A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.
Beta-lactam antibiotics that differ from PENICILLINS in having the thiazolidine sulfur atom replaced by carbon, the sulfur then becoming the first atom in the side chain. They are unstable chemically, but have a very broad antibacterial spectrum. Thienamycin and its more stable derivatives are proposed for use in combinations with enzyme inhibitors.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACINETOBACTER.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
A renal dehydropeptidase-I and leukotriene D4 dipeptidase inhibitor. Since the antibiotic, IMIPENEM, is hydrolyzed by dehydropeptidase-I, which resides in the brush border of the renal tubule, cilastatin is administered with imipenem to increase its effectiveness. The drug also inhibits the metabolism of leukotriene D4 to leukotriene E4.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
EXOPEPTIDASES that specifically act on dipeptides. EC 3.4.13.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in water, sewage, soil, meat, hospital environments, and on the skin and in the intestinal tract of man and animals as a commensal.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
An autosomal inherited disorder due to defective reabsorption of GLUCOSE by the PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES. The urinary loss of glucose can reach beyond 50 g/day. It is attributed to the mutations in the SODIUM-GLUCOSE TRANSPORTER 2 encoded by the SLC5A2 gene.
Clavulanic acid and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with other beta-lactam antibiotics it prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.
A building block of penicillin, devoid of significant antibacterial activity. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SERRATIA.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from CEPHALORIDINE and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.
Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
A species of gram-negative bacteria causing URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS and SEPTICEMIA.
Formularies concerned with pharmaceuticals prescribed in hospitals.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that may be pathogenic for frogs, fish, and mammals, including man. In humans, cellulitis and diarrhea can result from infection with this organism.
Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.
DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, water, food, and clinical specimens. It is a prominent opportunistic pathogen for hospitalized patients.
Cyclic polypeptide antibiotic from Bacillus colistinus. It is composed of Polymyxins E1 and E2 (or Colistins A, B, and C) which act as detergents on cell membranes. Colistin is less toxic than Polymyxin B, but otherwise similar; the methanesulfonate is used orally.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
Gram-negative bacteria occurring in the lower intestinal tracts of man and other animals. It is the most common species of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human soft tissue infections.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum, AMPICILLIN derived ureidopenicillin antibiotic proposed for PSEUDOMONAS infections. It is also used in combination with other antibiotics.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BACTEROIDES.
Monocyclic, bacterially produced or semisynthetic beta-lactam antibiotics. They lack the double ring construction of the traditional beta-lactam antibiotics and can be easily synthesized.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.
A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms arrange singly, in pairs, or short chains. This genus is commonly found in the intestinal tract and is an opportunistic pathogen that can give rise to bacteremia, pneumonia, urinary tract and several other types of human infection.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in humans and other animals including MAMMALS; BIRDS; REPTILES; and AMPHIBIANS. It has also been isolated from SOIL and WATER as well as from clinical specimens such as URINE; THROAT; SPUTUM; BLOOD; and wound swabs as an opportunistic pathogen.
Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.
Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.
Gram-negative, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature. Both motile and non-motile strains exist. The species is closely related to KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE and is frequently associated with nosocomial infections
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.
The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.
'Anaerobic Bacteria' are types of bacteria that do not require oxygen for growth and can often cause diseases in humans, including dental caries, gas gangrene, and tetanus, among others.
A beta-lactamase inhibitor with very weak antibacterial action. The compound prevents antibiotic destruction of beta-lactam antibiotics by inhibiting beta-lactamases, thus extending their spectrum activity. Combinations of sulbactam with beta-lactam antibiotics have been used successfully for the therapy of infections caused by organisms resistant to the antibiotic alone.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
A species of STENOTROPHOMONAS, formerly called Xanthomonas maltophilia, which reduces nitrate. It is a cause of hospital-acquired ocular and lung infections, especially in those patients with cystic fibrosis and those who are immunosuppressed.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Greece" is a country in southeastern Europe and not a medical term or condition. If you have any medical questions or need a definition related to medicine, I would be happy to help.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Aerobic bacteria are types of microbes that require oxygen to grow and reproduce, and use it in the process of respiration to break down organic matter and produce energy, often found in environments where oxygen is readily available such as the human body's skin, mouth, and intestines.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
Serious INFLAMMATION of the LUNG in patients who required the use of PULMONARY VENTILATOR. It is usually caused by cross bacterial infections in hospitals (NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.

In vitro activities of aminomethyl-substituted analogs of novel tetrahydrofuranyl carbapenems. (1/947)

CL 188,624, CL 190,294, and CL 191,121 are novel aminomethyl tetrahydrofuranyl (THF)-1 beta-methylcarbapenems. The in vitro antibacterial activities of these THF carbapenems were evaluated and compared with those of biapenem, imipenem, and meropenem against 554 recent clinical isolates obtained from geographically distinct medical centers across North America. The antibacterial activities of the THF carbapenems were equivalent to that of biapenem, and the THF carbapenems were slightly more active than imipenem and less active than meropenem against most of the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae but lacked significant activity against Pseudomonas isolates. In general, CL 191,121 was two- to fourfold more active than CL 188,624 and CL 190,294 against the staphylococcal and enterococcal isolates tested. CL 191,121 was twofold less active than imipenem against methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and was as activity as imipenem against Enterococcus faecalis isolates. Biapenem and meropenem were two- and fourfold less active than CL 191,121, respectively, against the methicillin-susceptible staphylococci and E. faecalis. All the carbapenems displayed equivalent good activities against the streptococci. Biapenem was slightly more active than the other carbapenems against Bacteroides fragilis isolates. Time-kill curve studies demonstrated that the THF carbapenems were bactericidal in 6 h against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The postantibiotic effect exerted by CL 191,121 was comparable to or slightly longer than that of imipenem against isolates of S. aureus, E. coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.  (+info)

In vivo activities of peptidic prodrugs of novel aminomethyl tetrahydrofuranyl-1 beta-methylcarbapenems. (2/947)

A series of novel aminomethyl tetrahydrofuranyl (THF)-1 beta-methylcarbapenems which have excellent broad-spectrum antibacterial activities exhibit modest efficacies against acute lethal infections (3.8 mg/kg of body weight against Escherichia coli and 0.9 mg/kg against Staphylococcus aureus) in mice when they are administered orally. In an effort to improve the efficacies of orally administered drugs through enhanced absorption by making use of a peptide-mediated transport system, several different amino acids were added at the aminomethyl THF side chains of the carbapenem molecules. The resulting peptidic prodrugs with L-amino acids demonstrated improved efficacy after oral administration, while the D forms were less active than the parent molecules. After oral administration increased (3 to 10 times) efficacy was exhibited with the alanine-, valine-, isoleucine-, and phenylalanine-substituted prodrugs against acute lethal infections in mice. Median effective doses (ED50s) of < 1 mg/kg against infections caused by S. aureus, E. coli, Enterobacter cloacae, or penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae were obtained after the administration of single oral doses. Several of the peptidic prodrugs were efficacious against Morganella morganii, Serratia marcescens, penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, and E. coli infections, with ED50s of 1 to 14 mg/kg by oral administration compared with ED50s of 14 to > 32 mg/kg for the parent molecules. In general, the parent molecules demonstrated greater efficacy than the prodrugs against these same infections when the drugs were administered by the subcutaneous route. The parent molecule was detectable in the sera of mice after oral administration of the peptidic prodrugs.  (+info)

In vitro activities of the potent, broad-spectrum carbapenem MK-0826 (L-749,345) against broad-spectrum beta-lactamase-and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli clinical isolates. (3/947)

An important mechanism of bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is inactivation by beta-lactam-hydrolyzing enzymes (beta-lactamases). The evolution of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) is associated with extensive use of beta-lactam antibiotics, particularly cephalosporins, and is a serious threat to therapeutic efficacy. ESBLs and broad-spectrum beta-lactamases (BDSBLs) are plasmid-mediated class A enzymes produced by gram-negative pathogens, principally Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. MK-0826 was highly potent against all ESBL- and BDSBL-producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli clinical isolates tested (MIC range, 0.008 to 0.12 microgram/ml). In E. coli, this activity was associated with high-affinity binding to penicillin-binding proteins 2 and 3. When the inoculum level was increased 10-fold, increasing the amount of beta-lactamase present, the MK-0826 MIC range increased to 0.008 to 1 microgram/ml. By comparison, similar observations were made with meropenem while imipenem MICs were usually less affected. Not surprisingly, MIC increases with noncarbapenem beta-lactams were generally substantially greater, resulting in resistance in many cases. E. coli strains that produce chromosomal (Bush group 1) beta-lactamase served as controls. All three carbapenems were subject to an inoculum effect with the majority of the BDSBL- and ESBL-producers but not the Bush group 1 strains, implying some effect of the plasmid-borne enzymes on potency. Importantly, MK-0826 MICs remained at or below 1 microgram/ml under all test conditions.  (+info)

Carbapenem resistance in Escherichia coli associated with plasmid-determined CMY-4 beta-lactamase production and loss of an outer membrane protein. (4/947)

Three cefoxitin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from stool specimens of a patient with leukemia were either resistant, intermediate, or sensitive to imipenem. Conjugation experiments showed that cefoxitin resistance, but not imipenem resistance, was transferable. All isolates were shown by isoelectric focusing to produce two beta-lactamases with isoelectric points of 5.4 (TEM-1, confirmed by sequencing of a PCR product) and >8.5 (consistent with a class C beta-lactamase). The gene coding for the unknown beta-lactamase was cloned and sequenced and revealed an enzyme which had 99.9% sequence identity with the plasmid-determined class C beta-lactamase CMY-2. The cloned beta-lactamase gene differed from blaCMY-2 at one nucleotide position that resulted in an amino acid change, tryptophan to arginine at position 221. We propose that this enzyme be designated CMY-4. Both the imipenem-resistant and -intermediate isolates lacked a 38-kDa outer membrane protein (OMP) that was present in the imipenem-sensitive isolate. The lack of an OMP alone did not explain the difference in carbapenem susceptibilities observed. However, measurement of beta-lactamase activities (including measurements under conditions where TEM-1 beta-lactamase was inhibited) indicated that the imipenem-intermediate isolate expressed six- to eightfold less beta-lactamase than did the other isolates. This study illustrates that carbapenem resistance in E. coli can arise from high-level expression of plasmid-mediated class C beta-lactamase combined with an OMP deficiency. Furthermore, in the presence of an OMP deficiency, the level of expression of a plasmid-mediated class C beta-lactamase is an important factor in determining whether E. coli isolates are fully resistant to carbapenems.  (+info)

Relationship between morphological changes and endotoxin release induced by carbapenems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (5/947)

The relationship between morphological changes and endotoxin release induced in vitro by carbapenems in a clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was examined. The time-course and magnitude of endotoxin release induced varied among imipenem, panipenem, meropenem and biapenem and related to the morphological changes caused by these agents which variously affected cell shape, cell-wall disintegration and cell lysis. The amount of endotoxin released by carbapenem-treated cells correlated with both the cell-wall morphology and bacterial shape immediately before lysis. Meropenem and biapenem caused markedly increased endotoxin release during cell lysis and cell-wall disintegration, whereas imipenem and panipenem caused much less release of endotoxin.  (+info)

Structure-activity relationships of carbapenems to the antagonism of the antipseudomonal activity of other beta-lactam agents and to the beta-lactamase inducibility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: effects of 1beta-methyl group and C-2 side chain. (6/947)

The antagonism of the antipseudomonal activity of ceftazidime by meropenem (1a) was much less than those by imipenem (2a) and panipenem (2b). To reveal the major structural features of carbapenem compounds responsible for the antagonism, we investigated the structure-activity relationships of carbapenems to their antagonism of the antipseudomonal activity of ceftazidime and to their beta-lactamase-inducibility in P. aeruginosa. The antagonistic effect of 1a was less than that of desmethyl-meropenem (1b). Two other meropenem-analogues (3, 4), with the highly basic C-2 side chain, showed greater antagonistic effects than that of 1a, which has a weakly basic C-2 side chain. The beta-lactamase-inducibility of 1a in P. aeruginosa was lower than those of 2a, 1b and 4. These results indicated that the antagonism of the antipseudomonal activity of ceftazidime by carbapenems was due to the induction of beta-lactamase in P. aeruginosa. As a result of the study on the structure-activity relationships, we clarified that the introduction of a 1beta-methyl group and/or the reduction of the basicity (cationic character) of the C-2 side chain in carbapenem skeleton decreased the antagonistic effect of carbapenems on the antipseudomonal activity of ceftazidime resulted mainly from the decreasing the beta-lactamase inducibility.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetic changes of a new carbapenem, DA-1131, after intravenous administration to spontaneously hypertensive rats and deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertensive rats. (7/947)

