The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC 6.3.4.16.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and glutamine. This enzyme is important in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. EC 6.3.5.5.
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
An enzyme that, in the course of pyrimidine biosynthesis, catalyzes ring closure by removal of water from N-carbamoylaspartate to yield dihydro-orotic acid. EC 3.5.2.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of carbamoyl phosphate and L-aspartate to yield orthophosphate and N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.1.3.2.
A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
An enzyme of the urea cycle that catalyzes the formation of argininosuccinic acid from citrulline and aspartic acid in the presence of ATP. Absence or deficiency of this enzyme causes the metabolic disease CITRULLINEMIA in humans. EC 6.3.4.5.
Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Glyoxal is a chemical compound, an organic dicarbonyl compound, with the formula O=C-CH-CH=O, which is a colorless liquid that can be used as a reagent in various chemical reactions, including the formation of Schiff bases and other adducts with amines.
Glutaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glutamine to glutamate and ammonia, playing a crucial role in nitrogen metabolism and amino acid homeostasis within various tissues and cells, including the brain, kidney, and immune cells.
Uracil nucleotides are chemical compounds that consist of a uracil base, a sugar molecule called ribose, and one or more phosphate groups, which play crucial roles in DNA replication, repair, and gene expression as well as in RNA synthesis.
The key substance in the biosynthesis of histidine, tryptophan, and purine and pyrimidine nucleotides.
5'-Uridylic acid. A uracil nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of carboxyl- or carbamoyl- groups. EC 2.1.3.
Citrulline is an α-amino acid, primarily produced in the urea cycle in the liver and found in some dietary proteins, which functions as a vital intermediator in the nitrogen metabolism and vasodilation, and can be supplemented for potential health benefits in improving blood flow, reducing fatigue, and enhancing exercise performance.
Acetylene is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a chemical compound (C2H2) commonly used in industrial and laboratory settings for its high energy content and reactivity, which may have various applications in medicine such as wound healing and surgical procedures, but it is not a medical diagnosis or disease.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A mitochondrial matrix enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of L-GLUTAMATE to N-acetyl-L-glutamate in the presence of ACETYL-COA.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
An ester of glucose with phosphoric acid, made in the course of glucose metabolism by mammalian and other cells. It is a normal constituent of resting muscle and probably is in constant equilibrium with fructose-6-phosphate. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
'Sugar phosphates' are organic compounds that consist of a sugar molecule linked to one or more phosphate groups, playing crucial roles in biochemical processes such as energy transfer and nucleic acid metabolism.
Uracil is a nitrogenous base, specifically a pyrimidine derivative, which constitutes one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA (ribonucleic acid), pairing with adenine via hydrogen bonds during base-pairing. (25 words)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Orotic acid, also known as pyrophosphoric acid dihydrate, is a organic compound that plays a role in the biosynthesis of pyrimidines, and elevated levels of orotic acid in urine can indicate certain genetic disorders or liver dysfunction.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
An aldotriose which is an important intermediate in glycolysis and in tryptophan biosynthesis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An oxidative decarboxylation process that converts GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE to D-ribose-5-phosphate via 6-phosphogluconate. The pentose product is used in the biosynthesis of NUCLEIC ACIDS. The generated energy is stored in the form of NADPH. This pathway is prominent in tissues which are active in the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS and STEROIDS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme that plays a critical role in the pentose phosphate pathway, catalyzing the oxidation of glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphoglucono-δ-lactone while reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH), thereby protecting cells from oxidative damage and maintaining redox balance.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An important intermediate in lipid biosynthesis and in glycolysis.
Membrane proteins that are involved in the active transport of phosphate.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
'Glucosephosphates' are organic compounds resulting from the reaction of glucose with phosphoric acid, playing crucial roles in various metabolic processes, such as energy transfer and storage within cells.
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.
An amino alcohol with a long unsaturated hydrocarbon chain. Sphingosine and its derivative sphinganine are the major bases of the sphingolipids in mammals. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Pentosephosphates are monosaccharides, specifically pentoses, that have a phosphate group attached, playing crucial roles in carbohydrate metabolism, such as being intermediates in the pentose phosphate pathway and serving as precursors for nucleotide synthesis.
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Hexosephosphates are sugar phosphate molecules, specifically those derived from hexoses (six-carbon sugars), such as glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate, which play crucial roles in various metabolic pathways including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.
Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.
Ribose substituted in the 1-, 3-, or 5-position by a phosphoric acid moiety.
Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.

Ca-releasing action of beta, gamma-methylene adenosine triphosphate on fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum. (1/122)

beta,gamma-Methylene adenosine triphosphate (AMPOPCP) has two effects on fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum (FSR), i.e., inhibition of the rate of Ca uptake and the induction of Ca release from FSR filled with Ca. The Ca release brought about by AMPOPCP has many features in common with the mechanism of Ca-induced Ca release: i) it is inhibited by 10 mM procaine; ii) the amount of Ca release increases with increase in the extent of saturation of FSR with Ca; iii) increase of the Ca concentration in the extent of saturation of FSR with Ca; iii) increase of the Ca concentration in the medium facilitates the release of Ca. However, no facilitation of Ca release upon decrease of Mg concentration in the medium is observable. AMPOPCP and caffeine potentiate each other remarkably in their Ca-releasing action, irrespective of the kind of substrate. From the mode of action of AMPOPCP on the rate of Ca uptake, the amount of phosphorylated intermediate (EP), and the effect on Sr release, it is suggested that the state of the FSR-ATP complex is crucial for Ca-induced Ca release.  (+info)

Channeling of carbamoyl phosphate to the pyrimidine and arginine biosynthetic pathways in the deep sea hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi. (2/122)

The kinetics of the coupled reactions between carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase (CPSase) and both aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) and ornithine transcarbamoylase (OTCase) from the deep sea hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi demonstrate the existence of carbamoyl phosphate channeling in both the pyrimidine and arginine biosynthetic pathways. Isotopic dilution experiments and coupled reaction kinetics analyzed within the context of the formalism proposed by Ovadi et al. (Ovadi, J., Tompa, P., Vertessy, B., Orosz, F., Keleti, T., and Welch, G. R. (1989) Biochem. J. 257, 187-190) are consistent with a partial channeling of the intermediate at 37 degrees C, but channeling efficiency increases dramatically at elevated temperatures. There is no preferential partitioning of carbamoyl phosphate between the arginine and pyrimidine biosynthetic pathways. Gel filtration chromatography at high and low temperature and in the presence and absence of substrates did not reveal stable complexes between P. abyssi CPSase and either ATCase or OTCase. Thus, channeling must occur during the dynamic association of coupled enzymes pairs. The interaction of CPSase-ATCase was further demonstrated by the unexpectedly weak inhibition of the coupled reaction by the bisubstrate analog, N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA). The anomalous effect of PALA suggests that, in the coupled reaction, the effective concentration of carbamoyl phosphate in the vicinity of the ATCase active site is 96-fold higher than the concentration in the bulk phase. Channeling probably plays an essential role in protecting this very unstable intermediate of metabolic pathways performing at extreme temperatures.  (+info)

Carbamate kinase: New structural machinery for making carbamoyl phosphate, the common precursor of pyrimidines and arginine. (3/122)

The enzymes carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) and carbamate kinase (CK) make carbamoyl phosphate in the same way: by ATP-phosphorylation of carbamate. The carbamate used by CK is made chemically, whereas CPS itself synthesizes its own carbamate in a process involving the phosphorylation of bicarbonate. Bicarbonate and carbamate are analogs and the phosphorylations are carried out by homologous 40 kDa regions of the 120 kDa CPS polypeptide. CK can also phosphorylate bicarbonate and is a homodimer of a 33 kDa subunit that was believed to resemble the 40 kDa regions of CPS. Such belief is disproven now by the CK structure reported here. The structure does not conform to the biotin carboxylase fold found in the 40 kDa regions of CPS, and presents a new type of fold possibly shared by homologous acylphosphate-making enzymes. A molecular 16-stranded open beta-sheet surrounded by alpha-helices is the hallmark of the CK dimer. Each subunit also contains two smaller sheets and a large crevice found at the location expected for the active center. Intersubunit interactions are very large and involve a central hydrophobic patch and more hydrophilic peripheral contacts. The crevice holds a sulfate that may occupy the site of an ATP phosphate, and is lined by conserved residues. Site-directed mutations tested at two of these residues inactivate the enzyme. These findings support active site location in the crevice. The orientation of the crevices in the dimer precludes their physical cooperation in the catalytic process. Such cooperation is not needed in the CK reaction but is a requirement of the mechanism of CPSs.  (+info)

The carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase of Pyrococcus furiosus is enzymologically and structurally a carbamate kinase. (4/122)

The hyperthermophiles Pyrococcus furiosus and Pyrococcus abyssi make pyrimidines and arginine from carbamoyl phosphate (CP) synthesized by an enzyme that differs from other carbamoyl-phosphate synthetases and that resembles carbamate kinase (CK) in polypeptide mass, amino acid sequence, and oligomeric organization. This enzyme was reported to use ammonia, bicarbonate, and two ATP molecules as carbamoyl-phosphate synthetases to make CP and to exhibit bicarbonatedependent ATPase activity. We have reexamined these findings using the enzyme of P. furiosus expressed in Escherichia coli from the corresponding gene cloned in a plasmid. We show that the enzyme uses chemically made carbamate rather than ammonia and bicarbonate and catalyzes a reaction with the stoichiometry and equilibrium that are typical for CK. Furthermore, the enzyme catalyzes actively full reversion of the CK reaction and exhibits little bicarbonate-dependent ATPase. In addition, it cross-reacts with antibodies raised against CK from Enterococcus faecium, and its three-dimensional structure, judged by x-ray crystallography of enzyme crystals, is very similar to that of CK. Thus, the enzyme is, in all respects other than its function in vivo, a CK. Because in other organisms the function of CK is to make ATP from ADP and CP derived from arginine catabolism, this is the first example of using CK for making rather than using CP. The reasons for this use and the adaptation of the enzyme to this new function are discussed.  (+info)

Half of Saccharomyces cerevisiae carbamoyl phosphate synthetase produces and channels carbamoyl phosphate to the fused aspartate transcarbamoylase domain. (5/122)

The first two steps of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are catalyzed by a 240-kDa bifunctional protein encoded by the ura2 locus. Although the constituent enzymes, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPSase) and aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase) function independently, there are interdomain interactions uniquely associated with the multifunctional protein. Both CPSase and ATCase are feedback inhibited by UTP. Moreover, the intermediate carbamoyl phosphate is channeled from the CPSase domain where it is synthesized to the ATCase domain where it is used in the synthesis of carbamoyl aspartate. To better understand these processes, a recombinant plasmid was constructed that encoded a protein lacking the amidotransferase domain and the amino half of the CPSase domain, a 100-kDa chain segment. The truncated complex consisted of the carboxyl half of the CPSase domain fused to the ATCase domain via the pDHO domain, an inactive dihydroorotase homologue that bridges the two functional domains in the native molecule. Not only was the "half CPSase" catalytically active, but it was regulated by UTP to the same extent as the parent molecule. In contrast, the ATCase domain was no longer sensitive to the nucleotide, suggesting that the two catalytic activities are controlled by distinct mechanisms. Most remarkably, isotope dilution and transient time measurements showed that the truncated complex channels carbamoyl phosphate. The overall CPSase-ATCase reaction is much less sensitive than the parent molecule to the ATCase bisubstrate analogue, N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate (PALA), providing evidence that the endogenously produced carbamoyl phosphate is sequestered and channeled to the ATCase active site.  (+info)

Studies of hepatic glutamine metabolism in the perfused rat liver with (15)N-labeled glutamine. (6/122)

