Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
A carbamate insecticide.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
A carbamate insecticide and parasiticide. It is a potent anticholinesterase agent belonging to the carbamate group of reversible cholinesterase inhibitors. It has a particularly low toxicity from dermal absorption and is used for control of head lice in some countries.
A class of enzymes that transfers phosphate groups and has a carboxyl group as an acceptor. EC 2.7.2.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic insecticide, an acaricide, and nematocide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.
The simplest of all peptides. It functions as a gamma-glutamyl acceptor.
A carbamate insecticide with anticholinesterase activity.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).
Cholinesterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of acetylcholine and other choline esters, playing crucial roles in the termination of impulse transmission at cholinergic synapses and neuro-muscular junctions, and in the metabolism of certain drugs and toxic substances.
A carbamate that is used as an herbicide and as a plant growth regulator.
Carbamate derivative used as an insecticide, acaricide, and nematocide.
A centrally acting muscle relaxant. Its mode of action is unknown. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1203)
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).
Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS.
Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.
A centrally acting muscle relaxant with a short duration of action.
"Esters are organic compounds that result from the reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid, playing significant roles in various biological processes and often used in pharmaceutical synthesis."
A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.
A pre-emergence, selective herbicide for the control of wild oats in various crops.
Compounds which restore enzymatic activity by removing an inhibitory group bound to the reactive site of the enzyme.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A member of the BENZODIOXOLES that is a constituent of several VOLATILE OILS, notably SASSAFRAS oil. It is a precursor in the synthesis of the insecticide PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE and the drug N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA).
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
'Allyl compounds' are organic substances that contain the allyl group (CH2=CH-CH2-) as a functional component, which can be found in various forms such as allyl alcohol, allyl chloride, and allyl esters.
An organochlorine insecticide whose use has been cancelled or suspended in the United States. It has been used to control locusts, tropical disease vectors, in termite control by direct soil injection, and non-food seed and plant treatment. (From HSDB)
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycerol monoesters of long-chain fatty acids EC 3.1.1.23.
Alkylating anti-neoplastic agent.
Viscous, nauseating oil obtained from the shrub Croton tiglium (Euphorbaceae). It is a vesicant and skin irritant used as pharmacologic standard for skin inflammation and allergy and causes skin cancer. It was formerly used as an emetic and cathartic with frequent mortality.
Vinyl compounds, in the context of medical materials, refer to synthetic polymers made from vinyl chloride or vinyl acetate monomers, which are used in the production of various medical devices and supplies such as blood bags, intravenous (IV) bags, tubing, and gloves due to their flexibility, transparency, and resistance to chemicals and heat.
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.
Amidohydrolases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of amides and related compounds, playing a crucial role in various biological processes including the breakdown and synthesis of bioactive molecules.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and glutamine. This enzyme is important in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidines. EC 6.3.5.5.
Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.
A species of halophilic archaea whose organisms are nonmotile. Habitats include freshwater and marine mud, animal-waste lagoons, and the rumens of ungulates.
Inbred strain A mice are genetically identical descendants of a single founder mouse, produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, primarily used in biomedical research for their genetic uniformity and experimental reproducibility.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

Involvement of two plasmids in the degradation of carbaryl by Arthrobacter sp. strain RC100. (1/1210)

A bacterium capable of utilizing carbaryl (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate) as the sole carbon source was isolated from carbaryl-treated soil. This bacterium was characterized taxonomically as Arthrobacter and was designated strain RC100. RC100 hydrolyzes the N-methylcarbamate linkage to 1-naphthol, which was further metabolized via salicylate and gentisate. Strain RC100 harbored three plasmids (designated pRC1, pRC2, and pRC3). Mutants unable to degrade carbaryl arose at a high frequency after treating the culture with mitomycin C. All carbaryl-hydrolysis-deficient mutants (Cah-) lacked pRC1, and all 1-naphthol-utilization-deficient mutants (Nat-) lacked pRC2. The plasmid-free strain RC107 grew on gentisate as a carbon source. These two plasmids could be transferred to Cah- mutants or Nat- mutants by conjugation, resulting in the restoration of the Cah and Nah phenotypes.  (+info)

Efficacy and safety of rivastigmine in patients with Alzheimer's disease: international randomised controlled trial. (2/1210)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of rivastigmine on the core domains of Alzheimer's disease. DESIGN: Prospective, randomised, multicentre, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel group trial. Patients received either placebo, 1-4 mg/day (lower dose) rivastigmine, or 6-12 mg/day (higher dose) rivastigmine. Doses were increased in one of two fixed dose ranges (1-4 mg/day or 6-12 mg/day) over the first 12 weeks with a subsequent assessment period of 14 weeks. SETTING: 45 centres in Europe and North America. PARTICIPANTS: 725 patients with mild to moderately severe probable Alzheimer's disease diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, and the criteria of the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association. OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's disease assessment scale, rating on the clinician interview based impression of change incorporating caregiver information scale, and the progressive deterioration scale. RESULTS: At the end of the study cognitive function had deteriorated among those in the placebo group. Scores on the Alzheimer's disease assessment scale improved in patients in the higher dose group when compared with patients taking placebo (P<0.05). Significantly more patients in the higher dose group had improved by 4 points or more than had improved in the placebo group (24% (57/242) v 16% (39/238)). Global function as rated by the clinician interview scale had significantly improved among those in the higher dose group compared with those taking placebo (P<0.001), and significantly more patients in the higher dose group showed improvement than did in the placebo group (37% (80/219) v 20% (46/230)). Mean scores on the progressive deterioration scale improved from baseline in patients in the higher dose group but fell in the placebo group. Adverse events were predominantly gastrointestinal, of mild to moderate severity, transient, and occurred mainly during escalation of the dose. 23% (55/242) of those in the higher dose group, 7% (18/242) of those in the lower dose group, and 7% (16/239) of those in the placebo group discontinued treatment because of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Rivastigmine is well tolerated and effective. It improves cognition, participation in activities of daily living, and global evaluation ratings in patients with mild to moderately severe Alzheimer's disease. This is the first treatment to show compelling evidence of efficacy in a predominantly European population.  (+info)