The pharmacokinetics of a new carbapenem, DA-1131, were compared after i.v. administration of the drug, 50 mg/kg, to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) at 16 weeks of age (an animal model for human primary hypertension) and at 6 weeks of age (corresponding to the early phase of the development of hypertension, at which time blood pressure remains within the normotensive range) and their respective age-matched control normotensive Kyoto-Wistar rats (KW rats), and deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertensive rats at 16 weeks of age (an animal model for human secondary hypertension) and their age-matched control Sprague-Dawley rats. The total area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to time infinity (AUC) (4720 versus 7070 microg x min/ml) was significantly smaller, and the nonrenal clearance (CLNR) (5.37 versus 3.57 ml/min/kg) was significantly faster in 16-week-old SHRs than those in their control KW rats. Similar results were also obtained from 6-week-old SHRs in AUC (3800 versus 4680 microg x min/ml) and CLNR (7.73 versus 3.31 ml/min/kg). However, the values were reversed in 16-week-old deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt rats in AUC (5310 versus 3870 microg.min/ml) and CLNR (2.57 versus 4.90 ml/min/kg). The significantly faster CLNR of DA-1131 in both 6- and 16-week-old SHRs could be supported at least partly by the results of the in vitro metabolism with kidney homogenate and considerably greater total renal dehydropeptidase-I activity. The data above indicated that the significantly faster CLNR of DA-1131 in 16-week-old SHRs than that in their age-matched control KW rats was due to any hereditary characteristics of SHRs and was not due to the hypertensive state itself.  (+info)

In-vitro activity of 29 antimicrobial agents against penicillin-resistant and -intermediate isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. (8/947)

Antibiotic resistance among isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae is increasing worldwide. Optimal therapy, though unknown, should be guided by in-vitro susceptibility testing. Currently, vancomycin is the only approved antibiotic that is universally active against multiresistant S. pneumoniae. In-vitro activities were determined for 29 antimicrobial agents against 22 penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (PISP) and 16 penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP) isolates. MICs were determined in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth with 3% lysed horse blood in microtitre trays. Antimicrobial classes tested included cephalosporins, penicillin, aminopenicillins, macrolides, quinolones, carbapenems and other antimicrobial agents. Among the classes of antimicrobial agents tested, wide differences in susceptibility were demonstrated for both PISP and PRSP. Of the cephalosporins, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime demonstrated the best in-vitro activity for both PISP and PRSP. Of the quinolones, clinafloxacin and trovafloxacin showed the greatest in-vitro activity. Rifampicin and teicoplanin demonstrated excellent in-vitro activity. Promising in-vitro results of newer agents, such as quinupristin/dalfopristin, ramoplanin, teicoplanin and linezolid may justify further evaluation of these agents in clinical trials.  (+info)

Carbapenems are a class of broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics, which are used to treat severe infections caused by bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics. They have a similar chemical structure to penicillins and cephalosporins but are more resistant to the enzymes produced by bacteria that can inactivate these other antibiotics. Carbapenems are often reserved for use in serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms, and they are typically given intravenously in a hospital setting. Examples of carbapenems include imipenem, meropenem, doripenem, and ertapenem.

Thienamycins are a group of antibiotics that are characterized by their beta-lactam structure. They belong to the class of carbapenems and are known for their broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including many that are resistant to other antibiotics. Thienamycins inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which leads to bacterial cell death.

Thienamycin itself is not used clinically due to its instability, but several semi-synthetic derivatives of thienamycin have been developed and are used in the treatment of serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Examples of thienamycin derivatives include imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem. These antibiotics are often reserved for the treatment of severe infections that are unresponsive to other antibiotics due to their potential to select for resistant bacteria and their high cost.

Beta-lactamases are enzymes produced by certain bacteria that can break down and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. This enzymatic activity makes the bacteria resistant to these antibiotics, limiting their effectiveness in treating infections caused by these organisms.

Beta-lactamases work by hydrolyzing the beta-lactam ring, a structural component of these antibiotics that is essential for their antimicrobial activity. By breaking down this ring, the enzyme renders the antibiotic ineffective against the bacterium, allowing it to continue growing and potentially causing harm.

There are different classes of beta-lactamases (e.g., Ambler Class A, B, C, and D), each with distinct characteristics and mechanisms for breaking down various beta-lactam antibiotics. The emergence and spread of bacteria producing these enzymes have contributed to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance, making it increasingly challenging to treat infections caused by these organisms.

To overcome this issue, researchers have developed beta-lactamase inhibitors, which are drugs that can bind to and inhibit the activity of these enzymes, thus restoring the effectiveness of certain beta-lactam antibiotics. Examples of such combinations include amoxicillin/clavulanate (Augmentin) and piperacillin/tazobactam (Zosyn).

Imipenem is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the class of carbapenems. It is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including pneumonia, sepsis, and skin infections. Imipenem works by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, leading to bacterial death.

Imipenem is often combined with another medication called cilastatin, which helps to prevent the breakdown of imipenem in the body and increase its effectiveness. The combination of imipenem and cilastatin is available under the brand name Primaxin.

Like other antibiotics, imipenem should be used with caution and only when necessary, as overuse can lead to antibiotic resistance. It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully and complete the full course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished.

Beta-lactam resistance is a type of antibiotic resistance in which bacteria have developed the ability to inactivate or circumvent the action of beta-lactam antibiotics. Beta-lactams are a class of antibiotics that include penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams. They work by binding to and inhibiting the activity of enzymes called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), which are essential for bacterial cell wall synthesis.

Bacteria can develop beta-lactam resistance through several mechanisms:

1. Production of beta-lactamases: These are enzymes that bacteria produce to break down and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics. Some bacteria have acquired genes that encode for beta-lactamases that can hydrolyze and destroy the beta-lactam ring, rendering the antibiotic ineffective.
2. Alteration of PBPs: Bacteria can also develop mutations in their PBPs that make them less susceptible to beta-lactams. These alterations can reduce the affinity of PBPs for beta-lactams or change their conformation, preventing the antibiotic from binding effectively.
3. Efflux pumps: Bacteria can also develop efflux pumps that actively pump beta-lactam antibiotics out of the cell, reducing their intracellular concentration and limiting their effectiveness.
4. Biofilm formation: Some bacteria can form biofilms, which are communities of microorganisms that adhere to surfaces and are encased in a protective matrix. Biofilms can make bacteria more resistant to beta-lactams by preventing the antibiotics from reaching their targets.

Beta-lactam resistance is a significant public health concern because it limits the effectiveness of these important antibiotics. The overuse and misuse of beta-lactams have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistant bacteria, making it essential to use these antibiotics judiciously and develop new strategies to combat bacterial resistance.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Beta-lactams are a class of antibiotics that include penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams. They contain a beta-lactam ring in their chemical structure, which is responsible for their antibacterial activity. The beta-lactam ring inhibits the bacterial enzymes necessary for cell wall synthesis, leading to bacterial death. Beta-lactams are commonly used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infections, and bone and joint infections. However, some bacteria have developed resistance to beta-lactams through the production of beta-lactamases, enzymes that can break down the beta-lactam ring and render the antibiotic ineffective. To overcome this resistance, beta-lactam antibiotics are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors, which protect the beta-lactam ring from degradation.

'Acinetobacter baumannii' is a gram-negative, aerobic, coccobacillus-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the environment, including water, soil, and healthcare settings. It is known to cause various types of infections in humans, particularly in hospitalized patients or those with weakened immune systems.

This bacterium can cause a range of infections, such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and wound infections. 'Acinetobacter baumannii' is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, making it difficult to treat the resulting infections. This has led to its classification as a "superbug" or a multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO).

The medical community continues to research and develop new strategies to prevent and treat infections caused by 'Acinetobacter baumannii' and other antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of gram-negative bacteria that are commonly found in the human gut and surrounding environment. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can occur when these bacteria enter parts of the body where they are not normally present, such as the bloodstream, urinary tract, or abdominal cavity.

Enterobacteriaceae infections can cause a range of symptoms depending on the site of infection. For example:

* Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Enterobacteriaceae may cause symptoms such as frequent urination, pain or burning during urination, and lower abdominal pain.
* Bloodstream infections (bacteremia) caused by Enterobacteriaceae can cause fever, chills, and sepsis, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a whole-body inflammatory response to infection.
* Pneumonia caused by Enterobacteriaceae may cause cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Intra-abdominal infections (such as appendicitis or diverticulitis) caused by Enterobacteriaceae can cause abdominal pain, fever, and changes in bowel habits.

Enterobacteriaceae infections are typically treated with antibiotics, but the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains of these bacteria has made treatment more challenging in recent years. Preventing the spread of Enterobacteriaceae in healthcare settings and promoting good hygiene practices can help reduce the risk of infection.

"Klebsiella pneumoniae" is a medical term that refers to a type of bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It's a gram-negative, encapsulated, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals.

"Klebsiella pneumoniae" is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause a range of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. It's a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and wound infections.

The bacterium is known for its ability to produce a polysaccharide capsule that makes it resistant to phagocytosis by white blood cells, allowing it to evade the host's immune system. Additionally, "Klebsiella pneumoniae" has developed resistance to many antibiotics, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat and a growing public health concern.

Acinetobacter infections are caused by bacteria that can be found in various environments, such as soil, water, and healthcare facilities. These bacteria can cause a range of illnesses, from mild skin infections to serious respiratory and bloodstream infections. They are often resistant to multiple antibiotics, making them difficult to treat.

Acinetobacter baumannii is the species most commonly associated with human infection. It is known for its ability to survive on dry surfaces for extended periods of time, which can contribute to its spread in healthcare settings. Infections caused by Acinetobacter are a particular concern in critically ill patients, such as those in intensive care units, and in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Symptoms of an Acinetobacter infection depend on the site of infection but may include fever, cough, shortness of breath, wound drainage, or skin redness or swelling. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics that are still effective against the bacteria, which can be determined through laboratory testing. In some cases, infection control measures, such as contact precautions and environmental cleaning, may also be necessary to prevent the spread of Acinetobacter in healthcare settings.

Multiple bacterial drug resistance (MDR) is a medical term that refers to the resistance of multiple strains of bacteria to several antibiotics or antimicrobial agents. This means that these bacteria have developed mechanisms that enable them to survive and multiply despite being exposed to drugs that were previously effective in treating infections caused by them.

MDR is a significant public health concern because it limits the treatment options available for bacterial infections, making them more difficult and expensive to treat. In some cases, MDR bacteria may cause severe or life-threatening infections that are resistant to all available antibiotics, leaving doctors with few or no effective therapeutic options.

MDR can arise due to various mechanisms, including the production of enzymes that inactivate antibiotics, changes in bacterial cell membrane permeability that prevent antibiotics from entering the bacteria, and the development of efflux pumps that expel antibiotics out of the bacteria. The misuse or overuse of antibiotics is a significant contributor to the emergence and spread of MDR bacteria.

Preventing and controlling the spread of MDR bacteria requires a multifaceted approach, including the judicious use of antibiotics, infection control measures, surveillance, and research into new antimicrobial agents.

"Pseudomonas aeruginosa" is a medically important, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely found in the environment, such as in soil, water, and on plants. It's an opportunistic pathogen, meaning it usually doesn't cause infection in healthy individuals but can cause severe and sometimes life-threatening infections in people with weakened immune systems, burns, or chronic lung diseases like cystic fibrosis.

P. aeruginosa is known for its remarkable ability to resist many antibiotics and disinfectants due to its intrinsic resistance mechanisms and the acquisition of additional resistance determinants. It can cause various types of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, dermatitis, and severe bloodstream infections known as sepsis.

The bacterium produces a variety of virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxins, proteases, and pigments like pyocyanin and pyoverdine, which aid in iron acquisition and help the organism evade host immune responses. Effective infection control measures, appropriate use of antibiotics, and close monitoring of high-risk patients are crucial for managing P. aeruginosa infections.

Gram-negative bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method, a standard technique used in microbiology to classify and identify different types of bacteria based on their structural differences. This method was developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884.

The primary characteristic distinguishing Gram-negative bacteria from Gram-positive bacteria is the composition and structure of their cell walls:

1. Cell wall: Gram-negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer, making it more susceptible to damage and less rigid compared to Gram-positive bacteria.
2. Outer membrane: They possess an additional outer membrane that contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are endotoxins that can trigger strong immune responses in humans and animals. The outer membrane also contains proteins, known as porins, which form channels for the passage of molecules into and out of the cell.
3. Periplasm: Between the inner and outer membranes lies a compartment called the periplasm, where various enzymes and other molecules are located.

Some examples of Gram-negative bacteria include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Neisseria meningitidis. These bacteria are often associated with various infections, such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Due to their complex cell wall structure, Gram-negative bacteria can be more resistant to certain antibiotics, making them a significant concern in healthcare settings.

Enterobacteriaceae is a family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals. Many species within this family are capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. Some common examples of Enterobacteriaceae include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella enterica.

These bacteria are typically characterized by their ability to ferment various sugars and produce acid and gas as byproducts. They can also be distinguished by their biochemical reactions, such as their ability to produce certain enzymes or resist specific antibiotics. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can range from mild to severe, depending on the species involved and the overall health of the infected individual.

Some infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and foodborne illnesses. Proper hygiene, such as handwashing and safe food handling practices, can help prevent the spread of these bacteria and reduce the risk of infection.

Gram-negative bacterial infections refer to illnesses or diseases caused by Gram-negative bacteria, which are a group of bacteria that do not retain crystal violet dye during the Gram staining procedure used in microbiology. This characteristic is due to the structure of their cell walls, which contain a thin layer of peptidoglycan and an outer membrane composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proteins, and phospholipids.

