Carbamazepine: An anticonvulsant used to control grand mal and psychomotor or focal seizures. Its mode of action is not fully understood, but some of its actions resemble those of PHENYTOIN; although there is little chemical resemblance between the two compounds, their three-dimensional structure is similar.Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Phenytoin: An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.Valproic Acid: A fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. The mechanisms of its therapeutic actions are not well understood. It may act by increasing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in the brain or by altering the properties of voltage dependent sodium channels.Primidone: An antiepileptic agent related to the barbiturates; it is partly metabolized to PHENOBARBITAL in the body and owes some of its actions to this metabolite. Adverse effects are reported to be more frequent than with PHENOBARBITAL. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p309)Epilepsy: A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.Trigeminal Neuralgia: A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)Epilepsies, Partial: Conditions characterized by recurrent paroxysmal neuronal discharges which arise from a focal region of the brain. Partial seizures are divided into simple and complex, depending on whether consciousness is unaltered (simple partial seizure) or disturbed (complex partial seizure). Both types may feature a wide variety of motor, sensory, and autonomic symptoms. Partial seizures may be classified by associated clinical features or anatomic location of the seizure focus. A secondary generalized seizure refers to a partial seizure that spreads to involve the brain diffusely. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317)Ethosuximide: An anticonvulsant especially useful in the treatment of absence seizures unaccompanied by other types of seizures.Triazines: Heterocyclic rings containing three nitrogen atoms, commonly in 1,2,4 or 1,3,5 or 2,4,6 formats. Some are used as HERBICIDES.Epilepsy, Complex Partial: A disorder characterized by recurrent partial seizures marked by impairment of cognition. During the seizure the individual may experience a wide variety of psychic phenomenon including formed hallucinations, illusions, deja vu, intense emotional feelings, confusion, and spatial disorientation. Focal motor activity, sensory alterations and AUTOMATISM may also occur. Complex partial seizures often originate from foci in one or both temporal lobes. The etiology may be idiopathic (cryptogenic partial complex epilepsy) or occur as a secondary manifestation of a focal cortical lesion (symptomatic partial complex epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp317-8)Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay: Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Water Intoxication: A condition resulting from the excessive retention of water with sodium depletion.Drug Eruptions: Adverse cutaneous reactions caused by ingestion, parenteral use, or local application of a drug. These may assume various morphologic patterns and produce various types of lesions.Dibenzazepines: Compounds with two BENZENE rings fused to AZEPINES.Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic: A generalized seizure disorder characterized by recurrent major motor seizures. The initial brief tonic phase is marked by trunk flexion followed by diffuse extension of the trunk and extremities. The clonic phase features rhythmic flexor contractions of the trunk and limbs, pupillary dilation, elevations of blood pressure and pulse, urinary incontinence, and tongue biting. This is followed by a profound state of depressed consciousness (post-ictal state) which gradually improves over minutes to hours. The disorder may be cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (caused by an identified disease process). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p329)Clonazepam: An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Lithium Carbonate: A lithium salt, classified as a mood-stabilizing agent. Lithium ion alters the metabolism of BIOGENIC MONOAMINES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, and affects multiple neurotransmission systems.HLA-B15 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*15 allele family.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Epilepsy, Generalized: Recurrent conditions characterized by epileptic seizures which arise diffusely and simultaneously from both hemispheres of the brain. Classification is generally based upon motor manifestations of the seizure (e.g., convulsive, nonconvulsive, akinetic, atonic, etc.) or etiology (e.g., idiopathic, cryptogenic, and symptomatic). (From Mayo Clin Proc, 1996 Apr;71(4):405-14)Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures: A condition where seizures occur in association with ethanol abuse (ALCOHOLISM) without other identifiable causes. Seizures usually occur within the first 6-48 hours after the cessation of alcohol intake, but may occur during periods of alcohol intoxication. Single generalized tonic-clonic motor seizures are the most common subtype, however, STATUS EPILEPTICUS may occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1174)Phenylethylmalonamide: A metabolite of primidone.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Piracetam: A compound suggested to be both a nootropic and a neuroprotective agent.Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A: A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.Dictionaries, ChemicalAgrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Hyperammonemia: Elevated level of AMMONIA in the blood. It is a sign of defective CATABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS or ammonia to UREA.WingNAV1.1 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel: A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that is predominantly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Defects in the SCN1A gene which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel are associated with DRAVET SYNDROME, generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, type 2 (GEFS+2), and familial hemiplegic migraine type 3.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Library Services: Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.Ginkgo biloba: The only specie of the genus Ginkgo, family Ginkgoacea. It is the source of extracts of medicinal interest, especially Egb 761. Ginkgo may refer to the genus or species.TaiwanRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Teratogens: An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.Incubators: Insulated enclosures in which temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions can be regulated at levels optimal for growth, hatching, reproduction, or metabolic reactions.Inappropriate ADH Syndrome: A condition of HYPONATREMIA and renal salt loss attributed to overexpansion of BODY FLUIDS resulting from sustained release of ANTIDIURETIC HORMONES which stimulates renal resorption of water. It is characterized by normal KIDNEY function, high urine OSMOLALITY, low serum osmolality, and neurological dysfunction. Etiologies include ADH-producing neoplasms, injuries or diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS, the PITUITARY GLAND, and the LUNG. This syndrome can also be drug-induced.Hyponatremia: Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Polytetrafluoroethylene: Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Interior Design and Furnishings: The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Remoxipride: An antipsychotic agent that is specific for dopamine D2 receptors. It has been shown to be effective in the treatment of schizophrenia.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Deficiency of the protease inhibitor ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN that manifests primarily as PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA and LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.MinnesotaComputer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems: Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.AlabamaEmpathy: An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Dry Ice: A solid form of carbon dioxide used as a refrigerant.Pentetic Acid: An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate: A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.Gadolinium DTPA: A complex of gadolinium with a chelating agent, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA see PENTETIC ACID), that is given to enhance the image in cranial and spinal MRIs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Cost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Judicial Role: The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Dermatitis, Seborrheic: A chronic inflammatory disease of the skin with unknown etiology. It is characterized by moderate ERYTHEMA, dry, moist, or greasy (SEBACEOUS GLAND) scaling and yellow crusted patches on various areas, especially the scalp, that exfoliate as dandruff. Seborrheic dermatitis is common in children and adolescents with HIV INFECTIONS.

