Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
A carbamate insecticide.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
A carbamate insecticide and parasiticide. It is a potent anticholinesterase agent belonging to the carbamate group of reversible cholinesterase inhibitors. It has a particularly low toxicity from dermal absorption and is used for control of head lice in some countries.
A class of enzymes that transfers phosphate groups and has a carboxyl group as an acceptor. EC 2.7.2.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic insecticide, an acaricide, and nematocide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.
The simplest of all peptides. It functions as a gamma-glutamyl acceptor.
A carbamate insecticide with anticholinesterase activity.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).
A carbamate that is used as an herbicide and as a plant growth regulator.
Carbamate derivative used as an insecticide, acaricide, and nematocide.
A centrally acting muscle relaxant. Its mode of action is unknown. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1203)
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).
Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS.
Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.
A centrally acting muscle relaxant with a short duration of action.
A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.
A pre-emergence, selective herbicide for the control of wild oats in various crops.
Compounds which restore enzymatic activity by removing an inhibitory group bound to the reactive site of the enzyme.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A member of the BENZODIOXOLES that is a constituent of several VOLATILE OILS, notably SASSAFRAS oil. It is a precursor in the synthesis of the insecticide PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE and the drug N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA).
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
An organochlorine insecticide whose use has been cancelled or suspended in the United States. It has been used to control locusts, tropical disease vectors, in termite control by direct soil injection, and non-food seed and plant treatment. (From HSDB)
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycerol monoesters of long-chain fatty acids EC 3.1.1.23.
Alkylating anti-neoplastic agent.
Viscous, nauseating oil obtained from the shrub Croton tiglium (Euphorbaceae). It is a vesicant and skin irritant used as pharmacologic standard for skin inflammation and allergy and causes skin cancer. It was formerly used as an emetic and cathartic with frequent mortality.
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and glutamine. This enzyme is important in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. EC 6.3.5.5.
Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.
A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

Involvement of two plasmids in the degradation of carbaryl by Arthrobacter sp. strain RC100. (1/1210)

A bacterium capable of utilizing carbaryl (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate) as the sole carbon source was isolated from carbaryl-treated soil. This bacterium was characterized taxonomically as Arthrobacter and was designated strain RC100. RC100 hydrolyzes the N-methylcarbamate linkage to 1-naphthol, which was further metabolized via salicylate and gentisate. Strain RC100 harbored three plasmids (designated pRC1, pRC2, and pRC3). Mutants unable to degrade carbaryl arose at a high frequency after treating the culture with mitomycin C. All carbaryl-hydrolysis-deficient mutants (Cah-) lacked pRC1, and all 1-naphthol-utilization-deficient mutants (Nat-) lacked pRC2. The plasmid-free strain RC107 grew on gentisate as a carbon source. These two plasmids could be transferred to Cah- mutants or Nat- mutants by conjugation, resulting in the restoration of the Cah and Nah phenotypes.  (+info)

Efficacy and safety of rivastigmine in patients with Alzheimer's disease: international randomised controlled trial. (2/1210)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of rivastigmine on the core domains of Alzheimer's disease. DESIGN: Prospective, randomised, multicentre, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group trial. Patients received either placebo, 1-4 mg/day (lower dose) rivastigmine, or 6-12 mg/day (higher dose) rivastigmine. Doses were increased in one of two fixed dose ranges (1-4 mg/day or 6-12 mg/day) over the first 12 weeks with a subsequent assessment period of 14 weeks. SETTING: 45 centres in Europe and North America. PARTICIPANTS: 725 patients with mild to moderately severe probable Alzheimer's disease diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, and the criteria of the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association. OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's disease assessment scale, rating on the clinician interview based impression of change incorporating caregiver information scale, and the progressive deterioration scale. RESULTS: At the end of the study cognitive function had deteriorated among those in the placebo group. Scores on the Alzheimer's disease assessment scale improved in patients in the higher dose group when compared with patients taking placebo (P<0.05). Significantly more patients in the higher dose group had improved by 4 points or more than had improved in the placebo group (24% (57/242) v 16% (39/238)). Global function as rated by the clinician interview scale had significantly improved among those in the higher dose group compared with those taking placebo (P<0.001), and significantly more patients in the higher dose group showed improvement than did in the placebo group (37% (80/219) v 20% (46/230)). Mean scores on the progressive deterioration scale improved from baseline in patients in the higher dose group but fell in the placebo group. Adverse events were predominantly gastrointestinal, of mild to moderate severity, transient, and occurred mainly during escalation of the dose. 23% (55/242) of those in the higher dose group, 7% (18/242) of those in the lower dose group, and 7% (16/239) of those in the placebo group discontinued treatment because of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Rivastigmine is well tolerated and effective. It improves cognition, participation in activities of daily living, and global evaluation ratings in patients with mild to moderately severe Alzheimer's disease. This is the first treatment to show compelling evidence of efficacy in a predominantly European population.  (+info)

Treatment with amprenavir alone or amprenavir with zidovudine and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 347 Study Team. (3/1210)

Amprenavir is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and good in vitro activity. Ninety-two lamivudine- and protease inhibitor-naive individuals with >/=50 CD4 cells/mm3 and >/=5000 HIV RNA copies/mL were assigned amprenavir (1200 mg) alone or with zidovudine (300 mg) plus lamivudine (150 mg), all given every 12 h. After a median follow-up of 88 days, the findings of a planned interim review resulted in termination of the amprenavir monotherapy arm. Among 85 subjects with confirmed plasma HIV RNA determination, 15 of 42 monotherapy versus 1 of 43 triple-therapy subjects had an HIV RNA increase above baseline or 1 log10 above nadir (P=.0001). For subjects taking triple therapy at 24 weeks, the median decrease in HIV RNA was 2.04 log10 copies/mL, and 17 (63%) of 27 evaluable subjects had <500 HIV RNA copies/mL. Treatment with amprenavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine together reduced the levels of HIV RNA significantly more than did amprenavir monotherapy.  (+info)

A 1-year multicenter randomized double-blind comparison of repaglinide and glyburide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Dutch and German Repaglinide Study Group. (4/1210)

OBJECTIVE: Repaglinide is a newly developed oral blood glucose-lowering agent that exerts its effect by stimulating insulin secretion. This multicenter study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of this drug with glyburide in a 1-year randomized double-blind study of outpatients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 424 subjects (154 women, 270 men) participated and had the following characteristics: age, 61 +/- 9 years; duration of diabetes. 8 years (range 0.5-35); BMI, 28.3 +/- 3.5 kg/m2; HbA1c, 7.1 +/- 1.4%; and fasting plasma glucose, 10.8 +/- 3.1 mmol/l. The majority of the subjects (91%) were previously treated with sulfonylurea, alone or in combination with metformin. The patients were randomized to a 2:1 ratio of repaglinide (0.5-4 mg t.i.d.) or glyburide (1.75-10.5 mg daily) treatment. The study protocol included a screening visit to assess patient eligibility; a titration period of 6-8 weeks, during which the dosages of repaglinide and glyburide were optimized; and a subsequent 12-month treatment period on fixed, optimal dosages. RESULTS: The trial was completed by 320 subjects, 211 (74%) in the repaglinide and 109 (78%) in the glyburide group. HbA1c initially decreased in both groups and then increased during the second half-year of the maintenance period to a similar extent in the repaglinide and glyburide subjects (0.58 and 0.45% vs. at screening, respectively). In the small group of subjects who previously controlled their condition with diet only (n = 37), a sustained improvement of metabolic control could be observed with both drugs, which was slightly better with glyburide than with repaglinide (theta HbA1c -2.4 vs. -1.0%; P < 0.05). The same trends were seen with fasting plasma glucose. There were no changes in serum lipids. Over the course of the study, 15% of the repaglinide-treated and 13% of glyburide-treated subjects withdrew due to adverse events, mostly hyperglycemia. No differences in adverse events between both drugs were reported. There were no differences in incidences of hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS: Repaglinide is a safe and efficacious oral blood glucose-lowering agent, with a potency similar to that of glyburide. Its rapid onset of action and hepatic clearance allows meal-related administration, including in subjects with impaired kidney function.  (+info)

Structural and mechanistic aspects of transcriptional induction of cytochrome P450 1A1 by benzimidazole derivatives in rat hepatoma H4IIE cells. (5/1210)