The LPS component of the outer membrane is responsible for the endotoxic properties of Gram-negative bacteria, which can lead to severe inflammatory responses in the host. Common Gram-negative bacterial pathogens include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Proteus mirabilis, among others.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can cause a wide range of clinical syndromes, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, meningitis, and soft tissue infections. The severity of these infections can vary from mild to life-threatening, depending on the patient's immune status, the site of infection, and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

Effective antibiotic therapy is crucial for treating Gram-negative bacterial infections, but the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern. Therefore, accurate diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial stewardship are essential to ensure optimal patient outcomes and prevent further spread of resistance.

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

Klebsiella infections are caused by bacteria called Klebsiella spp., with the most common species being Klebsiella pneumoniae. These gram-negative, encapsulated bacilli are normal inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract and upper respiratory tract but can cause various types of infections when they spread to other body sites.

Commonly, Klebsiella infections include:

1. Pneumonia: This is a lung infection that can lead to symptoms like cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, and fever. It often affects people with weakened immune systems, chronic lung diseases, or those who are hospitalized.

2. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): Klebsiella can cause UTIs, particularly in individuals with compromised urinary tracts, such as catheterized patients or those with structural abnormalities. Symptoms may include pain, burning during urination, frequent urges to urinate, and lower abdominal or back pain.

3. Bloodstream infections (bacteremia/septicemia): When Klebsiella enters the bloodstream, it can cause bacteremia or septicemia, which can lead to sepsis, a life-threatening condition characterized by an overwhelming immune response to infection. Symptoms may include fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and rapid breathing.

4. Wound infections: Klebsiella can infect wounds, particularly in patients with open surgical wounds or traumatic injuries. Infected wounds may display redness, swelling, pain, pus discharge, and warmth.

5. Soft tissue infections: These include infections of the skin and underlying soft tissues, such as cellulitis and abscesses. Symptoms can range from localized redness, swelling, and pain to systemic symptoms like fever and malaise.

Klebsiella infections are increasingly becoming difficult to treat due to their resistance to multiple antibiotics, including carbapenems, which has led to the term "carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae" (CRE) or "carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae" (CRKP). These infections often require the use of last-resort antibiotics like colistin and tigecycline. Infection prevention measures, such as contact precautions, hand hygiene, and environmental cleaning, are crucial to controlling the spread of Klebsiella in healthcare settings.

Cilastatin is a medication that is primarily used as a stabilizer and renal protective agent for the antibiotic imipenem. Cilastatin works by inhibiting the deactivation of imipenem by renal dehydropeptidase-I, which helps maintain its therapeutic effectiveness in the body.

Imipenem/cilastatin is a combination medication used to treat various bacterial infections, including pneumonia, sepsis, and skin and urinary tract infections. Cilastatin does not have any antibacterial activity on its own.

It's important to note that the use of cilastatin should be under medical supervision, as with any medication. Always consult a healthcare professional for accurate information regarding medications and their uses.

Pseudomonas infections are infections caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa or other species of the Pseudomonas genus. These bacteria are gram-negative, opportunistic pathogens that can cause various types of infections, including respiratory, urinary tract, gastrointestinal, dermatological, and bloodstream infections.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, particularly in patients with weakened immune systems, chronic lung diseases, or those who are hospitalized for extended periods. The bacteria can also infect wounds, burns, and medical devices such as catheters and ventilators.

Pseudomonas infections can be difficult to treat due to the bacteria's resistance to many antibiotics. Treatment typically involves the use of multiple antibiotics that are effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In severe cases, intravenous antibiotics or even hospitalization may be necessary.

Prevention measures include good hand hygiene, contact precautions for patients with known Pseudomonas infections, and proper cleaning and maintenance of medical equipment.

Dipeptidases are a group of enzymes that break down dipeptides, which are composed of two amino acids joined by a peptide bond. These enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of dipeptides into individual amino acids, helping to facilitate their absorption and utilization in the body. Dipeptidases can be found on the brush border membrane of the small intestine, as well as in various tissues and organs, such as the kidneys, liver, and pancreas. They play a crucial role in protein metabolism and maintaining amino acid homeostasis within the body.

'Acinetobacter' is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including water, soil, and healthcare settings. They are known for their ability to survive in a wide range of temperatures and pH levels, as well as their resistance to many antibiotics.

Some species of Acinetobacter can cause healthcare-associated infections, particularly in patients who are hospitalized, have weakened immune systems, or have been exposed to medical devices such as ventilators or catheters. These infections can include pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound infections, and meningitis.

Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most common species associated with human infection and is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, making it a significant public health concern. Infections caused by Acinetobacter can be difficult to treat and may require the use of last-resort antibiotics.

Preventing the spread of Acinetobacter in healthcare settings is important and includes practices such as hand hygiene, environmental cleaning, and contact precautions for patients with known or suspected infection.

Cross infection, also known as cross-contamination, is the transmission of infectious agents or diseases between patients in a healthcare setting. This can occur through various means such as contaminated equipment, surfaces, hands of healthcare workers, or the air. It is an important concern in medical settings and measures are taken to prevent its occurrence, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

'Enterobacter cloacae' is a species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. They are part of the family Enterobacteriaceae and can cause various types of infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

E. cloacae is known to be an opportunistic pathogen, which means that it typically does not cause disease in healthy people but can take advantage of a weakened host to cause infection. It can cause a range of infections, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bacteremia (bloodstream infections), and wound infections.

E. cloacae is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, which can make treatment challenging. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of E. cloacae isolates that are resistant to carbapenems, a class of antibiotics that are typically reserved for treating serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. This has led to concerns about the potential for untreatable infections caused by this organism.

Cephalosporins are a class of antibiotics that are derived from the fungus Acremonium, originally isolated from seawater and cow dung. They have a similar chemical structure to penicillin and share a common four-membered beta-lactam ring in their molecular structure.

Cephalosporins work by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell walls, which ultimately leads to bacterial death. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, meaning they are effective against a wide range of bacteria, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms.

There are several generations of cephalosporins, each with different spectra of activity and pharmacokinetic properties. The first generation cephalosporins have a narrow spectrum of activity and are primarily used to treat infections caused by susceptible Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Second-generation cephalosporins have an expanded spectrum of activity that includes some Gram-negative organisms, such as Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. Third-generation cephalosporins have even broader spectra of activity and are effective against many resistant Gram-negative bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Fourth-generation cephalosporins have activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics. They are often reserved for the treatment of serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria.

Cephalosporins are generally well tolerated, but like penicillin, they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals. Cross-reactivity between cephalosporins and penicillin is estimated to occur in 5-10% of patients with a history of penicillin allergy. Other potential adverse effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea), neurotoxicity, and nephrotoxicity.

A lactam is a cyclic amide compound containing a carbonyl group (a double-bonded carbon atom) and a nitrogen atom. The name "lactam" is derived from the fact that these compounds are structurally similar to lactones, which are cyclic esters, but with an amide bond instead of an ester bond.

Lactams can be found in various natural and synthetic compounds, including some antibiotics such as penicillin and cephalosporins. These antibiotics contain a four-membered lactam ring (known as a β-lactam) that is essential for their biological activity. The β-lactam ring makes these compounds highly reactive, allowing them to inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis and thus kill the bacteria.

In summary, lactams are cyclic amide compounds with a carbonyl group and a nitrogen atom in the ring structure. They can be found in various natural and synthetic compounds, including some antibiotics such as penicillin and cephalosporins.

Renal glycosuria is a medical condition characterized by the presence of glucose in the urine due to defective renal tubular reabsorption, despite normal blood glucose levels. In healthy individuals, the kidneys are able to reabsorb all filtered glucose back into the bloodstream. However, in renal glycosuria, the kidneys fail to reabsorb some or all of the glucose, leading to its excretion in the urine.

Renal glycosuria can be congenital or acquired. Congenital renal glycosuria is a rare inherited disorder caused by mutations in the SLC5A2 gene, which encodes the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) protein responsible for glucose reabsorption in the kidneys. Acquired renal glycosuria can occur as a result of damage to the renal tubules due to various causes such as diabetes, hypertension, or certain medications.

Renal glycosuria is usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during routine urinalysis. However, in some cases, it may lead to increased urinary frequency, urgency, and polyuria due to the osmotic diuretic effect of glucose in the urine. If left untreated, renal glycosuria can increase the risk of urinary tract infections and kidney stones. Treatment is typically not necessary for asymptomatic individuals with renal glycosuria, but monitoring blood glucose levels is recommended to rule out underlying diabetes mellitus.

Clavulanic acid is a type of beta-lactamase inhibitor, which is a compound that is used to increase the effectiveness of certain antibiotics. It works by preventing the breakdown of beta-lactam antibiotics (such as penicillins and cephalosporins) by bacterial enzymes called beta-lactamases. This allows the antibiotic to remain active against the bacteria for a longer period of time, increasing its ability to kill the bacteria and treat the infection.

Clavulanic acid is often combined with amoxicillin in a medication called Augmentin, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and skin and soft tissue infections. It may also be used in other combinations with other beta-lactam antibiotics.

Like all medications, clavulanic acid can have side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. It may also cause allergic reactions in some people, particularly those who are allergic to penicillin or other beta-lactam antibiotics. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking clavulanic acid or any medication.

Penicillanic acid is not a term that has a widely accepted or established medical definition in the context of human medicine or clinical practice. It is a chemical compound that is a derivative of penicillin, an antibiotic produced by certain types of mold. Penicillanic acid is a breakdown product of penicillin and is not itself used as a medication.

In chemistry, penicillanic acid is a organic compound with the formula (CH3)2C6H5COOH. It is a derivative of benzene and has a carboxylic acid group and a five-membered ring containing a sulfur atom and a double bond, which is a characteristic feature of penicillin and its derivatives.

It's important to note that while penicillanic acid may have relevance in the context of chemistry or microbiology research, it does not have a direct medical definition or application in clinical medicine.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Porins are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. They form water-filled channels, or pores, that allow small molecules such as ions, nutrients, and waste products to pass through the otherwise impermeable outer membrane. Porins are important for the survival of gram-negative bacteria, as they enable the selective transport of essential molecules while providing a barrier against harmful substances.

There are different types of porins, classified based on their structure and function. Some examples include:

1. General porins (also known as nonspecific porins): These are the most common type of porins and form large, water-filled channels that allow passive diffusion of small molecules up to 600-700 Da in size. They typically have a trimeric structure, with three identical or similar subunits forming a pore in the membrane.
2. Specific porins: These porins are more selective in the molecules they allow to pass through and often have smaller pores than general porins. They can be involved in the active transport of specific molecules or ions, requiring energy from the cell.
3. Autotransporters: While not strictly considered porins, autotransporter proteins share some structural similarities with porins and are involved in the transport of protein domains across the outer membrane. They consist of an N-terminal passenger domain and a C-terminal translocator domain, which forms a β-barrel pore in the outer membrane through which the passenger domain is transported.

Porins have attracted interest as potential targets for antibiotic development, as they play crucial roles in bacterial survival and virulence. Inhibiting porin function or blocking the pores could disrupt essential processes in gram-negative bacteria, providing a new approach to treating infections caused by these organisms.

Gram-positive bacteria are a type of bacteria that stain dark purple or blue when subjected to the Gram staining method, which is a common technique used in microbiology to classify and identify different types of bacteria based on their structural differences. This staining method was developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884.

The key characteristic that distinguishes Gram-positive bacteria from other types, such as Gram-negative bacteria, is the presence of a thick layer of peptidoglycan in their cell walls, which retains the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining process. Additionally, Gram-positive bacteria lack an outer membrane found in Gram-negative bacteria.

Examples of Gram-positive bacteria include Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Bacillus subtilis. Some Gram-positive bacteria can cause various human diseases, while others are beneficial or harmless.

Serratia infections are caused by bacteria named Serratia marcescens, which belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. These gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacilli can be found in various environments, including water, soil, and food. While they are a part of the normal gut flora in humans and animals, Serratia species can cause infections under certain circumstances, such as impaired immune function or when introduced into sterile sites like the bloodstream, urinary tract, or lungs.

Serratia infections can manifest as:

1. Pneumonia: A lower respiratory tract infection that causes cough, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
2. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): Bacterial invasion of the urinary system, leading to symptoms like dysuria, frequency, urgency, and cloudy or foul-smelling urine.
3. Bloodstream infections (Bacteremia/Septicemia): Invasion of the bloodstream by Serratia species, which can result in fever, chills, and sepsis.
4. Wound infections: Localized infection of wounds or surgical sites, causing pain, redness, swelling, and pus discharge.
5. Eye infections (Conjunctivitis/Keratitis): Bacterial invasion of the eye, leading to symptoms like redness, pain, tearing, and discharge.
6. Central Nervous System (CNS) infections: Rare but severe complications include meningitis or brain abscesses.

Serratia infections can be challenging to treat due to their resistance to multiple antibiotics, including first-line agents like ampicillin and cephalosporins. Therefore, healthcare providers often rely on carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, or aminoglycosides for treatment. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial therapy are crucial to ensure favorable outcomes in patients with Serratia infections.

Ceftazidime is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, leading to bacterial cell death. Ceftazidime has a broad spectrum of activity and is effective against many Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria.

It is often used to treat serious infections such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis, particularly when they are caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Ceftazidime is also commonly used in combination with other antibiotics to treat complicated abdominal infections, bone and joint infections, and hospital-acquired pneumonia.

Like all antibiotics, ceftazidime can cause side effects, including diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions. It may also affect the kidneys and should be used with caution in patients with impaired renal function. Ceftazidime is available in both intravenous (IV) and oral forms.

