Carbamyl Phosphate: The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Ammonia): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC 6.3.4.16.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Glutamine-Hydrolyzing): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and glutamine. This enzyme is important in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. EC 6.3.5.5.Carbamates: Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Dihydroorotase: An enzyme that, in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes ring closure by removal of water from N-carbamoylaspartate to yield dihydro-orotic acid. EC 3.5.2.3.Aspartate Carbamoyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of carbamoyl phosphate and L-aspartate to yield orthophosphate and N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.3.2.Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase: A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Argininosuccinate Synthase: An enzyme of the urea cycle that catalyzes the formation of argininosuccinic acid from citrulline and aspartic acid in the presence of ATP. Absence or deficiency of this enzyme causes the metabolic disease CITRULLINEMIA in humans. EC 6.3.4.5.Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.GlyoxalGlutaminaseUracil NucleotidesPhosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate: The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.Uridine Monophosphate: 5'-Uridylic acid. A uracil nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.Carboxyl and Carbamoyl Transferases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of carboxyl- or carbamoyl- groups. EC 2.1.3.CitrullineAcetyleneOrganophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Amino-Acid N-Acetyltransferase: A mitochondrial matrix enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of L-GLUTAMATE to N-acetyl-L-glutamate in the presence of ACETYL-COA.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Phosphonoacetic Acid: A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Glucose-6-Phosphate: An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases: Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Sugar PhosphatesUracilLiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Oligomycins: A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Orotic AcidCricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate: An aldotriose which is an important intermediate in glycolysis and in tryptophan biosynthesis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Pentose Phosphate Pathway: An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseMacromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate: An important intermediate in lipid biosynthesis and in glycolysis.Phosphate Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins that are involved in the active transport of phosphate.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase: An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.GlucosephosphatesGlycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.Sphingosine: An amino alcohol with a long unsaturated hydrocarbon chain. Sphingosine and its derivative sphinganine are the major bases of the sphingolipids in mammals. (Dorland, 28th ed)PentosephosphatesGlycerophosphates: Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.HexosephosphatesPlasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Lysophospholipids: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.Phosphate-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.Ribosemonophosphates: Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates: Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.

Ca-releasing action of beta, gamma-methylene adenosine triphosphate on fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum. (1/122)

beta,gamma-Methylene adenosine triphosphate (AMPOPCP) has two effects on fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum (FSR), i.e., inhibition of the rate of Ca uptake and the induction of Ca release from FSR filled with Ca. The Ca release brought about by AMPOPCP has many features in common with the mechanism of Ca-induced Ca release: i) it is inhibited by 10 mM procaine; ii) the amount of Ca release increases with increase in the extent of saturation of FSR with Ca; iii) increase of the Ca concentration in the extent of saturation of FSR with Ca; iii) increase of the Ca concentration in the medium facilitates the release of Ca. However, no facilitation of Ca release upon decrease of Mg concentration in the medium is observable. AMPOPCP and caffeine potentiate each other remarkably in their Ca-releasing action, irrespective of the kind of substrate. From the mode of action of AMPOPCP on the rate of Ca uptake, the amount of phosphorylated intermediate (EP), and the effect on Sr release, it is suggested that the state of the FSR-ATP complex is crucial for Ca-induced Ca release.  (+info)

Channeling of carbamoyl phosphate to the pyrimidine and arginine biosynthetic pathways in the deep sea hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi. (2/122)

The kinetics of the coupled reactions between carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (CPSase) and both aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) and ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTCase) from the deep sea hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi demonstrate the existence of carbamoyl phosphate channeling in both the pyrimidine and arginine biosynthetic pathways. Isotopic dilution experiments and coupled reaction kinetics analyzed within the context of the formalism proposed by Ovadi et al. (Ovadi, J., Tompa, P., Vertessy, B., Orosz, F., Keleti, T., and Welch, G. R. (1989) Biochem. J. 257, 187-190) are consistent with a partial channeling of the intermediate at 37 degrees C, but channeling efficiency increases dramatically at elevated temperatures. There is no preferential partitioning of carbamoyl phosphate between the arginine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Gel filtration chromatography at high and low temperature and in the presence and absence of substrates did not reveal stable complexes between P. abyssi CPSase and either ATCase or OTCase. Thus, channeling must occur during the dynamic association of coupled enzymes pairs. The interaction of CPSase-ATCase was further demonstrated by the unexpectedly weak inhibition of the coupled reaction by the bisubstrate analog, N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA). The anomalous effect of PALA suggests that, in the coupled reaction, the effective concentration of carbamoyl phosphate in the vicinity of the ATCase active site is 96-fold higher than the concentration in the bulk phase. Channeling probably plays an essential role in protecting this very unstable intermediate of metabolic pathways performing at extreme temperatures.  (+info)

Carbamate kinase: New structural machinery for making carbamoyl phosphate, the common precursor of pyrimidines and arginine. (3/122)

The enzymes carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) and carbamate kinase (CK) make carbamoyl phosphate in the same way: by ATP-phosphorylation of carbamate. The carbamate used by CK is made chemically, whereas CPS itself synthesizes its own carbamate in a process involving the phosphorylation of bicarbonate. Bicarbonate and carbamate are analogs and the phosphorylations are carried out by homologous 40 kDa regions of the 120 kDa CPS polypeptide. CK can also phosphorylate bicarbonate and is a homodimer of a 33 kDa subunit that was believed to resemble the 40 kDa regions of CPS. Such belief is disproven now by the CK structure reported here. The structure does not conform to the biotin carboxylase fold found in the 40 kDa regions of CPS, and presents a new type of fold possibly shared by homologous acylphosphate-making enzymes. A molecular 16-stranded open beta-sheet surrounded by alpha-helices is the hallmark of the CK dimer. Each subunit also contains two smaller sheets and a large crevice found at the location expected for the active center. Intersubunit interactions are very large and involve a central hydrophobic patch and more hydrophilic peripheral contacts. The crevice holds a sulfate that may occupy the site of an ATP phosphate, and is lined by conserved residues. Site-directed mutations tested at two of these residues inactivate the enzyme. These findings support active site location in the crevice. The orientation of the crevices in the dimer precludes their physical cooperation in the catalytic process. Such cooperation is not needed in the CK reaction but is a requirement of the mechanism of CPSs.  (+info)

The carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase of Pyrococcus furiosus is enzymologically and structurally a carbamate kinase. (4/122)

The hyperthermophiles Pyrococcus furiosus and Pyrococcus abyssi make pyrimidines and arginine from carbamoyl phosphate (CP) synthesized by an enzyme that differs from other carbamoyl-phosphate synthetases and that resembles carbamate kinase (CK) in polypeptide mass, amino acid sequence, and oligomeric organization. This enzyme was reported to use ammonia, bicarbonate, and two ATP molecules as carbamoyl-phosphate synthetases to make CP and to exhibit bicarbonatedependent ATPase activity. We have reexamined these findings using the enzyme of P. furiosus expressed in Escherichia coli from the corresponding gene cloned in a plasmid. We show that the enzyme uses chemically made carbamate rather than ammonia and bicarbonate and catalyzes a reaction with the stoichiometry and equilibrium that are typical for CK. Furthermore, the enzyme catalyzes actively full reversion of the CK reaction and exhibits little bicarbonate-dependent ATPase. In addition, it cross-reacts with antibodies raised against CK from Enterococcus faecium, and its three-dimensional structure, judged by x-ray crystallography of enzyme crystals, is very similar to that of CK. Thus, the enzyme is, in all respects other than its function in vivo, a CK. Because in other organisms the function of CK is to make ATP from ADP and CP derived from arginine catabolism, this is the first example of using CK for making rather than using CP. The reasons for this use and the adaptation of the enzyme to this new function are discussed.  (+info)