Differential display PCR reveals novel targets for the mood-stabilizing drug valproate including the molecular chaperone GRP78. (1/723)

Differential display polymerase chain reaction was used to identify genes regulated by the mood-stabilizing drug valproate (VPA). Four differentially displayed valproate-regulated gene fragments were isolated in rat cerebral cortex after i.p. injection of sodium VPA (300 mg/kg) for 3 weeks, and their expression was confirmed by Northern and slot blot analysis in rat cerebral cortex and C6 glioma cells. Sequencing analysis revealed three previously unidentified cDNA fragments in addition to a sequence with 100% homology with a molecular chaperone, 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78). VPA treatment did not increase mRNA expression of 70-kDa heat shock protein, which is a related stress-induced molecular chaperone protein. All four candidate genes, including GRP78, showed similar VPA concentration-dependent increases in mRNA abundance. Another commonly prescribed mood-stabilizing anticonvulsant, carbamazepine, also increased GRP78 mRNA expression in C6 glioma cells, whereas lithium had no effect at doses up to 2 mM. Immunoblotting revealed that GRP78 protein levels were also increased in C6 glioma cells treated with VPA under the same conditions. Nuclear runoff analysis showed that VPA increased GRP78 gene transcription. Because GRP78 possesses molecular chaperone activity, binds Ca2+ in the endoplasmic reticulum, and protects cells from the deleterious effects of damaged proteins, the present findings suggest that VPA (and possibly carbamazepine) treatment may target one or more of these processes.  (+info)

Carbamazepine-induced upregulation of adenosine A1-receptors in astrocyte cultures affects coupling to the phosphoinositol signaling pathway. (2/723)

The anticonvulsant and antibipolar drug carbamazepine (CBZ) is known to act as a specific antagonist at adenosine A1-receptors. After a 3-week application of CBZ, A1-receptors are upregulated in the rat brain. We have investigated the consequences of this upregulation for the A1-receptor-mediated signal transduction in primary astrocyte cultures from different regions of the rat brain. CBZ treatment for 10 days had no effect on adenosine A1-receptor mRNA expression in cultures with high basal A1-receptor mRNA levels, but increased A1-receptor mRNA in cultures exhibiting low basal A1-receptor mRNA levels. This upregulation of A1-receptor mRNA was accompanied by an upregulation or induction of A1-receptor-mediated potentiation of PLC activity, a property that was not found in these cultures before CBZ treatment. Thus, CBZ treatment for 10 days induces a new quality of adenosine A1-receptor-mediated signal transduction in cells that express low basal A1-receptor numbers.  (+info)

Carbamazepine facilitates effects of GABA on rat hippocampus slices. (3/723)

AIM: To study the influence of carbamazepine (Car) on GABA effect in hippocampus. METHODS: Evoked potentials were recorded on pyramidal cells in CA1 after stimulation (0.5 Hz, 50 microseconds) to Schaffer collaterals in rat hippocampal slices (350 microns). RESULTS: Car 0.1 and 0.2 mmol.L-1 did not affect field potentials, whereas Car 0.2 mmol.L-1 plus GABA (0.1-1 mmol.L-1) gave rise to a stronger inhibition on field potentials than that of GABA alone. Bicuculline did not reverse Car facilitation on GABA inhibition on field potentials. (-)-Baclofen was more effective in inhibiting field potentials than GABA. Car 0.2 mmol.L-1 plus (-)-baclofen (1-5 mumol.L-1) brought an inhibition stronger than that of (-)-baclofen alone. CONCLUSION: Car facilitates the effects of GABA on pyramidal cells in hippocampal CA1 region, probably related to GABAB receptors.  (+info)

Outcome of pregnancies in epileptic women: a study in Saudi Arabia. (4/723)

We studied the outcome of 79 pregnancies in 44 Saudi women who had epilepsy. Their mean age was 28+/-6.5 years and the number of pregnancies studied varied from one to six. Nineteen subjects had generalized seizures, 16 had partial seizures and nine were unclassified. The commonest drug prescribed was carbamazepine and the majority of the women (61%) were on monotherapy. The seizures were controlled in 53 pregnancies (67%). Spontaneous vertex deliveries were the commonest. The indications for intervention by lower segment Caesarean section, forceps or ventouse were foetal distress, pre-eclamptic toxaemia (PET), eclampsia, breech presentation and prolonged labour. The most frequent adverse outcome in the babies was low birth weight (<2.5 kg) in nine pregnancies. The frequency of congenital malformation was 2.5%. Low birth weight was associated with prematurity, PET, congenital malformation and polytherapy. Avoidance of polytherapy appears to be the most feasible intervention in reducing the frequency of low birth-weight children by epileptic mothers.  (+info)

Clinical and EEG findings in complex partial status epilepticus with tiagabine. (5/723)

A case of complex partial status epilepticus (CPSE) with high dose treatment of tiagabine (TGB) is reported. Seizure aggravation and CPSE developed after stepwise increase of TGB to a dose of 60 mg per day as add-on treatment to carbamazepine (CBZ) 1200 mg/day and vigabatrine (VGB) 1000 mg/day. The EEG during CPSE showed bilateral rhythmic slow activity. Clinical symptoms of CPSE and the EEG normalized after i.v. treatment with clonazepam. The literature and the possible mechanism of this paradoxical phenomenon are discussed.  (+info)

Does withdrawal of different antiepileptic drugs have different effects on seizure recurrence? Further results from the MRC Antiepileptic Drug Withdrawal Study. (6/723)

One thousand and thirteen patients, in remission of epilepsy for at least 2 years, were randomized to continued therapy or slow withdrawal over 6 months and were followed up for a median period of 5 years. At the time of randomization 83% of patients were receiving monotherapy with carbamazepine (237 patients), phenobarbitone/primidone (72 patients), phenytoin (184 patients) or valproate (228 patients) in low doses, and plasma levels were below the usual optimal range. The most important factor determining seizure recurrence was continued therapy, which was the case for barbiturates, phenytoin and valproate. There was no significant difference for patients taking carbamazepine at randomization, because of a low rate of recurrence in those withdrawing treatment. The difference between carbamazepine and other drugs was not explained by differences in covariate prognostic factors. There was no evidence that withdrawal of phenobarbitone was associated with withdrawal seizures. These data provide unique evidence for the effectiveness of standard antiepileptic drugs as monotherapy. The results for carbamazepine may be open to a number of interpretations.  (+info)

Anticonvulsant-induced dyskinesias: a comparison with dyskinesias induced by neuroleptics. (7/723)

Anticonvulsants cause dyskinesias more commonly than has been appreciated. Diphenylhydantoin (DPH), carbamazepine, primidone, and phenobarbitone may cause asterixis. DPH, but not other anticonvulsants, may cause orofacial dyskinesias, limb chorea, and dystonia in intoxicated patients. These dyskinesias are similar to those caused by neuroleptic drugs and may be related to dopamine antagonistic properties possessed by DPH.  (+info)

Bipolar disorder in old age. (8/723)