Treatment with amprenavir alone or amprenavir with zidovudine and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 347 Study Team. (3/1210)

Amprenavir is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and good in vitro activity. Ninety-two lamivudine- and protease inhibitor-naive individuals with >/=50 CD4 cells/mm3 and >/=5000 HIV RNA copies/mL were assigned amprenavir (1200 mg) alone or with zidovudine (300 mg) plus lamivudine (150 mg), all given every 12 h. After a median follow-up of 88 days, the findings of a planned interim review resulted in termination of the amprenavir monotherapy arm. Among 85 subjects with confirmed plasma HIV RNA determination, 15 of 42 monotherapy versus 1 of 43 triple-therapy subjects had an HIV RNA increase above baseline or 1 log10 above nadir (P=.0001). For subjects taking triple therapy at 24 weeks, the median decrease in HIV RNA was 2.04 log10 copies/mL, and 17 (63%) of 27 evaluable subjects had <500 HIV RNA copies/mL. Treatment with amprenavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine together reduced the levels of HIV RNA significantly more than did amprenavir monotherapy.  (+info)

A 1-year multicenter randomized double-blind comparison of repaglinide and glyburide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Dutch and German Repaglinide Study Group. (4/1210)

OBJECTIVE: Repaglinide is a newly developed oral blood glucose-lowering agent that exerts its effect by stimulating insulin secretion. This multicenter study was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of this drug with glyburide in a 1-year randomized double-blind study of outpatients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 424 subjects (154 women, 270 men) participated and had the following characteristics: age, 61 +/- 9 years; duration of diabetes. 8 years (range 0.5-35); BMI, 28.3 +/- 3.5 kg/m2; HbA1c, 7.1 +/- 1.4%; and fasting plasma glucose, 10.8 +/- 3.1 mmol/l. The majority of the subjects (91%) were previously treated with sulfonylurea, alone or in combination with metformin. The patients were randomized to a 2:1 ratio of repaglinide (0.5-4 mg t.i.d.) or glyburide (1.75-10.5 mg daily) treatment. The study protocol included a screening visit to assess patient eligibility; a titration period of 6-8 weeks, during which the dosages of repaglinide and glyburide were optimized; and a subsequent 12-month treatment period on fixed, optimal dosages. RESULTS: The trial was completed by 320 subjects, 211 (74%) in the repaglinide and 109 (78%) in the glyburide group. HbA1c initially decreased in both groups and then increased during the second half-year of the maintenance period to a similar extent in the repaglinide and glyburide subjects (0.58 and 0.45% vs. at screening, respectively). In the small group of subjects who previously controlled their condition with diet only (n = 37), a sustained improvement of metabolic control could be observed with both drugs, which was slightly better with glyburide than with repaglinide (theta HbA1c -2.4 vs. -1.0%; P < 0.05). The same trends were seen with fasting plasma glucose. There were no changes in serum lipids. Over the course of the study, 15% of the repaglinide-treated and 13% of glyburide-treated subjects withdrew due to adverse events, mostly hyperglycemia. No differences in adverse events between both drugs were reported. There were no differences in incidences of hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS: Repaglinide is a safe and efficacious oral blood glucose-lowering agent, with a potency similar to that of glyburide. Its rapid onset of action and hepatic clearance allows meal-related administration, including in subjects with impaired kidney function.  (+info)

Structural and mechanistic aspects of transcriptional induction of cytochrome P450 1A1 by benzimidazole derivatives in rat hepatoma H4IIE cells. (5/1210)

The effect of several structurally different benzimidazole compounds on CYP1A1 expression at the transcriptional, mRNA and protein levels was investigated in the rat hepatoma H4IIE cell line. Omeprazole, thiabendazole, carbendazim, 2-mercaptobenzimidazole and 2-mercapto-5-methoxybenzimidazole caused a dose-dependent increase in CYP1A1 protein levels that reached maximum effect at 250 microm, as measured by Western blot. In addition, hydroxyomeprazole, 2-aminobenzimidazole and 2-mercapto-5-nitro-benzimidazole caused a notable increase in CYP1A1 protein expression, whereas 5-O-desmethylomeprazole, 2-hydroxybenzimidazole, 2-benzimidazole propionic acid and 5-benzimidazole carboxylic acid were ineffective. Thus, benzimidazole substituted with a thiol or an amino group in the 2-position were active inducers. Northern blot analysis confirmed an extensive increase of CYP1A1 mRNA induced by omeprazole and 2-mercapto-5-methoxybenzimidazole which was 32% and 49% of maximal induction by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) respectively, whereas thiabendazole and carbendazim showed approximately 15% increase as compared to TCDD. Transient transfection of H4IIE cells, with a XRE-pGL3 reporter gene construct revealed a 2.3-4.3-fold induction by carbendazim, thiabendazole, and 2-mercapto-5-methoxybenzimidazole as compared to a 3.3- and 23-fold induction by omeprazole and TCDD, respectively. Thus, these data indicate that the benzimidazoles utilize the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-arnt-XRE-mediated signal-transduction pathway for induction of the CYP1A1 gene.  (+info)

A common pharmacophore for cytotoxic natural products that stabilize microtubules. (6/1210)

Taxol (paclitaxel), a complex diterpene obtained from the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, is arguably the most important new drug in cancer chemotherapy. The mechanism of cytotoxic action for paclitaxel-i.e., the stabilization of microtubules leading to mitotic arrest-is now shared by four recently identified natural products, eleutherobin, epothilones A and B, and discodermolide. Their ability to competitively inhibit [3H]paclitaxel binding to microtubules strongly suggests the existence of a common binding site. Recently, we have developed nonaromatic analogues of paclitaxel that maintain high cytotoxicity and tubulin binding (e.g., nonataxel). We now propose a common pharmacophore that unites paclitaxel, nonataxel, the epothilones, eleutherobin, and discodermolide, and rationalizes the extensive structure-activity relationship data pertinent to these compounds. Insights from the common pharmacophore have enabled the development of a hybrid construct with demonstrated cytotoxic and tubulin-binding activity.  (+info)

