive iodine, which prevents it from absorbing radioactive iodine. This helps to protect the thyroid gland from damage and reduces the risk of thyroid cancer. KI is usually taken as a pill, and the dose and duration of treatment depend on the level of radiation exposure and the individual's age and health. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking KI to ensure that it is effective and safe.
Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate insecticide that is commonly used in agriculture to control pests on crops. It is also used in some household and industrial products to kill insects and other pests. In the medical field, chlorpyrifos is not typically used as a treatment for any medical condition. However, exposure to chlorpyrifos can have harmful effects on human health, particularly on the nervous system. Long-term or repeated exposure to chlorpyrifos has been linked to a range of health problems, including developmental delays, learning difficulties, and neurobehavioral disorders. In some cases, exposure to chlorpyrifos can be fatal. It is important to use chlorpyrifos and other pesticides safely and according to the instructions provided by the manufacturer to minimize the risk of exposure.
Naphthalenes are a group of organic compounds that are composed of two benzene rings fused together. They are commonly used as insecticides and moth repellents, and have also been used in the past as a treatment for certain medical conditions such as respiratory infections and skin infections. However, the use of naphthalenes as a medical treatment is now generally discouraged due to their potential toxicity and the availability of safer alternatives. In the medical field, naphthalenes are primarily used as a research tool to study the effects of benzene ring compounds on various biological processes.
Biodegradation, Environmental in the medical field refers to the process by which microorganisms break down and consume organic matter in the environment. This process is important in the management of medical waste, as it helps to reduce the amount of waste that is sent to landfills and reduces the risk of environmental contamination. Biodegradation can occur naturally, through the action of microorganisms in the environment, or it can be accelerated through the use of biodegradable materials or biodegradation agents. In the medical field, biodegradation is often used to dispose of medical waste, such as bandages, gauze, and other materials that are contaminated with bodily fluids or other potentially infectious materials.
In the medical field, "Administration, Cutaneous" refers to the delivery of medication or other substances through the skin. This method of administration is also known as transdermal administration or topical administration. Cutaneous administration can be achieved through various routes, including patches, gels, creams, sprays, and ointments. The skin acts as a barrier, and the rate of absorption of the substance depends on factors such as the thickness of the skin, the size and shape of the area being treated, and the properties of the substance being administered. Cutaneous administration can be used to treat a variety of conditions, including pain, inflammation, skin disorders, and certain types of cancer. It can also be used to deliver drugs that are not well absorbed orally or that have side effects when taken orally. However, cutaneous administration may not be suitable for all types of medications or conditions, and it is important to follow the instructions provided by a healthcare professional when using this method of administration.
In the medical field, "soil" typically refers to the microorganisms and other biological material that can be found in soil. These microorganisms can include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, and can be present in various forms, such as in soil particles or as free-living organisms. Soil can also refer to the physical and chemical properties of the soil, such as its texture, pH, nutrient content, and water-holding capacity. These properties can affect the growth and health of plants, and can also impact the spread of soil-borne diseases and infections. In some cases, soil can also be used as a medium for growing plants in a controlled environment, such as in a greenhouse or laboratory setting. In these cases, the soil may be specially formulated to provide the necessary nutrients and conditions for optimal plant growth.
179. Carbaryl (AGP:1970/M/12/1)
What is Carbaryl?
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- There are many pesticides that contain carbaryl, with over 150 different registered products containing carbaryl and it is the third most used insecticide in the US. (chromatographytoday.com)
- Carbaryl is a carbamate insecticide with a broad spectrum of uses in agricultural, commercial and household settings. (nih.gov)
- The insecticide and nematocide carbaryl triggered most of the allergic skin reactions (5 cases) and was followed by the fungicide benomyl (4 cases) and the nematocide ethoprophos (3 cases). (medscape.com)
- Spray the bark of the trunk, branches over 4 inches in diameter and foliage with a cyfluthrin, permethrin, bifenthrin or carbaryl insecticide. (bloodraynebetrayal.com)
- The present study explored the association of urinary concentrations of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPY), a metabolite of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-methyl, and 1-naphthol (1N), a metabolite of carbaryl and naphthalene, with serum reproductive hormone levels in adult men. (cdc.gov)
- Carbaryl ( 1-naphthyl methylcarbamate ) is a pesticide that is commonly used to control aphids, ticks, fleas and other pests. (chromatographytoday.com)
- We examined occupational carbaryl use and risk of all cancers in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective study of a cohort of pesticide applicators in North Carolina and Iowa. (nih.gov)
- Since the 1960s, the spraying of the pesticide carbaryl to control populations of burrowing shrimp in Washington's Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor has killed millions of fish and crab, including endangered Chinook salmon. (hawaiireporter.com)
- A recent paper in Pharmacognosy Magazine - Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry method development for the determination of carbaryl residue in honey - reports on a new chromatography method developed to analyse carbaryl residues in honey. (chromatographytoday.com)
- The team behind the paper referenced above were interested to develop and optimize a method for the determination of carbaryl in honey. (chromatographytoday.com)
- In March 2020, EPA released the draft Biological Evaluation (BE) assessing risks to listed species from labeled uses of carbaryl. (epa.gov)
- Carbaryl was not associated with cancer risk overall. (nih.gov)
- They tested two different extraction methods - solid phase extraction and QuChERS - and found no differences between them, so both are suitable for the analysis of carbaryl in honey. (chromatographytoday.com)
- 15. Genotoxic effects on spermatozoa of carbaryl-exposed workers. (nih.gov)
- An overview of Genetic Toxicology In Vivo Alkaline Comet Assay Rats study conclusions related to Carbaryl (63-25-2). (nih.gov)