OBJECTIVE: To review the classification, clinical characteristics, and epidemiology of bipolar disorders in old age with a special focus on neurologic comorbidity, high mortality, and management. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Most available data is gleaned from retrospective chart reviews and cohort studies. Treatment recommendations are based on evidence from younger populations and a few anecdotal case reports and series involving elderly people. MAIN MESSAGE: While relatively rare in the community setting, mania in old age frequently leads to hospitalization. It is associated with late-onset neurologic disorders (especially cerebrovascular disease) involving the right hemisphere and orbitofrontal cortex. Prognosis is relatively poor; morbidity and mortality rates are high. Management of bipolarity includes cautious use of mood stabilizers, especially lithium and divalproex. CONCLUSIONS: Mania in old age should trigger a careful assessment of underlying neurologic disease, especially cerebrovascular disease. Close clinical follow up is essential.  (+info)

*Carbamazepine

... was studied for bipolar disorder throughout the 1970s. Carbamazepine has been detected in wastewater effluent. ... Page accessed June 3, 2015 Carbamazepine overview from PsychEducation.org Extensive review of the effects of carbamazepine in ... to carbamazepine among Japanese, Chinese, Korean, and Europeans. Carbamazepine is relatively slowly but well absorbed after ... and disappears after the person stops taking carbamazepine. Carbamazepine has a potential for drug interactions; caution should ...

*Management of multiple sclerosis

Carbamazepine. US National Library of Medicine (Medline) (1 May 2007). Retrieved on 2 September 2007. Phenytoin. US National ... Certain medications for MS symptoms, such as carbamazepine (used to treat spasms and pain) and modafinil (used to treat fatigue ... Acute pain due to trigeminal neuralgia is usually successfully treated with anticonvulsants such as carbamazepine or phenytoin ... Both Lhermitte's sign and painful dysesthesias usually respond to treatment with carbamazepine, clonazepam, or amitriptyline. ...

*Brazilian Controlled Drugs and Substances Act

CARBAMAZEPINE 20. CAROXAZONE 21. CETAMINE 22. CYCLARBAMATE 23. CICLEXEDRINE 24. CYCLOPENTOLATE 25. CITALOPRAM 26. CLOMACRANE 27 ...

*Fibre supplements

Carbamazepine-induced constipation. J Epilepsy. 1992;5(3):191-193. Oregon State Univ. Micronutrient Information Center - Fiber ... For example, antidepressant medications, diabetes medications, carbamazepine, cholesterol-lowering medications and penicillin. ...

*Adenosine

Carbamazepine may increase heart block. Dipyridamole potentiates the action of adenosine, requiring the use of lower doses. ...

*Panayiotopoulos syndrome

Treatment with carbamazepine was initiated. After 6 months, she had a third episode similar to the previous ones, but shorter. ... Carbamazepine was replaced with phenobarbital. All 12 interictal EEGs during the active seizure period, 6 of them during sleep ...

*Hallucinatory palinopsia

Silva, JA; Tekell, JL; Penny, G; Bowden, CL (Jan 1997). "Resolution of palinopsia with carbamazepine". The Journal of Clinical ...

*Remacemide

Ramacemide does interact with carbamazepine. Remacemide inhibits the metabolism of carbamazepine, while carbamazepine induces ... Wesnes, KA; Edgar, C; Dean, AD; Wroe, SJ (2009). "The cognitive and psychomotor effects of remacemide and carbamazepine in ... "A comparative study of the effects of carbamazepine and the NMDA receptor antagonist remacemide on road tracking and car- ... "The cognitive and psychomotor effects of remacemide and carbamazepine in newly diagnosed epilepsy". Epilepsy & Behavior. 14 (3 ...

*Hemifacial spasm

doi:10.1016/0967-5868(95)90005-5. Alexander GE, Moses H (1982). "Carbamazepine for hemi facial spasm". Neurology. 32 (3): 286- ... Mild cases of hemifacial spasm may be managed with sedation or carbamazepine (an anticonvulsant drug). Microsurgical ...

*Depressant

... carbamazepine, lamotrigine, etc.) Antihistamines (Diphenhydramine, doxylamine, promethazine, etc.) Antipsychotics (Haloperidol ...

*John McGinness

Avoiding neurotoxicity with lithium-carbamazepine combinations. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1990;26(2):181-4. McGinness JE, Grossie B ...

*Clonazepam

... decreases the levels of carbamazepine, and, likewise, clonazepam's level is reduced by carbamazepine. Azole ... Carbamazepine has been tested in the treatment of clonazepam withdrawal but was found to be ineffective in preventing ... Anders RJ; Wang E; Radhakrishnan J; Sharifi R; Lee M (October 1985). "Overflow urinary incontinence due to carbamazepine". J ... Sechi GP; Zoroddu G; Rosati G (September 1984). "Failure of carbamazepine to prevent clonazepam withdrawal statusepilepticus". ...

*Petasites

John's Wort, carbamazepine, phenytoin, rifampin); this interaction can potentially lead to increased concentration of the toxic ...

*Isoniazid

People taking carbamazepine should have their carbamazepine levels monitored and, if necessary, have their dose adjusted ... Fleenor, M.E.; Harden, J.W.; Curtis, G. (June 1991). "Interaction between carbamazepine and antituberculosis agents". Chest. 99 ... Isoniazid decreases the metabolism of carbamazepine, thus slowing down its clearance from the body. ...

*Oxcarbazepine

"DailyMed - CARBAMAZEPINE- carbamazepine tablet CARBAMAZEPINE- carbamazepine tablet, chewable". dailymed.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved ... Oxcarbazepine is a structural derivative of carbamazepine, with a ketone in place of the carbon-carbon double bond on the ... Due to its structural similarities to carbamazepine there is approximately a 25-30% chance of cross-reactivity between the two ... Since the structure of oxcarbazepine is similar to carbamazepine, there is a consideration for genetic testing in patients who ...

*Anticonvulsant

On the other hand, evidence is conflicting for carbamazepine regarding any increased risk of congenital physical anomalies or ... Oxcarbazepine (1990). A derivative of carbamazepine that has similar efficacy but is better tolerated and is also available ... On the other hand, valproate, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and carbamazepine probably are not transferred into breast milk in ... Many of the common used medications, such as valproate, phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbitol, gabapentin have been reported ...

*Antidiuretic

Miscellaneous others include chlorpropamide and carbamazepine. Diuretic Electrolyte Water-electrolyte imbalance Antidiuretic ...

*Primidone

By 1963, carbamazepine was marketed in most of Europe. It soon became clear that its efficacy in generalized tonic-clonic ... Carbamazepine was approved in the United States for the treatment of adult epilepsy in 1974. Its lack of sedating properties ... Unlike carbamazepine, there are few case reports mentioning the use of primidone in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. The ... Compared to carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and phenytoin, this is very low. The rate is comparable to that of felbamate, ...

*Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms

2008). "Carbamazepine-induced drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome: report of four cases and ... Sep-Oct 2004). "DRESS syndrome associated with carbamazepine and phenytoin". European Journal of Dermatology. 14 (5): 339-342. ... Drugs that commonly induce DRESS syndrome include phenobarbital, carbamazepine, phenytoin, lamotrigine, minocycline, ...

*Phenytoin

Trigeminal neuralgia: Second choice drug to carbamazepine. Monitoring plasma concentrations: Narrow therapeutic index. ... consideration should be given to avoiding phenytoin as an alternative to carbamazepine in patients carrying this allele. ... that since strong evidence exists linking HLA-B*1502 with the risk of developing SJS or TEN in patients taking carbamazepine, ...

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Carbamazepine and clarithromycin: a clinically relevant drug interaction]". Revue Neurologique. 163 (11): 1096-1099. doi: ...

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The primary objective is to determine if Carbamazepine therapy in patients with severe liver disease due to Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency leads to a significant reduction in the hepatic accumulation of ATZ.. The other objectives are:. To determine whether Carbamazepine treatment reduces hepatic fibrosis in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficient patients with severe liver disease. To determine whether Carbamazepine treatment reduces portal pressure in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficient patients with severe liver disease. To determine whether Carbamazepine treatment is safe and tolerated by patients with severe liver disease caused by alpha-1-deficiency. To determine whether Carbamazepine treatment leads to stabilization in disease severity as measured by the MELD scores. ...
Main / Womens Health / Crushing carbamazepine Carbamazepine extended-release capsules do not need to be taken with meals unless they upset your stomach. The contents of the extended-release capsules may be sprinkled over a teaspoon of applesauce or other similar food. The capsule or its contents should not be crushed or chewed. The extended-release tablets. GUIDELINES FOR BREAKING OR CRUSHING TABLETS. The reasons for considering tablet crushing are numerous, however crushing tablets has impact on efficacy and the potential for side effects, particularly in drugs with a narrow therapeutic window including: Phenytoin. Digoxin. Carbamazepine. Sodium valproate.. Do not crush or crushing carbamazepine the extended-release capsules or the kidneys inside them. Shake the liquid well before each use to mix the decision crushing carbamazepine. Your doctor will start you on a low dose of carbamazepine and crushing carbamazepine find your dose. Carbamazepine may do crushing carbamazepine your condition, but ...
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FDA pregnancy category D. Tegretol may cause harm to an unborn baby. Do not start taking this medcine without telling your doctor if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant. Use effective birth control while you are taking this medicine. Although Tegretol may harm an unborn baby, having a seizure during pregnancy could harm both mother and baby. If you become pregnant while taking Tegretol, do not stop taking the medicine without your doctors advice.. Carbamazepine can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. You should not breast-feed while you are using Tegretol. Carbamazepine can make birth control pills less effective. Ask your doctor about using a non-hormone method of birth control (such as a condom, diaphragm, spermicide) to prevent pregnancy while taking Tegretol.. This medication may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be alert. Avoid drinking alcohol. It can increase some of the side effects of Tegretol, and ...
FDA pregnancy category D. Tegretol may cause harm to an unborn baby. Do not start taking this medcine without telling your doctor if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant. Use effective birth control while you are taking this medicine. Although Tegretol may harm an unborn baby, having a seizure during pregnancy could harm both mother and baby. If you become pregnant while taking Tegretol, do not stop taking the medicine without your doctors advice.. Carbamazepine can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. You should not breast-feed while you are using Tegretol. Carbamazepine can make birth control pills less effective. Ask your doctor about using a non-hormone method of birth control (such as a condom, diaphragm, spermicide) to prevent pregnancy while taking Tegretol.. This medication may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be alert. Avoid drinking alcohol. It can increase some of the side effects of Tegretol, and ...
Find patient medical information for Carbamazepine Oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings. Learn about side effects, interactions and indications Initial dose: 200 mg orally 2 times a day (immediate and extended release) or 100 mg orally 4 times a.. Carbamazepine Oral tablet, extended release 200mg Drug Medication Dosage information. Learn about the reported side effects, related class drugs, and how. Carbamazepine: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus. Carbamazepine is an epilepsy medication used to prevent seizures. It may also be used for bipolar disorder and trigeminal neuralgia. Some of these errors led to serious side effects in patients Common Side Effects of Tegretol: Carbamazepine 200 mg-TEV, white, round.. Learn about side effects, warnings, dosage, and more First dose: 200 mg taken by mouth 2 clomid despues de un ciclo per day; Dose changes: Your doctor may increase your ...
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The foetal outcomes of 2,635 pregnancies recorded in the Australian Pregnancy Register were studied. In at least the initial 4 months of 515 pregnancies, there had been no intrauterine exposure to antiepileptic drugs, though the women involved in 264 of these pregnancies took antiepileptic drugs in later pregnancies. Compared with these 515 drug-unexposed pregnancies, foetal malformations risks were increased more than five-fold in association with valproate monotherapy, and more than doubled in association with carbamazepine monotherapy (p , 0.05). There were no statistically significant increases in malformation rates associated with other more commonly used antiepileptic drugs, while the malformation risk in relation to levetiracetam exposure was lower than that in the drug-unexposed pregnancies. The published literature has rather consistently shown raised malformation rates associated with carbamazepine monotherapy, though only once was it statistically significant. There now appears to be ...
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FDA pregnancy category D. Tegretol may cause harm to an unborn baby. Do not start taking this medcine without telling your doctor if you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant. Use effective birth control while you are taking this medicine. Although Tegretol may harm an unborn baby, having a seizure during pregnancy could harm both mother and baby. If you become pregnant while taking Tegretol, do not stop taking the medicine without your doctors advice.. Carbamazepine can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. You should not breast-feed while you are using Tegretol. Carbamazepine can make birth control pills less effective. Ask your doctor about using a non-hormone method of birth control (such as a condom, diaphragm, spermicide) to prevent pregnancy while taking Tegretol.. This medication may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be alert. Avoid drinking alcohol. It can increase some of the side effects of Tegretol, and ...
Before you begin taking a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should take this medication.. Anemia: Carbamazepine may cause low levels of red blood cells. If you experience symptoms of reduced red blood cell count (anemia), such as shortness of breath, feeling unusually tired or pale skin, contact your doctor as soon as possible.. Your doctor will do blood tests regularly to monitor the number of specific types of blood cells, including red blood cells, in your blood. Birth control: Carbamazepine, like other anticonvulsants, may reduce the effectiveness of birth control pills. Women taking carbamazepine should use an alternative, non-hormonal birth control method such as condoms. If you become pregnant while taking this medication, contact your doctor immediately.. Bleeding: ...
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Drug-induced hypersensitivity or Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptom (DRESS) is a severe adverse drug-induced reaction. Diagnosing DRESS is challenging due to the diversity of cutaneous eruption and organs involved. Most of the aromatic anticonvulsants, such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, and carbamazepine, can induce DRESS. Culprit drug withdrawal and corticosteroids constituted the mainstay of DRESS treatment. We describe a 6 year-old boy who presented fever and rash 4 weeks after starting carbamazepine. Investigation revealed leukocytosis, atypical lymphocytosis, and elevated serum transaminases. The diagnosis of DREES syndrome was made, Carbamazepine was stopped and replaced initially by Clobazam and by Valproic acid after discharge, no systemic corticotherapy was prescribed. Symptoms began to resolve within two weeks, and by one month later her laboratory values had returned to normal. The aim of this work is to raise awareness general practitioner and pediatricians to suspect Dress