Pharmacological activities of TEI-8362, a novel inhibitor of human neutrophil elastase. (7/1210)

1. TEI-8362, 4-(N-(3-((3-carboxypropyl)amino)-8-methyl-1-oxo-4-azaisochromen-6- yl)carbamoyl)-4-((phenylmethoxy)carbonylamino)butanoic acid (C26H28N4O9) is a novel inhibitor of human neutrophil elastase (HNE). We evaluated its pharmacological profile in vitro and in vivo. 2. TEI-8362 demonstrated potent inhibition of HNE with a Ki value of 1.38 x 10(-9) M. Its selectivity for HNE among a variety of proteases ranged from 163 fold to 68,000 fold in favour of HNE. 3. The pulmonary haemorrhage that occurred after i.t. instillation of HNE to hamsters was inhibited by either i.t., i.v., or inhalant administration of TEI-8362. 4. Intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide induced pulmonary neutrophilia. Twenty-four hours after lipopolysaccharide administration, the additional treatment with formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine resulted in a specific neutrophil-dependent acute lung injury. In this model, lung injury was significantly attenuated by i.t., i.v., or inhalant administration of TEI-8362. 5. These pharmacological actions of TEI-8362 suggest that this drug has therapeutic value in the treatment of destructive lung diseases due to neutrophils.  (+info)

Does an association between pesticide use and subsequent declines in catch of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) represent a case of endocrine disruption? (8/1210)

Historical aerial applications of the insecticide Matacil 1.8D provide an opportunity to look for potential effects of the endocrine disrupting compound 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) populations. Matacil 1.8D contained the carbamate insecticide aminocarb, with 4-NP as primary solvent. Between 1975 and 1985 Matacil 1.8D was applied to forests in Atlantic Canada to control damage from the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana). After spraying, estimated concentrations of 4-NP in water fell within a range in which estrogenic effects might be anticipated. The spraying coincided with final stages of smolt development in salmon. Salmon catch data were evaluated considering effects on survival of the smolt stage. There was a significant negative relationship between the returns of salmon and the proportion of tributaries sprayed within the Restigouche River drainage basin in 1977. There was also a broader event of unusually heavy salmon smolt mortality in 1977, which contains a significant relationship indicating that where Matacil 1.8D spraying occurred, the smolt mortality increased. For 16 rivers exposed to spraying between 1973 and 1990, a significant proportion (p<0.005) of the lowest salmon catches coincided with Matacil 1.8D spraying. A decline coinciding with the use of Matacil 1.8D was also apparent in blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis) catches in New Brunswick. Because similar relationships were not evident for Matacil 1.8F or fenitrothion, neither of which were formulated with 4-NP, we hypothesize that the 4-NP in Matacil 1.8D was the causal agent. Concentrations of 4-NP described here are within current ranges encountered in industrial effluents and municipal sewage outfalls.  (+info)

Carbamates are a group of organic compounds that contain the carbamate functional group, which is a carbon atom double-bonded to oxygen and single-bonded to a nitrogen atom (> N-C=O). In the context of pharmaceuticals and agriculture, carbamates are a class of drugs and pesticides that have carbamate as their core structure.

Carbamate insecticides work by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synapses of the nervous system. When this enzyme is inhibited, acetylcholine accumulates in the synaptic cleft, leading to overstimulation of the nervous system and ultimately causing paralysis and death in insects.

Carbamate drugs are used for a variety of medical indications, including as anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants, and psychotropic medications. They work by modulating various neurotransmitter systems in the brain, such as GABA, glutamate, and dopamine. Carbamates can also be used as anti- parasitic agents, such as ivermectin, which is effective against a range of parasites including nematodes, arthropods, and some protozoa.

It's important to note that carbamate pesticides can be toxic to non-target organisms, including humans, if not used properly. Therefore, it's essential to follow all safety guidelines when handling or using these products.

Urethane is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, in the field of chemistry and pharmacology, urethane is an ethyl carbamate ester which has been used as a general anesthetic. It is rarely used today due to its potential carcinogenic properties and the availability of safer alternatives.

In the context of materials science, polyurethanes are a class of polymers that contain urethane linkages (-NH-CO-O-) in their main chain. They are widely used in various applications such as foam insulation, coatings, adhesives, and medical devices due to their versatile properties like flexibility, durability, and resistance to abrasion.

Propoxur is a carbamate insecticide that acts as a cholinesterase inhibitor. It is used to control a wide variety of pests, including cockroaches, ants, fleas, and ticks. Propoxur works by disrupting the nervous system of insects, leading to paralysis and death. It can be found in various forms such as powders, granules, and liquids for use in residential and commercial settings. However, it is important to note that propoxur can also have toxic effects on non-target organisms, including humans, and its use is regulated by environmental and health agencies worldwide.

Insecticides are substances or mixtures of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or mitigating any pest, including insects, arachnids, or other related pests. They can be chemical or biological agents that disrupt the growth, development, or behavior of these organisms, leading to their death or incapacitation. Insecticides are widely used in agriculture, public health, and residential settings for pest control. However, they must be used with caution due to potential risks to non-target organisms and the environment.

Carbaryl is a carbamate pesticide that is used to control a wide variety of insects, including fleas, ticks, and mosquitoes. It works by inhibiting the action of an enzyme called cholinesterase, which is necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system in insects. This leads to paralysis and death of the pests. Carbaryl is also used in some veterinary products to treat parasitic infestations. It can be found in various forms, such as powders, granules, and solutions, and can be applied to plants, animals, and indoor/outdoor surfaces. However, it can be harmful to non-target organisms, including humans, if not used properly. Therefore, it is important to follow the label instructions carefully when using carbaryl products.

Carbofuran is a highly toxic systemic pesticide that belongs to the carbamate family. It is used primarily to control insects in soil before planting and on crops after emergence. Carbofuran works by inhibiting the enzyme cholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of acetylcholine and results in overstimulation of the nervous system in insects, ultimately causing their death.