The effect of several structurally different benzimidazole compounds on CYP1A1 expression at the transcriptional, mRNA and protein levels was investigated in the rat hepatoma H4IIE cell line. Omeprazole, thiabendazole, carbendazim, 2-mercaptobenzimidazole and 2-mercapto-5-methoxybenzimidazole caused a dose-dependent increase in CYP1A1 protein levels that reached maximum effect at 250 microm, as measured by Western blot. In addition, hydroxyomeprazole, 2-aminobenzimidazole and 2-mercapto-5-nitro-benzimidazole caused a notable increase in CYP1A1 protein expression, whereas 5-O-desmethylomeprazole, 2-hydroxybenzimidazole, 2-benzimidazole propionic acid and 5-benzimidazole carboxylic acid were ineffective. Thus, benzimidazole substituted with a thiol or an amino group in the 2-position were active inducers. Northern blot analysis confirmed an extensive increase of CYP1A1 mRNA induced by omeprazole and 2-mercapto-5-methoxybenzimidazole which was 32% and 49% of maximal induction by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) respectively, whereas thiabendazole and carbendazim showed approximately 15% increase as compared to TCDD. Transient transfection of H4IIE cells, with a XRE-pGL3 reporter gene construct revealed a 2.3-4.3-fold induction by carbendazim, thiabendazole, and 2-mercapto-5-methoxybenzimidazole as compared to a 3.3- and 23-fold induction by omeprazole and TCDD, respectively. Thus, these data indicate that the benzimidazoles utilize the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-arnt-XRE-mediated signal-transduction pathway for induction of the CYP1A1 gene.  (+info)

A common pharmacophore for cytotoxic natural products that stabilize microtubules. (6/1210)

Taxol (paclitaxel), a complex diterpene obtained from the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, is arguably the most important new drug in cancer chemotherapy. The mechanism of cytotoxic action for paclitaxel-i.e., the stabilization of microtubules leading to mitotic arrest-is now shared by four recently identified natural products, eleutherobin, epothilones A and B, and discodermolide. Their ability to competitively inhibit [3H]paclitaxel binding to microtubules strongly suggests the existence of a common binding site. Recently, we have developed nonaromatic analogues of paclitaxel that maintain high cytotoxicity and tubulin binding (e.g., nonataxel). We now propose a common pharmacophore that unites paclitaxel, nonataxel, the epothilones, eleutherobin, and discodermolide, and rationalizes the extensive structure-activity relationship data pertinent to these compounds. Insights from the common pharmacophore have enabled the development of a hybrid construct with demonstrated cytotoxic and tubulin-binding activity.  (+info)

Pharmacological activities of TEI-8362, a novel inhibitor of human neutrophil elastase. (7/1210)

1. TEI-8362, 4-(N-(3-((3-carboxypropyl)amino)-8-methyl-1-oxo-4-azaisochromen-6- yl)carbamoyl)-4-((phenylmethoxy)carbonylamino)butanoic acid (C26H28N4O9) is a novel inhibitor of human neutrophil elastase (HNE). We evaluated its pharmacological profile in vitro and in vivo. 2. TEI-8362 demonstrated potent inhibition of HNE with a Ki value of 1.38 x 10(-9) M. Its selectivity for HNE among a variety of proteases ranged from 163 fold to 68,000 fold in favour of HNE. 3. The pulmonary haemorrhage that occurred after i.t. instillation of HNE to hamsters was inhibited by either i.t., i.v., or inhalant administration of TEI-8362. 4. Intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide induced pulmonary neutrophilia. Twenty-four hours after lipopolysaccharide administration, the additional treatment with formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine resulted in a specific neutrophil-dependent acute lung injury. In this model, lung injury was significantly attenuated by i.t., i.v., or inhalant administration of TEI-8362. 5. These pharmacological actions of TEI-8362 suggest that this drug has therapeutic value in the treatment of destructive lung diseases due to neutrophils.  (+info)

Does an association between pesticide use and subsequent declines in catch of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) represent a case of endocrine disruption? (8/1210)

Historical aerial applications of the insecticide Matacil 1.8D provide an opportunity to look for potential effects of the endocrine disrupting compound 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations. Matacil 1.8D contained the carbamate insecticide aminocarb, with 4-NP as primary solvent. Between 1975 and 1985 Matacil 1.8D was applied to forests in Atlantic Canada to control damage from the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana). After spraying, estimated concentrations of 4-NP in water fell within a range in which estrogenic effects might be anticipated. The spraying coincided with final stages of smolt development in salmon. Salmon catch data were evaluated considering effects on survival of the smolt stage. There was a significant negative relationship between the returns of salmon and the proportion of tributaries sprayed within the Restigouche River drainage basin in 1977. There was also a broader event of unusually heavy salmon smolt mortality in 1977, which contains a significant relationship indicating that where Matacil 1.8D spraying occurred, the smolt mortality increased. For 16 rivers exposed to spraying between 1973 and 1990, a significant proportion (p<0.005) of the lowest salmon catches coincided with Matacil 1.8D spraying. A decline coinciding with the use of Matacil 1.8D was also apparent in blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis) catches in New Brunswick. Because similar relationships were not evident for Matacil 1.8F or fenitrothion, neither of which were formulated with 4-NP, we hypothesize that the 4-NP in Matacil 1.8D was the causal agent. Concentrations of 4-NP described here are within current ranges encountered in industrial effluents and municipal sewage outfalls.  (+info)