Carbamazepine: Carbamazepine inhibits sustained repetitive firing by blocking use-dependent sodium channels. Pain relief is believed to be associated with blockade of synaptic transmission in the trigeminal nucleus and seizure control with reduction of post-tetanic potentiation of synaptic transmission in the spinal cord. Carbamazepine also possesses anticholinergic, central antidiuretic, antiarrhythmic, muscle relaxant, antidepressant (possibly through blockade of norepinephrine release), sedative, and neuromuscular-blocking properties ...
Background: Augmentation strategies in schizophrenia treatment remain an important issue because despite the introduction of several new antipsychotics, many patients remain treatment resistant. The aim of this study was to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of the safety and efficacy of one frequently used adjunctive compound: carbamazepine. Data sources and study selection: Randomized controlled trials comparing carbamazepine (as a sole or as an adjunctive compound) with placebo or no intervention in participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were searched for by accessing 7 electronic databases, cross-referencing publications cited in pertinent studies, and contacting drug companies that manufacture carbamazepine. Method: The identified studies were independently inspected and their quality assessed by 2 reviewers. Because the study results were generally incompletely reported, original patient data were requested from the authors; data were received for 8 of the ...
Carbamazepine symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment information for Carbamazepine (Carbamazepine - Teratogenic Agent) with alternative diagnoses, full-text book chapters, misdiagnosis, research treatments, prevention, and prognosis.
I went to several doctors and wasted 5 months and a lot of dollars before I was diagnosed with Trigeminal Neuralgia. I was originally diagnosed with TMJ disorder. My excruciating pain was right in the middle of my ear and it was the worst stabbing, electric-like pain anyone could imagine. It would just paralyze you. No indications on when it would happen. I have been on carbamazepine for about two months and it has work fantastically. It did make me a bit sleepy and unsteady in the beginning, but that has waned and now I really do not have any side effects. I do sleep better at night than I did before I took it. I take 2 chewable tablets, 100 mg, 2x a day and that has taken care of the pain. I have not had any episodes since I started taking it.. price of tegretol at publix. purchase tegretol without prescription. buy tegretol in the us. order tegretol emagrece. Facing forward: Life after cancer treatment.. These doctors are open-minded.. The tendency to develop bipolar disorder involves complex ...
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... in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder: Some studies have suggested that oxcarbazepine, an anti-convulsant, may have a role in preventing episode recurrence in bipolar affective disorder. This systematic review investigated the efficacy and acceptability of oxcarbazepine compared to placebo and other agents in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. Two randomised controlled trials were found that met the methodological inclusion criteria. However, in both cases, data were reported with insufficient clarity to be confidently extracted for inclusion in a meta-analysis. Currently, there is insufficient evidence on which to base any recommendations on the use of oxcarbazepine in the maintenance treatment of bipolar illness, either in monotherapy or as an adjunctive treatment. There is need for good quality randomised controlled trials examining the efficacy and acceptability of oxcarbazepine in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder...... ...
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Enzyme induction is a process whereby a molecule enhances the expression of enzymes. If the affected enzymes are involved in the elimination of a drug, this may result in a drug interaction. Induction is therefore of major concern during drug development and in clinical practice. The induction process depends on the half-life of the induced enzyme, the pharmacokinetics of the inducing agent, and the relationship between the inducers concentration and the induction stimulus. The aim of the conducted research was to investigate these key aspects of enzyme induction and the consequences that induction has for substrate elimination.. Successful investigations of the induction process presuppose the existence of appropriate methods for the estimation of the metabolic activity. Enzyme activity measurements can be conducted in tissues with low enzyme content using the analytical method presented here. A model was developed describing the changes in the pharmacokinetics of clomethiazole and its ...
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Learn about the prescription drug Tegretol (Carbamazepine) including information about its uses, dosage, side effects, and common interactions.
Risk of serious skin-related adverse drug reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, occurring with carbamazepine may be increased in the presence of the HLA-A*3101 allele in patients of European descent or Japanese origin.
Carbamazepine major depressive disorder. Difference Between Lamotrigine and Carbamazepine As it is too early to pinpoint the specific disorders that Lamotrigine is most effective Major Depression;.
2.3.1 linear relationship between the study said that taking reference substance precision reserve liquid 5 ml, set in 50 ml Liang Ping, diluted with the mobile phase to scale (made with carbamazepine per ml, approximately 4 μg of the solution), shake ; precise amount of each check 2,5,10,15,20,25,30,35,40 μl, into the liquid chromatograph, record the peak area. In order to sample volume (μg) as the abscissa, the corresponding peak area of the vertical axis, linear regression. Results 0.008 648 ~ 0.172 96 μg context, carbamazepine sample volume and the peak area showed good linear relationship, regression equation Y = 2 830.86X-0.777 46, the correlation coefficient r = 1.000 0. 2.3.2 to 2.2.1 under the experimental precision of the reference substance solution repeated injection six times, obtained peak area RSD of 0.51% (n = 6), shows a better precision of this method. 2.3.3 stability test to take the same test items for the solution, 0,1,2,4,8 h, respectively, injection 20 μl, recorded ...
Profound cultural changes in the in vivo metabolism of acamol and with carbamazepine indicated that extrahepatic metabolism does not constantly play a major role in the disposition of these compounds. Various tablet combinations of felbamate and carbamazepine have been shown in studies to be bioequivalent to concomitant administration role of the separate enti
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In Vivo Studies The drug interaction data described in this section were obtained from studies involving healthy adults and adult patients with epilepsy. Phenytoin In a single (400 mg) and multiple dose (400 mg three times a day) study of gabapentin in epileptic patients (N=8) maintained on phenytoin monotherapy for at least 2 months, gabapentin had no effect on the steady-state trough plasma concentrations of phenytoin and phenytoin had no effect on gabapentin pharmacokinetics. Carbamazepine Steady-state trough plasma carbamazepine and carbamazepine 10, 11 epoxide concentrations were not affected by concomitant gabapentin (400 mg three times a day; N=12) administration. Likewise, gabapentin pharmacokinetics were unaltered by carbamazepine administration. Valproic Acid The mean steady-state trough serum valproic acid concentrations prior to and during concomitant gabapentin administration (400 mg three times a day; N=17) were not different and neither were gabapentin pharmacokinetic parameters ...
Are there any other precautions or warnings for this medication?. Before you begin taking a medication, be sure to inform your doctor of any medical conditions or allergies you may have, any medications you are taking, whether you are pregnant or breast-feeding, and any other significant facts about your health. These factors may affect how you should take this medication.. Anemia: Carbamazepine may cause low levels of red blood cells. If you experience symptoms of reduced red blood cell count (anemia), such as shortness of breath, feeling unusually tired or pale skin, contact your doctor as soon as possible.. Your doctor will do blood tests regularly to monitor the number of specific types of blood cells, including red blood cells, in your blood.. Birth control: Carbamazepine, like other anticonvulsants, may reduce the effectiveness of birth control pills. Women taking carbamazepine should use an alternative, non-hormonal birth control method such as condoms. If you become pregnant while taking ...
Carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant used in the treatment of simple and complex partial seizures. It is used as a mood stabilizing in treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder and nerve pain such as trigeminal neuralgia.
The present research utilises the crystal engineering technique to modify the physiochemical properties of Oxcarbazepine (OXCBZ), antiepileptic drug used for the treatment of partial seizures with or without secondary generalization in adults and children. Crystal engineering comprises rational design and modified fabrication crystal structures and hence offers manifold prospects to selectively improve the biopharmaceutical parameters of Oxcarbazepine on the basis of indepth knowledge of crystallization processes and molecular properties. Oxcarbazepine co-crystals were evaluated for parameters by visual morphology, differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry. In vitro drug release testing of co-crystals showed an increase in drug release as compared to drug release from the pure drug.