Half of Saccharomyces cerevisiae carbamoyl phosphate synthetase produces and channels carbamoyl phosphate to the fused aspartate transcarbamoylase domain. (5/122)

The first two steps of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are catalyzed by a 240-kDa bifunctional protein encoded by the ura2 locus. Although the constituent enzymes, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPSase) and aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) function independently, there are interdomain interactions uniquely associated with the multifunctional protein. Both CPSase and ATCase are feedback inhibited by UTP. Moreover, the intermediate carbamoyl phosphate is channeled from the CPSase domain where it is synthesized to the ATCase domain where it is used in the synthesis of carbamoyl aspartate. To better understand these processes, a recombinant plasmid was constructed that encoded a protein lacking the amidotransferase domain and the amino half of the CPSase domain, a 100-kDa chain segment. The truncated complex consisted of the carboxyl half of the CPSase domain fused to the ATCase domain via the pDHO domain, an inactive dihydroorotase homologue that bridges the two functional domains in the native molecule. Not only was the "half CPSase" catalytically active, but it was regulated by UTP to the same extent as the parent molecule. In contrast, the ATCase domain was no longer sensitive to the nucleotide, suggesting that the two catalytic activities are controlled by distinct mechanisms. Most remarkably, isotope dilution and transient time measurements showed that the truncated complex channels carbamoyl phosphate. The overall CPSase-ATCase reaction is much less sensitive than the parent molecule to the ATCase bisubstrate analogue, N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate (PALA), providing evidence that the endogenously produced carbamoyl phosphate is sequestered and channeled to the ATCase active site.  (+info)

Studies of hepatic glutamine metabolism in the perfused rat liver with (15)N-labeled glutamine. (6/122)

This study examines the role of glucagon and insulin in the incorporation of (15)N derived from (15)N-labeled glutamine into aspartate, citrulline and, thereby, [(15)N]urea isotopomers. Rat livers were perfused, in the nonrecirculating mode, with 0.3 mM NH(4)Cl and either 2-(15)N- or 5-(15)N-labeled glutamine (1 mM). The isotopic enrichment of the two nitrogenous precursor pools (ammonia and aspartate) involved in urea synthesis as well as the production of [(15)N]urea isotopomers were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This information was used to examine the hypothesis that 5-N of glutamine is directly channeled to carbamyl phosphate (CP) synthesis. The results indicate that the predominant metabolic fate of [2-(15)N] and [5-(15)N]glutamine is incorporation into urea. Glucagon significantly stimulated the uptake of (15)N-labeled glutamine and its metabolism via phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) to form U(m+1) and U(m+2) (urea containing one or two atoms of (15)N). However, insulin had little effect compared with control. The [5-(15)N]glutamine primarily entered into urea via ammonia incorporation into CP, whereas the [2-(15)N]glutamine was predominantly incorporated via aspartate. This is evident from the relative enrichments of aspartate and of citrulline generated from each substrate. Furthermore, the data indicate that the (15)NH(3) that was generated in the mitochondria by either PDG (from 5-(15)N) or glutamate dehydrogenase (from 2-(15)N) enjoys the same partition between incorporation into CP or exit from the mitochondria. Thus, there is no evidence for preferential access for ammonia that arises by the action of PDG to carbamyl-phosphate synthetase. To the contrary, we provide strong evidence that such ammonia is metabolized without any such metabolic channeling. The glucagon-induced increase in [(15)N]urea synthesis was associated with a significant elevation in hepatic N-acetylglutamate concentration. Therefore, the hormonal regulation of [(15)N]urea isotopomer production depends upon the coordinate action of the mitochondrial PDG pathway and the synthesis of N-acetylglutamate (an obligatory activator of CP). The current study may provide the theoretical and methodological foundations for in vivo investigations of the relationship between the hepatic urea cycle enzyme activities, the flux of (15)N-labeled glutamine into the urea cycle, and the production of urea isotopomers.  (+info)

Substitutions in the aspartate transcarbamoylase domain of hamster CAD disrupt oligomeric structure. (7/122)

Aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase; EC 2.1.3.2) is one of three enzymatic domains of CAD, a protein whose native structure is usually a hexamer of identical subunits. Alanine substitutions for the ATCase residues Asp-90 and Arg-269 were generated in a bicistronic vector that encodes a 6-histidine-tagged hamster CAD. Stably transfected mammalian cells expressing high levels of CAD were easily isolated and CAD purification was simplified over previous procedures. The substitutions reduce the ATCase V(max) of the altered CADs by 11-fold and 46-fold, respectively, as well as affect the enzyme's affinity for aspartate. At 25 mM Mg(2+), these substitutions cause the oligomeric CAD to dissociate into monomers. Under the same dissociating conditions, incubating the altered CAD with the ATCase substrate carbamoyl phosphate or the bisubstrate analogue N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate unexpectedly leads to the reformation of hexamers. Incubation with the other ATCase substrate, aspartate, has no effect. These results demonstrate that the ATCase domain is central to hexamer formation in CAD and suggest that the ATCase reaction mechanism is ordered in the same manner as the Escherichia coli ATCase. Finally, the data indicate that the binding of carbamoyl phosphate induces conformational changes that enhance the interaction of CAD subunits.  (+info)

Antitumor activity of N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartic acid, a transition-state inhibitor of aspartate transcarbamylase. (8/122)

N-(Phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA) is an analog of the transition state for the aspartate transcarbamylase reaction and has been reported previously to be a potent and specific inhibitor of de novo pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. It is now shown that PALA has considerable antitumor activity against certain transplantable tumors in mice. PALA, unlike other antimetabolites, was less effective against ascitic leukemias than against two solid tumors, B16 melanoma and Lewis lung carcinoma. Another solid tumor, Ridgway osteogenic sarcoma, which is sensitivie to many established chemotherapeutic agents, did not respond to PALA. Daily or intermittent treatment with PALA did not significantly increase the life-span of mice bearing i.p. leukemia L1210. The survival time of mice bearing i.p. P388 leukemia was prolonged by PALA treatment by up to 64%. In a number of experiments mice bearing i.p. B16 melanoma survived 77 to 86% longer than did controls when treated with PALA (490 mg/kg) on Days 1, 5, and 9. Lewis lung carcinoma, a tumor refractory to most established antineoplastic agents, was highly sensitive to PALA. Treatment on Days 1, 5, and 9 following s.c. implantation of Lewis lung carcinoma was curative to 50% of the mice. If treatment was delayed until s.c. Lewis lung tumors had reached about 500 mg, PALA neither cured the mice nor produced significant tumor regression. However, extensive delay of tumor growth and prolongation of survival were still observed.  (+info)