This study examines the role of glucagon and insulin in the incorporation of (15)N derived from (15)N-labeled glutamine into aspartate, citrulline and, thereby, [(15)N]urea isotopomers. Rat livers were perfused, in the nonrecirculating mode, with 0.3 mM NH(4)Cl and either 2-(15)N- or 5-(15)N-labeled glutamine (1 mM). The isotopic enrichment of the two nitrogenous precursor pools (ammonia and aspartate) involved in urea synthesis as well as the production of [(15)N]urea isotopomers were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This information was used to examine the hypothesis that 5-N of glutamine is directly channeled to carbamyl phosphate (CP) synthesis. The results indicate that the predominant metabolic fate of [2-(15)N] and [5-(15)N]glutamine is incorporation into urea. Glucagon significantly stimulated the uptake of (15)N-labeled glutamine and its metabolism via phosphate-dependent glutaminase (PDG) to form U(m+1) and U(m+2) (urea containing one or two atoms of (15)N). However, insulin had little effect compared with control. The [5-(15)N]glutamine primarily entered into urea via ammonia incorporation into CP, whereas the [2-(15)N]glutamine was predominantly incorporated via aspartate. This is evident from the relative enrichments of aspartate and of citrulline generated from each substrate. Furthermore, the data indicate that the (15)NH(3) that was generated in the mitochondria by either PDG (from 5-(15)N) or glutamate dehydrogenase (from 2-(15)N) enjoys the same partition between incorporation into CP or exit from the mitochondria. Thus, there is no evidence for preferential access for ammonia that arises by the action of PDG to carbamyl-phosphate synthetase. To the contrary, we provide strong evidence that such ammonia is metabolized without any such metabolic channeling. The glucagon-induced increase in [(15)N]urea synthesis was associated with a significant elevation in hepatic N-acetylglutamate concentration. Therefore, the hormonal regulation of [(15)N]urea isotopomer production depends upon the coordinate action of the mitochondrial PDG pathway and the synthesis of N-acetylglutamate (an obligatory activator of CP). The current study may provide the theoretical and methodological foundations for in vivo investigations of the relationship between the hepatic urea cycle enzyme activities, the flux of (15)N-labeled glutamine into the urea cycle, and the production of urea isotopomers.  (+info)

Substitutions in the aspartate transcarbamoylase domain of hamster CAD disrupt oligomeric structure. (7/122)

Aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase; EC 2.1.3.2) is one of three enzymatic domains of CAD, a protein whose native structure is usually a hexamer of identical subunits. Alanine substitutions for the ATCase residues Asp-90 and Arg-269 were generated in a bicistronic vector that encodes a 6-histidine-tagged hamster CAD. Stably transfected mammalian cells expressing high levels of CAD were easily isolated and CAD purification was simplified over previous procedures. The substitutions reduce the ATCase V(max) of the altered CADs by 11-fold and 46-fold, respectively, as well as affect the enzyme's affinity for aspartate. At 25 mM Mg(2+), these substitutions cause the oligomeric CAD to dissociate into monomers. Under the same dissociating conditions, incubating the altered CAD with the ATCase substrate carbamoyl phosphate or the bisubstrate analogue N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate unexpectedly leads to the reformation of hexamers. Incubation with the other ATCase substrate, aspartate, has no effect. These results demonstrate that the ATCase domain is central to hexamer formation in CAD and suggest that the ATCase reaction mechanism is ordered in the same manner as the Escherichia coli ATCase. Finally, the data indicate that the binding of carbamoyl phosphate induces conformational changes that enhance the interaction of CAD subunits.  (+info)

Antitumor activity of N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartic acid, a transition-state inhibitor of aspartate transcarbamylase. (8/122)

N-(Phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA) is an analog of the transition state for the aspartate transcarbamylase reaction and has been reported previously to be a potent and specific inhibitor of de novo pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis. It is now shown that PALA has considerable antitumor activity against certain transplantable tumors in mice. PALA, unlike other antimetabolites, was less effective against ascitic leukemias than against two solid tumors, B16 melanoma and Lewis lung carcinoma. Another solid tumor, Ridgway osteogenic sarcoma, which is sensitivie to many established chemotherapeutic agents, did not respond to PALA. Daily or intermittent treatment with PALA did not significantly increase the life-span of mice bearing i.p. leukemia L1210. The survival time of mice bearing i.p. P388 leukemia was prolonged by PALA treatment by up to 64%. In a number of experiments mice bearing i.p. B16 melanoma survived 77 to 86% longer than did controls when treated with PALA (490 mg/kg) on Days 1, 5, and 9. Lewis lung carcinoma, a tumor refractory to most established antineoplastic agents, was highly sensitive to PALA. Treatment on Days 1, 5, and 9 following s.c. implantation of Lewis lung carcinoma was curative to 50% of the mice. If treatment was delayed until s.c. Lewis lung tumors had reached about 500 mg, PALA neither cured the mice nor produced significant tumor regression. However, extensive delay of tumor growth and prolongation of survival were still observed.  (+info)

Carbamyl Phosphate is a chemical compound that plays a crucial role in the biochemical process of nitrogen metabolism, particularly in the urea cycle. It is synthesized in the liver and serves as an important intermediate in the conversion of ammonia to urea, which is then excreted by the kidneys.

In medical terms, Carbamyl Phosphate Synthetase I (CPS I) deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that affects the production of Carbamyl Phosphate. This deficiency can lead to hyperammonemia, which is an excess of ammonia in the bloodstream, and can cause severe neurological symptoms and brain damage if left untreated.

It's important to note that while Carbamyl Phosphate is a critical component of the urea cycle, it is not typically used as a medication or therapeutic agent in clinical practice.

Carbamates are a group of organic compounds that contain the carbamate functional group, which is a carbon atom double-bonded to oxygen and single-bonded to a nitrogen atom (> N-C=O). In the context of pharmaceuticals and agriculture, carbamates are a class of drugs and pesticides that have carbamate as their core structure.

Carbamate insecticides work by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synapses of the nervous system. When this enzyme is inhibited, acetylcholine accumulates in the synaptic cleft, leading to overstimulation of the nervous system and ultimately causing paralysis and death in insects.

Carbamate drugs are used for a variety of medical indications, including as anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants, and psychotropic medications. They work by modulating various neurotransmitter systems in the brain, such as GABA, glutamate, and dopamine. Carbamates can also be used as anti- parasitic agents, such as ivermectin, which is effective against a range of parasites including nematodes, arthropods, and some protozoa.

It's important to note that carbamate pesticides can be toxic to non-target organisms, including humans, if not used properly. Therefore, it's essential to follow all safety guidelines when handling or using these products.

Phosphates, in a medical context, refer to the salts or esters of phosphoric acid. Phosphates play crucial roles in various biological processes within the human body. They are essential components of bones and teeth, where they combine with calcium to form hydroxyapatite crystals. Phosphates also participate in energy transfer reactions as phosphate groups attached to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Additionally, they contribute to buffer systems that help maintain normal pH levels in the body.

Abnormal levels of phosphates in the blood can indicate certain medical conditions. High phosphate levels (hyperphosphatemia) may be associated with kidney dysfunction, hyperparathyroidism, or excessive intake of phosphate-containing products. Low phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia) might result from malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or certain diseases affecting the small intestine or kidneys. Both hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia can have significant impacts on various organ systems and may require medical intervention.

Dihydroorotase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of pyrimidines, which are essential components of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Specifically, dihydroorotase catalyzes the conversion of N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate into L-dihydroorotate and L-carbamoyl aspartate in the third step of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis.

The reaction catalyzed by dihydroorotase is:

N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate + H2O → L-dihydroorotate + L-carbamoyl aspartate

Dihydroorotase is a member of the amidohydrolase superfamily and functions as a homodimer or homotetramer. In humans, dihydroorotase is encoded by the DHODH gene and is found in the cytoplasm of cells. Defects in this enzyme can lead to a rare genetic disorder called dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency, which is characterized by an accumulation of pyrimidines and their precursors in the body.

Aspartate carbamoyltransferase (ACT) is a crucial enzyme in the urea cycle, which is the biochemical pathway responsible for the elimination of excess nitrogen waste from the body. This enzyme catalyzes the second step of the urea cycle, where it facilitates the transfer of a carbamoyl group from carbamoyl phosphate to aspartic acid, forming N-acetylglutamic semialdehyde and releasing phosphate in the process.

The reaction catalyzed by aspartate carbamoyltransferase is as follows:

Carbamoyl phosphate + L-aspartate → N-acetylglutamic semialdehyde + P\_i + CO\_2

This enzyme plays a critical role in maintaining nitrogen balance and preventing the accumulation of toxic levels of ammonia in the body. Deficiencies or mutations in aspartate carbamoyltransferase can lead to serious metabolic disorders, such as citrullinemia and hyperammonemia, which can have severe neurological consequences if left untreated.

Ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT or OAT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the urea cycle, which is the biochemical pathway responsible for the removal of excess nitrogen from the body. Specifically, ornithine carbamoyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of a carbamoyl group from carbamoyl phosphate to ornithine, forming citrulline and releasing phosphate in the process. This reaction is essential for the production of urea, which can then be excreted by the kidneys.

Deficiency in ornithine carbamoyltransferase can lead to a genetic disorder called ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), which is characterized by hyperammonemia (elevated blood ammonia levels) and neurological symptoms. OTCD is one of the most common urea cycle disorders, and it primarily affects females due to its X-linked inheritance pattern.

Ligases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a covalent bond between two molecules, usually involving the joining of two nucleotides in a DNA or RNA strand. They play a crucial role in various biological processes such as DNA replication, repair, and recombination. In DNA ligases, the enzyme seals nicks or breaks in the phosphodiester backbone of the DNA molecule by catalyzing the formation of an ester bond between the 3'-hydroxyl group and the 5'-phosphate group of adjacent nucleotides. This process is essential for maintaining genomic integrity and stability.

Phosphotransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. This reaction is essential for various cellular processes, including energy metabolism, signal transduction, and biosynthesis.

The systematic name for this group of enzymes is phosphotransferase, which is derived from the general reaction they catalyze: D-donor + A-acceptor = D-donor minus phosphate + A-phosphate. The donor molecule can be a variety of compounds, such as ATP or a phosphorylated protein, while the acceptor molecule is typically a compound that becomes phosphorylated during the reaction.

Phosphotransferases are classified into several subgroups based on the type of donor and acceptor molecules they act upon. For example, kinases are a subgroup of phosphotransferases that transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a protein or other organic compound. Phosphatases, another subgroup, remove phosphate groups from molecules by transferring them to water.

Overall, phosphotransferases play a critical role in regulating many cellular functions and are important targets for drug development in various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Ornithine is not a medical condition but a naturally occurring alpha-amino acid, which is involved in the urea cycle, a process that eliminates ammonia from the body. Here's a brief medical/biochemical definition of Ornithine:

Ornithine (NH₂-CH₂-CH₂-CH(NH₃)-COOH) is an α-amino acid without a carbon atom attached to the amino group, classified as a non-proteinogenic amino acid because it is not encoded by the standard genetic code and not commonly found in proteins. It plays a crucial role in the urea cycle, where it helps convert harmful ammonia into urea, which can then be excreted by the body through urine. Ornithine is produced from the breakdown of arginine, another amino acid, via the enzyme arginase. In some medical and nutritional contexts, ornithine supplementation may be recommended to support liver function, wound healing, or muscle growth, but its effectiveness for these uses remains a subject of ongoing research and debate.

Ammonia is a colorless, pungent-smelling gas with the chemical formula NH3. It is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen and is a basic compound, meaning it has a pH greater than 7. Ammonia is naturally found in the environment and is produced by the breakdown of organic matter, such as animal waste and decomposing plants. In the medical field, ammonia is most commonly discussed in relation to its role in human metabolism and its potential toxicity.