In humans, exposure to carbofuran can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headache, dizziness, visual disturbances, and muscle twitching. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure, convulsions, and even death. Carbofuran is classified as a Category I toxic pesticide by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the United States, indicating that it is highly hazardous.

Due to its high toxicity and potential for environmental harm, carbofuran has been banned or restricted in many countries around the world. In the United States, the use of carbofuran on food crops was phased out in 2009, and its registration for most uses was canceled in 2010. However, it is still used in some parts of the world for non-food crop applications.

Cholinesterase inhibitors are a class of drugs that work by blocking the action of cholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the body. By inhibiting this enzyme, the levels of acetylcholine in the brain increase, which can help to improve symptoms of cognitive decline and memory loss associated with conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia.

Cholinesterase inhibitors are also used to treat other medical conditions, including myasthenia gravis, a neuromuscular disorder that causes muscle weakness, and glaucoma, a condition that affects the optic nerve and can lead to vision loss. Some examples of cholinesterase inhibitors include donepezil (Aricept), galantamine (Razadyne), and rivastigmine (Exelon).

It's important to note that while cholinesterase inhibitors can help to improve symptoms in some people with dementia, they do not cure the underlying condition or stop its progression. Side effects of these drugs may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and increased salivation. In rare cases, they may also cause seizures, fainting, or cardiac arrhythmias.

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh), a neurotransmitter, into choline and acetic acid. This enzyme plays a crucial role in regulating the transmission of nerve impulses across the synapse, the junction between two neurons or between a neuron and a muscle fiber.

Acetylcholinesterase is located in the synaptic cleft, the narrow gap between the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes. When ACh is released from the presynaptic membrane and binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, it triggers a response in the target cell. Acetylcholinesterase rapidly breaks down ACh, terminating its action and allowing for rapid cycling of neurotransmission.

Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase leads to an accumulation of ACh in the synaptic cleft, prolonging its effects on the postsynaptic membrane. This can result in excessive stimulation of cholinergic receptors and overactivation of the cholinergic system, which may cause a range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, fasciculations, sweating, salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation, bradycardia, and bronchoconstriction.

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are used in the treatment of various medical conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, myasthenia gravis, and glaucoma. However, they can also be used as chemical weapons, such as nerve agents, due to their ability to disrupt the nervous system and cause severe toxicity.

Insecticide resistance is a genetic selection process in insect populations that allows them to survive and reproduce despite exposure to insecticides. It's the result of changes in the genetic makeup of insects, which can be caused by natural selection when insecticides are used repeatedly. Over time, this leads to the prevalence of genes that provide resistance to the insecticide, making the pest control methods less effective. Insecticide resistance is a significant challenge in public health and agriculture, as it can reduce the efficacy of interventions aimed at controlling disease-carrying insects or protecting crops from pests.

Phenylcarbamates are a group of organic compounds that contain a phenyl group (a functional group consisting of a six-carbon ring, with the formula -C6H5) bonded to a carbamate group (-NHCOO-). Carbamates are compounds that contain a carbonyl (>C=O) group bonded to a nitrogen atom that is also bonded to two organic substituents.

In the medical field, phenylcarbamates have been used as drugs for various purposes. For example, some phenylcarbamates have been used as anticonvulsants, while others have been investigated for their potential as anti-cancer agents. However, it is important to note that many phenylcarbamates also have toxic properties and must be used with caution.

One well-known example of a phenylcarbamate is phenytoin, an anticonvulsant medication used to treat seizures. Phenytoin works by slowing down the transmission of nerve impulses in the brain, which can help prevent or reduce the severity of seizures.

It's worth noting that while phenylcarbamates have been studied for their potential therapeutic uses, they are not a widely used class of drugs and further research is needed to fully understand their mechanisms of action and potential side effects.

Glycylglycine is not a medical condition or term, but rather it is a chemical compound. It is a dipeptide, which means it is composed of two amino acids linked together. Specifically, glycylglycine consists of two glycine molecules joined by an amide bond (also known as a peptide bond) between the carboxyl group of one glycine and the amino group of the other glycine.

Glycylglycine is often used in laboratory research as a buffer, a substance that helps maintain a stable pH level in a solution. It has a relatively simple structure and is not naturally found in significant amounts in living organisms.

Methomyl is a carbamate insecticide that acts as a reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in nerve synapses. This results in an accumulation of acetylcholine, leading to overstimulation of cholinergic receptors and disruption of normal nervous system function. Methomyl is used to control a wide range of pests in various crops, but its use is restricted due to its high toxicity to non-target organisms, including humans. It can be absorbed through the skin, respiratory tract, or gastrointestinal tract and can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle twitching, weakness, and difficulty breathing in cases of acute exposure. Chronic exposure to methomyl has been linked to neurological effects, including memory loss and decreased cognitive function.

Pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or repelling pests. Pests can be insects, rodents, fungi, weeds, or other organisms that can cause damage to crops, animals, or humans and their living conditions. The term "pesticide" includes all of the following: insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides, bactericides, and various other substances used to control pests.

It is important to note that while pesticides are designed to be toxic to the target pests, they can also pose risks to non-target organisms, including humans, if not used properly. Therefore, it is essential to follow all label instructions and safety precautions when handling and applying pesticides.

Carbamyl Phosphate is a chemical compound that plays a crucial role in the biochemical process of nitrogen metabolism, particularly in the urea cycle. It is synthesized in the liver and serves as an important intermediate in the conversion of ammonia to urea, which is then excreted by the kidneys.

In medical terms, Carbamyl Phosphate Synthetase I (CPS I) deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that affects the production of Carbamyl Phosphate. This deficiency can lead to hyperammonemia, which is an excess of ammonia in the bloodstream, and can cause severe neurological symptoms and brain damage if left untreated.

It's important to note that while Carbamyl Phosphate is a critical component of the urea cycle, it is not typically used as a medication or therapeutic agent in clinical practice.