Define carbamyl. carbamyl synonyms, carbamyl pronunciation, carbamyl translation, English dictionary definition of carbamyl. n a radical, NH2CO, that is derived from carbamic acid
Rate limiting enzymes Glycolysis- Phosphofructokinase 1f Gluconeogenesis- Fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase Glycogen synthesis- Glycogen synthase Glycogenolysis-Glycogen Phosphorylase Fatty acid synthesis- AcetylCoA Carboxylase Fatty acid beta oxidation-Carnitine acyl transferase 1 Lipolysis- hormone sensitive lipase Purine metabolism- PRPP Amidotransferase Pyrimidine metabolism- Aspartate transacetylase Ketone body synthesis-HMG CoA synthase Cholesterol synthesis- HMG CoA resuctase Bile acid synthesis- 7 Alpha hydroxylase Uric acid synthesis- xanthine oxidase Catecholamine synthesis- Tyrosine hydroxylase Urea cycle- Carbamoyl Phosphate synthase 1 Pentose phosphate pathway- Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase Krebs- Isocitrate dehydrogenase Adrenal hormones- Desmolase Porphyrin/Haem synthesis- ALA synthase Postaglandin synthesis- PG ...
N-(N-((S)-1,3-Dicarboxypropyl)carbamoyl)-4-(18F)fluorobenzyl-L-cysteine: an imaging probe for prostate cancer; structure in first source
Carbamoyl phosphate synthase (CPSase) is a heterodimeric enzyme composed of a small and a large subunit (with the exception of CPSase III, which is composed of a single polypeptide that may have arisen from gene fusion of the glutaminase and synthetase domains).[2][3][6] CPSase has three active sites, one in the small subunit and two in the large subunit. The small subunit contains the glutamine binding site and catalyses the hydrolysis of glutamine to glutamate and ammonia, which is in turn used by the large chain to synthesize carbamoyl phosphate. The small subunit has a 3-layer beta/beta/alpha structure, and is thought to be mobile in most proteins that carry it. The C-terminal domain of the small subunit of CPSase has glutamine amidotransferase activity. The large subunit has two homologous carboxy phosphate domains, both of which have ATP-binding sites; however, the N-terminal carboxy phosphate domain catalyses the phosphorylation of biocarbonate, while the C-terminal domain catalyses the ...
1DUV: Mechanism of inactivation of ornithine transcarbamoylase by Ndelta -(N-Sulfodiaminophosphinyl)-L-ornithine, a true transition state analogue? Crystal structure and implications for catalytic mechanism.
1DUV: Mechanism of inactivation of ornithine transcarbamoylase by Ndelta -(N-Sulfodiaminophosphinyl)-L-ornithine, a true transition state analogue? Crystal structure and implications for catalytic mechanism.
A study of the sulfhydryl groups of the catalytic subunit of Escherichia coli aspartate transcarbamylase. The use of enzyme--5-thio-2-nitrobenzoate mixed disulfides as intermediates in modifying enzyme sulfhydryl groups ...
Orotic acid, first discovered in ruminant milk, is an intermediate in the pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway of animal cells. Its synthesis is initiated by the formation of carbamoyl phosphate (CP) in the cytoplasm, with ammonia derived from glutamine.
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule n-[(2-chloroethyl)(nitroso)carbamoyl]-l-alanyl-l-alanine (C9H15ClN4O5) from the PQR.
A realistic estimate of the Na+ entry needed is obtained by quadrupling this to take account of simultaneous activation of Na+ and K+ channels (Hodgkin, 1975), resulting in 11.5×10^8Na+ which have to be pumped out again, requiring 3.84×10^8ATP molecules to be hydrolyzed (Figs. 1B, 2, and 3 ...
PRINCIPLE: Enzymatic Assay of ORNITHINE CARBAMYL TRANSFERASE Carbamyl phosphate + L-Ornithine OCT > L-Citrulline + P i Abbreviations: P i = Inorganic Phosphate OCT = Ornithine Carbamyl Transferase CONDITIONS:
carbamyl plasmin A: an active enzyme with a single free NH(2)-terminal amino group(Val-561); derivative of EC 3.4.21.7, fibrinolysin
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule n-{2-benzyl-4-[(methylsulfonyl)carbamoyl]phenyl}-6-(cyclohexylmethyl)-2-pyridinecarboxamide (C28H31N3O4S) from the PQR.
A method for fabricating an LCD includes the steps of (a) loading a first substrate and a second substrate having seals formed thereon on a bonding chamber, (b) bonding the first and second substrates, (c) fixing the bonded first and second substrates, and (d) unloading the fixed first and second substrates.
Rat liver ornithine carbamoyltransferase appears to be located exclusively in the mitochondria; the activity that is found in the soluble fraction is indistinguishable from mitochondrial ornithine carbamoyltransferase by simple kinetic criteria, and seems to result from breakage of mitochondria during homogenization. Of several rat tissues studied, only the liver and the mucosa of small intestine contain significant amounts of ornithine carbamoyltransferase; the activity in intestinal mucosa is less than one thousandth of that in liver. Qualitatively, this distribution coincides with that of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I and its cofactor, acetylglutamate. The rat liver contents of carbamoyl phosphate and ornithine were 0.1 and 0.15μmol/g wet wt. of tissue respectively. On the basis of these values, it is proposed that in vivo the ornithine carbamoyltransferase activity of liver may be much lower than its maximal activity in vitro might suggest.. ...
New treatments need to be developed for the significant human diseases of toxoplasmosis and malaria to circumvent problems with current treatments and drug resistance. Apicomplexan parasites causing these lethal diseases are deficient in pyrimidine salvage, suggesting that selective inhibition of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis can lead to a severe loss of uridine 5-monophosphate (UMP) and thymidine 5-monophosphate (dTMP) pools, thereby inhibiting parasite RNA and DNA synthesis. Disruption of Toxoplasma gondii carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II (CPSII) induces a severe uracil auxotrophy with no detectable parasite replication in vitro and complete attenuation of virulence in mice. Here we show that a CPSII cDNA minigene efficiently complements the uracil auxotrophy of CPSII-deficient mutants, restoring parasite growth and virulence. Our complementation assays reveal that engineered mutations within, or proximal to, the catalytic triad of the N-terminal glutamine amidotransferase (GATase) domain ...
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2-[Benzoyl(carbamoyl)amino]acetic acid | C10H10N2O4 | CID 67704819 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
[(2-Cyanoethyl)(phenyl)carbamoyl]methyl 2-(4-methoxyphenoxy)acetate | C20H20N2O5 | CID 2380977 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
The unikonts have a triple-gene fusion that is lacking in the bikonts. The three genes that are fused together in the unikonts, but not bacteria or bikonts, encode enzymes for synthesis of the pyrimidine nucleotides: carbamoyl phosphate synthase, dihydroorotase, aspartate carbamoyltransferase. This must have involved a double fusion, a rare pair of events, supporting the shared ancestry of Opisthokonta and Amoebozoa.. Cavalier-Smith[1] originally proposed that unikonts ancestrally had a single flagellum and single basal body. This is unlikely, however, as flagellated opisthokonts, as well as some flagellated Amoebozoa, including Breviata, actually have two basal bodies, as in typical bikonts (even though only one is flagellated in most unikonts). This paired arrangement can also be seen in the organization of centrioles in typical animal cells. In spite of the name of the group, the common ancestor of all unikonts was probably a cell with two basal bodies.. ...