A hospital is a healthcare facility where patients receive medical treatment, diagnosis, and care for various health conditions, injuries, or diseases. It is typically staffed with medical professionals such as doctors, nurses, and other healthcare workers who provide round-the-clock medical services. Hospitals may offer inpatient (overnight) stays or outpatient (same-day) services, depending on the nature of the treatment required. They are equipped with various medical facilities like operating rooms, diagnostic equipment, intensive care units (ICUs), and emergency departments to handle a wide range of medical situations. Hospitals may specialize in specific areas of medicine, such as pediatrics, geriatrics, oncology, or trauma care.

"Klebsiella oxytoca" is a species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is part of the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a normal inhabitant of the human gastrointestinal tract and can be found in soil, water, and plants. In clinical settings, K. oxytoca can cause various types of infections, including pneumonia, bloodstream infections, wound infections, and urinary tract infections. It is known to produce a variety of beta-lactamases, enzymes that can hydrolyze and inactivate certain antibiotics, making it resistant to some forms of treatment. Its identification is important for appropriate antimicrobial therapy and infection control measures.

A hospital formulary is a list of medications that a hospital or healthcare system has approved for use in specific clinical situations. The formulary is developed and maintained by a committee of physicians, pharmacists, and other healthcare professionals who evaluate the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of various medications before adding them to the formulary.

The primary goal of a hospital formulary is to promote the safe and effective use of medications while minimizing unnecessary costs. By standardizing the medications used in the hospital, formularies can help reduce medication errors, improve patient outcomes, and ensure that limited resources are used wisely.

Hospital formularies may vary depending on the specific needs and preferences of the hospital or healthcare system. They typically include a wide range of medications, from common pain relievers and antibiotics to specialty drugs used to treat rare conditions. In addition to listing approved medications, hospital formularies may also provide guidelines for their use, including dosages, routes of administration, and monitoring requirements.

Healthcare providers who practice in hospitals with formularies are expected to follow the guidelines set forth in the formulary when prescribing medications. However, they may request exceptions to the formulary if a patient's clinical situation requires a medication that is not on the list. The formulary committee will then review the request and make a determination based on the available evidence and clinical expertise.

Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. It is a medical condition that occurs when bacteria from another source, such as an infection in another part of the body, enter the bloodstream. Bacteremia can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, and rapid heart rate, and it can lead to serious complications such as sepsis if not treated promptly with antibiotics.

Bacteremia is often a result of an infection elsewhere in the body that allows bacteria to enter the bloodstream. This can happen through various routes, such as during medical procedures, intravenous (IV) drug use, or from infected wounds or devices that come into contact with the bloodstream. In some cases, bacteremia may also occur without any obvious source of infection.

It is important to note that not all bacteria in the bloodstream cause harm, and some people may have bacteria in their blood without showing any symptoms. However, if bacteria in the bloodstream multiply and cause an immune response, it can lead to bacteremia and potentially serious complications.

'Aeromonas hydrophila' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in fresh and brackish water environments. It is a facultative anaerobe, meaning it can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. This bacterium is known to cause various types of infections in humans, including gastrointestinal illnesses, wound infections, and septicemia, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

The bacterium produces a range of virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity, such as exotoxins, hemolysins, and proteases. The symptoms of Aeromonas hydrophila infection can vary widely depending on the site of infection and the overall health of the individual. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, although the effectiveness of different antibiotics may vary depending on the strain of the bacterium. Proper hygiene and wound care are important measures to prevent infection with Aeromonas hydrophila.

Peptidyl transferase is not a medical term per se, but rather a biochemical term used to describe an enzymatic function or activity. It is often mentioned in the context of molecular biology, protein synthesis, and ribosome structure.

Peptidyl transferase refers to the catalytic activity of ribosomes that facilitates the formation of peptide bonds between amino acids during protein synthesis. More specifically, peptidyl transferase is responsible for transferring the peptidyl group (the growing polypeptide chain) from the acceptor site (A-site) to the donor site (P-site) of the ribosome, creating a new peptide bond and elongating the polypeptide chain. This activity occurs within the large subunit of the ribosome, near the peptidyl transferase center (PTC).

While it is often attributed to the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) component of the ribosome, recent research suggests that both rRNA and specific ribosomal proteins contribute to this enzymatic activity.

Integrons are genetic elements that can capture, integrate and express mobile gene cassettes, which are circular DNA molecules containing one or more antibiotic resistance genes. Integrons consist of an integrase gene (intI), a recombination site (attI), and a promoter region that drives the expression of integrated gene cassettes. They play a significant role in the spread and dissemination of antibiotic resistance among bacterial populations, as they can facilitate the acquisition and exchange of resistance genes between different bacteria. Integrons are commonly found on plasmids and transposons, which are mobile genetic elements that can move between different bacterial species, further contributing to the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance.

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a type of electrophoresis technique used in molecular biology to separate DNA molecules based on their size and conformation. In this method, the electric field is applied in varying directions, which allows for the separation of large DNA fragments that are difficult to separate using traditional gel electrophoresis methods.

The DNA sample is prepared by embedding it in a semi-solid matrix, such as agarose or polyacrylamide, and then subjected to an electric field that periodically changes direction. This causes the DNA molecules to reorient themselves in response to the changing electric field, which results in the separation of the DNA fragments based on their size and shape.

PFGE is a powerful tool for molecular biology research and has many applications, including the identification and characterization of bacterial pathogens, the analysis of genomic DNA, and the study of gene organization and regulation. It is also used in forensic science to analyze DNA evidence in criminal investigations.

Genetic conjugation is a type of genetic transfer that occurs between bacterial cells. It involves the process of one bacterium (the donor) transferring a piece of its DNA to another bacterium (the recipient) through direct contact or via a bridge-like connection called a pilus. This transferred DNA may contain genes that provide the recipient cell with new traits, such as antibiotic resistance or virulence factors, which can make the bacteria more harmful or difficult to treat. Genetic conjugation is an important mechanism for the spread of antibiotic resistance and other traits among bacterial populations.

"Serratia marcescens" is a medically significant species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, motile bacillus bacteria that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is commonly found in soil, water, and in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. The bacteria are known for their ability to produce a red pigment called prodigiosin, which gives them a distinctive pink color on many types of laboratory media.

"Serratia marcescens" can cause various types of infections, including respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, wound infections, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections). It is also known to be an opportunistic pathogen, which means that it primarily causes infections in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with chronic illnesses or who are undergoing medical treatments that suppress the immune system.

In healthcare settings, "Serratia marcescens" can cause outbreaks of infection, particularly in patients who are hospitalized for extended periods of time. It is resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, which makes it difficult to treat and control the spread of infections caused by this organism.

In addition to its medical significance, "Serratia marcescens" has also been used as a model organism in various areas of microbiological research, including studies on bacterial motility, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance.

Colistin is an antibiotic that belongs to a class of drugs called polymyxins. It is primarily used to treat infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics. Colistin works by disrupting the bacterial cell membrane and causing the bacterium to lose essential components, leading to its death.

Colistin can be administered intravenously or inhaled, depending on the type of infection being treated. It is important to note that colistin has a narrow therapeutic index, meaning that there is a small difference between the effective dose and the toxic dose. Therefore, it must be used with caution and under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Common side effects of colistin include kidney damage, nerve damage, and muscle weakness. It may also cause allergic reactions in some people. Colistin should not be used during pregnancy or breastfeeding unless the benefits outweigh the risks.

An Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is a specialized hospital department that provides continuous monitoring and advanced life support for critically ill patients. The ICU is equipped with sophisticated technology and staffed by highly trained healthcare professionals, including intensivists, nurses, respiratory therapists, and other specialists.

Patients in the ICU may require mechanical ventilation, invasive monitoring, vasoactive medications, and other advanced interventions due to conditions such as severe infections, trauma, cardiac arrest, respiratory failure, or post-surgical complications. The goal of the ICU is to stabilize patients' condition, prevent further complications, and support organ function while the underlying illness is treated.

ICUs may be organized into different units based on the type of care provided, such as medical, surgical, cardiac, neurological, or pediatric ICUs. The length of stay in the ICU can vary widely depending on the patient's condition and response to treatment.

'Bacteroides fragilis' is a species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. They are part of the normal gut flora and play an important role in maintaining a healthy digestive system. However, they can also cause infections when they enter other parts of the body, such as the abdomen or bloodstream, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Bacteroides fragilis is known for its ability to produce enzymes that allow it to resist antibiotics and evade the host's immune system. This makes it a challenging bacterium to treat and can lead to serious and potentially life-threatening infections, such as abscesses, sepsis, and meningitis.

Proper hygiene, such as handwashing and safe food handling practices, can help prevent the spread of Bacteroides fragilis and other bacteria that can cause infections. If an infection does occur, it is typically treated with a combination of surgical drainage and antibiotics that are effective against anaerobic bacteria.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

Piperacillin is a type of antibiotic known as a semisynthetic penicillin that is used to treat a variety of infections caused by bacteria. It works by interfering with the ability of bacteria to form a cell wall, which is necessary for their survival. This causes the bacterial cells to become unstable and eventually die.

Piperacillin has a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including many strains that are resistant to other antibiotics. It is often used in combination with other antibiotics, such as tazobactam, to increase its effectiveness against certain types of bacteria.

Piperacillin is typically administered intravenously in a hospital setting and is used to treat serious infections such as pneumonia, sepsis, and abdominal or urinary tract infections. As with all antibiotics, it should be used only when necessary and under the guidance of a healthcare professional to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Bacteroides infections refer to illnesses caused by the bacterial genus Bacteroides, which are a group of anaerobic, gram-negative bacilli that are normal inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract. However, they can cause intra-abdominal infections, such as appendicitis, peritonitis, and liver abscesses, as well as wound infections, bacteremia, and gynecological infections when they spread to other parts of the body, especially in individuals with compromised immune systems.

Bacteroides species are often resistant to many antibiotics, making infections challenging to treat. Therefore, appropriate antimicrobial therapy, often requiring combination therapy, is essential for successful treatment. Surgical intervention may also be necessary in certain cases of Bacteroides infections, such as abscess drainage or debridement of necrotic tissue.

Monobactams are a type of antibiotics that contain a single bacterial cell wall-binding component, known as a monocyclic beta-lactam. Aztreonam is an example of a monobactam that is used clinically to treat various infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, including some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Monobactams work by inhibiting the enzyme responsible for building the bacterial cell wall, leading to bacterial death. They are not affected by beta-lactamases, which are enzymes produced by some bacteria that can inactivate other types of beta-lactam antibiotics, such as penicillins and cephalosporins.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Molecular typing is a laboratory technique used to identify and characterize specific microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses, at the molecular level. This method is used to differentiate between strains of the same species based on their genetic or molecular differences. Molecular typing techniques include methods such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and whole genome sequencing (WGS). These techniques allow for high-resolution discrimination between strains, enabling epidemiological investigations of outbreaks, tracking the transmission of pathogens, and studying the evolution and population biology of microorganisms.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Aztreonam is a monobactam antibiotic, which is a type of antibacterial drug used to treat infections caused by bacteria. It works by interfering with the ability of bacterial cells to form cell walls, leading to their death. Aztreonam is specifically active against certain types of gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli.

Aztreonam is available in various forms, including injectable solutions and inhaled powder, for use in different clinical settings. It is often used to treat serious infections that have not responded to other antibiotics or that are caused by bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics.

Like all antibiotics, aztreonam can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache. It may also cause allergic reactions in some people, particularly those with a history of allergies to other antibiotics. It is important to use aztreonam only as directed by a healthcare provider and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Minocycline is an antibiotic medication that belongs to the tetracycline class. Medically, it is defined as a semisynthetic derivative of tetracycline and has a broader spectrum of activity compared to other tetracyclines. It is bacteriostatic, meaning it inhibits bacterial growth rather than killing them outright.

Minocycline is commonly used to treat various infections caused by susceptible bacteria, including acne, respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and sexually transmitted diseases. Additionally, it has been found to have anti-inflammatory properties and is being investigated for its potential use in treating neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.

As with all antibiotics, minocycline should be taken under the guidance of a healthcare professional, and its usage should be based on the results of bacterial culture and sensitivity testing to ensure its effectiveness against the specific bacteria causing the infection.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Bacterial pneumonia is a type of lung infection that's caused by bacteria. It can affect people of any age, but it's more common in older adults, young children, and people with certain health conditions or weakened immune systems. The symptoms of bacterial pneumonia can vary, but they often include cough, chest pain, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.

The most common type of bacteria that causes pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). Other types of bacteria that can cause pneumonia include Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

Bacterial pneumonia is usually treated with antibiotics, which are medications that kill bacteria. The specific type of antibiotic used will depend on the type of bacteria causing the infection. It's important to take all of the prescribed medication as directed, even if you start feeling better, to ensure that the infection is completely cleared and to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance.

In severe cases of bacterial pneumonia, hospitalization may be necessary for close monitoring and treatment with intravenous antibiotics and other supportive care.

Beta-alanine is a non-essential amino acid, which means that it is not required in the diet because the body can produce it from other amino acids. It is produced in the liver and is also found in some foods such as meat, poultry, and fish.

Beta-alanine plays a role in the production of carnosine, a dipeptide molecule that helps to regulate muscle pH and improve muscle function during high-intensity exercise. When muscles contract during intense exercise, they produce hydrogen ions, which can cause the muscle pH to decrease (become more acidic), leading to fatigue and reduced muscle function. Carnosine acts as a buffer against this acidity, helping to maintain optimal muscle pH levels and improve performance during high-intensity exercise.