Cholinesterases are a group of enzymes that play an essential role in the nervous system by regulating the transmission of nerve impulses. They work by breaking down a type of chemical messenger called acetylcholine, which is released by nerves to transmit signals to other nerves or muscles.

There are two main types of cholinesterases: acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). AChE is found primarily in the nervous system, where it rapidly breaks down acetylcholine to terminate nerve impulses. BChE, on the other hand, is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the liver and plasma, and plays a less specific role in breaking down various substances, including some drugs and toxins.

Inhibition of cholinesterases can lead to an accumulation of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft, which can result in excessive stimulation of nerve impulses and muscle contractions. This effect is exploited by certain medications used to treat conditions such as myasthenia gravis, Alzheimer's disease, and glaucoma, but can also be caused by exposure to certain chemicals or toxins, such as organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents.

Chlorpropham is a synthetic auxin growth regulator used primarily in agriculture to regulate plant growth and development. It is also known as CIPC (iso-propyl 3-chlorophenyl carbamate) and has the chemical formula C9H10ClNO2.

Chlorpropham works by inhibiting the formation of tubers in potatoes, delaying sprouting and prolonging the storage life of the crop. It is also used to control weeds in various crops such as beans, carrots, onions, and turf. Chlorpropham is classified as a restricted use pesticide in the United States and requires a special license to purchase and apply.

It's important to note that chlorpropham is not used in medical treatments or therapies for humans or animals.

Aldicarb is a carbamate pesticide that acts as a systemic insecticide, nematicide, and acaricide. It is used to control a wide variety of pests in crops such as potatoes, corn, and soybeans. Aldicarb works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, causing paralysis and death in insects. However, it is highly toxic to both insects and mammals, including humans, and can cause serious health effects such as nausea, dizziness, and even death if ingested or absorbed through the skin. Therefore, its use is heavily regulated and restricted in many countries.

Chlorphenesin is a muscle relaxant and anti-inflammatory agent that is primarily used in topical creams, gels, and solutions for the relief of minor aches and pains due to strains, sprains, and bruises. It works by blocking the nerve impulses that cause muscle spasms.

Chlorphenesin can also be found in some oral medications as an antimicrobial agent, used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria.

It is important to note that chlorphenesin can have side effects, including skin irritation, stinging, redness, or swelling at the application site. If taken orally, it may cause dizziness, drowsiness, or upset stomach. It should be used with caution and under the direction of a healthcare professional.

Pesticide residues refer to the remaining pesticide chemicals, including their metabolites and degradation products, that are present in or on food commodities or environmental samples after a pesticide application has ended. These residues can result from agricultural use, such as spraying crops to control pests, or from non-agricultural uses, like treating buildings for termite control.

Regulatory agencies establish maximum residue limits (MRLs) to ensure that the levels of pesticide residues in food and feed are below those that may pose a risk to human health. Monitoring programs are in place to check compliance with these MRLs, and enforcement actions can be taken if violations occur.

It's important to note that not all pesticide residues are harmful, as some pesticides degrade into harmless compounds over time or leave behind residues below levels of concern for human health. However, long-term exposure to even low levels of certain pesticide residues may still pose a risk and should be avoided when possible.

Organophosphate (OP) poisoning refers to the toxic effects that occur after exposure to organophosphate compounds, which are commonly used as pesticides, nerve agents, and plasticizers. These substances work by irreversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the nervous system. As a result, excessive accumulation of acetylcholine leads to overstimulation of cholinergic receptors, causing a wide range of symptoms.

The severity and type of symptoms depend on the dose, duration, and route of exposure (inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption). The primary manifestations of organophosphate poisoning are:

1. Muscarinic effects: Excess acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors in the parasympathetic nervous system results in symptoms such as narrowed pupils (miosis), increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, bronchorrhea (excessive respiratory secretions), diarrhea, bradycardia (decreased heart rate), and hypotension.
2. Nicotinic effects: Overstimulation of nicotinic receptors at the neuromuscular junction leads to muscle fasciculations, weakness, and paralysis. This can also cause tachycardia (increased heart rate) and hypertension.
3. Central nervous system effects: OP poisoning may result in headache, dizziness, confusion, seizures, coma, and respiratory depression.

Treatment for organophosphate poisoning includes decontamination, supportive care, and administration of antidotes such as atropine (to block muscarinic effects) and pralidoxime (to reactivate acetylcholinesterase). Delayed treatment can lead to long-term neurological damage or even death.

Pyrethrins are a group of naturally occurring organic compounds extracted from the flowers of Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and Chrysanthemum coccineum. They have been used for centuries as insecticides due to their ability to disrupt the nervous system of insects, leading to paralysis and death. Pyrethrins are composed of six esters, pyrethrin I and II, cinerin I and II, and jasmolin I and II, which have different insecticidal properties but share a similar mode of action. They are commonly used in household insect sprays, pet shampoos, and agricultural applications to control a wide range of pests. However, pyrethrins can be toxic to fish and some beneficial insects, so they must be used with caution.

Organophosphates are a group of chemicals that include insecticides, herbicides, and nerve gases. They work by inhibiting an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, which normally breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synapse between nerves. This leads to an overaccumulation of acetylcholine, causing overstimulation of the nervous system and resulting in a wide range of symptoms such as muscle twitching, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, sweating, confusion, and potentially death due to respiratory failure. Organophosphates are highly toxic and their use is regulated due to the risks they pose to human health and the environment.

Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of esters of choline, including butyrylcholine and acetylcholine. It is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the liver, brain, and plasma. BChE plays a role in the metabolism of certain drugs and neurotransmitters, and its activity can be inhibited by certain chemicals, such as organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents. Elevated levels of BChE have been found in some neurological disorders, while decreased levels have been associated with genetic deficiencies and liver disease.

Carboxylesterase is a type of enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester bonds in carboxylic acid esters, producing alcohol and carboxylate products. These enzymes are widely distributed in various tissues, including the liver, intestines, and plasma. They play important roles in detoxification, metabolism, and the breakdown of xenobiotics (foreign substances) in the body.