The mitochondrial enzyme encoded by this gene catalyzes synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate from ammonia and bicarbonate. This reaction is the first committed step of the urea cycle, which is important in the removal of excess urea from cells. The encoded protein may also represent a core mitochondrial nucleoid protein. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. The shortest isoform may not be localized to the mitochondrion. Mutations in this gene have been associated with carbamoyl phosphate synthetase deficiency, susceptibility to persistent pulmonary hypertension, and susceptibility to venoocclusive disease after bone marrow transplantation.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010 ...
The mitochondrial enzyme encoded by this gene catalyzes synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate from ammonia and bicarbonate. This reaction is the first committed step of the urea cycle, which is important in the removal of excess urea from cells. The encoded protein may also represent a core mitochondrial nucleoid protein. Three transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. The shortest isoform may not be localized to the mitochondrion. Mutations in this gene have been associated with carbamoyl phosphate synthetase deficiency, susceptibility to persistent pulmonary hypertension, and susceptibility to venoocclusive disease after bone marrow transplantation.[provided by RefSeq, May 2010]
Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase Protein catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
(4-(Benzyl(methyl)carbamoyl)phenyl)boronic acid 874219-49-5 NMR spectrum, (4-(Benzyl(methyl)carbamoyl)phenyl)boronic acid H-NMR spectral analysis, (4-(Benzyl(methyl)carbamoyl)phenyl)boronic acid C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase Antibody. Validated: IHC, IHC-P. Tested Reactivity: Human, Mouse, Rat. 100% Guaranteed.
The experiments described here reveal the existence of three serendipitous pathways that allow synthesis of PLP in the ΔpdxB strain when any one of seven different genes is overexpressed. The number of genes that allow complementation is surprising; most multicopy suppression experiments reveal fewer genes that can complement a strain lacking a metabolic enzyme. For example, Patrick et al (2007) found that 21 of 104 knockout strains of E. coli could be complemented by multicopy suppression using the ASKA library, but in most cases by only one or two genes. One exception, the ΔglyA strain, was complemented by four genes, one of which encodes an antisigma factor. A second unusual case was described by Miller and Raines (2004, 2005), who found that overexpression of four genes encoding glycokinases with promiscuous glucokinase activity complemented a strain lacking glucokinase. Our finding that seven different genes complement the ΔpdxB strain is, to our knowledge, the record. Furthermore, our ...
An affinity-purified IgG antibody that recognizes human CAD (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase) protein.
An affinity-purified IgG antibody that recognizes human CAD (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase) protein.
Fritz Albert Lipmann (1899 -1986) was awarded half of the 1953 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of coenzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism, in which energy is extracted from cellular nutrients and used to build cellular components. His early work included the identification of serine phosphate as the constituent of phosphoproteins, a group of proteins which are chemically bonded to a substance containing phosphoric acid, and an investigation into the Pasteur effect, which showed that oxygen inhibits fermentation in yeast and led to important discoveries on the mechanism of this reaction and on the role of glycolysis in the metabolism of cells in embryos. Lipmanns initial work on coenzyme A led him to investigate the role of phosphorylation in the intermediary reactions of biosynthesis. His later research included demonstrating that carbamoyl phosphate - a molecule involved in clearing the body from excess nitrogen in the urea cycle -- is a carbamoyl ...
CAD antibody (carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase) for ICC/IF, WB. Anti-CAD pAb (GTX28406) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
A calendar is formed of a plurality of substrates. A first substrate carries indicia thereon which identifies selected time periods, such as days or months of the year. A second substrate is positioned adjacent to the first substrate. The second substrate defines a plurality of cavities dimensioned to individually retain a respective information carrying article, such as a web. Each of the cavities is corresponding supplied with a respective information carrying article. Each indicia on the first substrate is positionally associated with a respective cavity in the second substrate. A third substrate, positioned adjacent to the second substrate, is positioned to retain the information carrying articles releasably within the second substrate. The third substrate provides a rupturable cover over each of the cavities of the second substrate whereby upon the application of a sufficient lateral force on the information carrying article within a selected cavity, the article passes through the cover to a
NR20R21 (where R20 and R21 are each independently a hydrogen atom or a C1 to C4 alkyl group), a nitro group, a carbamoyl group, an N--(C1 to C4 alkyl)carbamoyl group, an N,N-di(C1 to C4 alkyl)carbamoyl group, or --NHCOR9 (where R9 is a C1 to C4 alkyl group that may be branched), a cyano group, --NR20R21 (where R20 and R21 are each independently a hydrogen atom or a C1 to C4 alkyl group), a nitro group, a carbamoyl group, an N--(C1 to C4 alkyl)carbamoyl group, an N,N-di(C1 to C4 alkyl)carbamoyl group, --NHCOR9 (where R9 is a C1 to C4 alkyl group that may be branched), and a halogen atom; and n is an integer from 1 to 12); (ix) --(CH2)nNR12COR13 (where R12 and R13 are groups independently selected from the group consisting of: (1) a hydrogen atom; (2) a C1 to C4 alkyl group that may be branched; (3) an aryl group, wherein the aryl group may be substituted with at least one group selected from the group consisting of: a C1 to C4 alkyl group that may be branched, a C1 to C5 alkoxy group that may be ...
Carbamoylphosphate synthetase I deficiency (CPS1) Test Cost INR 30000.00 Surat Pune Jaipur Lucknow Kanpur Nagpur Visakhapatnam Indore Thane Bhopal Patna Vadodara Ghaziabad Ludhiana Coimbatore Madurai Meerut Ranchi Allahabad Trivandrum Pondicherry Mysore Aligarh best offer discount price
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 deficiency (CPS1D) [MIM:237300]: An autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle causing hyperammonemia. It can present as a devastating metabolic disease dominated by severe hyperammonemia in neonates or as a more insidious late-onset condition, generally manifesting as life-threatening hyperammonemic crises under catabolic situations. Clinical features include protein intolerance, intermittent ataxia, seizures, lethargy, developmental delay and mental retardation. {ECO:0000269,PubMed:11388595, ECO:0000269,PubMed:11474210, ECO:0000269,PubMed:12655559, ECO:0000269,PubMed:12955727, ECO:0000269,PubMed:15164414, ECO:0000269,PubMed:15617192, ECO:0000269,PubMed:16737834, ECO:0000269,PubMed:17310273, ECO:0000269,PubMed:20578160, ECO:0000269,PubMed:21120950, ECO:0000269,PubMed:22173106, ECO:0000269,PubMed:23649895, ECO:0000269,PubMed:24813853, ECO:0000269,PubMed:26440671, ECO:0000269,PubMed:9711878}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene ...
Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) Deficiency information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis.
... Ornithine carbamoyltransferase Human OTC trimer. From PDB 1OTH. Available structures: 1c9y, 1ep9, 1fb5, 1fvo, 1oth Identifiers
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This study was designed to determine the possible mechanism by which orotic acid exerts its mitoinhibitory effect on rat hepatocytes in primary culture. Orotic acid inhibited, dose-dependently DNA synthesis in hepatocytes induced by epidermal growth