In the body, ammonia is produced as a byproduct of protein metabolism and is typically converted to urea in the liver and excreted in the urine. However, if the liver is not functioning properly or if there is an excess of protein in the diet, ammonia can accumulate in the blood and cause a condition called hyperammonemia. Hyperammonemia can lead to serious neurological symptoms, such as confusion, seizures, and coma, and is treated by lowering the level of ammonia in the blood through medications, dietary changes, and dialysis.

Argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) is a urea cycle enzyme that plays a crucial role in the detoxification of ammonia in the body. This enzyme catalyzes the reaction that combines citrulline and aspartate to form argininosuccinate, which is subsequently converted to arginine and fumarate in the urea cycle.

The reaction catalyzed by argininosuccinate synthase is as follows:

Citrulline + Aspartate + ATP → Argininosuccinate + AMP + PPi

Deficiency in argininosuccinate synthase leads to a genetic disorder known as citrullinemia, which is characterized by an accumulation of ammonia in the blood and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. There are two forms of citrullinemia, type I and type II, with type I being more severe and caused by mutations in the ASS1 gene located on chromosome 9q34.

Inborn errors of amino acid metabolism refer to genetic disorders that affect the body's ability to properly break down and process individual amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. These disorders can result in an accumulation of toxic levels of certain amino acids or their byproducts in the body, leading to a variety of symptoms and health complications.

There are many different types of inborn errors of amino acid metabolism, each affecting a specific amino acid or group of amino acids. Some examples include:

* Phenylketonuria (PKU): This disorder affects the breakdown of the amino acid phenylalanine, leading to its accumulation in the body and causing brain damage if left untreated.
* Maple syrup urine disease: This disorder affects the breakdown of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine, leading to their accumulation in the body and causing neurological problems.
* Homocystinuria: This disorder affects the breakdown of the amino acid methionine, leading to its accumulation in the body and causing a range of symptoms including developmental delay, intellectual disability, and cardiovascular problems.

Treatment for inborn errors of amino acid metabolism typically involves dietary restrictions or supplementation to manage the levels of affected amino acids in the body. In some cases, medication or other therapies may also be necessary. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent or minimize the severity of symptoms and health complications associated with these disorders.

I'd be happy to help! However, I believe there might be a slight misunderstanding in your question. Mitochondria are organelles found in the cells of all complex living organisms, including humans, while the liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen. They don't have a medical definition together. I can certainly provide you with separate definitions for each:

1. Mitochondria: These are double-membrane-bound cellular organelles that generate most of the chemical energy needed to power the cell's biochemical reactions. Commonly known as the "powerhouse of the cell," mitochondria convert organic substrates, such as glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids, into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria are dynamic structures that can change their shape, size, and number through fission (division) and fusion (merging) processes. They play essential roles in various cellular functions, including calcium signaling, apoptosis (programmed cell death), and the regulation of cellular metabolism.

2. Liver: The liver is a large, lobulated organ that lies mainly in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm. It plays a crucial role in various physiological functions, such as detoxification, protein synthesis, metabolism, and nutrient storage. The liver is responsible for removing toxins from the bloodstream, producing bile to aid in digestion, regulating glucose levels, synthesizing plasma proteins, and storing glycogen, vitamins, and minerals. It also contributes to the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids, helping maintain energy homeostasis in the body.

I hope this clarifies any confusion! If you have any further questions or need more information, please don't hesitate to ask.

Glutamine is defined as a conditionally essential amino acid in humans, which means that it can be produced by the body under normal circumstances, but may become essential during certain conditions such as stress, illness, or injury. It is the most abundant free amino acid found in the blood and in the muscles of the body.

Glutamine plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including protein synthesis, energy production, and acid-base balance. It serves as an important fuel source for cells in the intestines, immune system, and skeletal muscles. Glutamine has also been shown to have potential benefits in wound healing, gut function, and immunity, particularly during times of physiological stress or illness.

In summary, glutamine is a vital amino acid that plays a critical role in maintaining the health and function of various tissues and organs in the body.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Glyoxal is an organic compound with the formula CH(O)CHO. It is a colorless liquid that is used primarily as a building block in the synthesis of other chemicals, including pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. Glyoxal is also found in small amounts in the environment, including in tobacco smoke and in certain foods.

In the body, glyoxal can be produced as a byproduct of normal metabolic processes, particularly when sugars are broken down. Under some circumstances, high levels of glyoxal may contribute to the development of chronic diseases, including diabetes and its complications. This is because glyoxal can react with proteins and other biological molecules in the body, forming advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) that can disrupt normal cellular function and contribute to tissue damage. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of glyoxal in human health and disease.

Glutaminase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamine, which is a type of amino acid, into glutamate and ammonia. This reaction is an essential part of nitrogen metabolism in many organisms, including humans. There are several forms of glutaminase found in different parts of the body, with varying properties and functions.

In humans, there are two major types of glutaminase: mitochondrial and cytosolic. Mitochondrial glutaminase is primarily found in the kidneys and brain, where it plays a crucial role in energy metabolism by converting glutamine into glutamate, which can then be further metabolized to produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate), a major source of cellular energy.

Cytosolic glutaminase, on the other hand, is found in many tissues throughout the body and is involved in various metabolic processes, including nucleotide synthesis and protein degradation.

Glutaminase activity has been implicated in several disease states, including cancer, where some tumors have been shown to have elevated levels of glutaminase expression, allowing them to use glutamine as a major source of energy and growth. Inhibitors of glutaminase are currently being investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer.

Uracil nucleotides are chemical compounds that play a crucial role in the synthesis, repair, and replication of DNA and RNA. Specifically, uracil nucleotides refer to the group of molecules that contain the nitrogenous base uracil, which is linked to a ribose sugar through a beta-glycosidic bond. This forms the nucleoside uridine, which can then be phosphorylated to create the uracil nucleotide.

Uracil nucleotides are important in the formation of RNA, where uracil base pairs with adenine through two hydrogen bonds during transcription. However, uracil is not typically found in DNA, and its presence in DNA can indicate damage or mutation. When uracil is found in DNA, it is usually the result of a process called deamination, where the nitrogenous base cytosine is spontaneously converted to uracil. This can lead to errors during replication, as uracil will pair with adenine instead of guanine, leading to a C-to-T or G-to-A mutation.

To prevent this type of mutation, cells have enzymes called uracil DNA glycosylases that recognize and remove uracil from DNA. This initiates the base excision repair pathway, which removes the damaged nucleotide and replaces it with a correct one. Overall, uracil nucleotides are essential for proper cellular function, but their misincorporation into DNA can have serious consequences for genome stability.

Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate (PRPP) is defined as a key intracellular nucleotide metabolite that plays an essential role in the biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. PRPP is synthesized from ribose 5-phosphate and ATP by the enzyme PRPP synthase. It contributes a phosphoribosyl group in the conversion of purines and pyrimidines to their corresponding nucleotides, which are critical for various cellular processes such as DNA replication, repair, and gene expression. Abnormal levels of PRPP have been implicated in several genetic disorders, including Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and PRPP synthetase superactivity.

Uridine Monophosphate (UMP) is a nucleotide that is a constituent of RNA (Ribonucleic Acid). It consists of a nitrogenous base called Uridine, linked to a sugar molecule (ribose) and a phosphate group. UMP plays a crucial role in various biochemical reactions within the body, including energy transfer and cellular metabolism. It is also involved in the synthesis of other nucleotides and serves as an important precursor in the production of genetic material during cell division.

Carboxyl transferases and carbamoyl transferases are two types of enzymes that play a crucial role in various metabolic pathways by transferring a carboxyl or carbamoyl group from one molecule to another. Here are the medical definitions for both:

1. Carboxyl Transferases: These are a class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a carboxyl group (-COOH) from one molecule to another. They play an essential role in several metabolic processes, such as the synthesis and degradation of amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and other biomolecules. One example of a carboxyl transferase is pyruvate carboxylase, which catalyzes the addition of a carboxyl group to pyruvate, forming oxaloacetate in the gluconeogenesis pathway.
2. Carbamoyl Transferases: These are enzymes that facilitate the transfer of a carbamoyl group (-CONH2) from one molecule to another. They participate in various metabolic reactions, including the synthesis of essential compounds like arginine, pyrimidines, and urea. An example of a carbamoyl transferase is ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT), which catalyzes the transfer of a carbamoyl group from carbamoyl phosphate to ornithine during the urea cycle.

Both carboxyl and carbamoyl transferases are vital for maintaining proper cellular function and homeostasis in living organisms, including humans. Dysregulation or deficiency of these enzymes can lead to various metabolic disorders and diseases.

L-Citrulline is a non-essential amino acid that plays a role in the urea cycle, which is the process by which the body eliminates toxic ammonia from the bloodstream. It is called "non-essential" because it can be synthesized by the body from other compounds, such as L-Ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate.

Citrulline is found in some foods, including watermelon, bitter melon, and certain types of sausage. It is also available as a dietary supplement. In the body, citrulline is converted to another amino acid called L-Arginine, which is involved in the production of nitric oxide, a molecule that helps dilate blood vessels and improve blood flow.

Citrulline has been studied for its potential benefits on various aspects of health, including exercise performance, cardiovascular function, and immune system function. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and establish safe and effective dosages.

Acetylene is defined as a colorless, highly flammable gas with a distinctive odor, having the chemical formula C2H2. It is the simplest and lightest hydrocarbon in which two carbon atoms are bonded together by a triple bond. Acetylene is used as a fuel in welding and cutting torches, and it can also be converted into other chemicals, such as vinyl acetate and acetic acid. In medical terms, acetylene is not a substance that is commonly used or discussed.

Organophosphates are a group of chemicals that include insecticides, herbicides, and nerve gases. They work by inhibiting an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, which normally breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synapse between nerves. This leads to an overaccumulation of acetylcholine, causing overstimulation of the nervous system and resulting in a wide range of symptoms such as muscle twitching, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, confusion, and potentially death due to respiratory failure. Organophosphates are highly toxic and their use is regulated due to the risks they pose to human health and the environment.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is a high-energy molecule that stores and transports energy within cells. It is the main source of energy for most cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and protein synthesis. ATP is composed of a base (adenine), a sugar (ribose), and three phosphate groups. The bonds between these phosphate groups contain a significant amount of energy, which can be released when the bond between the second and third phosphate group is broken, resulting in the formation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. This process is known as hydrolysis and can be catalyzed by various enzymes to drive a wide range of cellular functions. ATP can also be regenerated from ADP through various metabolic pathways, such as oxidative phosphorylation or substrate-level phosphorylation, allowing for the continuous supply of energy to cells.

Amino-acid N-acetyltransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A to the amino group of an amino acid. This modification can have various effects on the function and stability of the modified amino acid, and plays a role in several cellular processes, including protein synthesis, degradation, and post-translational modification.

The systematic name for this enzyme class is "acetyl-CoA:amino-acid N-acetyltransferase". They are classified under the EC number 2.3.1. acetyltransferases. There are several subtypes of amino-acid N-acetyltransferases, each with specificity for certain amino acids or groups of amino acids.

These enzymes play a role in various biological processes such as:

* Protein synthesis and folding
* Degradation of amino acids and proteins
* Regulation of gene expression
* Detoxification of xenobiotics (foreign substances)

Defects or mutations in genes encoding for these enzymes can lead to various diseases, such as neurological disorders and cancer.

Organophosphorus compounds are a class of chemical substances that contain phosphorus bonded to organic compounds. They are used in various applications, including as plasticizers, flame retardants, pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, and nerve gases), and solvents. In medicine, they are also used in the treatment of certain conditions such as glaucoma. However, organophosphorus compounds can be toxic to humans and animals, particularly those that affect the nervous system by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Exposure to these compounds can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, and in severe cases, respiratory failure and death.