Carboxylesterases can also catalyze the reverse reaction, forming esters from alcohols and carboxylates, which is known as transesterification or esterification. This activity has applications in industrial processes and biotechnology.

There are several families of carboxylesterases, with different substrate specificities, kinetic properties, and tissue distributions. These enzymes have been studied for their potential use in therapeutics, diagnostics, and drug delivery systems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Houseflies" are not a medical condition or term. Houseflies (Musca domestica) are a species of fly that are commonly found in human habitats. They are often considered nuisance pests because they can contaminate food and spread diseases. However, they do have an important role in the ecosystem as decomposers. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I'd be happy to try to help with those!

Organophosphorus compounds are a class of chemical substances that contain phosphorus bonded to organic compounds. They are used in various applications, including as plasticizers, flame retardants, pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, and nerve gases), and solvents. In medicine, they are also used in the treatment of certain conditions such as glaucoma. However, organophosphorus compounds can be toxic to humans and animals, particularly those that affect the nervous system by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Exposure to these compounds can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, and in severe cases, respiratory failure and death.

Industrial fungicides are antimicrobial agents used to prevent, destroy, or inhibit the growth of fungi and their spores in industrial settings. These can include uses in manufacturing processes, packaging materials, textiles, paints, and other industrial products. They work by interfering with the cellular structure or metabolic processes of fungi, thereby preventing their growth or reproduction. Examples of industrial fungicides include:

* Sodium hypochlorite (bleach)
* Formaldehyde
* Glutaraldehyde
* Quaternary ammonium compounds
* Peracetic acid
* Chlorhexidine
* Iodophors

It's important to note that some of these fungicides can be harmful or toxic to humans and other organisms, so they must be used with caution and in accordance with safety guidelines.

A prodrug is a pharmacologically inactive substance that, once administered, is metabolized into a drug that is active. Prodrugs are designed to improve the bioavailability or delivery of a drug, to minimize adverse effects, or to target the drug to specific sites in the body. The conversion of a prodrug to its active form typically occurs through enzymatic reactions in the liver or other tissues.

Prodrugs can offer several advantages over traditional drugs, including:

* Improved absorption: Some drugs have poor bioavailability due to their chemical properties, which make them difficult to absorb from the gastrointestinal tract. Prodrugs can be designed with improved absorption characteristics, allowing for more efficient delivery of the active drug to the body.
* Reduced toxicity: By masking the active drug's chemical structure, prodrugs can reduce its interactions with sensitive tissues and organs, thereby minimizing adverse effects.
* Targeted delivery: Prodrugs can be designed to selectively release the active drug in specific areas of the body, such as tumors or sites of infection, allowing for more precise and effective therapy.

Examples of prodrugs include:

* Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), which is metabolized to salicylic acid in the liver.
* Enalapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used to treat hypertension and heart failure, which is metabolized to enalaprilat in the liver.
* Codeine, an opioid analgesic, which is metabolized to morphine in the liver by the enzyme CYP2D6.

It's important to note that not all prodrugs are successful, and some may even have unintended consequences. For example, if a patient has a genetic variation that affects the activity of the enzyme responsible for converting the prodrug to its active form, the drug may not be effective or may produce adverse effects. Therefore, it's essential to consider individual genetic factors when prescribing prodrugs.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

'Anopheles gambiae' is a species of mosquito that is a major vector for the transmission of malaria. The female Anopheles gambiae mosquito bites primarily during the nighttime hours and preferentially feeds on human blood, which allows it to transmit the Plasmodium parasite that causes malaria. This species is widely distributed throughout much of Africa and is responsible for transmitting a significant proportion of the world's malaria cases.

The Anopheles gambiae complex actually consists of several closely related species or forms, which can be difficult to distinguish based on morphological characteristics alone. However, advances in molecular techniques have allowed for more accurate identification and differentiation of these species. Understanding the biology and behavior of Anopheles gambiae is crucial for developing effective strategies to control malaria transmission.

Fenitrothion is a type of organophosphate pesticide that is used to control a wide variety of insects. It works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and results in nervous system dysfunction in insects.

Fenitrothion is used to control pests in agricultural settings, as well as in public health programs to combat vectors of diseases such as mosquitoes and lice. However, it can also have toxic effects on non-target organisms, including humans, and has been linked to a variety of health problems, including neurological damage and cancer. As a result, its use is regulated in many countries, and there are restrictions on the amount that can be applied and the circumstances under which it can be used.

Physostigmine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called cholinesterase inhibitors. It works by blocking the breakdown of a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine, which is important for communication between nerves and muscles. This results in an increase in acetylcholine levels in the body, improving nerve impulse transmission and helping to restore normal muscle function.

Physostigmine is used in the treatment of certain medical conditions that are caused by a deficiency of acetylcholine, such as myasthenia gravis, which is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness and fatigue of the muscles. It may also be used to reverse the effects of certain medications that block the action of acetylcholine, such as anticholinergics, which are sometimes used in anesthesia or to treat conditions like Parkinson's disease.

It is important to note that physostigmine should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have serious side effects if not used properly.

Mephenesin is a muscle relaxant that has been used in the past to treat various conditions such as spasticity and muscle pain. It works by blocking nerve impulses that are sent to the muscles, which helps to reduce muscle tension and spasms. However, mephenesin is not commonly used today due to its potential for abuse and the availability of safer and more effective muscle relaxants.

Mephenesin is a carbamate derivative and acts as a central nervous system depressant. It has sedative and hypnotic effects, which can make it useful in managing anxiety and promoting sleep. However, mephenesin can also cause respiratory depression, especially when used in high doses or in combination with other central nervous system depressants.

Mephenesin is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and injectable solutions. It is important to follow the prescribed dosage carefully and to avoid using mephenesin with alcohol or other drugs that can cause drowsiness or respiratory depression. Side effects of mephenesin may include dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, and skin rash. In rare cases, mephenesin can cause more serious side effects such as seizures, coma, and death.