A process of making a multilayer printed wiring board assembly. The process includes the steps of providing a first and a second substrate made of a dielectric material; depositing a first wiring pattern on the first substrate and a second wiring pattern on the second substrate with a conductive material; depositing a dielectric material on the first and second wiring patterns and defining a via connecting zone on the first and the second wiring pattern for communicating signals between the first and the second wiring pattern by exposing a selective portion of the first and second wiring patterns; depositing a conductive bonding material on the via connecting zone of one of the first and the second wiring pattern; arranging the first and the second substrate in sandwiched juxtaposition such that the via connecting zones of the first and the second wiring pattern are opposite each other and in substantial alignment with each other so that the conductive bonding material deposited on the one of the via
Ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC) catalyzes the reversible transfer of the carbamoyl group from carbamoyl phosphate (CP) to the Nε atom of L-ornithine (ORN) to produce L-citrulline. There are two types of the enzyme - anabolic (aOTC) and catabolic (cOTC). Anabolic OTCs participate in the urea cycle and L-arginine biosynthesis. Catabolic OTCs are part of the catabolic arginine deiminase pathway found in a number of microorganisms. The reported structure is for the anabolic enzyme from pathogen Vibrio vulnificus. The structure has three monomers in the asymmetric unit which form the physiologically active trimer. One of the three enzyme subunits is entrapped in a complex with its first substrate carbamoyl phosphate and its inhibitor arginine. That complex provides additional structural insights into mechanism of inhibition by arginine. It shows that binding of CP together with arginine causes closure of interdomain cleft and brings catalytic loops K*STRTR, B2-H3 and SMG into the catalytic site ...
Ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC) catalyzes the reversible transfer of the carbamoyl group from carbamoyl phosphate (CP) to the Nε atom of L-ornithine (ORN) to produce L-citrulline. There are two types of the enzyme - anabolic (aOTC) and catabolic (cOTC). Anabolic OTCs participate in the urea cycle and L-arginine biosynthesis. Catabolic OTCs are part of the catabolic arginine deiminase pathway found in a number of microorganisms. The reported structure is for the anabolic enzyme from pathogen Vibrio vulnificus. The structure has three monomers in the asymmetric unit which form the physiologically active trimer. Two of the three enzyme subunits are entrapped in a complex with its first substrate carbamoyl phosphate. That complex provides additional structural insights in the enzyme mechanism of action because it proves that binding of CP causes closure of interdomain cleft and change of 55-60 catalytic loop conformation, whereas catalytic loops B2-H3 and SMG can adopt conformations different ...
15. The compound according to claim 1, which is selected from the group consisting of:4-{[3-phenyl]carbamoyl}oxy)benzyl]amino}-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide trifluoroacetate;4-{[3-({[2-fluoro-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]carbamoyl}am- ino)benzyl]amino}-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide hydrochloride;4-[(3-{[(2-fluorophenyl)carbamoyl]amino}benzyl)amino]-1H-py- razole-3-carboxamide trifluoroacetate;4-[(3-{[(2-methoxyphenyl)carbamoyl]amino}benzyl)amino]-1- H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide trifluoroacetate;4-{[3-({[2-fluoro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]carbamoyl}am- ino)benzyl]amino}-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide trifluoroacetate;4-[(3-{[(3-methoxyphenyl)carbamoyl]amino}benzyl)amino]-1- H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide trifluoroacetate;4-{[3-({[3-fluoro-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]carbamoyl}am- ino)benzyl]amino}-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide trifluoroacetate;4-{[3-({[4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]carbamoyl}amino)benz- yl]amino}-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide trifluoroacetate;methyl ...
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Easy, delicious and healthy Chicken and Rice Casserole recipe from SparkRecipes. See our top-rated recipes for Chicken and Rice Casserole.
Autor: Molla-Morales, A. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2011; Keywords: mesophyll growth|br/|carbamoyl phosphate synthetase|br/|reticulate leaves|br/|amino acid biosynthesis|br/|carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase|br/|phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate-translocator|br/|chloroplast biogenesis|br/|mutational analysis|br/|shikimate pathway|br/|gene-expression|br/|bundle-sheath|br/|nitric-oxide|br/|thaliana|br/|leaves; Titel: Analysis of ven3 and ven6 reticulate mutants reveals the importance of arginine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis leaf development
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mitochondrial import and processing of mutant human ornithine transcarbamylase precursors in cultured cells. AU - Isaya, G.. AU - Fenton, W. A.. AU - Hendrick, J. P.. AU - Furtak, K.. AU - Kalousek, F.. AU - Rosenberg, L. E.. PY - 1988/1/1. Y1 - 1988/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0023697403&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0023697403&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1128/MCB.8.12.5150. DO - 10.1128/MCB.8.12.5150. M3 - Article. C2 - 3244350. AN - SCOPUS:0023697403. VL - 8. SP - 5150. EP - 5158. JO - Molecular and Cellular Biology. JF - Molecular and Cellular Biology. SN - 0270-7306. IS - 12. ER - ...
Phospholipids and lipid second messengers mediate mitogenic signal transduction and oncogenesis, but there have been few successful examples of small molecules that affect biologically important phospholipid metabolism. Here we investigated the actions of a previously described antitumor agent, 4-(benzyl-(2-[(2,5-diphenyloxazole-4-carbonyl)amino]ethyl)carbamoyl) -2-decanoylaminobutyric acid (SC-ααδ9), which has antisignaling properties, on phospholipases. Although SC-ααδ9 had been shown to be a potent and selective inhibitor of the Cdc25 family of dual-specificity phosphatases, many of its cellular effects are not readily reconciled with phosphatase inhibition. Molecular modeling studies suggested that SC-ααδ9 shared several structural features with membrane phospholipids. Enzyme inhibition studies in vitro revealed that SC-ααδ9 was a potent inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC; IC50 = 25 μM) but did not inhibit phospholipase D activity at concentrations up to 100 μM. In H-ras ...
View Notes - lecture_21a from BCHS 3304 at University of Houston. Glycolysis 5/9/03 Glycolysis The conversion of glucose to pyruvate to yield 2ATP molecules 10 enzymatic steps Chemical
Dr. Clarks response - Sodium benzoate works by pulling ammonia out of the body. Ammonia is converted to urea for excretion in the urine by going through the urea cycle. The urea cycle starts when ammonia is converted to carbamyl phosphate. Carbamyl phosphate commits the body to making urea. The VERY next reaction consumes ornithine. So when sodium benzoate is given to the GAMT patients the thinking is it is sparing the loss of ornithine by the urea cycle. If ornithine is not consumed by the urea cycle maybe it can stay around to inhibit AGAT. That is the theory. Sodium Benzoate has a long history for treating patients with urea cycle deficits and is generally considered to be safe. It is actually found in some foods as a preservative. Based on its safety and the importance of sparing ornithine I do think the sodium benzoate is a good option for GAMT patients. I think some physicians may be hesitant to use it in GAMT patients because usually sodium benzoate is indicated to decrease ammonia, and ...