Beta-alanine supplements have been shown to increase carnosine levels in muscles, which may lead to improved athletic performance, particularly in activities that require short bursts of intense effort, such as weightlifting or sprinting. However, more research is needed to fully understand the effects and potential benefits of beta-alanine supplementation.

It's important to note that while beta-alanine supplements are generally considered safe for most people, they can cause a tingling sensation in the skin (paresthesia) when taken in high doses. This is a harmless side effect and typically subsides within an hour or so of taking the supplement.

Klebsiella is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, encapsulated, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria that are part of the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are commonly found in the normal microbiota of the mouth, skin, and intestines, but can also cause various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most common species and can cause pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and wound infections. Other Klebsiella species, such as K. oxytoca, can also cause similar types of infections. These bacteria are resistant to many antibiotics, making them difficult to treat and a significant public health concern.

'Citrobacter freundii' is a species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that is commonly found in the environment, including water, soil, and plants. It is also part of the normal gut flora in humans and animals. The bacterium can cause various types of infections in people with weakened immune systems, such as newborns, the elderly, and those with chronic diseases. Infections caused by 'Citrobacter freundii' may include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and wound infections. Proper identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing are crucial for effective treatment of these infections.

Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase is not a commonly used medical term, but it refers to an enzyme involved in the bacterial cell wall biosynthesis and degradation process. The muramoylpentapeptide is a component of the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan. Carboxypeptidases are enzymes that cleave peptide bonds, specifically at the carboxyl-terminal end of a protein or peptide.

In this context, Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase is an enzyme that removes the terminal D-alanine residue from the muramoylpentapeptide, which is a crucial step in the biosynthesis and recycling of bacterial cell wall components. This enzyme plays a significant role in the regulation of peptidoglycan structure and thus impacts bacterial growth, division, and virulence.

Inhibition or disruption of Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase can potentially be used as an antibacterial strategy, targeting essential processes in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis and weakening the structural integrity of pathogenic bacteria.

Fluoroquinolones are a class of antibiotics that are widely used to treat various types of bacterial infections. They work by interfering with the bacteria's ability to replicate its DNA, which ultimately leads to the death of the bacterial cells. Fluoroquinolones are known for their broad-spectrum activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

Some common fluoroquinolones include ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and ofloxacin. These antibiotics are often used to treat respiratory infections, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and gastrointestinal infections, among others.

While fluoroquinolones are generally well-tolerated, they can cause serious side effects in some people, including tendonitis, nerve damage, and changes in mood or behavior. As with all antibiotics, it's important to use fluoroquinolones only when necessary and under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

A "University Hospital" is a type of hospital that is often affiliated with a medical school or university. These hospitals serve as major teaching institutions where medical students, residents, and fellows receive their training and education. They are equipped with advanced medical technology and resources to provide specialized and tertiary care services. University hospitals also conduct research and clinical trials to advance medical knowledge and practices. Additionally, they often treat complex and rare cases and provide a wide range of medical services to the community.

Penicillin-Binding Proteins (PBPs) are essential bacterial enzymes that play a crucial role in the synthesis and maintenance of the bacterial cell wall. They are called "penicillin-binding" because they possess the ability to bind to penicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics, which subsequently inhibits their function and leads to the death of the bacteria. PBPs are primary targets for many clinically important antibiotics, including penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems. Inhibition of these proteins interferes with the cross-linking of peptidoglycan in the bacterial cell wall, causing structural weakness and osmotic lysis of the bacteria.

"Enterobacter aerogenes" is a species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the environment, including in soil, water, and vegetation. In medical contexts, E. aerogenes is often considered an opportunistic pathogen, meaning it can cause infection in individuals with compromised immune systems or underlying health conditions.

E. aerogenes is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and is closely related to other pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. It is known for its ability to produce large amounts of gas, including carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, which can contribute to its virulence and make it difficult to identify using traditional biochemical tests.

E. aerogenes can cause a variety of infections, including urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bacteremia, and wound infections. It is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, which can make treatment challenging. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of E. aerogenes isolates that are resistant to carbapenems, a class of antibiotics that are often used as a last resort for treating serious bacterial infections.

Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The outer membrane is a unique characteristic of gram-negative bacteria, and it serves as a barrier that helps protect the bacterium from hostile environments. OMPs play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and selective permeability of the outer membrane. They are involved in various functions such as nutrient uptake, transport, adhesion, and virulence factor secretion.

OMPs are typically composed of beta-barrel structures that span the bacterial outer membrane. These proteins can be classified into several groups based on their size, function, and structure. Some of the well-known OMP families include porins, autotransporters, and two-partner secretion systems.

Porins are the most abundant type of OMPs and form water-filled channels that allow the passive diffusion of small molecules, ions, and nutrients across the outer membrane. Autotransporters are a diverse group of OMPs that play a role in bacterial pathogenesis by secreting virulence factors or acting as adhesins. Two-partner secretion systems involve the cooperation between two proteins to transport effector molecules across the outer membrane.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial OMPs is essential for developing new antibiotics and therapies that target gram-negative bacteria, which are often resistant to conventional treatments.

Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) is a standardized method used in microbiology to characterize and identify bacterial isolates at the subspecies level. It is based on the sequencing of several (usually 7-10) housekeeping genes, which are essential for the survival of the organism and have a low rate of mutation. The sequence type (ST) is determined by the specific alleles present at each locus, creating a unique profile that can be used to compare and cluster isolates into clonal complexes or sequence types. This method provides high-resolution discrimination between closely related strains and has been widely adopted for molecular epidemiology, infection control, and population genetics studies of bacterial pathogens.

Drug utilization refers to the use of medications by patients or healthcare professionals in a real-world setting. It involves analyzing and evaluating patterns of medication use, including prescribing practices, adherence to treatment guidelines, potential duplications or interactions, and outcomes associated with drug therapy. The goal of drug utilization is to optimize medication use, improve patient safety, and minimize costs while achieving the best possible health outcomes. It can be studied through various methods such as prescription claims data analysis, surveys, and clinical audits.

Anaerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not require oxygen to grow and survive. Instead, they can grow in environments that have little or no oxygen. Some anaerobic bacteria can even be harmed or killed by exposure to oxygen. These bacteria play important roles in many natural processes, such as decomposition and the breakdown of organic matter in the digestive system. However, some anaerobic bacteria can also cause disease in humans and animals, particularly when they infect areas of the body that are normally oxygen-rich. Examples of anaerobic bacterial infections include tetanus, gas gangrene, and dental abscesses.

Sulbactam is not a medication itself, but it's a type of β-lactamase inhibitor. It's often combined with other antibiotics such as ampicillin or cefoperazone to increase their effectiveness against bacteria that produce β-lactamases, enzymes that can inactivate certain types of antibiotics (like penicillins and cephalosporins). By inhibiting these enzymes, sulbactam helps to protect the antibiotic from being deactivated, allowing it to maintain its activity against bacteria.

The combination of sulbactam with other antibiotics is used to treat various infections caused by susceptible bacteria, including skin and soft tissue infections, respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and intra-abdominal infections. It's important to note that the specific medical definition of sulbactam would be a β-lactamase inhibitor used in combination with other antibiotics for treating bacterial infections.

Penicillins are a group of antibiotics derived from the Penicillium fungus. They are widely used to treat various bacterial infections due to their bactericidal activity, which means they kill bacteria by interfering with the synthesis of their cell walls. The first penicillin, benzylpenicillin (also known as penicillin G), was discovered in 1928 by Sir Alexander Fleming. Since then, numerous semi-synthetic penicillins have been developed to expand the spectrum of activity and stability against bacterial enzymes that can inactivate these drugs.

Penicillins are classified into several groups based on their chemical structure and spectrum of activity:

1. Natural Penicillins (e.g., benzylpenicillin, phenoxymethylpenicillin): These have a narrow spectrum of activity, mainly targeting Gram-positive bacteria such as streptococci and staphylococci. However, they are susceptible to degradation by beta-lactamase enzymes produced by some bacteria.
2. Penicillinase-resistant Penicillins (e.g., methicillin, oxacillin, nafcillin): These penicillins resist degradation by certain bacterial beta-lactamases and are primarily used to treat infections caused by staphylococci, including methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA).
3. Aminopenicillins (e.g., ampicillin, amoxicillin): These penicillins have an extended spectrum of activity compared to natural penicillins, including some Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae. However, they are still susceptible to degradation by many beta-lactamases.
4. Antipseudomonal Penicillins (e.g., carbenicillin, ticarcillin): These penicillins have activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other Gram-negative bacteria with increased resistance to other antibiotics. They are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors such as clavulanate or tazobactam to protect them from degradation.
5. Extended-spectrum Penicillins (e.g., piperacillin): These penicillins have a broad spectrum of activity, including many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. They are often combined with beta-lactamase inhibitors to protect them from degradation.

Penicillins are generally well-tolerated antibiotics; however, they can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, ranging from mild skin rashes to life-threatening anaphylaxis. Cross-reactivity between different penicillin classes and other beta-lactam antibiotics (e.g., cephalosporins) is possible but varies depending on the specific drugs involved.

Aminoglycosides are a class of antibiotics that are derived from bacteria and are used to treat various types of infections caused by gram-negative and some gram-positive bacteria. These antibiotics work by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, which inhibits protein synthesis and ultimately leads to bacterial cell death.

Some examples of aminoglycosides include gentamicin, tobramycin, neomycin, and streptomycin. These antibiotics are often used in combination with other antibiotics to treat severe infections, such as sepsis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections.

Aminoglycosides can have serious side effects, including kidney damage and hearing loss, so they are typically reserved for use in serious infections that cannot be treated with other antibiotics. They are also used topically to treat skin infections and prevent wound infections after surgery.

It's important to note that aminoglycosides should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as improper use can lead to antibiotic resistance and further health complications.

"Multiple drug resistance" (MDR) is a term used in medicine to describe the condition where a patient's infection becomes resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs. This means that the bacteria, virus, fungus or parasite that is causing the infection has developed the ability to survive and multiply despite being exposed to medications that were originally designed to kill or inhibit its growth.

In particular, MDR occurs when an organism becomes resistant to at least one drug in three or more antimicrobial categories. This can happen due to genetic changes in the microorganism that allow it to survive in the presence of these drugs. The development of MDR is a significant concern for public health because it limits treatment options and can make infections harder, if not impossible, to treat.

MDR can develop through several mechanisms, including mutations in the genes that encode drug targets or enzymes involved in drug metabolism, as well as the acquisition of genetic elements such as plasmids and transposons that carry resistance genes. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial drugs are major drivers of MDR, as they create selective pressure for the emergence and spread of resistant strains.

MDR infections can occur in various settings, including hospitals, long-term care facilities, and communities. They can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, although certain populations may be at higher risk, such as those with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions. Preventing the spread of MDR requires a multifaceted approach that includes surveillance, infection control, antimicrobial stewardship, and research into new therapies and diagnostics.

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a gram-negative, aerobic, non-fermentative bacillus that is commonly found in moist environments such as soil and water. It has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen, particularly in patients with compromised immune systems or underlying lung diseases.

S. maltophilia can cause a variety of infections, including pneumonia, bacteremia, urinary tract infections, and wound infections. It is inherently resistant to many antibiotics, making it difficult to treat. The bacteria produce biofilms, which can make them even more resistant to antibiotics and host defenses.

Infection with S. maltophilia is associated with high mortality rates, particularly in critically ill patients. Prompt identification and appropriate antimicrobial therapy are essential for the successful management of infections caused by this organism.

Hexosyltransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a hexose (a type of sugar molecule made up of six carbon atoms) from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. This transfer results in the formation of a glycosidic bond between the two molecules.

Hexosyltransferases are involved in various biological processes, including the biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates, such as glycoproteins and glycolipids, which play important roles in cell recognition, signaling, and communication. These enzymes can transfer a variety of hexose sugars, including glucose, galactose, mannose, fucose, and N-acetylglucosamine, to different acceptor molecules, such as proteins, lipids, or other carbohydrates.

Hexosyltransferases are classified based on the type of donor molecule they use, the type of sugar they transfer, and the type of glycosidic bond they form. Some examples of hexosyltransferases include:

* Glycosyltransferases (GTs): These enzymes transfer a sugar from an activated donor molecule, such as a nucleotide sugar, to an acceptor molecule. GTs are involved in the biosynthesis of various glycoconjugates, including proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids.
* Fucosyltransferases (FUTs): These enzymes transfer fucose, a type of hexose sugar, to an acceptor molecule. FUTs are involved in the biosynthesis of various glycoconjugates, including blood group antigens and Lewis antigens.
* Galactosyltransferases (GALTs): These enzymes transfer galactose, another type of hexose sugar, to an acceptor molecule. GALTs are involved in the biosynthesis of various glycoconjugates, including lactose in milk and gangliosides in the brain.
* Mannosyltransferases (MTs): These enzymes transfer mannose, a type of hexose sugar, to an acceptor molecule. MTs are involved in the biosynthesis of various glycoconjugates, including N-linked glycoproteins and yeast cell walls.

Hexosyltransferases play important roles in many biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and adhesion. Dysregulation of these enzymes has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of hexosyltransferases is crucial for developing new therapeutic strategies.

Disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility tests, also known as Kirby-Bauer tests, are laboratory methods used to determine the effectiveness of antibiotics against a specific bacterial strain. This test provides a simple and standardized way to estimate the susceptibility or resistance of a microorganism to various antibiotics.

In this method, a standardized inoculum of the bacterial suspension is spread evenly on the surface of an agar plate. Antibiotic-impregnated paper disks are then placed on the agar surface, allowing the diffusion of the antibiotic into the agar. After incubation, the zone of inhibition surrounding each disk is measured. The size of the zone of inhibition correlates with the susceptibility or resistance of the bacterial strain to that specific antibiotic.

The results are interpreted based on predefined criteria established by organizations such as the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) or the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). These interpretive criteria help categorize the susceptibility of the bacterial strain into one of three categories: susceptible, intermediate, or resistant.

It is important to note that disk diffusion tests have limitations and may not always accurately predict clinical outcomes. However, they remain a valuable tool in guiding empirical antibiotic therapy and monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends.

Hydrolysis is a chemical process, not a medical one. However, it is relevant to medicine and biology.

Hydrolysis is the breakdown of a chemical compound due to its reaction with water, often resulting in the formation of two or more simpler compounds. In the context of physiology and medicine, hydrolysis is a crucial process in various biological reactions, such as the digestion of food molecules like proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Enzymes called hydrolases catalyze these hydrolysis reactions to speed up the breakdown process in the body.

Bacterial infections are caused by the invasion and multiplication of bacteria in or on tissues of the body. These infections can range from mild, like a common cold, to severe, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. The symptoms of a bacterial infection depend on the type of bacteria invading the body and the area of the body that is affected.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that can live in many different environments, including in the human body. While some bacteria are beneficial to humans and help with digestion or protect against harmful pathogens, others can cause illness and disease. When bacteria invade the body, they can release toxins and other harmful substances that damage tissues and trigger an immune response.

Bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, which work by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria. However, it is important to note that misuse or overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, making treatment more difficult. It is also essential to complete the full course of antibiotics as prescribed, even if symptoms improve, to ensure that all bacteria are eliminated and reduce the risk of recurrence or development of antibiotic resistance.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Isoelectric focusing (IEF) is a technique used in electrophoresis, which is a method for separating proteins or other molecules based on their electrical charges. In IEF, a mixture of ampholytes (molecules that can carry both positive and negative charges) is used to create a pH gradient within a gel matrix. When an electric field is applied, the proteins or molecules migrate through the gel until they reach the point in the gradient where their net charge is zero, known as their isoelectric point (pI). At this point, they focus into a sharp band and stop moving, resulting in a highly resolved separation of the different components based on their pI. This technique is widely used in protein research for applications such as protein identification, characterization, and purification.

Quinolones are a class of antibacterial agents that are widely used in medicine to treat various types of infections caused by susceptible bacteria. These synthetic drugs contain a chemical structure related to quinoline and have broad-spectrum activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Quinolones work by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase or topoisomerase IV enzymes, which are essential for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, and repair.

The first quinolone antibiotic was nalidixic acid, discovered in 1962. Since then, several generations of quinolones have been developed, with each generation having improved antibacterial activity and a broader spectrum of action compared to the previous one. The various generations of quinolones include:

1. First-generation quinolones (e.g., nalidixic acid): Primarily used for treating urinary tract infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria.
2. Second-generation quinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin): These drugs have improved activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and are used to treat a wider range of infections, including respiratory, gastrointestinal, and skin infections.
3. Third-generation quinolones (e.g., levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, grepafloxacin): These drugs have enhanced activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including some anaerobes and atypical organisms like Legionella and Mycoplasma species.
4. Fourth-generation quinolones (e.g., moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin): These drugs have the broadest spectrum of activity, including enhanced activity against Gram-positive bacteria, anaerobes, and some methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains.

Quinolones are generally well-tolerated, but like all medications, they can have side effects. Common adverse reactions include gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), headache, and dizziness. Serious side effects, such as tendinitis, tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathy, and QT interval prolongation, are less common but can occur, particularly in older patients or those with underlying medical conditions. The use of quinolones should be avoided or used cautiously in these populations.

Quinolone resistance has become an increasing concern due to the widespread use of these antibiotics. Bacteria can develop resistance through various mechanisms, including chromosomal mutations and the acquisition of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes. The overuse and misuse of quinolones contribute to the emergence and spread of resistant strains, which can limit treatment options for severe infections caused by these bacteria. Therefore, it is essential to use quinolones judiciously and only when clinically indicated, to help preserve their effectiveness and prevent further resistance development.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Greece" is not a medical term or concept. Greece is a country located in southeastern Europe, known for its rich history, culture, and contributions to various fields including philosophy, politics, arts, and sciences. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I'd be happy to help.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Bacterial load refers to the total number or concentration of bacteria present in a given sample, tissue, or body fluid. It is a measure used to quantify the amount of bacterial infection or colonization in a particular area. The bacterial load can be expressed as colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter (ml), gram (g), or other units of measurement depending on the sample type. High bacterial loads are often associated with more severe infections and increased inflammation.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Cefoxitin is a type of antibiotic known as a cephamycin, which is a subclass of the larger group of antibiotics called cephalosporins. Cephalosporins are bactericidal agents that inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to and disrupting the function of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs).

Cefoxitin has a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including many strains that are resistant to other antibiotics. It is commonly used to treat infections caused by susceptible organisms such as:

* Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant S. aureus or MRSA)
* Streptococcus pneumoniae
* Escherichia coli
* Klebsiella spp.
* Proteus mirabilis
* Bacteroides fragilis and other anaerobic bacteria

Cefoxitin is available in both intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) formulations, and it is typically administered every 6 to 8 hours. The drug is generally well tolerated, but potential side effects include gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, as well as allergic reactions, including rash, pruritus, and anaphylaxis.

It's important to note that the use of antibiotics should be based on the results of bacterial cultures and susceptibility testing whenever possible, to ensure appropriate therapy and minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) infections refer to illnesses caused by the bacterium E. coli, which can cause a range of symptoms depending on the specific strain and site of infection. The majority of E. coli strains are harmless and live in the intestines of healthy humans and animals. However, some strains, particularly those that produce Shiga toxins, can cause severe illness.

E. coli infections can occur through various routes, including contaminated food or water, person-to-person contact, or direct contact with animals or their environments. Common symptoms of E. coli infections include diarrhea (often bloody), abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, complications such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) can occur, which may lead to kidney failure and other long-term health problems.

Preventing E. coli infections involves practicing good hygiene, cooking meats thoroughly, avoiding cross-contamination of food during preparation, washing fruits and vegetables before eating, and avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and juices. Prompt medical attention is necessary if symptoms of an E. coli infection are suspected to prevent potential complications.

Aerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that require oxygen to live and grow. These bacteria use oxygen as the final electron acceptor in their respiratory chain to generate energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Aerobic bacteria can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the air, as well as on the surfaces of living things. Some examples of aerobic bacteria include species of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Staphylococcus.

It's worth noting that some bacteria can switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen. These bacteria are called facultative anaerobes. In contrast, obligate anaerobes are bacteria that cannot tolerate oxygen and will die in its presence.

Flavobacterium is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in various environments such as water, soil, and associated with plants and animals. They are facultative anaerobes, which means they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. Some species of Flavobacterium are known to cause opportunistic infections in humans, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems. These infections can include respiratory tract infections, wound infections, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections). However, Flavobacterium infections are relatively rare in healthy individuals.

It's worth noting that while some species of Flavobacterium have been associated with human disease, many others are important members of the microbial community in various environments and play beneficial roles in biogeochemical cycles and food webs.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Cephalosporin resistance refers to the ability of bacteria to resist the antibacterial effects of cephalosporins, a group of widely used antibiotics. These drugs work by interfering with the bacterial cell wall synthesis, thereby inhibiting bacterial growth and reproduction. However, some bacteria have developed mechanisms that enable them to survive in the presence of cephalosporins.

There are several ways in which bacteria can become resistant to cephalosporins. One common mechanism is through the production of beta-lactamases, enzymes that can break down the beta-lactam ring structure of cephalosporins and other related antibiotics. This makes the drugs ineffective against the bacteria.

Another mechanism of resistance involves changes in the bacterial cell membrane or the penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) that prevent the binding of cephalosporins to their target sites. These changes can occur due to genetic mutations or the acquisition of new genes through horizontal gene transfer.

Cephalosporin resistance is a significant public health concern, as it can limit the treatment options for bacterial infections and increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. The overuse and misuse of antibiotics are major drivers of antibiotic resistance, including cephalosporin resistance. Therefore, it is essential to use these drugs judiciously and follow proper infection prevention and control measures to prevent the spread of resistant bacteria.

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a specific type of pneumonia that develops in patients who have been mechanically ventilated through an endotracheal tube for at least 48 hours. It is defined as a nosocomial pneumonia (healthcare-associated infection occurring >48 hours after admission) that occurs in this setting. VAP is typically caused by aspiration of pathogenic microorganisms from the oropharynx or stomach into the lower respiratory tract, and it can lead to significant morbidity and mortality.

The diagnosis of VAP is often challenging due to the overlap of symptoms with other respiratory conditions and the potential for contamination of lower respiratory samples by upper airway flora. Clinical criteria, radiographic findings, and laboratory tests, such as quantitative cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or protected specimen brush, are often used in combination to make a definitive diagnosis.

Preventing VAP is crucial in critically ill patients and involves several evidence-based strategies, including elevating the head of the bed, oral care with chlorhexidine, and careful sedation management to allow for spontaneous breathing trials and early extubation when appropriate.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

A "Teaching Hospital" is a healthcare institution that provides medical education and training to future healthcare professionals, such as medical students, residents, and fellows. These hospitals are often affiliated with medical schools or universities and have a strong focus on research and innovation in addition to patient care. They typically have a larger staff of specialized doctors and medical professionals who can provide comprehensive care for complex and rare medical conditions. Teaching hospitals also serve as important resources for their communities, providing access to advanced medical treatments and contributing to the development of new healthcare technologies and practices.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