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Carbosulfan (2,3-dihydro-2,2dimethyl-7-benzofuronyl [(dibutyl amino) thio] methyl] a carbamate insecticide and acaricide was administered orally at an effective dose of 48 mg/kg/day to albino mice for 5, 10, 20 and 30 days .Control mice received similar quantities of olive oil. Daily body weights were recorded and mice were sacrificed after 24 hours after the terminal exposure. The histologic examination of liver of the mice treated with carbosulfan for 10, 20 and 30 days revealed the dilation of central vein and sinusoids between hypertrophied hepatocytes. Vacuolization and hyalinization of hepatocytes with loss of radial arrangement. Treatment with carbosulfan for 20 days in female and male mice resulted in a significant decrease in protein and liver glycogen contents in female mice, whereas in male mice the glycogen was not changed significantly in the liver. The cholesterol content was increased significantly in male mice, but in female mice there was no significant change. Treatment with
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.. ...
Carbamic acid, [chloro(chloroethoxyphosphinyl)methyl]-, ethyl ester | C6H11Cl2NO4P+ | CID 71382874 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
(S)-(1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl)carbamic acid (S)-1-(2-fluorophenyl) ethyl ester: a nicotinic receptor alpha7 selective agonist; structure in first source
Carbamic acid, [(2-pyrimidinylamino)thioxomethyl]-, ethyl ester | C8H10N4O2S | CID 4028085 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Syntheses of N- and C-protected derivatives of 1-(1-aminoethyl)ferrocene-1-carboxylic acid (Fcca) and isomeric carbamic acid are reported. The first attempt to prepare N-Ac-Fcca (8) by cleavage of...
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This page contains information on the chemical Carbamic acid, (oxybis(1H-benzimidazole-5,2-diyl))bis-, dimethyl ester including: 2 synonyms/identifiers.
chemBlink provides information about CAS # 454170-16-2, [(1R,2R)-2-Hydroxycyclopentyl]carbamic acid 1,1-dimethylethyl ester, (1R,2R)-2-((tert-Butoxycarbonyl)amino)-1-cyclopentanol, molecular formula: C10H19NO3.
Fegley, D., Gaetani, S., Duranti, A., Tontini, A., Mor, M. and Tarzia, G. (2005) Characterization of the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor cyclohexyl carbamic acid 3- carbamoyl-biphenyl-3-yl ester (URB597), effects on anandamide and oleoylethanolamide deactivation. Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 313, 352-358. doi10.1124/jpet.104.078980
Surface water sampling in 2007-2010 measured the incident of carbamates and metalaxyl during bottom flow circumstances and wet weather conditions occasions in southern Ontario surface area waters. may possess resulted from KC-404 squirt drift mainly. on an array of vegetation was?contained in the analytical method. While specialized enrollment of both carbofuran and pirimicarb in Canada provides expired both items had been used during a number of the monitoring period (2007-2010) and by the finish of 2013 had been still in the residue explanations list beneath the Canadian Infestations Control Products Action and supervised by Provincial and Government agencies (Wellness Canada 2013). Environment Canada undertook surface area drinking water sampling for carbamates and metalaxyl over the time 2007-2010 in Ontario Canada. The goal of this research was to gauge the incident and distribution of carbamate pesticides and metalaxyl in southern Ontario surface area waters within a thorough pesticide ...
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The global agricultural sector pervasively uses organophosphates and carbamates for production of pesticides, germicides and other chemicals that eradicate pests from crop yield. Apart from some having therapeutic functions, most of organophosphates and carbamates are highly poisonous for consumption and can even result into fatality.
This study allows patients who have successfully participated in ACTG 347 or other trials involving amprenavir to continue treatment with amprenavir, ZDV, d4T, and 3TC. Additionally, this study provides patients whose HIV-1 RNA was not reduced to undetectable levels or who had a significant increase in plasma levels (treatment failures) the opportunity to change to a potentially more active regimen that includes indinavir, nevirapine, lamivudine, and stavudine.. Patients with HIV RNA less than 500 copies/ml on a regimen containing amprenavir are treated on Arm A; those with greater than or equal to 500 copies while on or intolerant to a regimen containing amprenavir are treated on Arm B.. Arm A: Amprenavir + ZDV + d4T + 3TC. Arm B: IND + NVP + 3TC + d4T. Patients enrolled in Arm A who fail therapy may roll over to Arm B. Patients in Arm B who fail therapy discontinue study medications and seek best available treatment.. [AS PER AMENDMENT 2/27/98: Patients with HIV RNA less than 500 copies/ml ...
This study allows patients who have successfully participated in ACTG 347 or other trials involving amprenavir to continue treatment with amprenavir, ZDV, d4T, and 3TC. Additionally, this study provides patients whose HIV-1 RNA was not reduced to undetectable levels or who had a significant increase in plasma levels (treatment failures) the opportunity to change to a potentially more active regimen that includes indinavir, nevirapine, lamivudine, and stavudine.. Patients with HIV RNA less than 500 copies/ml on a regimen containing amprenavir are treated on Arm A; those with greater than or equal to 500 copies while on or intolerant to a regimen containing amprenavir are treated on Arm B.. Arm A: Amprenavir + ZDV + d4T + 3TC. Arm B: IND + NVP + 3TC + d4T. Patients enrolled in Arm A who fail therapy may roll over to Arm B. Patients in Arm B who fail therapy discontinue study medications and seek best available treatment.. [AS PER AMENDMENT 2/27/98: Patients with HIV RNA less than 500 copies/ml ...
A curable coating composition is described comprising a carbamate functional material and a crosslinking agent, reactive with the carbamate group. The composition further comprises a third component that is a mixture of catalysts including a phosphorus containing acid or acid derivative and other acid catalysts. Coatings prepared with this coating composition can be cured and coated with additional coating(s), providing good intercoat adhesion to the subsequent coating.
Emergence of resistance to protease inhibitor amprenavir in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients: Selection of four alternative viral protease genotypes and influence of viral susceptibility to coadministered reverse transcriptase nucleoside inhibitors ...
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The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
dosed preprandially with three meals. Absorption After oral administration, repaglinide is completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. After single and multiple oral doses in healthy subjects or in patients, peak plasma drug levels (Cmax) occur within 1 hour (Tmax). Repaglinide is eliminated from the blood stream with a half-life of approximately 1 hour. The mean absolute bioavailability is 56%. When repaglinide was given with food, the mean Tmax was not changed, but the mean Cmax and AUC (area under the time/plasma concentration curve) were decreased 20% and 12.4%, respectively.. Distribution After intravenous (IV) dosing in healthy subjects, the volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) was 31 L, and the total body clearance (CL) was 38 L/h. Protein binding and binding to human serum albumin was greater than 98%.. Metabolism and Elimination. Repaglinide is completely metabolized by oxidative biotransformation and direct conjugation with glucuronic acid after either an IV or oral ...
U.S. EPA Method 531.2 describes the determination of widely used carbamate pesticides in raw surface water using HPLC with fluorescence detection following postcolumn derivatization, which enhances method sensitivity and selectivity as compared to UV absorbance detection.
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Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is responsible for hydrolysis of endocannabinoid, anandamide (AEA), and N-acyl ethanolamines such as palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) and N-oleoylethanolamide (OEA). Genetic deletion or pharmacological inactivation of FAAH shows site-specific elevation of AEA that plays a role in the modulation of pain and other neurodegenerative disorders. The review elaborates recent progress and current status of diverse structural classes of reversible and irreversible FAAH inhibitors. The discussion also addresses ligand-enzyme active site interactions and mechanism of enzyme inactivation, emerging approaches to novel FAAH inhibitors, and ongoing efforts to address gaps in therapeutic utility of FAAH inhibitors.
As a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel superfamily, the ligand-gated ion channel TRPA1 has been implicated in nociceptive function and pain states. The endogenous ligands that activate TRPA1 remain unknown. However, various agonists have been identified, including environmental irritants (e.g., acrolein) and ingredients of pungent natural products [e.g., allyl isothiocyanate (ITC), cinnamaldehyde, allicin, and gingerol]. In general, these agents are either highly reactive, nonselective, or not potent or efficacious, significantly limiting their utilities in the study of TRPA1 channel properties and biological functions. In a search for novel TRPA1 agonists, we identified 3 -carbamoylbiphenyl-3-yl cyclohexylcarbamate (URB597), a potent and systemically active inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). This enzyme is responsible for anandamide degradation and therefore has been pursued as an antinociceptive and antiepileptic drug target. Using Ca influx assays and patch
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HPLC Application #18282: Carbamate Pesticides on Kinetex 2.6µm C18 50 x 4.6mm ID. Column used: Kinetex® 2.6 µm C18 100 Å, LC Column 50 x 4.6 mm, Ea Part#: 00B-4462-E0
0015]Due to the relative stability amides in vivo, N-acylation of amines to give amide prodrugs has only been used to a limited extent (H. Bundgaard H & M. Johansen, J Pharm Sci., 69 (1980) 44-6). For the same reason, the utility of carbamates as prodrug derivatives for amines is also limited. Introducing an enzymatically hydrolyzable ester function into the carbamate structure may evade such problem. N-(acyloxyalkoxycarbonyl) derivatives of primary or secondary amines are likely to be transformed to the parent amine in vivo (J. Alexander, R. Cargill, S. R. Mohelson and H. Schwamm, J. Med. Chem., 31 (1988) 316-22; U. S. Gates & A. J. Repta, Int. J. Pharm., 40 (1987) 249-55). Enzymatic based hydrolysis of such ester moiety in those derivatives will lead to a (hydroxy-alkoxy)carbonyl derivative which spontaneously decomposes into parent amine via an unstable carbamic acid. Acyloxy-alkyl carbamates as shown in Table 5 and Example 11 are promising biolabile prodrugs for amino functional drugs, since ...