Calcium phosphates are a group of minerals that are important components of bones and teeth. They are also found in some foods and are used in dietary supplements and medical applications. Chemically, calcium phosphates are salts of calcium and phosphoric acid, and they exist in various forms, including hydroxyapatite, which is the primary mineral component of bone tissue. Other forms of calcium phosphates include monocalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, and tricalcium phosphate, which are used as food additives and dietary supplements. Calcium phosphates are important for maintaining strong bones and teeth, and they also play a role in various physiological processes, such as nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction.

Glutamates are the salt or ester forms of glutamic acid, which is a naturally occurring amino acid and the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Glutamate plays a crucial role in various brain functions, such as learning, memory, and cognition. However, excessive levels of glutamate can lead to neuronal damage or death, contributing to several neurological disorders, including stroke, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

Glutamates are also commonly found in food as a natural flavor enhancer, often listed under the name monosodium glutamate (MSG). While MSG has been extensively studied, its safety remains a topic of debate, with some individuals reporting adverse reactions after consuming foods containing this additive.

Phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) is not a naturally occurring substance, but rather a synthetic compound that is used in medical and scientific research. It is a colorless, crystalline solid that is soluble in water.

In a medical context, PAA is an inhibitor of certain enzymes that are involved in the replication of viruses, including HIV. It works by binding to the active site of these enzymes and preventing them from carrying out their normal functions. As a result, PAA has been studied as a potential antiviral agent, although it is not currently used as a medication.

It's important to note that while PAA has shown promise in laboratory studies, its safety and efficacy have not been established in clinical trials, and it is not approved for use as a drug by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Bicarbonates, also known as sodium bicarbonate or baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. In the context of medical definitions, bicarbonates refer to the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-), which is an important buffer in the body that helps maintain normal pH levels in blood and other bodily fluids.

The balance of bicarbonate and carbonic acid in the body helps regulate the acidity or alkalinity of the blood, a condition known as pH balance. Bicarbonates are produced by the body and are also found in some foods and drinking water. They work to neutralize excess acid in the body and help maintain the normal pH range of 7.35 to 7.45.

In medical testing, bicarbonate levels may be measured as part of an electrolyte panel or as a component of arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. Low bicarbonate levels can indicate metabolic acidosis, while high levels can indicate metabolic alkalosis. Both conditions can have serious consequences if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Urea is not a medical condition but it is a medically relevant substance. Here's the definition:

Urea is a colorless, odorless solid that is the primary nitrogen-containing compound in the urine of mammals. It is a normal metabolic end product that is excreted by the kidneys and is also used as a fertilizer and in various industrial applications. Chemically, urea is a carbamide, consisting of two amino groups (NH2) joined by a carbon atom and having a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group (OH) attached to the carbon atom. Urea is produced in the liver as an end product of protein metabolism and is then eliminated from the body by the kidneys through urination. Abnormal levels of urea in the blood, known as uremia, can indicate impaired kidney function or other medical conditions.

Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) is a vital intermediate compound in the metabolism of glucose, which is a simple sugar that serves as a primary source of energy for living organisms. G6P plays a critical role in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways, contributing to the regulation of blood glucose levels and energy production within cells.

In biochemistry, glucose-6-phosphate is defined as:

A hexose sugar phosphate ester formed by the phosphorylation of glucose at the 6th carbon atom by ATP in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme hexokinase or glucokinase. This reaction is the first step in both glycolysis and glucose storage (glycogen synthesis) processes, ensuring that glucose can be effectively utilized for energy production or stored for later use.

G6P serves as a crucial metabolic branch point, leading to various pathways such as:

1. Glycolysis: In the presence of sufficient ATP and NAD+ levels, G6P is further metabolized through glycolysis to generate pyruvate, which enters the citric acid cycle for additional energy production in the form of ATP, NADH, and FADH2.
2. Gluconeogenesis: During periods of low blood glucose levels, G6P can be synthesized back into glucose through the gluconeogenesis pathway, primarily occurring in the liver and kidneys. This process helps maintain stable blood glucose concentrations and provides energy to cells when dietary intake is insufficient.
3. Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP): A portion of G6P can be shunted into the PPP, an alternative metabolic route that generates NADPH, ribose-5-phosphate for nucleotide synthesis, and erythrose-4-phosphate for aromatic amino acid production. The PPP is essential in maintaining redox balance within cells and supporting biosynthetic processes.

Overall, glucose-6-phosphate plays a critical role as a central metabolic intermediate, connecting various pathways to regulate energy homeostasis, redox balance, and biosynthesis in response to cellular demands and environmental cues.

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolic pathway of glycolysis. Its primary function is to convert glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (a triose sugar phosphate) into D-glycerate 1,3-bisphosphate, while also converting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) into its reduced form NADH. This reaction is essential for the production of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during cellular respiration. GAPDH has also been implicated in various non-metabolic processes, including DNA replication, repair, and transcription regulation, due to its ability to interact with different proteins and nucleic acids.

Arginine is an α-amino acid that is classified as a semi-essential or conditionally essential amino acid, depending on the developmental stage and health status of the individual. The adult human body can normally synthesize sufficient amounts of arginine to meet its needs, but there are certain circumstances, such as periods of rapid growth or injury, where the dietary intake of arginine may become necessary.

The chemical formula for arginine is C6H14N4O2. It has a molecular weight of 174.20 g/mol and a pKa value of 12.48. Arginine is a basic amino acid, which means that it contains a side chain with a positive charge at physiological pH levels. The side chain of arginine is composed of a guanidino group, which is a functional group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to three methyl groups.

In the body, arginine plays several important roles. It is a precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide, a molecule that helps regulate blood flow and immune function. Arginine is also involved in the detoxification of ammonia, a waste product produced by the breakdown of proteins. Additionally, arginine can be converted into other amino acids, such as ornithine and citrulline, which are involved in various metabolic processes.

Foods that are good sources of arginine include meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, nuts, seeds, and legumes. Arginine supplements are available and may be used for a variety of purposes, such as improving exercise performance, enhancing wound healing, and boosting immune function. However, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking arginine supplements, as they can interact with certain medications and have potential side effects.

Sugar phosphates are organic compounds that play crucial roles in various biological processes, particularly in the field of genetics and molecular biology. They are formed by the attachment of a phosphate group to a sugar molecule, most commonly to the 5-carbon sugar ribose or deoxyribose.

In genetics, sugar phosphates form the backbone of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. In DNA, the sugar phosphate backbone consists of alternating deoxyribose (a sugar) and phosphate groups, linked together by covalent bonds between the 5' carbon atom of one sugar molecule and the 3' carbon atom of another sugar molecule. This forms a long, twisted ladder-like structure known as a double helix.

Similarly, in RNA, the sugar phosphate backbone is formed by ribose (a sugar) and phosphate groups, creating a single-stranded structure that can fold back on itself to form complex shapes. These sugar phosphate backbones provide structural support for the nucleic acids and help to protect the genetic information stored within them.

Sugar phosphates also play important roles in energy metabolism, as they are involved in the formation and breakdown of high-energy compounds such as ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and GTP (guanosine triphosphate). These molecules serve as energy currency for cells, storing and releasing energy as needed to power various cellular processes.

Uracil is not a medical term, but it is a biological molecule. Medically or biologically, uracil can be defined as one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that is linked to a ribose sugar by an N-glycosidic bond. It forms base pairs with adenine in double-stranded RNA and DNA. Uracil is a pyrimidine derivative, similar to thymine found in DNA, but it lacks the methyl group (-CH3) that thymine has at the 5 position of its ring.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Oligomycins are a group of antibiotics produced by various species of Streptomyces bacteria. They are characterized by their ability to inhibit the function of ATP synthase, an enzyme that plays a crucial role in energy production within cells. By binding to the F1 component of ATP synthase, oligomycins prevent the synthesis of ATP, which is a key source of energy for cellular processes.

These antibiotics have been used in research to study the mechanisms of ATP synthase and mitochondrial function. However, their therapeutic use as antibiotics is limited due to their toxicity to mammalian cells. Oligomycin A is one of the most well-known and studied members of this group of antibiotics.

Multienzyme complexes are specialized protein structures that consist of multiple enzymes closely associated or bound together, often with other cofactors and regulatory subunits. These complexes facilitate the sequential transfer of substrates along a series of enzymatic reactions, also known as a metabolic pathway. By keeping the enzymes in close proximity, multienzyme complexes enhance reaction efficiency, improve substrate specificity, and maintain proper stoichiometry between different enzymes involved in the pathway. Examples of multienzyme complexes include the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, the citrate synthase complex, and the fatty acid synthetase complex.

Dinitrophenols (DNP) are a class of chemical compounds that contain two nitro groups (-NO2) attached to a phenol group. Dinitrophenols have been used in the past as industrial dyes, wood preservatives, and pesticides. However, they have also been misused as weight loss supplements due to their ability to increase metabolic rate and cause weight loss.

The use of DNP for weight loss is dangerous and has been linked to several fatalities. DNP works by disrupting the normal functioning of the mitochondria in cells, which are responsible for producing energy. This disruption causes an increase in metabolic rate, leading to a rapid breakdown of fat and carbohydrates, and ultimately weight loss. However, this increased metabolism can also produce excessive heat, leading to hyperthermia, dehydration, and damage to organs such as the heart, liver, and kidneys.

Due to their potential for serious harm, DNP-containing products are banned in many countries, including the United States. Medical professionals should be aware of the dangers associated with DNP use and advise patients accordingly.

Enzyme repression is a type of gene regulation in which the production of an enzyme is inhibited or suppressed, thereby reducing the rate of catalysis of the chemical reaction that the enzyme facilitates. This process typically occurs when the end product of the reaction binds to the regulatory protein, called a repressor, which then binds to the operator region of the operon (a group of genes that are transcribed together) and prevents transcription of the structural genes encoding for the enzyme. Enzyme repression helps maintain homeostasis within the cell by preventing the unnecessary production of enzymes when they are not needed, thus conserving energy and resources.

"Mesocricetus" is a genus of rodents, more commonly known as hamsters. It includes several species of hamsters that are native to various parts of Europe and Asia. The best-known member of this genus is the Syrian hamster, also known as the golden hamster or Mesocricetus auratus, which is a popular pet due to its small size and relatively easy care. These hamsters are burrowing animals and are typically solitary in the wild.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various biological processes in the human body. It is the fourth most abundant cation in the body and is involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation. Magnesium also contributes to the structural development of bones and teeth.

In medical terms, magnesium deficiency can lead to several health issues, such as muscle cramps, weakness, heart arrhythmias, and seizures. On the other hand, excessive magnesium levels can cause symptoms like diarrhea, nausea, and muscle weakness. Magnesium supplements or magnesium-rich foods are often recommended to maintain optimal magnesium levels in the body.

Some common dietary sources of magnesium include leafy green vegetables, nuts, seeds, legumes, whole grains, and dairy products. Magnesium is also available in various forms as a dietary supplement, including magnesium oxide, magnesium citrate, magnesium chloride, and magnesium glycinate.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

'Clostridium' is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in nature, including in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Many species of Clostridium are anaerobic, meaning they can grow and reproduce in environments with little or no oxygen. Some species of Clostridium are capable of producing toxins that can cause serious and sometimes life-threatening illnesses in humans and animals.

Some notable species of Clostridium include:

* Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus (also known as lockjaw)
* Clostridium botulinum, which produces botulinum toxin, the most potent neurotoxin known and the cause of botulism
* Clostridium difficile, which can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, particularly in people who have recently taken antibiotics
* Clostridium perfringens, which can cause food poisoning and gas gangrene.

It is important to note that not all species of Clostridium are harmful, and some are even beneficial, such as those used in the production of certain fermented foods like sauerkraut and natto. However, due to their ability to produce toxins and cause illness, it is important to handle and dispose of materials contaminated with Clostridium species carefully, especially in healthcare settings.