Looking for online definition of 6-Azauridine or what 6-Azauridine stands for? 6-Azauridine is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
An organic EL device includes a first substrate and a plurality of organic EL elements above a first portion of the first substrate. A first inorganic layer covers the plurality of organic EL elements. An active layer is above a second portion of the first substrate that is different than the first portion. The active layer comprises a material that is at least one of hygroscopic and oxidizable. A second inorganic layer covers the active layer. A second substrate is opposite the first substrate, with the plurality of organic EL elements being between the first and second substrates. A seal extends between the first and second substrates to define a sealed space between the first and second substrates. The second inorganic layer includes through-holes that expose the active layer to the sealed space that is defined by the first substrate, the second substrate, and the seal.
International Symposium on Guanidino Compounds in Biology and Medicine edition:5 location:Yokohama - Japan date:2-3 September ...
Mol Genet Metab. 2009 Mar;96(3):97-105. Epub 2009 Jan 12. High-frequency detection of deletions and variable rearrangements at the ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) locus by oligonucleotide array CGH. Shchelochkov OA, Li FY, Geraghty MT, Gallagher RC, Van Hove JL, Lichter-Konecki U, Fernhoff PM, Copeland S, Reimschisel T, Cederbaum S, Lee B, Chinault AC, Wong LJ. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19138872 This […]. ...
MetabolismPurines, pyrimidines, nucleosides, and nucleotidesPyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthesisaspartate carbamoyltransferase (TIGR00670; EC 2.1.3.2; HMM-score: 120.5) ...
The massive, bizarre towers of the Pala group protrude from the stony alpine plateau. Climbing here in the southernmost mountain range of the Dolom...
Follows the sequential breakdown of glucose through the process of glycolysis that leads to the production of ATP molecules. The first half of this process is covered ...
Title. Im curious as to what I should be using between these two, and how much of each would be optimal in any case. Also do any pre-workouts exist
In toxicological research, immortalized human hepatocytes provide a useful alternative to primary hepatocytes because interindividual variability in the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters can largely be eliminated. However, it is essential that the cell line retain the original phenotype. The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel spontaneously immortalized human hepatocyte cell line, HC-04, with respect to the transcript and functional protein expression profile for the major drug-metabolizing enzymes and transmembrane transporters. HC-04 cells retained hepatocyte-specific function including albumin production and ornithine transcarbamoylase and glucose-6-phosphatase activity. Most of the major CYP forms were expressed at basal levels and responsive to inducing agents. In particular, CYP3A4 was expressed abundantly, and HC-04 cells were able to metabolize the CYP3A4 probe, midazolam, at a rate similar to primary human hepatocytes. Furthermore, the major ...
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Effect of carbamyl phosphate. Not surprisingly, intact rats fed carbamyl phosphate along with a cariogenic diet showed a highly ... The injection of carbamyl phosphate significantly reversed the effect of sucrose-but only in intact rats. Furthermore, carbamyl ... Then it was found that the sucrose effect could be effectively reversed by the infusion of the compound carbamyl phosphate ... Carbamyl phosphate, however, was ineffective in parotidectomized rats. Therefore, an intact hypothalamic-parotid gland ...
Jones ME, Spector L, Lipmann F (1955). "Carbamyl phosphate, the carbamyl donor in enzymatic citrulline synthesis". J. Am. Chem ... "Carbamyl phosphate synthesis in Neurospora crassa. I. Preliminary characterization of arginine-specific carbamyl phosphokinase ... Other names in common use include CKase, carbamoyl phosphokinase, and carbamyl phosphokinase. This enzyme participates in 4 ... carbamoyl phosphate The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, NH3, and CO2, whereas its two products are ADP and carbamoyl ...
Jones, M. E.; Spector, L.; Lipmann, F. (February 1955). "CARBAMYL PHOSPHATE, THE CARBAMOYL DONOR IN ENZYMATIC CITRULLINE ... She was notable for discovery of carbamoyl phosphate, a chemical substance that is key to the biosynthesis of arginine and urea ... At Brandeis, she and Spector continued to work on carbamoyl phosphate, identifying carbon dioxide or bicarbonate as the source ... Kresge, Nicole; Simoni, Robert D.; Hill, Robert L. (May 11, 2007). "Carbamoyl Phosphate Biosynthesis: the Work of Mary Ellen ...
"Isolation and characterization of a naturally occurring cofactor of carbamyl phosphate biosynthesis". J Biol Chem. 230 (2): ... in which carbamoyl phosphate is produced. Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthase 1, abbreviated as CPS1, is activated by its natural ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthase I is an enzyme found in mitochondrial matrix and it catalyzes the very first reaction of the Urea ...
In ATCase such a transfer is written as Carbamyl phosphate + L-aspertate → {\displaystyle \rightarrow } L-carbamyl aspartate + ... glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } erythrose 4-phosphate + fructose 6-phosphate. Transfer of acyl ... Groups that are classified as phosphate acceptors include: alcohols, carboxy groups, nitrogenous groups, and phosphate groups. ... Most symptoms of the disease are caused by a buildup of galactose-1-phosphate in the body. Common symptoms include liver ...
Carrey EA, Campbell DG, Hardie DG (1986). "Phosphorylation and activation of hamster carbamyl phosphate synthetase II by cAMP- ...
Carrey EA, Campbell DG, Hardie DG (Dec 1985). "Phosphorylation and activation of hamster carbamyl phosphate synthetase II by ...
Nyunoya H, Lusty CJ (August 1984). "Sequence of the small subunit of yeast carbamyl phosphate synthetase and identification of ... glutamine-dependent carbamoyl-phosphate synthase; phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase II; and the histidine ...
"Regulation of aminotransferase-glutamate dehydrogenase interactions by carbamyl phosphate synthase-I, Mg2+ plus leucine versus ... Ford GC, Eichele G, Jansonius JN (May 1980). "Three-dimensional structure of a pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent enzyme, ... Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme which exists in cytoplasmic and inner-membrane ... "Three-dimensional structure of a pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent enzyme, mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase". Proceedings ...
The substrates of the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase are ornithine and carbamyl phosphate, while the product ... The increased orotic acid concentrations result from the buildup of carbamoyl phosphate. This biochemical phenotype (increased ... responsible for converting carbamoyl phosphate and ornithine into citrulline. OTC deficiency is inherited in an X-linked ...
Homology of putative targeting sequence to that of carbamyl phosphate synthetase I revealed by correlation of cDNA and protein ...
Homology of putative targeting sequence to that of carbamyl phosphate synthetase I revealed by correlation of cDNA and protein ... glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) (non-phosphorylating) activity. Cellular component. • extracellular exosome. • ...