This study is comparing gabapentin enacarbil (600 mg/d) in treatment-naïve restless legs syndrome patients versus a similar group of patients previously treated
Amprenavir (VX-478) is a HIV protease inhibitor (Ki=0.6 nM) used to treat HIV infection. Amprenavir is also a SARS-CoV 3CLpro inhibitor with an IC50 of 1.09 μM. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
The pharmacokinetic profile for minocycline was determined at the beginning and marriages end of the ethyl carbamate coadministration phase. Patients receiving intracavernous irrigation with minocycline were more likely to achieve successful detumescence than those treated with oral or with subcutaneous thiope
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Applications were made from growth stages R1 (flowering) to R3 (podset) (2), with more than 60% of the trials receiving a pyraclostrobin application at growth stage R3. Locations of fungicide strips were recorded with on-board GPS systems in all 14 trials that received aerial fungicide applications and in approximately 90% of the trials that received ground fungicide applications. In the remaining 10% of the trials, farmers flagged the strips during fungicide applications and recorded GPS coordinates of each strip later during the growing season. Treatments were alternated within each trial to help farmers accommodate treatment applications, allow researchers to verify treatment locations and conduct analysis of yield responses observed at both field and within-field (spatial observations) levels. All discussions in this article are focused only on field-level mean yield responses. More information about the purpose, methodology, and statistical analysis of observations collected in similar ...
Neuroblastoma - Anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol are neuromodulatory lipids interacting with cannabinoid receptors, whose availability is regulated by the balance ...
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The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a single oral dose of carbendazim (CARB) on the frequencies of numerical chromosome aberrations in sperm and on micronuclei in peripheral blood erythrocytes of rats. Dual colour FISH on
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You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule isopropyl [(2s)-7-cyano-4-(2-pyridinylmethyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocyclopenta[b]indol-2-yl]carbamate (C22H22N4O2) from the PQR.
In 2018, Top exporters of Cyclic amides (including cyclic carbamates) and their derivatives; n.e.s. in item no. 2924.2 to Czech Republic were Germany ($2,572.71K , 124,242 Kg), China ($2,529.90K , 175,840 Kg), Switzerland ($1,630.25K , 56,350 Kg), India ($293.41K , 8,827 Kg), Belgium ($277.17K , 25,845 Kg ...
The present invention relates to a use of a carbamate compound of formula 1, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt, solvate or hydrate thereof in the prevention or treatment of diseases associated with an increase in late sodium current.
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Generic Name: Fosamprenavir calcium. Brand Name: Telzir. Manufacturer: GlaxoSmithKline Inc.. Indications: HIV infection. Submission Type: New. Project Status: Complete. Date Recommendation Issued: June 16, 2005. Recommendation Type: List in a similar manner to other drugs in class. ...
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In case of emergency-There may be a time when you need emergency help for a problem caused by your diabetes. You need to be prepared for these emergencies. It is a good idea to wear a medical identification (ID) bracelet or neck chain at all times. Also, carry an ID card in your wallet or purse that says that you have diabetes and a list of all of your medicines.. Too much repaglinide can cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Low blood sugar also can occur if you use repaglinide with another antidiabetic medicine, delay or miss a meal or snack, exercise more than usual, drink alcohol, or cannot eat because of nausea or vomiting. Symptoms of low blood sugar must be treated before they lead to unconsciousness (passing out). Different people may feel different symptoms of low blood sugar. It is important that you learn which symptoms of low blood sugar you usually have so that you can treat it quickly.. Symptoms of low blood sugar include anxiety; behavior change similar to being drunk; blurred ...
Section 1 of this thesis contains an introduction to method development in organic synthesis, multicomponent reactions, sulfonyl azides, tracer development in 11C chemistry and the biological target.. Section 2 describes the use of sulfonyl azides in carbonylative chemistry. Paper I covers development of a diazotransfer protocol. In total, 30 arylsulfonyl azides were synthesised from primary sulfonamides (20-90% yield). 15N mechanistic studies were carried out and in Paper II, the products were converted into sulfonamides, sulfonylureas and sulfonyl carbamates (19-90% yield). For ureas and carbamates, a two-chamber protocol was employed to release CO from Mo(CO)6. 15N mechanistic studies showed that the sulfonamides were formed by direct displacement of azide.. Section 3 covers imaging and biological studies of the angiotensin II receptor subtype 2 (AT2R). In Paper III, 12 11C-sulfonyl carbamates were prepared in isolated radiochemical yields of 3-51% via Rh(I)-mediated carbonylation. The first ...
Hydrolysis o f the original sample to the corresponding carbamate, G T X 3 (5), w o u l d increase the toxicity o f the sample 6-fold, to 1400 mouse units. Subsequent epimerization o f the hydrolysate, 5, to a 4:1 mixture o f the carbamates GTX2 (3) and 5 (or hydrolysis o f the epimeric sulfamates 4 and 6 to the same mixture o f carbamates) w o u l d then change the toxicity to 1,120 mouse units. T h e observed toxicity and composition o f the hypothetical sample w h i c h started as pure 6 may l i e anywhere w i t h i n the indicated bounds as these interconversions occur. It can be increased at any point by hydrolysis, toward the toxicity shown o n the upper line. T h e highest toxicity w i l l be attained i f the hydrolysis is performed o n 6 prior to epimerization, resulting i n 5. Hydrolysis o f the epimeric 4 and 6, o r epimerization o f the hydrolysate, will ultimately result i n a stable, equilibrated mixture o f the epimers 3 and 5, with a slightly lower toxicity. T h e hypothetical ...
The carbamic acid is channeled another 35Å to the site where it is phosphorylated 1.3 Substrate Channeling. Proline synthesis was greatly decreased when peptides or amino acids were added to the medium, while glutamate and aspartate were enriched to a greater extent than other amino acids under all conditions. to produce new purine nucleotides. This irreversible reaction is the committed step in fatty acid synthesis. Methionine, on the other hand, is needed in the diet because while it can be â ¦ de novo synthesis of pyrimidine bases de novo synthesis of purines bases Synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides Regulation of nucleotide synthesis Introductions. In this De novo synthesis of purines, each atom in the purine nucleotide came from different sources as mentioned above structure and data. Immediate precursor: Acetyl CoA. This pathway is responsible for the deamination of most amino acids. Higher peptide/amino acid concentrations decreased de novo synthesis. Inhibition of ornithine ...
Preparation of a 1,2,4-triazol-3-one compound substituted in positions 4 and 5 by an alkyl or aryl group and, optionally, in position 2 by an alkyl group, by reacting an ester a of carbamic acid N-substituted by an alkyl or aryl group with a hydrazide of an aliphatic or aromatic carboxylic acid, optionally N-substituted by an alkyl group, in the presence of a strong base.
Repaglinide is presently recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as a clinical CYP2C8 probe, yet current in vitro and clinical data are inconsistent concerning the role of this enzyme in repaglinide elimination. The aim of the current study was to perform a comprehensive investigation of repaglinide metabolic pathways and assess their contribution to the overall clearance. Formation of four repaglinide metabolites was characterized using in vitro systems with differential complexity. Full kinetic profiles for the formation of M1, M2, M4, and repaglinide glucuronide were obtained in pooled cryopreserved human hepatocytes, human liver microsomes, human S9 fractions, and recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes. Distinct differences in clearance ratios were observed between CYP3A4 and CYP2C8 for M1 and M4 formation, resulting in a 60-fold M1/M4 ratio in recombinant (r) CYP3A4, in contrast to 0.05 in rCYP2C8. Unbound Km values were within 2-fold for each metabolite across all in vitro ...
|p|Amprenavir (agenerase), an |em|N,N|/em|-disubstituted hydroxyethylamino sulfonamide, is a novel inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease that potently inhibits the activity of HIV-1 protease with a value of 50% inhibition conce
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Easy-to-read patient leaflet for Repaglinide and Metformin. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
Repaglinide and metformin is a prescription drug used to lower blood sugar in people with type 2 diabetes. This eMedTV Web page explains how the medication works, outlines potential side effects, and offers tips on when and how to take it.
Generic Prandin is used for managing type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. It is used in addition to diet and exercise to lower blood sugar in adults who cannot manage with diet, exercise, or diabetic medications alone. It may be used with other diabetes medicines.. Generic Prandin (Repaglinide 0.5/1/2mg) C$ 1.01 pill - Diabetes @ All America Trusts | AllAmericaTrusts.com. All America Trusts - AllAmericaTrusts.com
Repaglinide can cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) especially if you are taking other medicines for diabetes. Consuming large quantities of alcohol, not getting enough calories from food, or doing unusually heavy exercise may also lead to low blood sugar. Symptoms may include chills, cold sweat, dizziness, drowsiness, shaking, fast heartbeat, weakness, headache, fainting, tingling of the hands or feet, or hunger. It is a good habit to carry glucose tablets or gel to treat low blood sugar. If you dont have these reliable forms of glucose, raise your blood sugar quickly by eating a quick source of sugar such as table sugar, honey, candy, or drinking a glass of fruit juice or non-diet soda. Check with your doctor or pharmacist to find out what you should do if you miss a meal ...