Inositol phosphates are a family of molecules that consist of an inositol ring, which is a six-carbon heterocyclic compound, linked to one or more phosphate groups. These molecules play important roles as intracellular signaling intermediates and are involved in various cellular processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism.

Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), also known as phytic acid, is a form of inositol phosphate that is found in plant-based foods. IP6 has the ability to bind to minerals such as calcium, magnesium, and iron, which can reduce their bioavailability in the body.

Inositol phosphates have been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. For example, altered levels of certain inositol phosphates have been observed in cancer cells, suggesting that they may play a role in tumor growth and progression. Additionally, mutations in enzymes involved in the metabolism of inositol phosphates have been associated with several genetic diseases.

A cell-free system is a biochemical environment in which biological reactions can occur outside of an intact living cell. These systems are often used to study specific cellular processes or pathways, as they allow researchers to control and manipulate the conditions in which the reactions take place. In a cell-free system, the necessary enzymes, substrates, and cofactors for a particular reaction are provided in a test tube or other container, rather than within a whole cell.

Cell-free systems can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. They can be used to study a wide range of cellular processes, such as transcription, translation, protein folding, and metabolism. For example, a cell-free system might be used to express and purify a specific protein, or to investigate the regulation of a particular metabolic pathway.

One advantage of using cell-free systems is that they can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes without the need for time-consuming and resource-intensive cell culture or genetic manipulation. Additionally, because cell-free systems are not constrained by the limitations of a whole cell, they offer greater flexibility in terms of reaction conditions and the ability to study complex or transient interactions between biological molecules.

Overall, cell-free systems are an important tool in molecular biology and biochemistry, providing researchers with a versatile and powerful means of investigating the fundamental processes that underlie life at the cellular level.

Orotic acid, also known as pyrmidine carboxylic acid, is a organic compound that plays a role in the metabolic pathway for the biosynthesis of pyrimidines, which are nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides and nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Orotic acid is not considered to be a vitamin, but it is sometimes referred to as vitamin B13 or B15, although these designations are not widely recognized by the scientific community.

In the body, orotic acid is converted into orotidine monophosphate (OMP) by the enzyme orotate phosphoribosyltransferase. OMP is then further metabolized to form uridine monophosphate (UMP), a pyrimidine nucleotide that is an important precursor for the synthesis of RNA and other molecules.

Elevated levels of orotic acid in the urine, known as orotic aciduria, can be a sign of certain genetic disorders that affect the metabolism of pyrimidines. These conditions can lead to an accumulation of orotic acid and other pyrimidine precursors in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including developmental delays, neurological problems, and kidney stones. Treatment for these disorders typically involves dietary restrictions and supplementation with nucleotides or nucleosides to help support normal pyrimidine metabolism.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

Amino acids are organic compounds that serve as the building blocks of proteins. They consist of a central carbon atom, also known as the alpha carbon, which is bonded to an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom (H), and a variable side chain (R group). The R group can be composed of various combinations of atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon, which determine the unique properties of each amino acid.

There are 20 standard amino acids that are encoded by the genetic code and incorporated into proteins during translation. These include:

1. Alanine (Ala)
2. Arginine (Arg)
3. Asparagine (Asn)
4. Aspartic acid (Asp)
5. Cysteine (Cys)
6. Glutamine (Gln)
7. Glutamic acid (Glu)
8. Glycine (Gly)
9. Histidine (His)
10. Isoleucine (Ile)
11. Leucine (Leu)
12. Lysine (Lys)
13. Methionine (Met)
14. Phenylalanine (Phe)
15. Proline (Pro)
16. Serine (Ser)
17. Threonine (Thr)
18. Tryptophan (Trp)
19. Tyrosine (Tyr)
20. Valine (Val)

Additionally, there are several non-standard or modified amino acids that can be incorporated into proteins through post-translational modifications, such as hydroxylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. These modifications expand the functional diversity of proteins and play crucial roles in various cellular processes.

Amino acids are essential for numerous biological functions, including protein synthesis, enzyme catalysis, neurotransmitter production, energy metabolism, and immune response regulation. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the human body (non-essential), while others must be obtained through dietary sources (essential).

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Hydrolysis is a chemical process, not a medical one. However, it is relevant to medicine and biology.

Hydrolysis is the breakdown of a chemical compound due to its reaction with water, often resulting in the formation of two or more simpler compounds. In the context of physiology and medicine, hydrolysis is a crucial process in various biological reactions, such as the digestion of food molecules like proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Enzymes called hydrolases catalyze these hydrolysis reactions to speed up the breakdown process in the body.

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a chemical compound that plays a crucial role in energy transfer within cells. It is a nucleotide, which consists of a adenosine molecule (a sugar molecule called ribose attached to a nitrogenous base called adenine) and two phosphate groups.

In the cell, ADP functions as an intermediate in the conversion of energy from one form to another. When a high-energy phosphate bond in ADP is broken, energy is released and ADP is converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which serves as the main energy currency of the cell. Conversely, when ATP donates a phosphate group to another molecule, it is converted back to ADP, releasing energy for the cell to use.

ADP also plays a role in blood clotting and other physiological processes. In the coagulation cascade, ADP released from damaged red blood cells can help activate platelets and initiate the formation of a blood clot.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) is a crucial intermediate in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis metabolic pathways. It is an triose sugar phosphate, which means it contains three carbon atoms and has a phosphate group attached to it.

In the glycolysis process, G3P is produced during the third step of the process from the molecule dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) via the enzyme triosephosphate isomerase. In the following steps, G3P is converted into 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, which eventually leads to the production of ATP and NADH.

In gluconeogenesis, G3P is produced from the reverse reaction of the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, using the molecule dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) as a starting point. G3P is then converted into glucose-6-phosphate, which can be further metabolized or released from the cell.

It's important to note that Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate plays a key role in energy production and carbohydrate metabolism.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

The Pentose Phosphate Pathway (also known as the Hexose Monophosphate Shunt or HMP Shunt) is a metabolic pathway that runs parallel to glycolysis. It serves two major functions:

1. Providing reducing equivalents in the form of NADPH for reductive biosynthesis and detoxification processes.
2. Generating ribose-5-phosphate, a pentose sugar used in the synthesis of nucleotides and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

This pathway begins with the oxidation of glucose-6-phosphate to form 6-phosphogluconolactone, catalyzed by the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The resulting NADPH is used in various anabolic reactions and antioxidant defense systems.

The Pentose Phosphate Pathway also includes a series of reactions called the non-oxidative branch, which interconverts various sugars to meet cellular needs for different types of monosaccharides. These conversions are facilitated by several enzymes including transketolase and transaldolase.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), also known as Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase, is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in cellular metabolism, particularly in the glycolytic pathway. It catalyzes the conversion of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (1,3-BPG), while also converting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to its reduced form NADH. This reaction is essential for the production of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during cellular respiration. GAPDH has been widely used as a housekeeping gene in molecular biology research due to its consistent expression across various tissues and cells, although recent studies have shown that its expression can vary under certain conditions.

Macromolecular substances, also known as macromolecules, are large, complex molecules made up of repeating subunits called monomers. These substances are formed through polymerization, a process in which many small molecules combine to form a larger one. Macromolecular substances can be naturally occurring, such as proteins, DNA, and carbohydrates, or synthetic, such as plastics and synthetic fibers.

In the context of medicine, macromolecular substances are often used in the development of drugs and medical devices. For example, some drugs are designed to bind to specific macromolecules in the body, such as proteins or DNA, in order to alter their function and produce a therapeutic effect. Additionally, macromolecular substances may be used in the creation of medical implants, such as artificial joints and heart valves, due to their strength and durability.

It is important for healthcare professionals to have an understanding of macromolecular substances and how they function in the body, as this knowledge can inform the development and use of medical treatments.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate (DHAP) is a 3-carbon organic compound that plays a crucial role in the metabolic pathway called glycolysis. It is an intermediate molecule formed during the conversion of glucose into pyruvate, which ultimately produces energy in the form of ATP.

In the glycolytic process, DHAP is produced from glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme triose phosphate isomerase. Then, DHAP is converted back to G3P in a subsequent step, which prepares it for further processing in the glycolytic pathway. This reversible conversion of DHAP and G3P helps maintain the equilibrium of the glycolytic process.

Apart from its role in energy metabolism, DHAP is also involved in other biochemical processes, such as the synthesis of glucose during gluconeogenesis and the formation of lipids in the liver.

Phosphate transport proteins are membrane-bound proteins responsible for the active transport of phosphate ions across cell membranes. They play a crucial role in maintaining appropriate phosphate concentrations within cells and between intracellular compartments, which is essential for various biological processes such as energy metabolism, signal transduction, and bone formation.

These proteins utilize the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis or other sources to move phosphate ions against their concentration gradient, thereby facilitating cellular uptake of phosphate even when extracellular concentrations are low. Phosphate transport proteins can be classified based on their structure, function, and localization into different types, including sodium-dependent and sodium-independent transporters, secondary active transporters, and channels.

Dysregulation of phosphate transport proteins has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as renal Fanconi syndrome, tumoral calcinosis, and hypophosphatemic rickets. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying phosphate transport protein function is essential for developing targeted therapies to treat these disorders.

Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) is the active form of vitamin B6 and functions as a cofactor in various enzymatic reactions in the human body. It plays a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and neurotransmitters. Pyridoxal phosphate is involved in more than 140 different enzyme-catalyzed reactions, making it one of the most versatile cofactors in human biochemistry.

As a cofactor, pyridoxal phosphate helps enzymes carry out their functions by facilitating chemical transformations in substrates (the molecules on which enzymes act). In particular, PLP is essential for transamination, decarboxylation, racemization, and elimination reactions involving amino acids. These processes are vital for the synthesis and degradation of amino acids, neurotransmitters, hemoglobin, and other crucial molecules in the body.

Pyridoxal phosphate is formed from the conversion of pyridoxal (a form of vitamin B6) by the enzyme pyridoxal kinase, using ATP as a phosphate donor. The human body obtains vitamin B6 through dietary sources such as whole grains, legumes, vegetables, nuts, and animal products like poultry, fish, and pork. It is essential to maintain adequate levels of pyridoxal phosphate for optimal enzymatic function and overall health.

Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) is an enzyme involved in the glycolytic and gluconeogenesis pathways. It catalyzes the interconversion of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and fructose-6-phosphate (F6P), which are key metabolic intermediates in these pathways. This reaction is a reversible step that helps maintain the balance between the breakdown and synthesis of glucose in the cell.

In glycolysis, GPI converts G6P to F6P, which subsequently gets converted to fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F1,6BP) by the enzyme phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1). In gluconeogenesis, the reaction is reversed, and F6P is converted back to G6P.

Deficiency or dysfunction of Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase can lead to various metabolic disorders, such as glycogen storage diseases and hereditary motor neuropathies.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

A gene is a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA that carries genetic information. Genes are the fundamental units of heredity and are responsible for the development and function of all living organisms. They code for proteins or RNA molecules, which carry out various functions within cells and are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs.

Each gene has a specific location on a chromosome, and each person inherits two copies of every gene, one from each parent. Variations in the sequence of nucleotides in a gene can lead to differences in traits between individuals, including physical characteristics, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental factors.

Medical genetics is the study of genes and their role in health and disease. It involves understanding how genes contribute to the development and progression of various medical conditions, as well as identifying genetic risk factors and developing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

Glucose phosphates are organic compounds that result from the reaction of glucose (a simple sugar) with phosphate groups. These compounds play a crucial role in various metabolic processes, particularly in energy metabolism within cells. The addition of phosphate groups to glucose makes it more reactive and enables it to undergo further reactions that lead to the formation of important molecules such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is a primary source of energy for cellular functions.