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Carbamazepine is used for the treatment of seizures. It also is used to treat certain types of nerve pain. Inform your physican if you are pregnant or nursing. Inform your physician if you have glaucoma. Do not take this medication with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. This medication may cause dizziness, drowsiness, or blurred vision; use caution while driving or operating hazardous machinery. Do not stop taking carbamazepine without talking with your physician. Shake the suspension well before each use. This medication should be taken with meals to avoid stomach upset. Notify your physician if you develop unexplained fever, sore throat, unusual bleeding or bruising, or yellow eyes or skin ...
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Approximately 50 subjects at multiple sites will crossover to receive both treatments (lacosamide [LCM]and carbamazepine immediate release [CBZ-IR]) in a randomized order during the 2 study treatment periods (Treatment Period 1 and Treatment Period 2).. A Screening Visit will be conducted to evaluate subject eligibility for enrollment into the study. Eligible subjects will return up to 21 days after the Screening Visit and begin Treatment Period 1. During Visit 2, eligible subjects will be randomized to receive either LCM 300 mg/day or CBZ-IR 600 mg/day. Subjects will be treated with their first randomized Antiepileptic Drug (AED) for 6 weeks (Titration Period [21 days] and Maintenance Period [21 days]). Subjects then complete a 28-day Taper/Washout Period, during which their first AED will be tapered over 4 days followed by a 24-day Washout Period, where subjects will receive no AED. Upon completion of the Taper/Washout Period, subjects will begin Treatment Period 2.The procedures and ...
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Surface-induced nucleation of carbamazepine (CBZ) in ethanol was investigated with different surface materials: glass, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and tin. The introduction of foreign surfaces with different areas and surface chemistries into the solution has an impact on the crystal morphology and polymo
Chemicals. Carbamazepine and carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO). Pooled human liver microsomes were obtained from Daiichi Pure Chemicals (Tokyo, Japan). All chemicals and solvents were of the highest grade that was commercially available.. Fruit Samples. Pomegranate (California) and grapefruit (white) (Citrus paradise) (Florida) were obtained from local commercial sources. The fruit samples were stored at 4°C until use. Pomegranate juice was obtained by squeezing the edible portion of the fruit. All samples were tested soon after they were squeezed and filtered.. Assay of Carbamazepine 10,11-Epoxidation Activity of Human CYP3A. Assay of the carbamazepine 10,11-epoxidation activity of human CYP3A was performed according to the method of Nakamura et al. (2002), with minor modifications. Briefly, a typical incubation mixture consisted of 100 mM sodium potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), 50 μM EDTA disodium salt, an NADPH-generating system (0.5 mM NADP+, ...
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The results showed a highly variable response to treatment within the defined therapeutic ranges. Therapeutic response is not dependent on ethnicity and age although the latter was determined on carbamazepine and valproic acid treated patients only. The pharmacokinetics of carbamazepine, valproic acid and phenobarbitone showed high inter-individual variations and were unaffected by weight, age or ethnicity. Similar high inter-individual variation for phenytoin pharmacokinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) were observed. However, Km and Vmax(mg/day) of adult Chinese patients were significantly lower than Malay or Indian patients. The relationship between Km and Vmax and age or weight were insignificant ...
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I have just increased my daily dose of tegretol to 1300 mg daily. I was diagnosed in October 2007 with epilepsy after a grand mal seizire. Prior to October I had pettite seixures for ten years, however I thought they were anxiety attacks and ignored them. My periodic increase in tegretol has been a result of more pettite seizures - slight moments of feeling confused, not being able to speak or unable catch what the other person has said. Until my body gets adjusted to the increase in medication I feel SO tired, like I could put my head down on my desk and sleep and I also have a hard time staying focused at work. Any suggestions on how to cope with the tiredness? I know it will go away eventually - but right now eventually feels like forever. Sometimes I think Im not eating correctly - so I find myself eating, alot and going to bed early, by 9PM, but neither of these help ...
Tegretol (carbamazepine) is used in the treatment of seizure disorders, including certain types of epilepsy. It is also prescribed for trigeminal neuralgia (severe pain in the jaws) and pain in the...
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Carbamazepine molecule is a derivative of dibenzoazepine. The substance has anti-epileptic activity, there is a neurotropic effect. The molecule is capable of producing a psychotropic effect. Carbamazepine acts stably on neuronal membranes, which are in a state of over-excitation, suppresses a series of neutron discharges, reduces the intensity of transmission of excitation pulses in synapses.
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Children whose mothers took the epilepsy drug valproate (Depakote) during pregnancy may be at risk for having a lower intelligence quotient (IQ), according to a study presented at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Neurology.. Nearly one in four children whose mothers took valproate during pregnancy had an IQ in the mental retardation range (70 or less). By comparison, children whose mothers took other epilepsy drugs during pregnancy had a much lower risk of mental retardation: 12 percent for carbamazepine (Tegretol) or phenytoin (Dilantin), and 9 percent for lamotrigine (Lamictal).. Likewise, the average IQ of all children whose mother took valproate (84) was much lower than the average IQ of the children whose mothers took carbamazepine ((93), phenytoin (93) or lamotrigine (96).. Neurologists urged women of child-bearing age who are taking valproate to talk with their doctors about switching to another epilepsy drug. They emphasized, however, that women should not simply stop taking ...
For several decades, researchers have conducted studies with the goal of evaluating the potentially harmful nature of anticonvulsant drugs like Tegretol. In 1989, the New England Journal of Medicine published a study in an attempt to determine whether and to what extent Tegretol is teratogenic, or likely to cause fetal malformations. According to researchers involved in the study, the teratogenicity of Tegretol was illustrated by the incidence of serious birth defects among infants whose mothers took the drug during pregnancy. Of the thirty-five children observed, 11% were born with craniofacial defects, 20% suffered from developmental delay, and 26% developed hypoplasia of the nails.. In 2001, the NEJM published an additional study in which researchers sought to examine the adverse side effects associated with fetal exposure to anticonvulsant drugs like Tegretol. Over 100,000 pregnant women were divided into groups based on extent of anticonvulsant exposure during pregnancy, and their children ...
Warning: Carbamazepine may decrease the number of blood cells produced by your body. In rare cases, the number of blood cells may decrease enough to cause serious or life-threatening health problems. Tell your doctor if you have ever had a decreased number of blood cells, especially if it was caused by another medication. If you experience any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately: sore throat, fever, chills or other signs of infection; unusual bleeding or bruising; tiny...
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A total of 211 patients and 80 controls (age: 18-45 years) of both genders were included. The patients had been treated with either LEV (n = 47), CBZ (n = 90), or LTG (n = 74) monotherapy for at least 6 months. Total concentrations of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4), immunoglobulin A (IgA), and immunoglobulin M (IgM) were measured. Smoking, drinking habits, and physical activity were recorded, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. ...
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Immediate-release versus controlled-release carbamazepine in the treatment of epilepsy Immunomodulatory interventions for focal epilepsy syndromes Interventions for psychotic symptoms concomitant with epilepsy. Intravenous immunoglobulins for epilepsy. Ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments for epilepsy. Lamotrigine add-on for drug-resistant partial epilepsy. Lamotrigine adjunctive therapy for refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Lamotrigine versus carbamazepine monotherapy for epilepsy. Levetiracetam add-on for drug-resistant focal epilepsy: an updated Cochrane Review. Losigamone add-on therapy for partial epilepsy. Melatonin as add-on treatment for epilepsy. Monotherapy treatment of epilepsy in pregnancy: congenital malformation outcomes in the ...
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Tegretol (Carbamazepine) for Bipolar DisorderTegretol (Carbamazepine) for Bipolar Disorder