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Take this medicine by mouth with a glass of water. Follow the directions on the prescription label. Use a specially marked spoon or container to measure each dose. Ask your pharmacist if you do not have one. Household spoons are not accurate. You can take this medicine with or without food, but do not take it with a high fat meal. Take your medicine at regular intervals. Do not take your medicine more often than directed. For your anti-HIV therapy to work as well as possible, take each dose exactly as prescribed. Do not skip doses or stop your medicine even if you feel better. Skipping doses may make the HIV virus resistant to this medicine and other medicines. Do not stop taking except on your doctors advice.. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. While this drug may be prescribed for children as young as 4 years for selected conditions, precautions do apply.. ...
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Carbamates like EA-3990 are well absorbed by the lungs, gastrointestinal tracts, and the skin. Signs and symptoms from exposure ... EA-3990 is a deadly carbamate nerve agent. It is lethal because it inhibits acetylcholinesterase. Inhibition causes an overly ... "Carbamates". Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press. pp. 338-339. ISBN ... Carbamate nerve agents, Pyridines, Quaternary ammonium compounds, Bromides, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Biscarbamates, ...
Carbamate insecticides, Anilines, Aromatic carbamates, Phenol esters, Dimethylamino compounds). ... Aminocarb is a carbamate insecticide widely used to protect cotton fields, crop fields, and forests from insect infestation. It ... ISBN 978-1-4398-2060-5. Aizawa, Hiroyasu (2001). "Carbamates". Metabolic Maps. pp. 74-81. doi:10.1016/B978-012045605-5/50007-6 ...
Carbamates like EA-4056 are well absorbed by the lungs, gastrointestinal tracts, and the skin. Signs and symptoms from exposure ... EA-4056 is a deadly carbamate nerve agent. It is lethal because it inhibits acetylcholinesterase. Inhibition causes an overly ... "Carbamates". Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press. pp. 338-339. ISBN ... Carbamate nerve agents, Pyridines, Quaternary ammonium compounds, Bromides, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Biscarbamates, ...
Carbamate is also a term used for esters of carbamic acids, such as methyl carbamate H2N−C(=O)−OCH3. The carbamoyl functional ... Methyl carbamate and ethyl carbamate are among the simplest examples and have historically been used in the textile industry, ... Benzyl carbamate is also known. The enzyme carbamate kinase, involved in several metabolic pathways of living organisms, ... carbamic acids carbamate anions carbamate esters carbamoyl chlorides Many substituted carbamic acids (RHNCOOH or RR′NCOOH), can ...
DMCC is a starting material for the insecticide class of the dimethyl carbamates which act as inhibitors of ... De Cusati, P. F.; Olofson, R. A. (1990). "A simple synthesis of 1-(1,3-butadienyl)carbonates and carbamates". Tetrahedron ... Unsaturated conjugated aldehydes such as crotonaldehyde (trans-but-2-enal) react with DMCC forming dienyl carbamates, which can ... Jäger, P.; Rentzea, C. N.; Kieczka, H. (2014). "Carbamates and carbamoyl chloride". Ullmann's Fine Chemicals. Weinheim: Wiley- ...
Carbamates are a class of depressants or "tranquilizers" that are synthesized from urea. Carbamates have anxiolytic, muscle ... Carbamates are fatal in overdose, which is why a lot of them have been replaced with benzodiazepines. It is not recommended to ... Carbamates we're popular in the 1950's along with barbiturates. Although they have been slowly phased out; mainly due to the ... Some carbamates block sodium channels. Phenprobamate was used as an anxiolytic and is still sometimes used in Europe for ...
"Ethyl carbamate". Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2013. DrugBank. "Fenfluramine". ...
Conversion of primary alcohols to carbamates. Conversion of carboxylic acids and the acid chlorides into nitriles. Preparation ...
... and carbamates. Research undertaken by C.J. Pound and later the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation ( ...
The carbamate pesticides are also examples of reversible AChE inhibitors. The organophosphate pesticides such as malathion, ... ISBN 978-1-00-009898-3. Gupta RC (2006). "Classification and Uses of Organophosphates and Carbamates". In Gupta RC (ed.). ... Kuhr RJ, Dorough HW (1976). Carbamate Insecticides: Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Toxicology. Cleveland: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0- ... Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Compounds. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press. pp. 5-24. ISBN 978-0-08-054310-9. ...
Similarly, reacts with alcohols to form carbamates. It is used in addition with triethylamine to activate nitro groups to ...
Organophosphates, carbamates, and pyrethroids are widely used. The first case of pyrethroid resistance was reported by Beugnet ...
... is the carbamate derivative of guaifenesin, but does not produce guaifenesin as a metabolite, because the ... Unlike other carbamates such as meprobamate and its prodrug carisoprodol, methocarbamol has greatly reduced abuse potential. ... All the major metabolites are unhydrolyzed carbamates. Small amounts of unchanged methocarbamol are also excreted in the urine ... Alternatively, methocarbamol may act via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, similarly to carbamate. In healthy individuals, ...
Carbamate poisoning can present similarly. Prevention efforts include banning very toxic types of organophosphates. Among those ... Toxicity, Organophosphate and Carbamate at eMedicine Moore C (2009). Children and Pollution: Why Scientists Disagree. Oxford ... Current antidotes for OP poisoning consist of a pretreatment with carbamates to protect AChE from inhibition by OP compounds ... Leibson T, Lifshitz M (2008). "Organophosphate and Carbamate Poisoning: Review of the Current Literature and Summary of ...
... then recombining the resultant carbon dioxide and ammonia in a falling-film carbamate condenser and pumping the carbamate ... The first is carbamate formation: the fast exothermic reaction of liquid ammonia with gaseous carbon dioxide (CO2) at high ... The second is the amount of water recycled in the carbamate solution, which has an adverse effect on the equilibrium in the ... In early "straight-through" urea plants this was done by letting down the system pressure to atmospheric to let the carbamate ...
King, Andrew M.; Aaron, Cynthia K. (February 2015). "Organophosphate and Carbamate Poisoning". Emergency Medicine Clinics of ...
Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides have a similar mode of action. They affect the nervous system of target pests (and ... In general, a pesticide is a chemical (such as carbamate) or biological agent (such as a virus, bacterium, or fungus) that ... Chlorinates such as DDT were dominant, but they were replaced in the U.S. by organophosphates and carbamates by 1975. Since ... Organophosphates are quite toxic to vertebrates and have in some cases been replaced by less toxic carbamates.: 136-137 ...
Allophonate esters arise from the condensation of carbamates. Karachinskii, S. V.; Dragalov, V. V.; Chimishkyan, A. L.; ...
Ghosh AK, Brindisi M (April 2015). "Organic carbamates in drug design and medicinal chemistry". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry ...
Positive allosteric modulators: barbiturates, benzodiazepines, certain carbamates (ex. carisoprodol, meprobamate, lorbamate), ...
If one is regularly using carbamate and organophosphate pesticides, it is important to obtain a baseline cholinesterase test. ... Gupta RC (28 April 2011). Toxicology of Organophosphate & Carbamate Compounds. Academic Press. pp. 352-353. ISBN 978-0-08- ... carbamates, and anticholinesterases, are most commonly reported in occupationally related pesticide poisonings globally. ...
Organophosphate and carbamate Institute, National; (UK), Care Excellence (2019-12-27). Cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine ...
... is a carbamate insecticide. It is a structural isomer of aldicarb. Carbamate insecticide Aldicarb Aharonson, N; ... Carbamate insecticides, Oxime carbamates, Thioethers, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, All stub articles, Organic compound ...
Carbamate insecticides, Phenol esters, Aromatic carbamates, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ... Fenobucarb is a carbamate insecticide, also widely known as BPMC. A pale yellow or pale red liquid, insoluble in water; used as ... "N-Methyl Carbamate Insecticides" (PDF). Oregon State University. v t e (ECHA InfoCard ID from Wikidata, Pages using collapsible ... N-methyl o-sec-butylphenyl carbamate Fenobucarb, Osbac, Bassa, Bipvin, Baycarb, etc Male Mouse 340 mg/kg Male Rat 410 mg/kg ...
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... carbamate insecticides were also tested. By far the most potent inhibitor was an ethoxythiophenylphospamidothiolate, with IC50 ...
... such as organophosphates and carbamates [14-22]. Cashman JR (September 2000). "Human flavin-containing monooxygenase: substrate ...
5) Related O-aryl carbamates are good directing groups; upon warming, the resulting organolithiums undergo rearrangement to ... 6) Secondary N-aryl carbamates (along with secondary amides, ketones, and other directing groups containing acidic hydrogens) ... carbamates, and sulfonates. Lateral lithiation of alkyl-substituted heterocycles incorporating heteroatom-containing ...
Overall, phenacyl PPGs can be used to protect sulfonates, phosphates, carboxylates and carbamates. As with nitrobenzyl-based ... carbamates, thiolates, phenolates and alkoxides. Additionally, while the rate varies with a number of variables, including ... this substitution is only able to release good leaving groups such as carbamates and carboxylates. Additionally, the addition ... "Photogeneration of Organic Bases from o-Nitrobenzyl-Derived Carbamates". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 113 (11): ...
... carbamate, methyl [5-(n-propylsulfinyl)-1H-benzimidazole-2-yl)] carbamate, 5-(n-propylsulfonyl)-1H-benzimidazole-2-yl amine, ... The major final metabolites that are excreted by humans are: methyl [5-(propylsulfonyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)] carbamate, methyl ... It is, however, better absorbed than other benzimidazole carbamates. Food stimulates gastric acid secretion, lowering the pH ... Carbamates, Thioethers, World Health Organization essential medicines, Wikipedia medicine articles ready to translate). ...