One notable example of a glucose phosphate is glucose 1-phosphate, which is an intermediate in several metabolic pathways, including glycogenesis (the process of forming glycogen, a storage form of glucose) and glycolysis (the breakdown of glucose to release energy). Another example is glucose 6-phosphate, which is a key regulator of carbohydrate metabolism and serves as an important intermediate in the pentose phosphate pathway, a metabolic route that generates reducing equivalents (NADPH) and ribose sugars for nucleotide synthesis.

In summary, glucose phosphates are essential compounds in cellular metabolism, facilitating energy production, storage, and utilization.

Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase (GPAT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerols and phospholipids, which are major components of cellular membranes and energy storage molecules. The GPAT enzyme catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting step in the glycerolipid synthesis pathway, specifically the transfer of an acyl group from an acyl-CoA donor to the sn-1 position of glycerol-3-phosphate, forming lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). This reaction is essential for the production of various glycerolipids, including phosphatidic acid, diacylglycerol, and triacylglycerol. There are four isoforms of GPAT (GPAT1-4) in humans, each with distinct subcellular localizations and functions. Dysregulation of GPAT activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as metabolic disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers.

Sphingosine is not a medical term per se, but rather a biological compound with importance in the field of medicine. It is a type of sphingolipid, a class of lipids that are crucial components of cell membranes. Sphingosine itself is a secondary alcohol with an amino group and two long-chain hydrocarbons.

Medically, sphingosine is significant due to its role as a precursor in the synthesis of other sphingolipids, such as ceramides, sphingomyelins, and gangliosides, which are involved in various cellular processes like signal transduction, cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Moreover, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a derivative of sphingosine, is an important bioactive lipid mediator that regulates various physiological functions, including immune response, vascular maturation, and neuronal development. Dysregulation of S1P signaling has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, inflammation, and cardiovascular disorders.

In summary, sphingosine is a crucial biological compound with medical relevance due to its role as a precursor for various sphingolipids involved in cellular processes and as a precursor for the bioactive lipid mediator S1P.

Pentose phosphates are monosaccharides that contain five carbon atoms and one phosphate group. They play a crucial role in various metabolic pathways, including the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), which is a major source of NADPH and ribose-5-phosphate for the synthesis of nucleotides.

The pentose phosphate pathway involves two main phases: the oxidative phase and the non-oxidative phase. In the oxidative phase, glucose-6-phosphate is converted to ribulose-5-phosphate, producing NADPH and CO2 as byproducts. Ribulose-5-phosphate can then be further metabolized in the non-oxidative phase to produce other pentose phosphates or converted back to glucose-6-phosphate through a series of reactions.

Pentose phosphates are also important intermediates in the synthesis of nucleotides, coenzymes, and other metabolites. Abnormalities in pentose phosphate pathway enzymes can lead to various metabolic disorders, such as defects in erythrocyte function and increased susceptibility to oxidative stress.

Glycerophosphates are esters of glycerol and phosphoric acid. In the context of biochemistry and medicine, glycerophosphates often refer to glycerol 3-phosphate (also known as glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate or glycerone phosphate) and its derivatives.

Glycerol 3-phosphate plays a crucial role in cellular metabolism, particularly in the process of energy production and storage. It is an important intermediate in both glycolysis (the breakdown of glucose to produce energy) and gluconeogenesis (the synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors).

In addition, glycerophosphates are also involved in the formation of phospholipids, a major component of cell membranes. The esterification of glycerol 3-phosphate with fatty acids leads to the synthesis of phosphatidic acid, which is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of other phospholipids.

Abnormalities in glycerophosphate metabolism have been implicated in various diseases, including metabolic disorders and neurological conditions.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Hexose phosphates are organic compounds that consist of a hexose sugar molecule (a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms, such as glucose or fructose) that has been phosphorylated, meaning that a phosphate group has been added to it. This process is typically facilitated by enzymes called kinases, which transfer a phosphate group from a donor molecule (usually ATP) to the sugar molecule.

Hexose phosphates play important roles in various metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the pentose phosphate pathway. For example, glucose-6-phosphate is a key intermediate in both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, while fructose-6-phosphate and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate are important intermediates in glycolysis. The pentose phosphate pathway, which is involved in the production of NADPH and ribose-5-phosphate, begins with the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphogluconolactone by the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.

Overall, hexose phosphates are important metabolic intermediates that help regulate energy production and utilization in cells.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Lysophospholipids are a type of glycerophospholipid, which is a major component of cell membranes. They are characterized by having only one fatty acid chain attached to the glycerol backbone, as opposed to two in regular phospholipids. This results in a more polar and charged molecule, which can play important roles in cell signaling and regulation.

Lysophospholipids can be derived from the breakdown of regular phospholipids through the action of enzymes such as phospholipase A1 or A2. They can also be synthesized de novo in the cell. Some lysophospholipids, such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), have been found to act as signaling molecules that bind to specific G protein-coupled receptors and regulate various cellular processes, including proliferation, survival, and migration.

Abnormal levels of lysophospholipids have been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, inflammation, and neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the biology of lysophospholipids has important implications for developing new therapeutic strategies.

Phosphate-binding proteins are a type of protein that play a crucial role in regulating the concentration of phosphates in cells. They function by binding to phosphate ions and facilitating their transport, storage, or excretion. These proteins can be found in various organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals.

In humans, one example of a phosphate-binding protein is the plasma protein known as fetuin-A. Fetuin-A helps regulate the amount of phosphate in the blood by binding to it and preventing it from forming insoluble precipitates with calcium, which can lead to the formation of kidney stones or calcifications in soft tissues.

Another example is the intracellular protein called alkaline phosphatase, which plays a role in removing phosphate groups from molecules within the cell. This enzyme helps regulate the levels of phosphates and other ions within the cell, as well as contributing to various metabolic processes.

Overall, phosphate-binding proteins are essential for maintaining proper phosphate homeostasis in the body, which is critical for numerous physiological functions, including energy metabolism, bone health, and signal transduction.

Ribose monophosphates are organic compounds that play a crucial role in the metabolism of cells, particularly in energy transfer and nucleic acid synthesis. A ribose monophosphate is formed by the attachment of a phosphate group to a ribose molecule, which is a type of sugar known as a pentose.

In biochemistry, there are two important ribose monophosphates:

1. Alpha-D-Ribose 5-Phosphate (ADP-Ribose): This compound serves as an essential substrate in various cellular processes, including DNA repair, chromatin remodeling, and protein modification. The enzyme that catalyzes the formation of ADP-ribose is known as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP).
2. Ribulose 5-Phosphate: This compound is a key intermediate in the Calvin cycle, which is the process by which plants and some bacteria convert carbon dioxide into glucose during photosynthesis. Ribulose 5-phosphate is formed from ribose 5-phosphate through a series of enzymatic reactions.

Ribose monophosphates are essential for the proper functioning of cells and have implications in various physiological processes, as well as in certain disease states.

Phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs) are a family of lipid molecules that play crucial roles as secondary messengers in intracellular signaling pathways. They are formed by the phosphorylation of the hydroxyl group on the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol (PI), a fundamental component of cell membranes.

There are seven main types of PIPs, classified based on the number and position of phosphate groups attached to the inositol ring:

1. Phosphatidylinositol 4-monophosphate (PI4P) - one phosphate group at the 4th position
2. Phosphatidylinositol 5-monophosphate (PI5P) - one phosphate group at the 5th position
3. Phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2) - two phosphate groups at the 3rd and 4th positions
4. Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate (PI(3,5)P2) - two phosphate groups at the 3rd and 5th positions
5. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] - two phosphate groups at the 4th and 5th positions
6. Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3] - three phosphate groups at the 3rd, 4th, and 5th positions
7. Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) - one phosphate group at the 3rd position