... Tegretol is a medication known as an anticonvulsant that is used to treat the ... According to goodrx.com, 60 tables of 200 mg generic carbamazepine cost approximately $65. 60 tablets of 200 mg Tegretol cost ... Yes, the generic version is known as carbamazepine and is sold in the U.S. ...
more infohttps://www.psycom.net/bipolar-medications-tegretol

Medical Xpress - carbamazepineMedical Xpress - carbamazepine

Carbamazepine. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy ... It has been seen as safe for pregnant women to use carbamazepine as a mood stabilizer, but, like other anticonvulsants, ...
more infohttps://medicalxpress.com/tags/carbamazepine/sort/date/1d/

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Carbatol information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Torrent Pharmaceuticals, Carbatol indications, usages and related health products lists
more infohttp://drugs-about.com/drugs-c/carbatol.html

Carbamazepine | Memorial HospitalCarbamazepine | Memorial Hospital

Learn more about Carbamazepine at Memorial Hospital Trade Names : Atretol Carbatrol Epitol Tegretol Tegretol XR Ginkgo -... ... Carbamazepine blood levels increased in two children with epilepsy after they were given nicotinamide, 10 but the fact that the ... Carbamazepine appears to lower blood levels of folate by speeding up its normal breakdown by the body and also by decreasing ... Phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and primidone speed up the normal breakdown of vitamin K into inactive by-products, ...
more infohttps://memorialhospitaljax.com/hl/?/21526/Tegretol&com.dotmarketing.htmlpage.language=1