Organophosphates and carbamates. Organophosphates are organic compounds that contain phosphorus, while carbamates are salts or ... In different ways, organophosphates and carbamates tend to cause the nervous system to stop working properly. Some are used in ...
... *Framework for Assessing Health Impacts of ... Interaction Profile for Mixtures of Insecticides: Pyrethroids, Organophosphorus Compounds, and Carbamates. (Draft for Public ... Mixtures of Insecticides: Pyrethroids, Organophosphorus Compounds, and Carbamates. ...
... as well as salts with the carbamate anion H2NCOO− (e.g. ammonium carbamate). Polymers whose units are joined by carbamate ... Analogues of carbamates with only one of the oxygens replaced by sulfur are called thiocarbamates (2 and 3). Carbamates with ... The salt ammonium carbamate is generated by treatment of ammonia with carbon dioxide: 2 NH3 + CO2 → NH4[H2NCO2] Carbamate ... While carbamic acids are unstable, many carbamate esters or ionic) are stable and well known. In water solutions, the carbamate ...
Davis, A., Dixon, H. & Pawlowski, Z. S. (‎1989)‎. Multicentre clinical trials of benzimidazole-carbamates in human cystic ... Multicentre clinical trials of benzimidazole-carbamates in human cystic echinococcosis (‎phase 2)‎.. ...
Neurotoxicologic studies of two carbamate pesticides in subacute animal experiments.. Informaci n bibliogr fica. Mar. 1974, Vol ...
Phenyl benzyl(methyl)carbamate *Molecular FormulaC15H15NO2 ... l)carbamate [ACD/IUPAC Name] Phenyl-benzyl(methy. l)carbamat [ ...
Additional Keywords : Beet, Benzo(a)pyrene, Betaine, lung cancer, Vinyl Carbamate. Problem Substances : Benzo(a)pyrene, Vinyl ... Both indole-3-carbinol and myo-inositol inhibit the development of vinyl carbamate induced pulmonary adenocarcinoma in mice.Jan ... 2 Abstracts with Vinyl Carbamate Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ...
Carbamate-1 is a high-capacity CO2 absorber intended to be used in conjunction with Oxosol 306. One (1) ml absorbs 5.8 m Moles ...
Validation of Carbamate Pesticide Screen for VETLIRN Network Validation of Carbamate Pesticide Screen for VETLIRN Network. ... Carbamates are highly toxic insecticides, with current pesticide use registrations. They are found both in agricultural and ... that within the first three years of funding we will validate the performance of a qualitative screening method for carbamate ...
The re-evaluation project plan outlines the timelines for the cumulative risk assessment of the N-methyl carbamate pesticides. ... As outlined in Re-evaluation Note REV2018-17, Initiation of Cumulative Health Risk Assessment - N-Methyl Carbamates, the NMC ... In Canada, an assessment of the cumulative health risks for active ingredients belonging to the N-methyl carbamate (NMC) class ... Re-evaluation Note REV2021-01, Project Plan for Cumulative Health Risk Assessment - N-Methyl Carbamates. ...
531.1 Carbamate Pesticide Calibration Mixture (cat.# 32273). 4-bromo-3,5-dimethylphenyl-N-methylcarbamate (BDMC) (cat.# 32274) ...
Home / Need help now? / First Aid for dogs / Poisons & Toxins / Medication & Drugs / Flea & Tick Control (Carbamate) - dogs ... Junquera P (2013) Carbamates for veterinary use on livestock, viewed 15/11/13, from parasitipedia.net… ... Carbamate insecticides cause nerves/neurons to remain in constant activity and excitation. ... Blodgett DJ (2006) Organophosphate and Carbamate Insecticides In: Small Animal Toxicology. 2ndEdn. Peterson ME & Talcott PA. ...
Findings of the WHO EMRO Pediatric Insecticide Study Group on organophosphate / carbamate poisoning in children published ... carbamates, identifying those requiring referral to higher level facilities. The decision aid for referral, which is in line ... "A clinical decision aid for triage of children younger than 5 years and with organophosphate or carbamate insecticide exposure ...
Development of a technology for the discovery of protein carbamates Author: Linthwaite, Victoria Louise ISNI: 0000 0004 6059 ... Carbamates are labile and previous work on this PTM has involved their study under non-physiological conditions. The objective ... The carbamate modification has been observed on proteins including RuBisCO and haemoglobin but remains largely unexplored as a ... This methodology provides a technology to identify sites of carbamate formation and will permit the identification of sites of ...
Structure of the carbamate kinase-like carbamoyl phosphate synthetase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus ... The last step, the phosphorylation of carbamate, is also catalyzed by carbamate kinase (CK), an enzyme used by microorganisms ... The last step, the phosphorylation of carbamate, is also catalyzed by carbamate kinase (CK), an enzyme used by microorganisms ... CARBAMATE KINASE. A, B. 314. Pyrococcus furiosus. Mutation(s): 0 EC: 2.7.2.2. ...
9H-Fluoren-9-yl)methyl ((2R,3R)-3-(tert-butoxy)-1-hydroxybutan-2-yl)carbamate , C23H29NO4 , CID 11143467 - structure, chemical ...
... Information about the Resource. Schema.org Name(s): Controlled Heading Identifier: * http:// ...
... these authors artificially enriched Tempranillo juices and then evaluated whether ethyl carbamate had increased beyond levels ... might enhance the formation of the cancerigenous compound ethyl carbamate, ... Influence of must nitrogen addition on ethyl carbamate formation by lactic acid bacteria ... Influence of must nitrogen addition on ethyl carbamate formation by lactic acid bacteria ...
carbamate (ester) [ACD/Index Name] Carbamate de {5-[(3. ,5-dichlorophényl)s. ulfanyl]-4-isopropy. l-1-(3-quinoléinylm. éthyl)- ... carbamate (ester) 1H-IMIDAZOLE-2-METH. ANOL,5-[(3,5-DICHLO. ROPHENYL)THIO]-4-(1. -METHYLETHYL)-1-(3-. QUINOLINYLMETHYL)-,. ... yl carbamate *Molecular FormulaC24H22Cl2N4O2S ...
In 2018, Top exporters of Cyclic amides (including cyclic carbamates) and their derivatives; n.e.s. in item no. 2924.2 to ... HS Code 292429: Cyclic amides (including cyclic carbamates) and their derivatives; n.e.s. in item no. 2924.2. Please note: ... Cyclic amides (including cyclic carbamates) and their derivatives; n.e.s. in item no. 2924.2. 2018. Cyprus. 87.81. 13,520. Kg. ... Cyclic amides (including cyclic carbamates) and their derivatives; n.e.s. in item no. 2924.2. 2018. Cyprus. 2,866.83. 6,904. Kg ...
... carbamate [25217-43-0] CAS NO 25217-43-0, Methyl (3,5-dichlorophenyl)carbamate [25217-43-0] Suppliers, Methyl (3,5- ... dichlorophenyl)carbamate [25217-43-0] Manufacturers, related products of Methyl (3,5-dichlorophenyl)carbamate [25217-43-0]. ... About Methyl (3,5-dichlorophenyl)carbamate [25217-43-0]. Powerd by ChemNet Methyl (3,5-dichlorophenyl)carbamate [25217-43-0]. ... Methyl (3,5-dichlorophenyl)carbamate. Synonyms:. 3,5-Dichlorocarbanilic acid methyl ester; BRN 2101855; MDPC; Methyl 3,5- ...
You are currently browsing archived data. To access current data and further guidance, click here. ...
Tert-butyl N-[(4-formylphenyl)methyl]Carbamate Inquire. CAS NO:156866-52-3; MF:C13H17NO3. 2,4-Dibromothiazole Inquire. CAS NO: ... Carbamate, China 2,4-Dibromothiazole, China Benzyl 4-bromobutyl ether ...
Thus, three quinoline-O-carbamate derivatives of DCQ antici-pated to have better physicochemical properties than DCQ were ... Comparative Assessment of the Activity of Decoquinate and Its Quinoline-O-Carbamate Derivatives against Toxoplasma gondii in ... Thus, three quinoline-O-carbamate derivatives of DCQ antici-pated to have better physicochemical properties than DCQ were ... O-Carbamate Derivatives Against Toxoplasma gondii In Vitro and in Pregnant Mice Infected with T. gondii Oocysts. Molecules 2021 ...
This is particularly true for such carbamates having two substituents on the carbamate nitrogen. Normally only single ... Justia Patents US Patent for 3-Pyridylmethyl-(N-substituted phenyl)-carbamate derivatives Patent (Patent # 4,033,972) 3- ... the carbamates of this invention can be converted to novel acid salts with a strong inorganic or organic acid. Typical strong ... The carbamates of this invention react with metal salts in solution to give metal salt complexes. Typical salts which react in ...
Probabilistic cumulative dietary exposure assessment for Danish consumers to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. *Jensen ...
Carbamate Insecticides Overview. General Information N-methyl carbamate insecticides (carbamates) have been widely used in the ... Carbamates have been used on residential lawns, ornamentals, in nurseries, and on golf courses. Carbamates do not persist in ... Carbamate insecticides are rapidly eliminated from the body. In the National Biomonitoring Program, two carbamate metabolites ... The mechanism of toxicity of carbamate insecticides is similar to organophosphate pesticides; however, carbamate insecticides ...
Some carbamates, thiocarbamates and carbazides / this publication represents the views of an IARC Working Group on the ... Carbamates -- adverse effects , Thiocarbamates -- adverse effectsNLM classification: QZ 202 ...
Rapid Labeling of Metabolically Engineered Cell-Surface Glycoconjugates with a Carbamate-Linked Cyclopropene Reporter. * Home ... Rapid Labeling of Metabolically Engineered Cell-Surface Glycoconjugates with a Carbamate-Linked Cyclopropene Reporter. Type of ... Rapid Labeling of Metabolically Engineered Cell-Surface Glycoconjugates with a Carbamate-Linked Cyclopropene Reporter. In: ... Rapid Labeling of Metabolically Engineered Cell-Surface Glycoconjugates with a Carbamate-Linked Cyclopropene Reporter}, year={ ...
  • Typically, polyurethane polymers are made by combining diisocyanates, e.g. toluene diisocyanate, and diols, where the carbamate groups are formed by reaction of the alcohols with the isocyanates: RN=C=O + R′OH → RNHC(O)OR′ The so-called carbamate insecticides feature the carbamate ester functional group. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] While the carbamate acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are commonly referred to as "carbamate insecticides" due to their generally high selectivity for insect acetylcholinesterase enzymes over the mammalian versions, the most potent compounds such as aldicarb and carbofuran are still capable of inhibiting mammalian acetylcholinesterase enzymes at low enough concentrations that they pose a significant risk of poisoning to humans, especially when used in large amounts for agricultural applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbamates are highly toxic insecticides, with current pesticide use registrations. (usda.gov)
  • Carbamate insecticides cause nerves/neurons to remain in constant activity and excitation. (lortsmith.com)
  • N-methyl carbamate insecticides (carbamates) have been widely used in the U.S. and throughout the world. (cdc.gov)