These PIPs are involved in various cellular processes such as membrane trafficking, cytoskeleton organization, cell survival, and metabolism. Dysregulation of PIP metabolism has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Kalman SM, Duffield PH, Brzozowski T (April 1966). "Purification and properties of a bacterial carbamyl phosphate synthetase". ... Yip MC, Knox WE (May 1970). "Glutamine-dependent carbamyl phosphate synthetase. Properties and distribution in normal and ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III Anderson PM, Meister A (December 1965). "Evidence for an ... phosphate + carbamoyl phosphate It is activated by ATP and PRPP and it is inhibited by UTP (Uridine triphosphate) Neither CPSI ...
Simmer JP, Kelly RE, Rinker AG, Scully JL, Evans DR (June 1990). "Mammalian carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS). DNA sequence ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase catalyzes the ATP-dependent synthesis of carbamoyl phosphate from glutamine (EC 6.3.5.5) or ... This enzyme catalyzes the reaction of ATP and bicarbonate to produce carboxy phosphate and ADP. Carboxy phosphate reacts with ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III (found in fish). Carbamoyl phosphate synthase has three main steps in its mechanism and is, ...
Jones ME, Spector L, Lipmann F (1955). "Carbamyl phosphate, the carbamyl donor in enzymatic citrulline synthesis". J. Am. Chem ... "Carbamyl phosphate synthesis in Neurospora crassa. I. Preliminary characterization of arginine-specific carbamyl phosphokinase ... Other names in common use include CKase, carbamoyl phosphokinase, and carbamyl phosphokinase. This enzyme participates in 4 ... carbamoyl phosphate The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, NH3, and CO2, whereas its two products are ADP and carbamoyl ...
Jones, M. E.; Spector, L.; Lipmann, F. (February 1955). "Carbamyl Phosphate, the Carbamyl Donor in Enzymatic Citrulline ... She was notable for discovery of carbamoyl phosphate, a chemical substance that is key to the biosynthesis of arginine and urea ... The two continued to work on carbamoyl phosphate, identifying carbon dioxide or bicarbonate as the source for the initial ... Kresge, Nicole; Simoni, Robert D.; Hill, Robert L. (May 11, 2007). "Carbamoyl Phosphate Biosynthesis: the Work of Mary Ellen ...
Hong J, Salo WL, Lusty CJ, Anderson PM (October 1994). "Carbamyl phosphate synthetase III, an evolutionary intermediate in the ... Devaney MA, Powers-Lee SG (January 1984). "Immunological cross-reactivity between carbamyl phosphate synthetases I, II, and III ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III (CPS III) is one of the three isoforms of the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, an enzyme that ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I is mostly used by terrestrial vertebrates, and it appears that some aquatic species rely on ...
Hall L, Metzenberg R, Cohen P (1958). "Isolation and characterization of a naturally occurring cofactor of carbamyl phosphate ... in which carbamoyl phosphate is produced. Carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1, abbreviated as CPS1, is activated by its natural ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthase I is an enzyme found in mitochondrial matrix and it catalyzes the very first reaction of the urea ...
It triggers the production of the first urea cycle intermediate, carbamyl phosphate. CPSI is inactive when N-acetylglutamic ... In contrast, N-acetylglutamic acid is not the allosteric cofactor to carbamyl phosphate synthetase found in the cytoplasm, ... In vertebrae and mammals, N-acetylglutamic acid is the allosteric activator molecule to mitochondrial carbamyl phosphate ... carboxyl group of N-acetylglutamic acid using the phosphate produced by hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Rhizobium ...
Powers SG, Griffith OW, Meister A (May 1977). "Inhibition of carbamyl phosphate synthetase by P1, P5-di(adenosine 5')- ... Meister A (1989). "Mechanism and Regulation of the Glutamine-Dependent Carbamyl Phosphate Synthetase of Escherichia Coli". ... Mechanism and regulation of the glutamine-dependent carbamyl phosphate synthetase of Escherichia coli. Advances in Enzymology ... it is CPSI's job to add the ammonia to bicarbonate along with a phosphate group to form carbamoyl phosphate. Carbamoyl ...
Carrey EA, Campbell DG, Hardie DG (1986). "Phosphorylation and activation of hamster carbamyl phosphate synthetase II by cAMP- ...
Carrey EA, Campbell DG, Hardie DG (Dec 1985). "Phosphorylation and activation of hamster carbamyl phosphate synthetase II by ...
Nyunoya H, Lusty CJ (August 1984). "Sequence of the small subunit of yeast carbamyl phosphate synthetase and identification of ... glutamine-dependent carbamoyl-phosphate synthase; phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase II; and the histidine ...
"Regulation of aminotransferase-glutamate dehydrogenase interactions by carbamyl phosphate synthase-I, Mg2+ plus leucine versus ... Ford GC, Eichele G, Jansonius JN (May 1980). "Three-dimensional structure of a pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent enzyme, ... Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme which exists in cytoplasmic and inner-membrane ... "Three-dimensional structure of a pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent enzyme, mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase". Proceedings ...
The substrates of the reaction catalyzed by ornithine transcarbamylase are ornithine and carbamyl phosphate, while the product ... The increased orotic acid concentrations result from the buildup of carbamoyl phosphate. This biochemical phenotype (increased ... responsible for converting carbamoyl phosphate and ornithine into citrulline. OTC deficiency is inherited in an X-linked ...
Homology of putative targeting sequence to that of carbamyl phosphate synthetase I revealed by correlation of cDNA and protein ...
At present, it is thought that the depletion of the ornithine supply causes the accumulation of carbamyl-phosphate in the urea ...
His research was now focused on aspartate transcarbamylase, which catalyzes the transfer of a carbamyl group from phosphate to ...
... carbamyl phosphate MeSH D02.241.081.251.150 - carbaryl MeSH D02.241.081.251.165 - carisoprodol MeSH D02.241.081.251.240 - ... polyisoprenyl phosphates MeSH D02.455.849.690.250 - dolichol phosphates MeSH D02.455.849.690.700 - polyisoprenyl phosphate ... inositol phosphates MeSH D02.033.800.519.400.350 - inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate MeSH D02.033.800.519.400.700 - phytic acid MeSH ... tritolyl phosphates MeSH D02.755.410.350 - gallic acid MeSH D02.755.410.350.299 - hydrolyzable tannins MeSH D02.755.410.350.600 ...
... glucosamine-6-phosphate and carbamyl phosphate, alanine, and glycine. An excess of any one product does not individually ... After, His3 forms imidazole acetol-phosphate releasing water. His5 then makes L-histidinol-phosphate, which is then hydrolyzed ... The first step, condensation of 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonic acid 7-phosphate (DAHP) from PEP/E4P, uses three isoenzymes AroF ... Homoserine undergoes O-phosphorylation; this phosphate ester undergoes hydrolysis concomitant with relocation of the OH group. ...
... buchneri have been known to produce carbamyl phosphate and citrulline which can be precursors to ethyl carbamate formation. L. ... However, unlike wine yeast, lactic acid bacteria can not use the supplement diammonium phosphate as a nitrogen source. Before ... wine infected by Brettanomyces yeast in the presence of ammonium phosphate and lysine have also been known to exhibit this ...
... pyridoxal phosphate. Copper AJ, Meister A (1973). "Enzymatic conversion of O-carbamyl-L-serine to pyruvate and ammonia". ... Portal: Biology v t e (EC 4.3.1, Pyridoxal phosphate enzymes, Enzymes of unknown structure, All stub articles, Lyase stubs). ...
... glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } erythrose 4-phosphate + fructose 6-phosphate. Transfer of acyl ... Reichard P, Hanshoff G (1956). "Aspartate Carbamyl Transferase from Escherichia coli" (PDF). Acta Chemica Scandinavica. 10: 548 ... Groups that are classified as phosphate acceptors include: alcohols, carboxy groups, nitrogenous groups, and phosphate groups. ... Most symptoms of the disease are caused by a buildup of galactose-1-phosphate in the body. Common symptoms include liver ...
Grisolia, S; Cohen, P P (1952). "The catalytic role of carbamyl glutamate in citrulline biosynthesis". J. Biol. Chem. 198 (2): ... Rubio, V; Grisolia, S (1977). "Mechanism of mitochondrial carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase - synthesis and properties of active ... carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase and other enzymes. He was appointed Grand Cross of the Orden Civil de Sanidad (Civil Order of ... "Mechanism of activation of bicarbonate ion by mitochondrial carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase - formation of enzyme-bound ...
Kalman SM, Duffield PH, Brzozowski T (April 1966). "Purification and properties of a bacterial carbamyl phosphate synthetase". ... Yip MC, Knox WE (May 1970). "Glutamine-dependent carbamyl phosphate synthetase. Properties and distribution in normal and ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III Anderson PM, Meister A (December 1965). "Evidence for an ... phosphate + carbamoyl phosphate It is activated by ATP and PRPP and it is inhibited by UTP (Uridine triphosphate) Neither CPSI ...
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency is an inherited disorder that causes ammonia to accumulate in the blood ( ... Gene structure of human carbamylphosphate synthetase 1 and novel mutations in patients with neonatal onset. Hum Mutat. 2003 Apr ... Mutations in the CPS1 gene cause carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency. The CPS1 gene provides instructions for making ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency is a rare disorder; its overall incidence is unknown. Researchers in Japan have ...
Carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS), which has been mapped to human chromosome 2, mediates the formation of carbamyl phosphate ... Carbamyl phosphate synthetase deficiency prevents the formation of carbamyl phosphate from ammonia. CPS deficiency is ... Carbamyl phosphate synthetase deficiency prevents the formation of carbamyl phosphate from ammonia ... N-Acetylglutamate synthetase deficiency leads secondarily to carbamyl phosphate synthetase deficiency. A deficiency of CPS ...
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) deficiency is a urea cycle defect that results from a deficiency in an enzyme that ... carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS). Compound 2 is citrulline, the product of condensation between carbamyl phosphate (1) and ... carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS). Compound 2 is citrulline, the product of condensation between carbamyl phosphate (1) and ... Carbamyl-phosphate-synthetase deficiency with neonatal onset of symptoms. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1977 Jul. 66(4):529-34. [QxMD ...
... carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS). Compound 2 is citrulline, the product of condensation between carbamyl phosphate (1) and ... Compounds that comprise the urea cycle are numbered sequentially, beginning with carbamyl phosphate. At the first step (1), the ...
... carbamyl phosphate synthase 1 deficiency (CPS1D); ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD); argininosuccinate synthase ...
The intermediate steps in this pathway yield potential ethyl carbamate precursors like citrulline and carbamyl phosphate (Liu ... The reaction of ethanol with N-carbamyl compounds, such as urea (produced by yeast) and citrulline (produced by some LAB), is ... D-glucopyranoside-6-phosphate confirmed (Capaldo, 2012). Intracellular non-PTS glycosidase activity has been reported by a ...
... carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS). Compound 2 is citrulline, the product of condensation between carbamyl phosphate (1) and ... carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS). Compound 2 is citrulline, the product of condensation between carbamyl phosphate (1) and ... Compounds that comprise the urea cycle are numbered sequentially, beginning with carbamyl phosphate. At the first step (1), the ... Compounds that comprise the urea cycle are numbered sequentially, beginning with carbamyl phosphate. At the first step (1), the ...
Crystal structures of this novel transcarbamylase complexed with carbamyl phosphate and N-succinyl-L-norvaline, as well as ...
Treatment with valproic acid, an antiepileptic drug, can inhibit carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1), limiting carbamyl ... phosphate for its obligatory combination with ammonia as it enters the urea cycle. ...
Both ovine brain glutamine synthetase and Escherichia coli carbamyl phosphate synthetase [carbamoyl-phosphate synthase ( ... Transport of carbamyl phosphate synthetase I and ornithine transcarbamylase into mitochondria. Inhibition by rhodamine 123 and ... Functional arginyl residues as ATP binding sites of glutamine synthetase and carbamyl phosphate synthetase. Powers, S.G., ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase: a tunnel runs through it. Holden, H.M., Thoden, J.B., Raushel, F.M. Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol. ( ...
The pH optimum of the carbamyl phosphate kinase was approximately pH 6.5. Cells grown on orotate contained high levels of an ... Low levels of ureidosuccinase, carbamyl phosphate kinase and hydantoinase were found in glucose grown cells. Cells grown on ... which forms ureidosuccinate from aspartate and carbamyl phosphate. A consideration of the energy and reducing power supply and ... High levels of a Mg+2 dependent carbamyl phosphate kinase were found in extracts from cells grown on orotate. The activity was ...
... carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS, n=2), and argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS, n=1) in a randomized, double-blind, active- ... Glycerophosphate Acyltransferase ‐ An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate… ...
Carbamoyl Phosphate Chemical Compounds 64% * Adduct Chemical Compounds 53% * Carbamyl Phosphate Medicine & Life Sciences 38% ... APAP induced leakage of the mitochondrial protein, carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1 (CPS-1) into the cytosol and which was ... APAP induced leakage of the mitochondrial protein, carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1 (CPS-1) into the cytosol and which was ... APAP induced leakage of the mitochondrial protein, carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1 (CPS-1) into the cytosol and which was ...
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) deficiency is a urea cycle defect that results from a deficiency in an enzyme that ... carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS). Compound 2 is citrulline, the product of condensation between carbamyl phosphate (1) and ... Carbamyl phosphate synthase deficiency: diagnosed during pregnancy in a 41-year-old. J Clin Neurosci. 2006. 13:702-6. ... Carbamyl-phosphate-synthetase deficiency with neonatal onset of symptoms. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1977 Jul. 66(4):529-34. [QxMD ...
Carbamyl-Phosphate, a New Phosphorylated Intermediary, the Carbamyl Precursor in Citrulline Synthesis ...