Carbapenems are further broken down into groups with ertapenem being the lone member of group 1. Group 2 carbapenems (imipenem ... Effects of Group 1 versus Group 2 carbapenems on the susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii to carbapenems: a before and ... Carbapenem antibiotics were originally developed at Merck & Co. from the carbapenem thienamycin, a naturally derived product of ... such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and other carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae). The carbapenem ertapenem is one of several ...
Mancl and colleagues[2] noted that the decrease in VPA concentrations occurs within the first week of initiation of carbapenem ... What is the mechanism of the carbapenem and valproic acid drug interaction, and what should clinicians do to minimize patient ... As we move toward an era of multidrug-resistant organisms, broad-spectrum agents such as carbapenems will be the empiric drugs ... Park and colleagues[1] examined 6 cases of patients who received concomitant VPA and carbapenem antibiotic therapy for a ...
Yersinia enterocolitica (see the image below) is a bacterial species in the family Enterobacteriaceae that most often causes enterocolitis, acute diarrhea, terminal ileitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis, and pseudoappendicitis but, if it spreads systemically, can also result in fatal sepsis. {file37563}Signs and symptoms Symptoms of Y enterocoli...
Beta-Lactamases Carbapenems Cross Infection Disease Outbreaks Drug Resistance, Bacterial Hospitals Klebsiella Infections ... Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are untreatable or difficult-to-treat multidrug resistant organisms that are ... Title : New carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae warrant additional action by healthcare providers Corporate Authors(s) : ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.) "New carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae warrant additional action by ...
Carbapenems have a fused beta lactam ring that is resistant to most beta lactamases. The carbapenems have excellent activity ... However, most methicillin-resistant staphylococci are also resistant to carbapenems. Carbapenems have a safety profile similar ... The carbapenems, like other beta lactam antibiotics, bind to critical penicillin-binding proteins, disrupting the growth and ... The carbapenems are beta lactam antibiotics which have a broad spectrum of activity against many gram-positive and gram- ...
Among the β-lactams currently available, carbapenems are unique because they are relatively resistant to hydrolysis by most β- ... of carbapenem antibiotics and their role in our antimicrobial armamentarium. ... Carbapenem has a five-membered ring, as does penicillin, but it has a carbon at C-1 instead of sulfur. (D) Most carbapenems ... We describe the initial discovery and development of the carbapenem family of β-lactams. Of the early carbapenems evaluated, ...
Carbapenems: Dosing, Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Patient Handouts, Pricing and more from Medscape Reference ...
... ... Background: Owing to their resistance to an important class of antibiotics, the prevention and treatment of carbapenem- ... compared to patients with carbapenem-susceptible (CS) infections or no infection. Increased mortality was also seen in subgroup ...
The vast majority of carbapenem purchase (‎in DDD)‎ was imported (‎79.1%)‎. By 2018, among available carbapenems, the average ... and the price of carbapenem (‎presented in US dollar per DDD)‎. Results: There are four available carbapenems in Vietnam ... Purchase of Carbapenems in Vietnam, a Low- to Middle-Income Pharmaceutical Market with a High Burden of Antimicrobial Drug ... Introduction: Carbapenems are the last‑resort antibiotics used for the treatment of multidrug‑resistant bacterial infections. ...
ResearchGate is a network dedicated to science and research. Connect, collaborate and discover scientific publications, jobs and conferences. All for free.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has issued alerts regarding a new coronavirus and carbapenem-resistant ... NewsCap: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has issued alerts regarding a new coronavirus and carbapenem- ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has issued alerts regarding a new coronavirus and carbapenem-resistant ... CRE infections are of particular concern because carbapenems are considered last-resort antibiotics. In 2012, 18% of long-term ...
Carbapenems - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... Use of Carbapenems During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding When carbapenems were given to pregnant animals, no harmful effects on ... However, carbapenems have not been tested in pregnant women. (See also Drug Use During Pregnancy Drug Use During Pregnancy More ... Carbapenems must be given by injection. They are often used with aminoglycosides Aminoglycosides Aminoglycosides are a class of ...
Current Status of Carbapenem Antibiotics. Author(s): Mohammed I. El-Gamal and Chang-Hyun Oh Volume 10, Issue 18, 2010 ... Keywords: Carbapenems, β-lactams, β-lactamases, carbapenemases, nosocomial infections, community-acquired infections, multidrug ... Keywords: Carbapenems, β-lactams, β-lactamases, carbapenemases, nosocomial infections, community-acquired infections, multidrug ... In the late 1970s, a new class of exceptionally broad-spectrum non-traditional β-lactams, carbapenems, was developed. This ...
The vast majority of carbapenem purchase (‎in DDD)‎ was imported (‎79.1%)‎. By 2018, among available carbapenems, the average ... and the price of carbapenem (‎presented in US dollar per DDD)‎. Results: There are four available carbapenems in Vietnam ... Purchase of Carbapenems in Vietnam, a Low- to Middle-Income Pharmaceutical Market with a High Burden of Antimicrobial Drug ... Introduction: Carbapenems are the last‑resort antibiotics used for the treatment of multidrug‑resistant bacterial infections. ...
Adult Age Factors Beta-Lactam Resistance Carbapenems Child Child, Preschool Cross Infection Humans Infant Infant, Newborn ... "Risk Factors for Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Zhejiang Province, China" 25, no. 10 (2019). Hu, Yan-Yan et al. " ... Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa with acquired bla(vim) metallo-beta-lactamase determinants, Italy. Cite ... "Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa at US Emerging Infections Program Sites, 2015" vol. 25, no. 7, 2019. Export RIS ...
Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa with acquired bla(vim) metallo-beta-lactamase determinants, Italy ... Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa with acquired bla(vim) metallo-beta-lactamase determinants, Italy G M Rossolini, M ... Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa with acquired bla(vim) metallo-beta-lactamase determinants, Italy G M Rossolini et ... Emergence of carbapenem-hydrolysing metallo-beta-lactamase VIM-1 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates in France. Corvec S, Poirel ...
Brucellosis; Campylobacteriosis; Candida auris, clinical; Carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae; ... Brucellosis; Campylobacteriosis; Candida auris, clinical; Carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae; ... Brucellosis; Campylobacteriosis; Candida auris, clinical; Carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae; ...
However, data concerning carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in ready-to-eat fresh vegetables is still rare. In this ... This is also the first report of ST23 carbapenem-resistant hvKP strain in vegetables. ... Characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in ready-to-eat vegetables in China. Authors: Liu, Bao-Tao and Zhang ... However, data concerning carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in ready-to-eat fresh vegetables is still rare. In this ...
Return to Article Details Molecular typing and drug resistance analysis of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae from ...
Background Carbapenem-resistance in has turned into a global problem gradually. reviews. Background Carbapenem-resistance in ... We acquired Hyperoside IC50 transcriptome information from ATCC 17978 and its own carbapenem-selected mutants consequently, and ... The results of the present study will provide insight into the mechanisms underlying carbapenem resistance and their ... highlighting the potential importance of these genes in carbapenem resistance in Moreover, a rapid increase in ATCC 17978 area ...
"Infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter spp. are rising, whereas infections caused by carbapenem-resistant K. ... Clinical Outcomes and Trends of Patients with Carbapenem-Resistant Infections. May 7, 2018. Saskia v. Popescu ... Such findings are not only relevant for medical intervention and management of patients with carbapenem-resistant gram-negative ... Ultimately, the researchers noted epidemiologically relevant changes in carbapenem-resistant gram-negative sepsis between the ...
Percentage of invasive isolates of Escherichia coli with resistance to carbapenems, Categories: Antimicrobial resistance ... Carbapenem resistance was calculated as resistance (R) to at least one of the following antibiotics: imipenem and meropenem.. ... Indicator full name: Percentage of invasive isolates of Escherichia coli with resistance to carbapenems ... Percentage of invasive isolates of Escherichia coli with resistance to carbapenems (Map) ...
Beta-Lactamases Carbapenems Cross Infection Disease Outbreaks Drug Resistance, Bacterial Hospitals Klebsiella Infections ... Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are untreatable or difficult-to-treat multidrug resistant organisms that are ... Title : New carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae warrant additional action by healthcare providers Corporate Authors(s) : ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.) "New carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae warrant additional action by ...
Access the 2018 Carbapenemase Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE) case definition; uniform criteria used ... Novel Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing Beta-Lactamase, KPC-1, from a Carbapenem-Resistant Strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrobial ... Carbapenemase Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE). 2018 Case Definition Print NOTE: A surveillance case ... Carbapenemase Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE) is defined as E. coli, Klebsiella spp., or ...
Carbapenem Antibiotics. A clinically significant reduction in serum valproic acid concentration has been reported in patients ... Serum valproic acid concentrations should be monitored frequently after initiating carbapenem therapy. Alternative ... receiving carbapenem antibiotics (for example, ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem; this is not a complete list) and may result in ...
Using whole genome sequencing to investigate a mock-outbreak of carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae in real-time. In: ... Using whole genome sequencing to investigate a mock-outbreak of carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae in real-time. Acta ... Using whole genome sequencing to investigate a mock-outbreak of carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae in real-time. / ... Dive into the research topics of Using whole genome sequencing to investigate a mock-outbreak of carbapenem-resistant ...
  • Similar to penicillins and cephalosporins, carbapenems are members of the beta-lactam antibiotics drug class, which kill bacteria by binding to penicillin-binding proteins, thus inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • medical citation needed] Carbapenem antibiotics were originally developed at Merck & Co. from the carbapenem thienamycin, a naturally derived product of Streptomyces cattleya. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various types of β-lactam antibiotics, for example carbapenems, contain β-lactam rings in their structures and can be inactivated by β-lactamase enzymes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Carbapenems are strong antibiotics that are commonly used to treat serious infections. (clickpress.com)
  • Beta-lactam antibiotics include Cephalosporins, Penicillins, monobactams and Carbapenems. (clickpress.com)
  • Increase in the number of people requiring inpatient medical assistance, growing number of healthcare facilities, increased number of complex surgeries, multiple use of several antibiotics and rise in use of medical devices in the body, such as urinary catheters, intravenous catheters and ventilators, are few of the major factors responsible for growth in the Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae testing market. (clickpress.com)
  • Carbapenemases are a versatile group of Ã�-lactamases that are characterised by their resistance to virtually all Ã�-lactam antibiotics including cephalosporins and carbapenems, complicating therapy and limiting treatment options. (omicsonline.org)
  • Carbapenem class antibiotics are often used in this setting and carbapenem resistance has emerged. (eur.nl)
  • Carbapenems are last-resort antibiotics for treating severe infections caused by MDR Enterobacteriaceae [ 3 ]. (biorxiv.org)
  • Carbapenem antibiotics are atypical β-lactam antibiotics with the broadest antibacterial spectrum and the strongest antibacterial activity and have become one of the most important antibacterial drugs for the treatment of serious bacterial infections because of their stability to β-lactamases and low toxicity. (e-cspc.com)
  • Carbapenems are broad-spectrum antibiotics. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Like other beta-lactam antibiotics, carbapenems work by preventing bacteria from forming this cell wall, resulting in death of the bacteria. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is defined as a textquotedblleftcriticaltextquotedblright priority pathogen for the development of new antibiotics. (pacb.com)
  • Timely identification of carbapenem-resistant organisms is crucial to orient antibiotics and save lives. (biomerieuxconnection.com)
  • Australia: New antibiotics are similar to carbapenems in terms of safety and clinical response for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs), according to a recent study published in the journal Open Forum Infectious Diseases. (medicaldialogues.in)
  • This systematic review and meta-analysis by Yukiko Ezure, University of Queensland, UQ Centre for Clinical Research, Brisbane, Australia, and colleagues evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of carbapenems for the treatment of cUTIs with the comparators being new antibiotics evaluated for this indication. (medicaldialogues.in)
  • However, it is noteworthy that the clinical response and safety profile of new antibiotics were not different from carbapenems," concluded the authors. (medicaldialogues.in)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen with increasing incidence of multidrug-resistant strains, including resistance to last-resort antibiotics, such as carbapenems. (unit.no)
  • The carbapenem group of antibiotics is the last resort for antibiotic-resistant infections and is approved for children. (michiganradio.org)
  • But carbapenems are not widely used because they're expensive, they're administered by IV - and doctors are concerned that bacteria could develop resistance to these antibiotics. (michiganradio.org)
  • Concern has arisen in recent years over increasing rates of resistance to carbapenems, as there are few therapeutic options for treating infections caused by carbapenem-resistant bacteria (such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and other carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae). (wikipedia.org)
  • The carbapenems imipenem and meropenem are recommended by the American Thoracic Society and the Infectious Disease Society of America as one of several first-line therapy options for people with late-onset hospital-acquired or ventilator-associated pneumonia, especially when Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, or extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae are suspected pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are a major concern for patients in healthcare facilities. (cdc.gov)
  • We evaluated the number of deaths attributable to care facilities around the world ( 6 - 13 ), and in some plac- carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae by using studies es, CRE have become endemic ( 14 - 18 ). (cdc.gov)
  • DeathsAttributabletoCRE Enterobacteriaceae with susceptible isolates) were excluded, as were studies Statistical Analysis that compared patients who had carbapenem-resistant in- We calculated pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs fections with patients who were not infected. (cdc.gov)
  • These are called Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. (clickpress.com)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae Testing Market is considered to be a gram-negative pathogen testing. (clickpress.com)
  • A few infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae outside the bowel include wound infection, urinary tract infection (UTI) and pneumonia. (clickpress.com)
  • People prone to Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae include people admitted to hospitals or other healthcare settings. (clickpress.com)
  • Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae testing includes disc diffusion or automated systems, selective agar Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae testing, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae testing, synergy Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae testing, modified Hodge tests, whole genome sequencing, spectrometrics and various other molecular methods. (clickpress.com)
  • People admitted to any healthcare setting for medical care are more prone to infection and to go for Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae testing than healthy people. (clickpress.com)
  • Growing awareness about prevention of Carbapenem resistance and increased efforts by governments through the implementation of infection prevention and control measures might hinder the growth of the Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae testing market during the forecast period. (clickpress.com)
  • In Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae Testing, Modified Hodge tests are anticipated to be one of the leading test types for Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae testing because of high accuracy of test results. (clickpress.com)
  • These tests are easy to perform and can be performed in a routine laboratory, which makes them more feasible and thus, one of the leading test types in Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae testing market. (clickpress.com)
  • Healthcare settings, such as nursing homes and acute care centers, where constant medical care is required for a longer duration of time are more prone to CRE and thus, the demand for Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae testing is higher in these settings. (clickpress.com)