  • In agricultural applications, the use of the carbamate insecticides has decreased, being replaced by pyrethroid and other insecticides. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbamate insecticides act by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase enzymes, which leads to an increase of acetylcholine in the nervous system. (cdc.gov)
  • however, carbamate insecticides generally are reversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase activity, acting for a shorter time than organophosphate pesticides. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbamate insecticides are rapidly eliminated from the body. (cdc.gov)
  • In the National Biomonitoring Program, two carbamate metabolites that are measured relate to two (carbofuran and propoxur) of about nine carbamate insecticides still used in the U.S. (cdc.gov)
  • Agricultural use of carbamate insecticides and risks of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) have been linked in some but not all occupational epidemiologic studies. (who.int)
  • Moreover, studies on associated risks of NHL by histological subtype of NHL and by type of carbamate insecticides used are scarce. (who.int)
  • We evaluated the effects of carbamate insecticides on the risks of NHL and three major histological subtypes of NHL - multiple myeloma (MM), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia / small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) - in a sample of 65,630 French farmers from the prospective cohort AGRICAN. (who.int)
  • Their answers were crossed with data from the French crop-exposure matrix, PESTIMAT, to assess their exposure to 19 specific carbamate insecticides by purpose of pesticide use (soil, animals, barns or seeds). (who.int)
  • Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models with age as time scale and gender as a covariate were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for NHL risks (by subtype and overall) associated with exposure to carbamate insecticides. (who.int)
  • The risk of MM was elevated in participants who had used any carbamate insecticides at least on barns (HR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.00-2.87). (who.int)
  • The risk of MM was also increased for those who used any carbamate insecticides on animals (HR = 1.64, 95% CI: 0.96-2.81) and at least on soil (HR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.75-2.15) although the 95% CIs included 1.00. (who.int)
  • Use of any carbamate insecticides was not associated with CLL/SLL (HR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.57-1.36), DLBCL (HR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.39-1.24) or NHL overall (HR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.80-1.27). (who.int)
  • Our results may suggest a potential role of carbamate insecticides use on animals or barns in the etiology of MM. Further analyses on specific carbamate insecticides and respective duration of use are ongoing. (who.int)
  • What is the mode of action of organophosphorus insecticides and carbamates? (ru-facts.com)
  • Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides are designed to kill different insects and other pests. (ru-facts.com)
  • What are carbamates insecticides? (ru-facts.com)
  • In the presence of OP insecticides, AChE is phosphorylated, whereas in the presence of carbamate insecticides, the enzyme is carbamylated. (ru-facts.com)
  • The objective of this study was to determine diagnostic doses and diagnostic times for laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to ten insecticides, including pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates, and DDT, that are used worldwide to control vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sand fly populations around the world have been exposed to the four main classes of insecticides: organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As of this date, I hereby determine that there is a significant potential for a public health emergency that has a significant potential to affect national security or the health and security of United States citizens living abroad and that involves nerve agents or certain insecticides (organophosphorus and/or carbamate). (phe.gov)
  • Now, The most commonly used insecticides are the organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids. (futurelearn.com)
  • Detection of carbamate insecticides by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. (tamu.edu)
  • In the past, soil-applied organophosphate and carbamate insecticides have provided some suppression of nematodes, minimizing nematode populations to the point that damage went unnoticed when these materials were used for corn rootworm and secondary insect protection. (syngenta-us.com)
  • In fact, early on, the development of the carbamate insecticides was generally seen as something of a major breakthrough in pesticide chemistry, since the carbamates did not have the persistence of the chlorinated pesticides - which Rachel Carson would later single out in her seminal pesticide critique of 1962, Silent Spring . (pophistorydig.com)
  • Neurotoxicologic studies of two carbamate pesticides in subacute animal experiments. (ilo.org)
  • We propose that within the first three years of funding we will validate the performance of a qualitative screening method for carbamate pesticides in feed, rumen (orstomach) content and liver. (usda.gov)
  • In Canada, an assessment of the cumulative health risks for active ingredients belonging to the N-methyl carbamate (NMC) class of pesticides, as described in Science Policy Note SPN2018-02, Cumulative Health Risk Assessment Framework , is underway. (canada.ca)
  • As outlined in Re-evaluation Note REV2018-17, Initiation of Cumulative Health Risk Assessment - N-Methyl Carbamates , the NMC class of pesticides consists of five technical grade active ingredients registered in Canada, carbaryl, formetanate hydrochloride, methomyl, oxamyl, and propoxur, as well as consideration of six additional pesticides that could be present on imported food commodities. (canada.ca)
  • Carbamates are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors abundant in various pesticides and they are also used in medicine. (symptoma.com)
  • Patient history may reveal occupational exposure to pesticides containing carbamates (farming, agriculture etc. (symptoma.com)
  • The impact of long term exposure to cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (C) pesticides on the respiratory health of agricultural workers in India was investigated. (nih.gov)
  • Acaricides are pesticides and includes antibiotic acaricides, carbamate acaricides , and formamidine acaricides, among others. (expertmarketresearch.com)
  • Laboratory experimental studies using model compounds suggest that many pesticides currently used in Europe - including organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, ethylenebisdithiocarbamates, and chlorophenoxy herbicides - can cause neurodevelopmental toxicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are three main types of pesticides: organochlorine, organophosphate and carbamates. (buchi.com)
  • Organophosphates and carbamates are compounds used extensively in pesticides and dewormers. (equimed.com)
  • In contrast, the substance commonly called "urethane", ethyl carbamate, is neither a component of polyurethanes, nor is it used in their manufacture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the concern that over-fertilized vines, or excessive must nitrogen additions, might enhance the formation of the cancerigenous compound ethyl carbamate , these authors artificially enriched Tempranillo juices and then evaluated whether ethyl carbamate had increased beyond levels considerred safe. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Ethyl carbamate (EC, urethan) is carcinogenic probably because it is converted in vivo to vinyl carbamate and then to vinyl carbamate epoxide, which reacts with DNA bases. (elsevier.com)
  • Additionally, substances like ethyl carbamate (urethane) may be produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • A carbamate ester obtained by formal condensation of the carboxy group of ethyl(methyl)carbamic acid with the phenolic OH group of 3-[(1 S )-1-(dimethylamino)ethyl]phenol. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The goals of this study were to verify the occurrence of furfuryl alcohol (FA) and carbonyl compounds (acetaldehyde, acrolein, ethyl carbamate (EC), formaldehyde and furfural) in sparkling wines and to evaluate, for the first time, whether the consumption of the samples under study could represent risk to consumers health. (scielo.br)
  • Furfuryl alcohol (FA) and carbonyl compounds, including acetaldehyde, acrolein, formaldehyde, furfural and ethyl carbamate may form adducts with the DNA due to their electrophilic nature. (scielo.br)
  • Polyurethane is composed of urethane (or ethyl carbamate) groups joined by carbamate links. (iqsdirectory.com)
  • Laboratory analysis indicated that the product contained the carbamate pesticide aldicarb (2-methyl-2-(methylthio)-propionaldehyde O-(methylcarbamoyl) oxime), which is not registered for use as a rodenticide in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Carbamates are N-methyl carbamates derived from a carbamic acid and cause carbamylation of acetylcholinesterase at neuronal synapses and neuromuscular junctions. (ru-facts.com)
  • Synthesis Methyl N-phenyl carbamate (MPC) as an intermediate precursor of isocyanate is one of the attractive process, which is conducted by reacting aniline and dimethyl carbonate (DMC). (magnusgroup.org)
  • In this research, an assessment of the influence of varying concentrations of Methyl-5-benzoyl-2-benzimidazole Carbamate (mebendazole) as an organic corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1.0M sulphuric acid solution was investigated. (ijreiblog.com)
  • Furadan 3G (Carbofuran) a systematic N-methyl carbamate pesticide was orally administered at doses of 0.15, 0.1, and 0.05mg/kg body weight to normal male and female albino Wistar rat for eleven (11) weeks. (ispub.com)
  • 2002). Carbofuran (2, 3-dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranylmethylcarbamate), is a systemic N-methyl carbamate pesticide with predominantly contact (dermal-absorption through the intact skin) and stomach action (vomiting, nausea, abdominal cramp, diarrhea) (Kaliwal et al. (ispub.com)
  • Genotoxic effects of the carbamate insecticide methomyl. (elsevier.com)
  • The carbamate insecticide methomyl and the methomyl-containing technical formulation 'Lannate 25' were tested on whole blood human lymphocyte cultures. (elsevier.com)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Genotoxic effects of the carbamate insecticide methomyl. (elsevier.com)