Esters are organic compounds that are formed by the reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid. They are widely found in nature and are used in various industries, including the production of perfumes, flavors, and pharmaceuticals. In the context of medical definitions, esters may be mentioned in relation to their use as excipients in medications or in discussions of organic chemistry and biochemistry. Esters can also be found in various natural substances such as fats and oils, which are triesters of glycerol and fatty acids.

Ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT or OAT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the urea cycle, which is the biochemical pathway responsible for the removal of excess nitrogen from the body. Specifically, ornithine carbamoyltransferase catalyzes the transfer of a carbamoyl group from carbamoyl phosphate to ornithine, forming citrulline and releasing phosphate in the process. This reaction is essential for the production of urea, which can then be excreted by the kidneys.

Deficiency in ornithine carbamoyltransferase can lead to a genetic disorder called ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), which is characterized by hyperammonemia (elevated blood ammonia levels) and neurological symptoms. OTCD is one of the most common urea cycle disorders, and it primarily affects females due to its X-linked inheritance pattern.

Triallate is not a term that has a widely recognized medical definition. It is primarily used in the field of agriculture and pesticide chemistry, rather than in medical contexts. Triallate is a type of herbicide that is used to control annual grasses in various crops such as corn, potatoes, and vegetables.

However, if you come into contact with triallate or its residues, there may be potential health effects. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), triallate is classified as a Class III substance, which means it is slightly hazardous. It can cause skin and eye irritation upon contact, and ingestion or inhalation of large amounts can lead to nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and dizziness.

Therefore, while triallate itself is not a medical term, it is still important to be aware of its potential health effects if you work with this substance or come into contact with it inadvertently.

Enzyme reactivators are substances or compounds that restore the activity of an enzyme that has been inhibited or inactivated. This can occur due to various reasons such as exposure to certain chemicals, oxidation, or heavy metal ions. Enzyme reactivators work by binding to the enzyme and reversing the effects of the inhibitor or promoting the repair of any damage caused.

One example of an enzyme reactivator is methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr), which can reduce oxidized methionine residues in proteins, thereby restoring their function. Another example is 2-phenylethynesulfonamide (PESNA), which has been shown to reactivate the enzyme parkinsonism-associated deglycase (DJ-1) that is mutated in some cases of familial Parkinson's disease.

It is important to note that not all enzyme inhibitors can be reversed by reactivators, and the development of specific reactivators for particular enzymes is an active area of research with potential therapeutic applications.

Carbonates are a class of chemical compounds that consist of a metal or metalloid combined with carbonate ions (CO32-). These compounds form when carbon dioxide (CO2) reacts with a base, such as a metal hydroxide. The reaction produces water (H2O), carbonic acid (H2CO3), and the corresponding carbonate.

Carbonates are important in many biological and geological processes. In the body, for example, calcium carbonate is a major component of bones and teeth. It also plays a role in maintaining pH balance by reacting with excess acid in the stomach to form carbon dioxide and water.

In nature, carbonates are common minerals found in rocks such as limestone and dolomite. They can also be found in mineral waters and in the shells of marine organisms. Carbonate rocks play an important role in the global carbon cycle, as they can dissolve or precipitate depending on environmental conditions, which affects the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Carboxylic ester hydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds in carboxylic acid esters, producing alcohols and carboxylates. This group includes several subclasses of enzymes such as esterases, lipases, and thioesterases. These enzymes play important roles in various biological processes, including metabolism, detoxification, and signal transduction. They are widely used in industrial applications, such as the production of biodiesel, pharmaceuticals, and food ingredients.

DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) is a synthetic insecticide that was widely used in the mid-20th century to control agricultural pests and vector-borne diseases such as malaria. It belongs to a class of chemicals called organochlorines, which are known for their persistence in the environment and potential for bioaccumulation in the food chain.

DDT was first synthesized in 1874, but its insecticidal properties were not discovered until 1939. Its use as an insecticide became widespread during World War II, when it was used to control typhus and malaria-carrying lice and mosquitoes among troops. After the war, DDT was widely adopted for agricultural and public health purposes.

However, concerns about the environmental and human health effects of DDT led to its ban or severe restriction in many countries starting in the 1970s. The United States banned the use of DDT for most purposes in 1972, and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) prohibited its production and use globally in 2004, except in cases where there is a risk of vector-borne diseases.

DDT has been linked to several health problems, including reproductive effects, developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, and endocrine disruption. It is also highly persistent in the environment, with a half-life of up to 15 years in soil and up to 30 years in water. This means that DDT can accumulate in the food chain, posing risks to wildlife and humans who consume contaminated food or water.

In summary, DDT is a synthetic insecticide that was widely used in the mid-20th century but has been banned or restricted in many countries due to its environmental and health effects. It belongs to a class of chemicals called organochlorines, which are known for their persistence in the environment and potential for bioaccumulation in the food chain. DDT has been linked to several health problems, including reproductive effects, developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, and endocrine disruption.

Stereoisomerism is a type of isomerism (structural arrangement of atoms) in which molecules have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms, but differ in the three-dimensional orientation of their atoms in space. This occurs when the molecule contains asymmetric carbon atoms or other rigid structures that prevent free rotation, leading to distinct spatial arrangements of groups of atoms around a central point. Stereoisomers can have different chemical and physical properties, such as optical activity, boiling points, and reactivities, due to differences in their shape and the way they interact with other molecules.

There are two main types of stereoisomerism: enantiomers (mirror-image isomers) and diastereomers (non-mirror-image isomers). Enantiomers are pairs of stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other, but cannot be superimposed on one another. Diastereomers, on the other hand, are non-mirror-image stereoisomers that have different physical and chemical properties.

Stereoisomerism is an important concept in chemistry and biology, as it can affect the biological activity of molecules, such as drugs and natural products. For example, some enantiomers of a drug may be active, while others are inactive or even toxic. Therefore, understanding stereoisomerism is crucial for designing and synthesizing effective and safe drugs.

Safrole is defined medically as a phenolic compound that occurs naturally in certain essential oils, such as sassafras oil. It has been used traditionally as a flavoring agent and in folk medicine for its alleged medicinal properties. However, safrole has been found to have toxic and carcinogenic effects, and its use is now restricted in many countries.