... glucosamine-6-phosphate and carbamyl phosphate, alanine, and glycine.[5] An excess of any one product does not individually ... After, His3 forms imidazole acetol-phosphate releasing water. His5 then makes L-histidinol-phosphate, which is then hydrolyzed ... Ribose 5-phosphates: histidine[edit]. The synthesis of histidine in E. coli is a complex pathway involving several enzymes. ... Erythrose 4-phosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate: phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan[edit]. Phenylalanine, tyrosine, and ...
Simmer JP, Kelly RE, Scully JL, Evans DR, Rinker Jr AG (1990). "Mammalian carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS). DNA sequence and ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase catalyzes the ATP-dependent synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate from glutamine (EC 6.3.5.5) or ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I (mitochondria, urea cycle). *Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II (cytosol, pyrimidine metabolism ... Clarias batrachus upregulates glutamine synthetase and carbamyl phosphate synthetase III during exposure to high external ...
At present, it is thought that the depletion of the ornithine supply causes the accumulation of carbamyl-phosphate in the urea ...
... carbamyl phosphate MeSH D02.241.081.251.150 --- carbaryl MeSH D02.241.081.251.165 --- carisoprodol MeSH D02.241.081.251.240 ... polyisoprenyl phosphates MeSH D02.455.849.690.250 --- dolichol phosphates MeSH D02.455.849.690.700 --- polyisoprenyl phosphate ... inositol phosphates MeSH D02.033.800.519.400.350 --- inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate MeSH D02.033.800.519.400.700 --- phytic acid ... dolichol phosphates MeSH D02.033.415.400 --- farnesol MeSH D02.033.415.500 --- heptanol MeSH D02.033.415.510 --- hexanols MeSH ...
As one of the urea cycle disorders, citrullinemia type I needs to be distinguished from the others: carbamyl phosphate ...
... the condensation of l-aspartate and carbamoyl phosphate to form N-carbamyl-L-aspartate and inorganic phosphate. ATCase controls ... and the carbamoyl phosphate domain, which contains most of the residues that bind to carbamoyl phosphate. Each regulatory ... These residues are located at the cleft between the carbamoyl phosphate and aspartate domains at the C1-C4 interface. The ... Gouaux JE, Lipscomb WN (Jun 1988). "Three-dimensional structure of carbamoyl phosphate and succinate bound to aspartate ...
"MECHANISM AND REGULATION OF THE GLUTAMINE-DEPENDENT CARBAMYL PHOSPHATE SYNTHETASE OF ESCHERZCHZA COLI." Department of ... "Inhibition of Carbamyl Phosphate Synthetase by PI, P5-Di (adenosine 5') - pentaphosphate EVIDENCE FOR TWO ATP BINDING SITES." ... it is CPSI's job to add the ammonia to bicarbonate along with a phosphate group to form carbamoyl phosphate. Carbamoyl ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I is a ligase enzyme located in the mitochondria involved in the production of urea. Carbamoyl ...
... carbamyl phosphate synthetase (glutamine) glutamine-dependent carbamyl phosphate synthetase carbamoyl phosphate synthetase CPS ... Yip, M.C.M.; Knox, W.E. (1970). "Glutamine-dependent carbamyl phosphate synthetase. Properties and distribution in normal and ... Kalman, S.M.; Duffield, P.H.; Brzozowski, T. (1966). "Purification and properties of a bacterial carbamyl phosphate synthetase ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II (EC 6.3.5.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reactions that produce carbamoyl phosphate in ...
... pyridoxal phosphate. Copper AJ, Meister A (1973). "Enzymatic conversion of O-carbamyl-L-serine to pyruvate and ammonia". ...
Clarias batrachus upregulates glutamine synthetase and carbamyl phosphate synthetase III during exposure to high external ... "Role of conserved residues within the carboxy phosphate domain of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase". Biochemistry 35 (45): 14352- ... inactivation of the amidotransferase activity of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase by the antibiotic acivicin ... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbamoyl_phosphate_synthetase *↑ Stapleton MA, Javid-Majd F, Harmon MF, Hanks BA, Grahmann JL, ...
... buchneri have been known to produce carbamyl phosphate and citrulline which can be precursors to ethyl carbamate formation. L. ... However, unlike wine yeast, lactic acid bacteria can not use the supplement diammonium phosphate as a nitrogen source.[2] ... wine infected by Brettanomyces yeast in the presence of ammonium phosphate and lysine have also been known to exhibit this ...
Abbreviations: NAGP, N-acetylglutamyl phosphate; NAGPR, N-acetylglutamyl phosphate reductase; AOAT, acetylornithine ... In mammals, amphibians, fish and some invertebrates, NAGS, carbamylphosphate synthase, together with the last four enzymes of ... at 4°C. The cell pellet was resuspended in Buffer A: 50 mM sodium phosphate pH 7.4 containing 300 mM NaCl, 10% glycerol and 10 ... NAGS produces an essential activator of carbamylphosphate synthetase I, the first enzyme of the urea cycle, and no functional ...
... and carbamyl phosphate (carbamyl P), reported by Kraus and Kraus (1971) have been successfully used to inhibit the sickling ... Allen, C. M., and Jones, M. E. (1964). Decomposition of Carbamyl- phosphate in Aqueous Solutions. Biochemistry 3: 1238.PubMed ... Kraus, L. M. and Kraus, A. P. (1971). Carbamyl Phosphate Mediated Inhibition of the Sickling of Erythrocytes In Vitro. Biochem ... Kraus L.M., Rasad A., Kraus A.P. (1972) Carbamyl Phosphate Modification of Hemoglobin S Structure Resulting in Altered Sickling ...
Carbamyl phosphate is the intermediate in the reaction and its biosynthesis in the earthworm is mediated by a carbamyl ... Carbamyl Phosphate Synthesis in the Earthworm Lumbricus terrestris Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
Carbamyl phosphate synthetase A of Neurospora crassa. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ... Carbamyl phosphate synthetase A of Neurospora crassa.. R H Davis, J L Ristow, B A Hanson ... Carbamyl phosphate synthetase A of Neurospora crassa was partially purified from mitochondrial extracts. It is an extremely ...
Carbamyl phosphate synthetase deficiency information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other ... Carbamyl phosphate *Carbamyl *Phosphate *Synthetase *Deficiency *Deficiency disease Carbamyl phosphate synthetase deficiency: ... Terms associated with Carbamyl phosphate synthetase deficiency:. Terms Similar to Carbamyl phosphate synthetase deficiency:. * ... This means that Carbamyl phosphate synthetase deficiency, or a subtype of Carbamyl phosphate synthetase deficiency, affects ...
Carbamyl phosphate synthetase deficiency and postpartum hyperammonemia. Abstract Gottschalk, Marcelo. Institute for Biological ...
A child with carbamyl phosphate synthetase deficiency was studied. During attempts at dietary control, a peculiar rash and ... Arginine Deficiency SyndromeIts Occurrence in Carbamyl Phosphate Synthetase Deficiency. Jeffrey J. Kline, MD; George Hug, MD; ... A child with carbamyl phosphate synthetase deficiency was studied. During attempts at dietary control, a peculiar rash and ... Kline JJ, Hug G, Schubert WK, Berry H. Arginine Deficiency SyndromeIts Occurrence in Carbamyl Phosphate Synthetase Deficiency. ...
d) is the carbamyl phosphate of ornithine. Answer: c. 103. Amino acids are synthesized from other free amino acids and also ... Inserting phosphate ester groups .. a) disrupts the molecules intermolecular forces thereby permitting water to disperse ... a) The backbone for each strand of DNA and RNA is composed of a phosphate group and a. pentose sugar unit. ... To make some starches more soluble, phosphate ester groups are inserted into these. straight-chain molecules. ...