  • On the basis of this determination, I also hereby declare that circumstances exist justifying the authorization of emergency use of injectable treatments for nerve agent or certain insecticide (organophosphorus and/or carbamate) poisoning pursuant to section 564 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, subject to the terms of any authorization issued under that section. (phe.gov)
  • Promecarb (Carbamult) - A carbamate insecticide useful for fruits. (fsu.edu)
  • In different ways, organophosphates and carbamates tend to cause the nervous system to stop working properly. (cdc.gov)
  • Organophosphates and carbamates, although different structurally, both inhibit cholinesterase activity. (symptoma.com)
  • Diagnostic doses were determined only during the exposure bioassay for the organophosphates and carbamates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, organophosphates and carbamates are toxic to the nervous system. (futurelearn.com)
  • For example, organophosphates and carbamates are potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors which lead to acetylcholine accumulation and neurotoxicity. (futurelearn.com)
  • The control agents contained pyrethroids (mostly permethrin, but also deltamethrin and cypermethrin) and carbamates (bendiocarb, propoxur). (eurekamag.com)
  • 531.1 Carbamate Pesticide Calibration Mixture (cat. (restek.com)
  • 3-Pyridylmethyl-(N-substituted-phenyl-N-hydrocarbyl)carbamates. (justia.com)
  • The present invention relates to 3-pyridylmethyl N-cyano-(or methylmercapto or nitro)phenyl-N-alkyl-(or allyl or benzyl or 2-thenyl)carbamates. (justia.com)
  • Each 3-pyridylmethyl (N-substituted-phenyl-N-hydrocarbyl)carbamate of this invention or its salt derivatives is a very effective single-dose rodenticide and yet is relatively safe for use as a rodenticide in the presence of animal species, other than rodents, which could inadvertently ingest limited quantities of the compound. (justia.com)
  • 3-Pyridylmethyl N-[4-cyano-(or methylmercapto-or nitro-)phenyl]-carbamates are known rodenticides, e.g. see Belgium Pat. (justia.com)
  • Thus, three quinoline-O-carbamate derivatives of DCQ antici-pated to have better physicochemical properties than DCQ were assessed in vitro. (preprints.org)
  • Cellulose carbamate derivatives were successfully prepared from softwood pulp at 150 °C and 3000 psi for 6 hours. (ncsu.edu)
  • In 1938, Hill had reported these cellulose derivatives (cellulose carbamate products), but it was not until 1983 that CCs first went into mass production at the Neste company (Finnish Patent: No 61033, 1983). (ncsu.edu)
  • Known hypersensitivity to rivastigmine, other carbamate derivatives, or other components of the formulation. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we report the synthesis of a novel N-acyl-mannosamine derivative bearing a methylcyclopropene tag that is attached to the sugar via a carbamate moiety. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Synthesis and evaluation of benzimidazole carbamates bearing indole moieties for antiproliferative and antitubulin activities. (harvard.edu)
  • Organophosphates are organic compounds that contain phosphorus, while carbamates are salts or esters of carbamic acid. (cdc.gov)
  • In organic chemistry, a carbamate is a category of organic compounds with the general formula R2NC(O)OR and structure >N−C(=O)−O−, which are formally derived from carbamic acid (NH2COOH). (wikipedia.org)
  • While carbamic acids are unstable, many carbamate esters or ionic) are stable and well known. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reaction of carboxylic acids gives acyl azides, which rearrange to isocyanates, and these may be hydrolyzed to carbamic acid or solvolysed to carbamates. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • We distinguished ammonium carbamate pairs and a mix of ammonium carbamate and carbamic acid during carbon dioxide chemisorption. (stanford.edu)
  • Carbofuran (Furadan) - All purpose carbamate for insects, ticks, and fleas. (fsu.edu)
  • General population exposure to carbamates occurs during contact with residential uses and less commonly, from ingesting contaminated foods. (cdc.gov)
  • Clinical manifestation of carbamate poisoning is highly dependent on the dose, type of carbamate, route of exposure, and concomitant diseases [4]. (symptoma.com)
  • Treatment of carbamate poisoning in man INTRODUCTION The Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) monographs produced by the International Programme on Chemical Safety include an assessment of the effects on the environment and on human health of exposure to a chemical or combination of chemicals, or physical or biological agents. (inchem.org)
  • Carbamate poisoning, as well as poisoning with organophosphorus compounds (OP), have indistinguishable clinical presentation. (symptoma.com)
  • the term "urethane links" describe how carbamates polymerize. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both indole-3-carbinol and myo-inositol inhibit the development of vinyl carbamate induced pulmonary adenocarcinoma in mice. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • We hypothesized that vinyl carbamate arises from EC by oxidation to 2-hydroxy-EC (HEC) and dehydration of the HEC, rather than by direct dehydrogenation of EC. (elsevier.com)
  • The weak activity of HEC supports the view that HEC is not a proximal carcinogenic metabolite of EC, i.e. that vinyl carbamate is produced directly from EC. (elsevier.com)
  • The salt ammonium carbamate is generated by treatment of ammonia with carbon dioxide: 2 NH3 + CO2 → NH4[H2NCO2] Carbamate esters also arise via alcoholysis of carbamoyl chlorides: R2NC(O)Cl + R'OH → R2NCO2R' + HCl Alternatively, carbamates can be formed from chloroformates and amines: R'OC(O)Cl + R2NH → R2NCO2R' + HCl Carbamates may be formed from the Curtius rearrangement, where isocyanates formed are reacted with an alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organophosphate (OP) and carbamate esters can inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by binding covalently to a serine residue in the enzyme active site, and their inhibitory potency depends largely on affinity for the enzyme and the reactivity of the ester. (ru-facts.com)
  • Poisoning with carbamates produces overstimulation of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, resulting in specific clinical presentations. (symptoma.com)
  • One study confirmed that out of 1100 patients presenting with carbamate poisoning, 93.8% had tried to attempt suicide [2]. (symptoma.com)
  • Additionally, excessive sweating , headache , miosis , cramping in the abdominal cavity , changes in the cardiovascular system are all signs of possible carbamate poisoning [4]. (symptoma.com)
  • CO2 is generally unreactive but combines rapidly with neutral amines at physiological temperatures and pressures to form carbamates. (bl.uk)
  • Various solid carbamates were prepared from the reactions of liquid amines with carbon dioxide in an autoclave and these carbamates were used as stable, efficient alternatives for toxic liquid amines. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • The carbamate is formed when an uncharged lysine side chain near the ion reacts with a carbon dioxide molecule from the air (not the substrate carbon dioxide molecule), which then renders it charged, and, therefore, able to bind the Mg2+ ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although not usually isolated as such, the salt ammonium carbamate is produced on a large scale as an intermediate in the production of the commodity chemical urea from ammonia and carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based bulk hydrogels and cryogels containing activated carbonate groups as amine reactive handles to facilitate drug conjugations through carbamate linkages were fabricated and evaluated as slow releasing drug reservoirs. (researcher-app.com)
  • The use of amine-based carbamates with their dual function, acting as amine curing agents and CO2 blowing agents after their decomposition without by-products, are promising for ecofriendly epoxy foams as high-performance materials. (uni-bayreuth.de)
  • The viscosity is altered not only by blending neat amine and its derived carbamate at a fixed pre-curing time, but also by changing the pre-curing time at a fixed blend ratio. (uni-bayreuth.de)
  • The study proves that the blending of neat amine and carbamate is beneficial for the foaming performance of carbamate systems. (uni-bayreuth.de)
  • Some othertypes of carbamates, thiocarbamates and dithiocarbamates, are used as herbicides and fungicides. (cdc.gov)
  • Some carbamates, thiocarbamates and carbazides / this publication represents the views of an IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man, which met in Lyon, 9-15 June 1976. (who.int)
  • The N-terminal amino groups of valine residues in the α- and β-chains of deoxyhemoglobin exist as carbamates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ε-amino groups of the lysine residues in urease and phosphotriesterase also feature carbamate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carbamate modification has been observed on proteins including RuBisCO and haemoglobin but remains largely unexplored as a protein post-translational modification. (bl.uk)
  • An improved heap storage technology with the use of CIPC (isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate) has been developed for short-term storage of potatoes. (org.in)
  • Although carbamates are generally known to inhibit AChE and BuChE by a common mechanism involving covalent bond formation at the active site serine (Figure 1), phenothiazine carbamates show reversible inhibition of BuChE while exhibiting the more common pseudoirreversible inhibition of AChE. (ru-facts.com)
  • as well as salts with the carbamate anion H2NCOO− (e.g. ammonium carbamate). (wikipedia.org)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Efficacy of benzimidazole carbamate on an intestinal fluke co-infected with nematodes. (who.int)
  • Waikagul J, Watthanakulpanich D, Muennoo C, Maipanich W, Sa-nguankiat S, Phubampen S. Efficacy of benzimidazole carbamate on an intestinal fluke co-infected with nematodes. (who.int)
  • In order to ensure high-quality, efficient analyses, our work complies with the standard SN EN ISO/IEC 17025:2017 and we are accredited accordingly (STS 0119). (admin.ch)
  • In vitro studies demonstrated that the anticancer drug doxorubicin conjugated through carbamate linkers to the cryogels was released and proved effective against MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. (researcher-app.com)
  • This thesis presents a novel methodology to identify carbamates using a chemical trapping technique that eliminates their labile nature in combination with tryptic digest-MS analysis. (bl.uk)