Produced from ribose-5-phosphate or carbamyl phosphate, respectively purine nucleotides: lecture Nucleode. Transferase, ... Carbamyl phosphate, respectively emphasis on de novo pathway describe the formation ribonucleotides... 406 at University of ... And regulation of metabolism of nucleotides four nucleotides to ribose phosphate down purines that are present in ... pyrimidine catabolism phosphate synthetase-II undergo breakdown such that useful parts can be triggered by administration of 5- ...
... carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS). Compound 2 is citrulline, the product of condensation between carbamyl phosphate (1) and ... carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS). Compound 2 is citrulline, the product of condensation between carbamyl phosphate (1) and ... Compounds that comprise the urea cycle are numbered sequentially, beginning with carbamyl phosphate. At the first step (1), the ... Compounds that comprise the urea cycle are numbered sequentially, beginning with carbamyl phosphate. At the first step (1), the ...
CARBAMYL PHOSPHATE SYNTHETASE I. *ARSA. *CPS. *PGD. *SPINT2. *HTN3. *ALB. *OAT. *PHGDH ...
Crystal structure of n-acetyl-l-ornithine transcarbamylase e92p mutant complexed with carbamyl phosphate and n-succinyl-l- ...
A new approach of the estimation of K(m) of carbamyl phosphate synthetase for ammonia in isolated rat hepatocytes. ...
Carbamyl phosphate synthetase I single nucleotide polymorphisms may be associated with altered vascular resistance that becomes ... RESULTS: A novel homozygous mutation in the gene encoding the renal sodium-dependent phosphate transporter SLC34A1 was ... Exome sequencing identifies a novel homozygous mutation in the phosphate transporter SLC34A1 in hypophosphatemia and ... In vitro studies showed that the p.Arg495His mutation resulted in decreased phosphate uptake when compared to wild-type SLC34A1 ...
Herzfeld, A.; Hager, S.E.; Jones, M.E. 1964: The Carbamyl Phosphate Content of Rabbit Blood Plasma. Archives of Biochemistry ... Shafer, A.W. 1965: The Carbohydrate Intermediates of Erythrocytes Deficient in Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase. Blood 26: 82- ... Milroy, T.H. 1926: The carbohydrate phosphate metabolism in skeletal muscle. Skand Arch Physiol 49: 186-187 ...
... and from 0.83 to 3.46 for carbamyl phosphate. Such variations are likely to be due to the presence of different ATCase ... and the enzyme activity was linear between 0.8 and 80 nmol carbamyl aspartate min~ mg~ of total protein. The optimal ... and from 0.83 to 3.46 for carbamyl phosphate. Such variations are likely to be due to the presence of different ATCase ... and the enzyme activity was linear between 0.8 and 80 nmol carbamyl aspartate min~ mg~ of total protein. The optimal ...
... tricresyl phosphate (TCP), resorcinol bis(diphenylphosphate) (RDP), and phosphonic acid (2-((hydroxymethyl) carbamyl)ethyl)- ... halogenated organophosphorus (tris-dichloropropyl-phosphate, tris-chloropropyl-phosphate and tri-chloroethyl phosphate) ... In addition USEPA 2005 provides an assessment for tribromoneopentyl alcohol, chloroalkyl phosphate, other aryl phosphates, ... Halogenated organophosphorus compounds include tris-chloropropyl-phosphate (TCPP), tris-chloroethyl-phosphate, and tris ...
... carbamyl phosphate, urea, arginine, CTP, AMP, GMP, and so on. Although being essential for in vivo, in vitro cell growth and ... And it is the nitrogen source for several important biochemicals such as glucosamine-6-phosphate, NAD+, p-aminobenzoic acid, ...
D2.455.426.559.389.657.166.99 Carbamyl Phosphate D2.705.130 D2.705.400.100 Carcinoma, Islet Cell C4.588.322.421.500 C4.588. ... Z1.639.880.900 Tritolyl Phosphates D2.705.960 D2.455.426.559.389.657.239.900 D2.755.239.900 D2.705.400.875 Tropical Medicine ... C8.381.600 Polyisoprenyl Phosphates D2.705.690 D2.705.400.725 Polynesia Z1.782.815 Z1.639.760.815 Polyphenols D2.755.715 D2.455 ... 389.657.715 Polyphloretin Phosphate D2.755.684.602.615 D2.455.426.559.389.657.684.602.615 Porcine Postweaning Multisystemic ...
D2.455.426.559.389.657.166.99 Carbamyl Phosphate D2.705.130 D2.705.400.100 Carcinoma, Islet Cell C4.588.322.421.500 C4.588. ... Z1.639.880.900 Tritolyl Phosphates D2.705.960 D2.455.426.559.389.657.239.900 D2.755.239.900 D2.705.400.875 Tropical Medicine ... C8.381.600 Polyisoprenyl Phosphates D2.705.690 D2.705.400.725 Polynesia Z1.782.815 Z1.639.760.815 Polyphenols D2.755.715 D2.455 ... 389.657.715 Polyphloretin Phosphate D2.755.684.602.615 D2.455.426.559.389.657.684.602.615 Porcine Postweaning Multisystemic ...
  • Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (glutamine-hydrolysing) (EC 6.3.5.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reactions that produce carbamoyl phosphate in the cytosol (as opposed to type I, which functions in the mitochondria). (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III Anderson PM, Meister A (December 1965). (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency is an inherited disorder that causes ammonia to accumulate in the blood (hyperammonemia). (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the first few days of life, infants with carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency typically exhibit the effects of hyperammonemia, which may include unusual sleepiness, poorly regulated breathing rate or body temperature, unwillingness to feed, vomiting after feeding, unusual body movements, seizures, or coma. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In some people with carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency, signs and symptoms may be less severe and appear later in life. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations in the CPS1 gene cause carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The specific role of the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I enzyme is to control the first step of the urea cycle, a reaction in which excess nitrogen compounds are incorporated into the cycle to be processed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency belongs to a class of genetic diseases called urea cycle disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In this condition, the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I enzyme is at low levels (deficient) or absent, and the urea cycle cannot proceed normally. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ammonia is especially damaging to the brain, and excess ammonia causes neurological problems and other signs and symptoms of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) deficiency is a urea cycle defect that results from a deficiency in an enzyme that mediates the normal path for incorporation of ammonia. (medscape.com)
  • APAP induced leakage of the mitochondrial protein, carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1 (CPS-1) into the cytosol and which was reduced in the S. +. A group. (arizona.edu)
  • Site specific 4-HNE adducts were identified on mitochondrial proteins sarcosine dehydrogenase and carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1 (CPS-1). (arizona.edu)
  • Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 deficiency in Italy: clinical and genetic findings in a heterogeneous cohort. (medscape.com)
  • Prenatal diagnosis of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency by identification of a missense mutation in CPS1. (medscape.com)
  • As a phosphoribosyltransferase is … metabolism of purine & pyrimidine nucleotides participate in many organisms carbamoyl phosphate is by. (euroasfalti.net)
  • Patients with OTC deficiency have increased excretion of orotic acid because carbamyl phosphate spills into the cytoplasm, where it enters the pathway of pyrimidine synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • Understanding carbomyl phosphate synthetase deficiency: impact of clinical mutations on enzyme functionality. (medscape.com)
  • Carbamyl phosphate synthase deficiency: diagnosed during pregnancy in a 41-year-old. (medscape.com)
  • The frequent observation of evidence for nonsense-mediated decay in RNA from patients with caramyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency. (medscape.com)
  • Carbamyl-phosphate-synthetase deficiency with neonatal onset of symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • Compounds comprising the urea cycle are numbered sequentially, beginning with carbamyl phosphate (1). (medscape.com)
  • at this step, N-acetylglutamate exerts its regulatory control on the mediating enzyme, carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS). (medscape.com)
  • Cells grown on glucose showed a high level of a Mn +2 dependent aspartate transcarbamylase (the analogous enzyme to ureidosuccinase which is operative during pyrimidine biosynthesis) which forms ureidosuccinate from aspartate and carbamyl phosphate. (pdx.edu)
  • As an alternative,-20°C,-90°C freezers and dry ice (-80°C) can give more flexibility for storing and transporting material, provided initial freezing has been carried out at-196°C. ATCase specific activity was stable over a large range of total protein concentrations (2-55 mg ml"') for most mesozooplankton samples, and the enzyme activity was linear between 0.8 and 80 nmol carbamyl aspartate min~' mg~' of total protein. (ird.fr)
  • Following condensation with ornithine, carbamyl phosphate is converted to citrulline in the ornithine transcarbamylase ( OTC ) reaction. (nih.gov)
  • However, the K m values for both substrates were variable: from 3.9 to 79.1 for aspartate, and from 0.83 to 3.46 for carbamyl phosphate. (ird.fr)
  • Disorders of Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism Georges van den Berghe PURINE METABOLISM METABOLIC PATHWAYS Purines comprise bases, nucleosides in association with ribose or deoxyribose, and nucleotides with one or more added phosphate groups. (euroasfalti.net)
  • pyrimidine catabolism phosphate synthetase-II undergo breakdown such that useful parts can be triggered by administration of 5-fluorouracil to with! (euroasfalti.net)
  • Carbamyl phosphate, respectively emphasis on de novo pathway describe the formation ribonucleotides. (euroasfalti.net)
  • Carbamyl phosphate synthetase ( CPS ), which has been mapped to human chromosome 2, mediates the formation of carbamyl phosphate from NH 3 − , HCO 3 − and ATP ( Fig. 44-6 , reaction 1). (nih.gov)
  • Molecular defects in human carbamoy phosphate synthetase I: mutational spectrum, diagnostic and protein structure considerations. (medscape.com)
  • High levels of a Mg +2 dependent carbamyl phosphate kinase were found in extracts from cells grown on orotate. (pdx.edu)
  • Low levels of ureidosuccinase, carbamyl phosphate kinase and hydantoinase were found in glucose grown cells. (pdx.edu)
  • Association with hyperglycinemia and decreased levels of carbamyl phosphate synthetase. (medscape.com)
  • Five disorders involving different defects in the biosynthesis of the enzymes of the urea cycle have been described: ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (311250), carbamyl phosphate synthetase deficiency, argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency, or citrullinemia (215700), argininosuccinate lyase deficiency (207900), and arginase deficiency (207800). (nih.gov)
  • Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency is an inherited disorder that causes ammonia to accumulate in the blood (hyperammonemia). (nih.gov)
  • Ammonia is especially damaging to the brain, and excess ammonia causes neurological problems and other signs and symptoms of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency. (nih.gov)
  • It is produced from bicarbonate, ammonia (derived from amino acids), and phosphate (from ATP). (hmdb.ca)
  • CPS1 is an enzyme that is important for the first step of the urea cycle that converts ammonia into a compound called carbamoyl-phosphate. (nucdf.org)
  • The disorder is caused by a reduction in the activity of hepatic mitochondrial CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA). (bvsalud.org)
  • Saha N., Datta S., Kharbuli Z.Y., Biswas K . and Bhattacharjee A (2007) Air-breathing catfish, Clarias batrachus upregulates glutamine synthetase and carbamyl phosphate synthetase III during exposure to high external ammonia Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology , 147B: 520-530 (Elsevier, Amsterdam). (hrdcnehu.com)
  • Meister, A. (1973) Enzymatic conversion of O-carbamyl-L-serine to pyruvate and ammonia Biochem Biophys Res Commun 55 780-7. (unipr.it)
  • Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (glutamine-hydrolysing) (EC 6.3.5.5) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reactions that produce carbamoyl phosphate in the cytosol (as opposed to type I, which functions in the mitochondria). (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III Anderson PM, Meister A (December 1965). (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first few days of life, infants with carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency typically exhibit the effects of hyperammonemia, which may include unusual sleepiness, poorly regulated breathing rate or body temperature, unwillingness to feed, vomiting after feeding, unusual body movements, seizures, or coma. (nih.gov)
  • In some people with carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency, signs and symptoms may be less severe and appear later in life. (nih.gov)
  • Mutations in the CPS1 gene cause carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency. (nih.gov)
  • The specific role of the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I enzyme is to control the first step of the urea cycle, a reaction in which excess nitrogen compounds are incorporated into the cycle to be processed. (nih.gov)
  • Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency belongs to a class of genetic diseases called urea cycle disorders. (nih.gov)
  • In this condition, the carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I enzyme is at low levels (deficient) or absent, and the urea cycle cannot proceed normally. (nih.gov)
  • Its enzymatic counterpart, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I (CPS I), interacts with a class of molecules called sirtuins, NAD dependent protein deacetylases, and ATP to form carbamoyl phosphate. (hmdb.ca)
  • The rate-limiting step is carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) disposal of waste nitrogen. (medscape.com)
  • Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism of the urea cycle which causes hyperammonemia. (nih.gov)
  • Carbamoyl phosphate is a moderately acidic compound (based on its pKa). (hmdb.ca)
  • Carbamoyl phosphate is a potentially toxic compound. (hmdb.ca)
  • Within humans, carbamoyl phosphate participates in a number of enzymatic reactions. (hmdb.ca)
  • Pyruvate replaced acetate as the major excreted product, and the following intermediates of glycolysis were excreted in significant amounts: glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1 ,6-diphos- phate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, and 3-phosphoglycerate. (nih.gov)
  • Total "C-glucose uptake was measured by filtering a chilled sample and wash- ing it with phosphate buffer containing cold glucose (20 pg/ml). (nih.gov)
  • Carbamoyl phosphate, also known as carbamoyl-p or phosphate, carbamyl, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as organic phosphoric acids and derivatives. (hmdb.ca)
  • Relation of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor to Pulmonary Hemodynamics and Vascular Structure and Carbamyl-Phosphate Synthetase I Genetic Variations in Pediatric Patients with Congenital Cardiac Shunts. (cdc.gov)