  • According to The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), by 2013 Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae was found in almost 42 states. (clickpress.com)
  • CDC also stated that enterobacteriaceae proportion of Carbapenem-resistance has consistently increased and has increased four-fold in the past ten years. (clickpress.com)
  • However, the breakout of CRE in the northeast spread through the US, thereby boosting the market for Carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae testing in the region. (clickpress.com)
  • The aim of this study was to characterise the molecular mechanism of resistance in the clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae causing bacteremia and showing resistance to β-lactams, including carbapenems. (omicsonline.org)
  • In this work, we studied the antimicrobial resistance and performed a comparative genomics analysis of ten CR- Kp isolates from the Chilean surveillance of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae . (biorxiv.org)
  • There is no vaccine information available for Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). (phila.gov)
  • There are no patient or community resources for Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). (phila.gov)
  • There are no posters for Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). (phila.gov)
  • Leaders in infectious disease and infection control can use this toolkit to develop interventions to control carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). (ahrq.gov)
  • Therefore, our study aimed to describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of patients with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in a referral hospital in a developing country . (bvsalud.org)
  • Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase produc- ing Enterobacteriaceae was found in 37.5% (54) isolates and carbapenem resistant bacteria were identified in 27.8% of patients. (who.int)
  • Several outbreaks caused by carbapenem-resistant Italian, Spanish, or Greek were not evaluated. (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusion High number of resistant microorganisms was isolated, and increased mortality was documented from infections caused by carbapenem-resistant bacteria. (who.int)
  • We here describe the epidemiology of carbapenem-non-susceptible Acinetobacter baumannii (CNAB), Klebsiella pneumoniae (CNKP) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CNPA) in two ICUs in the National Referral Hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia. (eur.nl)
  • Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa K34-7, a carbapenem-resistant isolate of the high-risk sequence type 233. (pacb.com)
  • Surprisingly, however, national antibiotic consumption was not significantly associated with resistance for the majority of bacteria tested (except for quinolone consumption for fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and carbapenem consumption for carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii ). (pasteur.fr)
  • Phenotypic and molecular detecting of carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Najaf Hospitals (Doctoral dissertation, PhD Thesis. (edu.iq)
  • Aside from the vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecum and the carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa , nothing is on the rise," said Eckmanns. (medscape.com)
  • 0.10 was for infected patients from those for colonized patients and defined to indicate the presence of heterogeneity) and studies that reported on isolates resistant to a carbapenem the I 2 index (for assessing the degree of heterogeneity) other than imipenem, meropenem, or doripenem. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbapenems, including meropenem, can be used for the treatment of meningitis. (medscape.com)
  • A broad-spectrum carbapenem antibiotic, meropenem inhibits cell wall synthesis and has bactericidal activity. (medscape.com)
  • This study describes the proteomic responses of two carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains of high-risk clones ST235 and ST395 to subminimal inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of meropenem by identifying differentially regulated proteins and pathways. (unit.no)
  • Sub-MICs of meropenem cause marked changes in the proteomes of carbapenem-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa exhibiting different resistance mechanisms, involving a wide range of proteins, many uncharacterized, which might play a role in the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to meropenem. (unit.no)
  • Only azithromycin, members of the carbapenem class, and tigecycline remain effective against XDR isolates. (medscape.com)
  • Carbapenemases are a class of enzymes that can confer earchbasic) databases on April 9, 2012, by using the fol- resistance to carbapenems and other -lactam antibiotic lowing search terms: carbapenem-resistant or carbapen- drugs, but not all carbapenemase-producing isolates are emase-producing or KPC and outcome or mortality. (cdc.gov)
  • A total of 110 clinical isolates of A. baumannii , collected in a recent 2-year period, were tested for carbapenem antibiotic susceptibility, followed by a molecular analysis of carbapenemase genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sixty-seven of the 110 isolates (60.9%) were resistant to carbapenems, 80.60% (54/67) of which carried the bla OXA-23 gene. (frontiersin.org)
  • Isolates of E.coli (n=42) and K. pneumoniae (n=134) from blood culture collected during 2013-2015 were screened for carbapenemase production by using carba NP test and the presence of carbapenem resistant genes (KPC, IMP, VIM, NDM and OXA- 48 like). (omicsonline.org)
  • Detection of NDM-1 and VIM Genes in Carbapenem-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from a Tertiary Health-Care Center in Kathmandu, Nepal. (tropmedres.ac)
  • Overall, AST detected 60.34% (35/58) carbapenem-resistant isolates, while the MHT phenotypically confirmed 51.72% (30/58) isolates as carbapenemase-producers and 48.28% (28/58) as carbapenemase nonproducers. (tropmedres.ac)
  • In the same assay among 28 carbapenem nonproducing isolates, 9 (32.14%) isolates were positive for blaNDM-1 gene while none of them were tested positive for blaVIM gene.ConclusionsMolecular detection of resistant genes provides greater specificity and sensitivity than those with conventional techniques, thus aiding in accurate identification of antimicrobial resistance and clinical management of the disease. (tropmedres.ac)
  • Almost all carbapenem-resistant isolates were sporadic cases of hyperproduction of a beta-lactamase (AmpC or ESBL) combined with porin loss. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The modified Hodge test was used to identify carbapenem-resistant isolates, which detects the probability of isolates being able to produce carbapenemases enzyme and out of the isolates, 11 (33.3%) were Hodge positive. (edu.iq)
  • The bla IMP gene (578 bp) was the most frequently detected MBL gene, being present in 15 (45.5%) of the carbapenem-resistant isolates. (edu.iq)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) presents a serious therapeutic and infection control challenge. (frontiersin.org)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is a type of bacteria commonly found in the environment, especially in soil and water. (mn.us)
  • A carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter pittii strain carrying an OXA-24-like enzyme was isolated in northern Spain in 2008. (unifesp.br)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), is an opportunistic pathogen primarily associated with hospital-acquired infections. (sterifre.com)
  • Acinetobacter species with a combined resistance against fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and carbapenems make up 4% of the total in Germany. (medscape.com)
  • The carbapenem ertapenem is one of several first-line agents recommended by the Infectious Disease Society of America for the empiric treatment of community-acquired intra-abdominal infections of mild-to-moderate severity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Towards optimizing carbapenem selection in stewardship strategies: a prospective propensity score-matched study of ertapenem versus class 2 carbapenems for empirical treatment of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacterales bacteraemia. (altmetric.com)
  • Selecting ertapenem has been proposed as a strategy to reduce carbapenem resistance development. (altmetric.com)
  • To compare the efficacy of empirical ertapenem and class 2 carbapenems for the treatment of 3GCRE bacteraemia. (altmetric.com)
  • Empirical carbapenems were prescribed in 427/1032 (41%) patients with 3GCRE bacteraemia, of whom 221 received ertapenem and 206 received class 2 carbapenems. (altmetric.com)
  • Ertapenem may be of comparable efficacy to class 2 carbapenems in the empirical treatment of 3GCRE bacteraemia. (altmetric.com)
  • to penicillins have an allergic reaction to carbapenems. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Carbapenems are structurally related to penicillins and have broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. (medscape.com)
  • Penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems and monobactams all inhibit peptidoglycan cross-linking through interaction of the common β-lactam ring with the transpeptidase enzymes. (pharmacy180.com)
  • Background: To investigate the resistance mechanism of Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kpn) resistant to carbapenems. (biomedres.info)
  • Six isolated strains were identified and collected, which were resistant to carbapenems using modified Hodge test. (biomedres.info)
  • Another example is the proportion of K pneumoniae , which are resistant to carbapenems. (medscape.com)
  • Carbapenems are less commonly used in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, as community-acquired strains of the most common responsible pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenazae, atypical bacteria, and Enterobactericeace) are typically susceptible to narrower spectrum and/or orally administered agents such as fluoroquinolones, amoxicillin, or azithromycin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbapenems exhibit broad spectrum activity against gram-negative bacteria and somewhat narrower activity against gram-positive bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spectrum of activity of the carbapenems against gram-positive bacteria is fairly broad, but not as exceptionally so as in the case of gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The emergence and spread of carbapenem-hydrolysing ß-lactamases amongst gram-negative bacteria over the past decade represents a serious issue in the hospital environment. (aid-diagnostika.com)
  • Modifiable risk factors associated with later gut decolonization of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in children: A prospective cohort study. (qxmd.com)
  • Age 65 years, presence of septic shock, and presence of carbapenem-resistant bacteria were independently associated with in- creased in-hospital mortality. (who.int)
  • With the global spread of carbapenem-resistant organisms, there is an urgent need for new treatment options. (doe.gov)
  • This study evaluated the clonal spread of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa producing SPM-1 type metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL), at the university hospital of Florianopolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, compared to an epidemic clone previously reported, as well as strains collected in other three Brazilian states. (unifesp.br)
  • Serious concur- fromaroundtheworldpublishedbeforeApril9,2012.At- rent conditions ( 3 , 4 , 19 - 22 ) and prior use of fluoroquino- tributabledeathwasdefinedasthedifferenceinall-cause lones ( 20 , 23 , 24 ), carbapenems ( 22 , 25 ), or broad-spectrum deaths between patients with carbapenem-resistant infec- cephalosporins ( 20 , 22 ) have been independently associated tions and those with carbapenem-susceptible infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of patients with carbapenem-resistant enterobacterales infections: experience from a large tertiary care center in a developing country. (bvsalud.org)
  • Because of its weak hydrolytic acivity against broad spectrum cephalosporin and carbapenems, these may go undetected in routine screening. (omicsonline.org)
  • Purpose We aimed to assess broad-spectrum beta-lactam prescriptions (except carbapenems) and the impact of controlled dispensing, antimicrobial management team and antibiotic treatment reassessment in 48-72 hours. (bmj.com)
  • This antibiotic study guide on carbapenems and fluoroquinolones is the perfect resource to help students prepare for the pharmacy technician certification exam! (pharmprepdocs.com)
  • Everything you need to know about carbapenems and fluoroquinolones is in this study guide! (pharmprepdocs.com)
  • From learning about specific carbapenems and fluoroquinolones and their uses, to how they are administered, there is so much information needed to know before taking the exam. (pharmprepdocs.com)
  • Written by an experienced pharmacist, this study guide has everything you need to know about carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. (pharmprepdocs.com)
  • Start studying today with this Antibiotic Study Guide: Carbapenems and Fluoroquinolones for the Pharmacy Technician Certification Exam (PTCB Exam, ExCPT, or PTCE)! (pharmprepdocs.com)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae makes up under 1%, and E coli with a combined resistance against third-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides is around 3%, following a decline in the last 3-4 years. (medscape.com)
  • Multidrug and carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CR- Kp ) are considered critical threats to global health and key traffickers of resistance genes to other pathogens. (biorxiv.org)
  • Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae , particularly carbapenem-resistant strains (CR- Kp ) causing high mortality and morbidity, are critical concerns[ 1 ]. (biorxiv.org)
  • The most concerning carbapenem resistance mechanism corresponds to carbapenem-inactivating beta-lactamases, especially the K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) distributed worldwide, showing the highest prevalence. (biorxiv.org)
  • The main objective of this study was to detect the carbapenem-resistant genes blaNDM-1 and blaVIM in K. pneumoniae isolated from different clinical specimens.MethodsA total of 585 clinical specimens (urine, pus, sputum, blood, catheter tips, and others) from human subjects attended at Annapurna Neurological Institute and Allied Sciences, Kathmandu were obtained in the period between July 2018 and January 2019. (tropmedres.ac)
  • Conclusion: We thought that the key factor of the resistance mechanism to carbapenem for Klebsiella pneumoniae maybe these pathogens contain blaKPC-2 gene. (biomedres.info)
  • If you take the K pneumoniae resistance to carbapenems, for example, which is under 1% in Germany, then this is actually comparable in almost every country in northwest Europe," said Eckmanns. (medscape.com)
  • KPC prévalence de la non sensibilité à l'ertapénème dans un hôpital de soins tertiaires en Égypte était principalement imputable aux mécanismes de résistance médiés par les carbapénèmases dans les isolats de K. pneumoniae . (who.int)
  • Furthermore, carbapenems are typically unaffected by emerging antibiotic resistance, even to other beta-lactams. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is generally believed that OXA-23 is responsible for carbapenem antibiotic resistance. (frontiersin.org)
  • To understand the main determinants behind worldwide antibiotic resistance dynamics, scientists from the Institut Pasteur, Inserm, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines and Université Paris-Saclay developed a statistical model based on a large-scale spatial-temporal analysis. (pasteur.fr)
  • strain CCUG 70744 carries no known acquired carbapenem-resistance genes and exhibits 'non-classical' carbapenem-resistance. (unit.no)
  • En comparaison avec d'autres études, la prévalence de P. Aeruginosa dans les piscines était relativement faible, et le profil d'antibiorésistance de ces isolats communautaires était peu élevé. (who.int)
  • Of particular concern is resistance to carbapenem, which is an antimicrobial agent listed as critically important by the World Health Organization. (doe.gov)
  • Third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacterales (3GCRE) are increasing in prevalence, leading to greater carbapenem consumption. (altmetric.com)
  • Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales has been found in Texas. (texas.gov)
  • Carbapenem -resistant Enterobacterales (CREs) are a significant source of healthcare -associated infections . (bvsalud.org)
  • The analysis of global data for the period 2006-2019 initially revealed an increase in resistance to carbapenems for several species, although global trends were stable for other resistances. (pasteur.fr)
  • reported the dissemination of MDR OXA-23-producing A. baumannii clones throughout multiple cities in China, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems in western China. (frontiersin.org)
  • We feel it is likely that drugs with antianaerobic activity, like carbapenems, have a deleterious effect on the vaginal flora. (medicaldialogues.in)
  • The above illustration depicts a molecular model for a carbapenem drug. (michiganradio.org)
  • Adult patients with monomicrobial 3GCRE bacteraemia receiving carbapenems within 24 h were included at two hospitals in Thailand. (altmetric.com)
  • the finding of a unique SPM-1 producer clone suggests that its dissemination has contributed to the high resistance to carbapenems in Brazilian hospitals. (unifesp.br)
  • Carbapenems inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to penicillin-binding proteins. (medscape.com)
  • THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain. (wakehealth.edu)
  • Resistance to carbapenem is mostly conferred by metallo β-lactamase (IMP, VIM and NDM) and carbapenem hydrolyzing class D β-lactamase (OXA-48 like). (omicsonline.org)
  • Carbapenems are a class of very effective antibiotic agents most commonly used for the treatment of severe bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbapenems are used as the last resort for the treatment of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. (tropmedres.ac)
  • Carbapenems are a type of antibiotic commonly used to treat severe infections. (texas.gov)
  • For bloodstream infections known to be due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceace, carbapenems are superior to alternative treatments. (wikipedia.org)
  • But neww antibiotic treatments showed a superior microbiological response compared to carbapenems.This systematic review and. (medicaldialogues.in)
  • A pooled estimate examining clinical response alone showed no difference between treatment arms (RR=1.00), however, new antibiotic treatments were superior to carbapenems for microbiological response (RR=0.85). (medicaldialogues.in)
  • New antibiotic treatments demonstrated a superior microbiological response compared to carbapenems in clinical trials of cUTI, despite an absence of carbapenem resistance. (medicaldialogues.in)

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