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Carbamazepine) is used for treating certain types of seizures (partial, tonic-clonic, mixed), nerve pain (such as trigeminal ... A: Tegretol (carbamazepine) belongs to a class of drugs called anticonvulsants or anti-seizure medications. It works by ... Carbamazepine was discovered in 1953 and was originally marketed as a drug to treat trigeminal neuralgia (associated with ... There are several manufacturers that make the generic form of carbamazepine.. Tegretol Warnings. The FDA requires Tegretol to ...
more infohttps://www.everydayhealth.com/drugs/tegretol
  • Do not stop taking carbamazepine without talking to your doctor, even if you experience side effects such as unusual changes in behavior or mood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Do not start or stop taking carbamazepine during pregnancy without your doctor's advice. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Carbamazepine for bipolar? (drugs.com)
  • I suffer from bipolar disorder and have taken carbamazepine in the past, and for me it worked a lot better than lithium, specially because in my case I had too many side effects with lithium. (drugs.com)
  • Carbamazepine is also used to treat bipolar disorder. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Bipolar disorder: When effective, carbamazepine helps to stabilize moods, give more control over one's emotions, and improves functioning. (ementalhealth.ca)
  • In Canada, like many other medications prescribed for children and adolescents, Health Canada has not officially approved carbamazepine for the management of bipolar disorder in this age group (although it is approved in adults). (ementalhealth.ca)
  • Nonetheless, carbamazepine may be prescribed by physicians for bipolar disorder in children/youth on a case by case basis, when it is felt that the potential benefits (e.g., reducing symptoms) of using carbamazepine outweigh the potential risks (e.g., the side effects). (ementalhealth.ca)
  • Moreover, carbamazepine is used for the treatment of mania and for maintaining the treatment of bipolar affective disorders or to prevent recurrence. (sbwire.com)
  • Valproic acid and valnoctamide both inhibit microsomal epoxide hydrolase (MEH), the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of carbamazepine-10,11 epoxide into inactive metabolites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though clinical activity for the epoxide has been postulated, the significance of its activity with respect to the safety and efficacy of carbamazepine has not been established. (nih.gov)
  • There is another brand name of carbamazepine, known as Equetro, which is distributed by Validus Pharmaceuticals. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Your doctor will order certain lab tests before and during your treatment to check your body's response to carbamazepine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the US, the label for carbamazepine contains warnings concerning: effects on the body's production of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets: rarely, there are major effects of aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis reported and more commonly, there are minor changes such as decreased white blood cell or platelet counts, that do not progress to more serious problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the leading players in the carbamazepine market are Novartis AG, Jubilant Pharma, Jiangsu Tohope, Shanghai Modern Hasen, Zhejiang Jiuzhou, and Jinan Jinda. (sbwire.com)
  • Carbamazepine, as a CYP450 inducer, may increase clearance of many drugs, decreasing their concentration in the blood to subtherapeutic levels and reducing their desired effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drugs that decrease the metabolism of carbamazepine or otherwise increase its levels include erythromycin, cimetidine, propoxyphene, and calcium channel blockers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before prescribing carbamazepine, the physician should be thoroughly familiar with the details of this prescribing information, particularly regarding use with other drugs, especially those which accentuate toxicity potential. (nih.gov)
  • Several drugs, if taken in conjunction with carbamazepine, may alter the effect or affect metabolism and blood levels. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Some drugs can raise or lower your blood levels of carbamazepine, which may cause side effects or make carbamazepine less effective. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Carbamazepine can also affect blood levels of certain other drugs, making them less effective or increasing side effects. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Carbamazepine comes as a tablet, a chewable tablet, an extended-release (long-acting) tablet, an extended-release capsule, and as a suspension (liquid) to take by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Carbamazepine is usually available as a tablet, a chewable tablet, an extended-release (long-acting) tablet, an extended-release capsule, and as a suspension (liquid). (medindia.net)
  • Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms due to carbamazepine. (springer.com)
  • Carbamazepine inhibits Nav1.2 channels currents in Xenopusoocytes. (abcam.com)
  • Carbamazepine inhibits sustained repetitive firing by blocking use-dependent sodium channels. (drugbank.ca)
  • Each white with red specks, round, flat-faced, bevel-edged, chewable tablet, engraved 'S' on one side and 'MR' with bisect on the other, contains carbamazepine 100 mg. (pharmasave.com)
  • Each white with red specks, oval, biconvex, chewable tablet, engraved 'S' on one side and 'PU' with bisect on the other, contains carbamazepine 200 mg. (pharmasave.com)
  • The report presents a detailed assessment of the market dynamics, growth trends, and opportunities that will impact the progression of the global carbamazepine market between 2017 and 2025. (sbwire.com)
  • People who have previously had to interrupt treatment with carbamazepine due to side effects or allergy. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Side effects of carbamazepine include: poor coordination, headaches and drowsiness. (cochrane.org)
  • There is therefore a lack of evidence whether carbamazepine reduces symptoms and side effects in people with schizophrenia or similar mental health problems. (cochrane.org)
  • A controlled release formulation about carbamazepine was available by the FDA as of 2014, which provides tentative evidence regarding fewer side effects of the drug. (sbwire.com)
  • If you do not have this genetic risk factor, your doctor may prescribe carbamazepine, but there is still a slight risk that you will develop SJS or TEN. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dosages of carbamazepine must be adjusted carefully until a steady concentration in the blood is reached. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • You should avoid alcoholic beverages while taking Carbamazepine. (cvs.com)
  • Carbamazepine also increases the metabolism of the hormones in birth control pills and can reduce their effectiveness, potentially leading to unexpected pregnancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • This review focuses on the effectiveness of carbamazepine for people with schizophrenia. (cochrane.org)
  • Alcohol use while taking carbamazepine may lead to enhanced depression of the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbamazepine USP is a white to off-white powder, practically insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol and in acetone. (nih.gov)
  • Intake of alcohol with carbamazepine further adds to the drowsiness caused by the drug. (medindia.net)
  • The increasing number of individuals suffering from alcohol withdrawal disorders, central partial diabetes insipidus or water diabetes, and psychotic disorders is also driving the carbamazepine market. (sbwire.com)
  • Carbamazepine greatly reduces or abolishes pain induced by stimulation of the infraorbital nerve in cats and rats. (nih.gov)
  • Caffeine reduces the antiepileptic effect of the carbamazepine. (medindia.net)
  • Carbamazepine is a drug first used to treat epilepsy in the 1950s. (cochrane.org)
  • The dynamic growth of the epilepsy market with the increasing number of cases in the mid-teen age group is presenting lucrative growth opportunities to the carbamazepine market. (sbwire.com)
  • When used to control a manic episode, carbamazepine needs to be taken for 1 to 2 weeks before you notice an improvement in your symptoms. (ementalhealth.ca)
  • Carbamazepine can be harmful to a developing baby so it's important that your doctor knows if you're pregnant or want to try for a baby before you start treatment. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • If you think you could be pregnant while taking carbamazepine it's vital that you consult your doctor straight away for advice. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • You may notice an improvement earlier if carbamazepine is combined with other medications. (ementalhealth.ca)
  • However, carbamazepine is not a simple analgesic and is not suitable to be used for trivial facial pain or headache. (sbwire.com)
  • Carbamazepine is typically used for the treatment of seizure disorders and neuropathic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Call your doctor immediately if you develop a painful rash, hives, blistering or peeling of skin, easy bruising, mouth sores, or a fever during your treatment with carbamazepine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Carbamazepine is usually monitored long-term because it is prescribed for chronic conditions which require long-term treatment. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Your doctor will want you to have some genetic testing before starting treatment, because some people with this ethnic origin carry a gene that increases the risk of getting a serious skin reaction to carbamazepine. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Larger well-designed trials are necessary to provide stronger evidence before carbamazepine can be recommended as a treatment for people with schizophrenia. (cochrane.org)
  • One study comparing carbamazepine with placebo as the sole treatment for schizophrenia was abandoned early due to high relapse rate with 26 out of 31 participants relapsing by three months. (cochrane.org)
  • Treatment with carbamazepine should usually not be stopped suddenly, as it may lead to uncomfortable withdrawal effects. (ementalhealth.ca)
  • Carbamazepine is suitable for the treatment of status epilepticus. (sbwire.com)
  • Carbamazepine (treatment): See Carbamazepine (treatment information). (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Carbamazepine can increase the breakdown of thyroxine, so your thyroid hormones should be monitored. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • This is because carbamazepine can interfere with the way the body metabolises vitamin D and calcium, which can cause bone thinning and weakening, osteomalacia , osteoporosis and an increased risk of fractures. (netdoctor.co.uk)