Carbamoyl phosphate KEGG COMPOUND Carbamyl phosphate ChemIDplus monocarbamoyl phosphate CBN PHOSPHORIC ACID MONO(FORMAMIDE) ... carbamoyl phosphate (CHEBI:17672) has role Escherichia coli metabolite (CHEBI:76971) carbamoyl phosphate (CHEBI:17672) has role ... carbamoyl phosphate (CHEBI:17672) is a acyl monophosphate (CHEBI:16826) carbamoyl phosphate (CHEBI:17672) is a one-carbon ... carbamoyl phosphate (CHEBI:17672) is conjugate acid of carbamoyl phosphate(2−) (CHEBI:58228) ...
Simmer JP, Kelly RE, Scully JL, Evans DR, Rinker Jr AG (1990). "Mammalian carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS). DNA sequence and ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase catalyzes the ATP-dependent synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate from glutamine (EC 6.3.5.5) or ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I (mitochondria, urea cycle). *Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II (cytosol, pyrimidine metabolism ... Clarias batrachus upregulates glutamine synthetase and carbamyl phosphate synthetase III during exposure to high external ...
Characterization and derivation of the gene coding for mitochondrial carbamyl phosphate synthetase 1 of rat. / Nyunoya, H.; ... Characterization and derivation of the gene coding for mitochondrial carbamyl phosphate synthetase 1 of rat. Journal of ... title = "Characterization and derivation of the gene coding for mitochondrial carbamyl phosphate synthetase 1 of rat", ... T1 - Characterization and derivation of the gene coding for mitochondrial carbamyl phosphate synthetase 1 of rat ...
In addition, carbamyl phosphate synthetase deficiency and ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency may be differentiated by ... in which deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase results in an accumulation of galactose-1-phosphate ... This generalization does not include those inborn errors of erythrocyte metabolism, such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ... when galactose-1-phosphate levels rise precipitously. Therefore, the series of laboratory studies listed in Table 1 should be ...
It begins with the formation of carbamyl phosphate from ammonia by carbamyl phosphate synthetase. Carbamyl phosphate is added ... CSPD, carbamyl phosphate synthetase deficiency; HHH, hyperornithinemia hyperammonemia homocitrullinuria syndrome; IVA, ... CSPD, carbamyl phosphate synthetase deficiency; HHH, hyperornithinemia hyperammonemia homocitrullinuria syndrome; IVA, ... carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS), ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), argininosuccinic acidemia (AS), and argininosuccinic ...
Carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) deficiency. *Citrullinemia. *N-acetyl glutamate synthetase (NAGS) deficiency ...
carbamyl phosphate synthase (CPS). *citrullinaemia (ASA synthase deficiency). *N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) ...
Serum MIF levels in patient groups according to the clinical/hemodynamic presentation (a) and carbamyl-phosphate synthetase I ( ... Relation of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor to Pulmonary Hemodynamics and Vascular Structure and Carbamyl-Phosphate ... Relation of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor to Pulmonary Hemodynamics and Vascular Structure and Carbamyl-Phosphate ... Genetic variation in the mitochondrial enzyme carbamyl-phosphate synthetase I predisposes children to increased pulmonary ...
Carbamyl-Phosphate Synthase I Deficiency. *Drug: Acetohydroxamic Acid. *Drug: Isotopic Intravenous [13C]-Urea ...
The Urea Cycle: N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS), Carbamyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1), Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), ... These include N-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency (NAGSD); Carbamyl phosphate synthetase 1 deficiency (CPS1D); Ornithine ...
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CPS = carbamyl phosphate synthetase;. OTC = ornithine transcarbamylase;. ASS = argininosuccinate synthetase;. ASL = ... Intravenous arginine is an essential component of therapy for patients with carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS), ornithine ... a co-factor for carbamyl phosphate synthetase. ( 7) • Use of corticosteroids may cause the breakdown of body protein and ... a co-factor for carbamyl phosphate synthetase. Therefore, administration of valproic acid to patients with urea cycle disorders ...
... which specifies carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) and aspartate transcarbamylase (ATC) activities. Both spontaneous and... ... Davis, R. H.: Carbamyl phosphate synthesis in Neurospora crassa: II. Genetics, metabolic position, and regulation of arginine- ... The acridine ICR-170 was used to study the bifunctional pyr-3 locus, which specifies carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) and ... specific carbamyl phosphokinase. Biochim. biophys. Acta (Amst.) 107, 54-68 (1965).Google Scholar ...
carbamyl synonyms, carbamyl pronunciation, carbamyl translation, English dictionary definition of carbamyl. n a radical, NH2CO ... Carbamylation of glutamate dehydrogenase and other mitochondrial proteins by biosynthetic carbamyl phosphate.. Carbamylation- ... carbamyl. Also found in: Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to carbamyl: carbamoyl, carbamate carbamyl. (ˈkɑːbəmɪl) n. ... Carbamyl - definition of carbamyl by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/carbamyl ...
Its synthesis is initiated by the formation of carbamoyl phosphate (CP) in the cytoplasm, with ammonia derived from glutamine. ... Carbamyl Phosphate / metabolism. Cattle. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / chemically induced. Milk / metabolism. Orotic Acid / ... 0/Pyrimidines; 0/Triglycerides; 289-95-2/pyrimidine; 57-13-6/Urea; 590-55-6/Carbamyl Phosphate; 65-86-1/Orotic Acid; 7664-41-7/ ... Its synthesis is initiated by the formation of carbamoyl phosphate (CP) in the cytoplasm, with ammonia derived from glutamine. ...
multifunctional enzyme that contains carbamyl phosphate synthase, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotase;. E2,. ... because this dosage routinely selects for genomic amplification of the multifunctional enzyme that contains carbamyl phosphate ...
A kinetic study of carbamyl phosphate synthetase. J. Biol. Chem. 239, 1925 (1964). pmid:14213379. ... SIRT5 Deacetylates carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 and regulates the urea cycle. Cell 137, 560 (2009). doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Sirt5 is known to regulate the activity of carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 (CPS1) (22). We therefore sought to test whether CPS1 ... Deletion of Sirt5 in mice appeared to increase the level of succinylation on carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1, which is a known ...
  • Acylphosphatase ( EC:3.6.1.7 ) is an enzyme of approximately 98 amino acid residues that specifically catalyses the hydrolysis of the carboxyl-phosphate bond of acylphosphates [ PMID: 1664426 ], its substrates including 1,3-diphosphoglycerate and carbamyl phosphate [ PMID: 2538623 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Urea is proposed to act reversibly by interfering with the hydrophobic bonding of hemoglobin molecules, (Murayama, 1971), while cyanate is reported to act irreversibly through the carbamyl ation of the amino terminal valines, (Cerami and Manning, 1971). (springer.com)
  • Protonation of cyanate leads to the formation of isocyanic acid, which reacts with the a and e amino groups on proteins, forming a carbamyl moiety (37). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Enzymes in the transcarbamylase family catalyze the transfer of a carbamyl group from carbamyl phosphate (CP) to an amino group of a second substrate. (mdpi.com)
  • Urea, reported by Nalbandian (1971) and by McCurdy (1971), cyanate, reported by Cerami and Manning (1971), and carbamyl phosphate (carbamyl P), reported by Kraus and Kraus (1971) have been successfully used to inhibit the sickling phenomenon. (springer.com)