In a more specific chemical definition, safrole is a phenylpropanoid compound with the molecular formula C10H12O3. It is a colorless to pale yellow oily liquid that has a sweet, woody, and spicy odor. Safrole can be found in various plant species, including sassafras, betel nut, and camphor wood.

It's important to note that safrole is considered a controlled substance in many jurisdictions due to its potential use as a precursor in the illegal synthesis of certain drugs, such as MDMA (ecstasy).

'Anopheles' is a genus of mosquitoes that are known for their role in transmitting malaria parasites to humans. These mosquitoes have a distinctive resting posture, with their abdomens raised and heads down, and they typically feed on human hosts at night. Only female Anopheles mosquitoes transmit the malaria parasite, as they require blood meals to lay eggs.

There are over 400 species of Anopheles mosquitoes worldwide, but only about 30-40 of these are considered significant vectors of human malaria. The distribution and behavior of these mosquitoes can vary widely depending on the specific species and geographic location.

Preventing and controlling the spread of malaria involves a variety of strategies, including the use of insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying, antimalarial drugs, and vaccines. Public health efforts to reduce the burden of malaria have made significant progress in recent decades, but the disease remains a major global health challenge, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa.

Hydrolases are a class of enzymes that help facilitate the breakdown of various types of chemical bonds through a process called hydrolysis, which involves the addition of water. These enzymes catalyze the cleavage of bonds in substrates by adding a molecule of water, leading to the formation of two or more smaller molecules.

Hydrolases play a crucial role in many biological processes, including digestion, metabolism, and detoxification. They can act on a wide range of substrates, such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids, breaking them down into smaller units that can be more easily absorbed or utilized by the body.

Examples of hydrolases include:

1. Proteases: enzymes that break down proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids.
2. Lipases: enzymes that hydrolyze lipids, such as triglycerides, into fatty acids and glycerol.
3. Amylases: enzymes that break down complex carbohydrates, like starches, into simpler sugars, such as glucose.
4. Nucleases: enzymes that cleave nucleic acids, such as DNA or RNA, into smaller nucleotides or oligonucleotides.
5. Phosphatases: enzymes that remove phosphate groups from various substrates, including proteins and lipids.
6. Esterases: enzymes that hydrolyze ester bonds in a variety of substrates, such as those found in some drugs or neurotransmitters.

Hydrolases are essential for maintaining proper cellular function and homeostasis, and their dysregulation can contribute to various diseases and disorders.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

Allyl compounds are organic compounds that contain the allyl group, which is a functional group with the formula CH2=CH-CH2-. The allyl group consists of a methylene bridge (CH2-) flanked by a carbon-carbon double bond (-CH=). Allyl compounds can be derived from allyl alcohol, allyl chloride, or other allyl halides and can participate in various chemical reactions due to the reactivity of the double bond. They are used in organic synthesis, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals.

Dieldrin is a chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticide that was widely used in the past for agricultural and household pest control. It is a white, odorless, crystalline solid that is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. Dieldrin has high toxicity to both insects and mammals, including humans. It can cause a range of harmful health effects, such as seizures, damage to the nervous system, and liver and kidney damage. Dieldrin was banned for most uses in the United States in 1974 due to its persistence in the environment and potential to accumulate in the food chain. It is now classified as a persistent organic pollutant (POP) and is regulated under international treaties.

Biotransformation is the metabolic modification of a chemical compound, typically a xenobiotic (a foreign chemical substance found within an living organism), by a biological system. This process often involves enzymatic conversion of the parent compound to one or more metabolites, which may be more or less active, toxic, or mutagenic than the original substance.

In the context of pharmacology and toxicology, biotransformation is an important aspect of drug metabolism and elimination from the body. The liver is the primary site of biotransformation, but other organs such as the kidneys, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract can also play a role.

Biotransformation can occur in two phases: phase I reactions involve functionalization of the parent compound through oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis, while phase II reactions involve conjugation of the metabolite with endogenous molecules such as glucuronic acid, sulfate, or acetate to increase its water solubility and facilitate excretion.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "sulfonic acids" are not a medical term. They are a type of compound in chemistry, specifically strong organic acids that contain the functional group -SO3H. Sulfonic acids are widely used in industry and research, including the production of detergents, dyes, and pharmaceuticals.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, please don't hesitate to ask!

Monoacylglycerol lipases (MAGLs) are a type of enzyme that play a role in the metabolism of lipids, specifically by breaking down monoacylglycerols into glycerol and free fatty acids. Monoacylglycerols are formed during the digestion of dietary fats and are also produced endogenously as a result of the breakdown of complex lipids.

MAGLs are widely distributed throughout the body, but are particularly abundant in tissues that utilize large amounts of fatty acids for energy, such as the liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. In addition to their role in lipid metabolism, MAGLs have been implicated in various physiological processes, including inflammation, pain perception, and cancer.

Inhibition of MAGL activity has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. However, further research is needed to fully understand the role of MAGLs in these processes and to determine the safety and efficacy of MAGL inhibitors as drugs.

I'm not a medical expert, but I can try to provide you with some information about "aniline mustard" that might be helpful. However, it's essential to consult appropriate medical resources or professionals for accurate and reliable information.

The term "aniline mustard" is not typically used in the medical field. Instead, it seems like a combination of two different concepts: aniline (an organic compound) and mustard gas (a chemical warfare agent). I'll briefly explain both terms to help you understand any possible connection.

1. Aniline: It is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2, also known as phenylamine or aminobenzene. Aniline is used in manufacturing various chemical products, such as dyes, pharmaceuticals, and rubber processing chemicals. Exposure to aniline can cause harmful health effects, including skin irritation, respiratory issues, and damage to the liver and kidneys.

2. Mustard gas: It is a chemical warfare agent with the formula (ClCH2CH2)2S, also known as sulfur mustard or HS(CH2CH2Cl)2. Mustard gas can cause severe burns and blistering of the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract upon exposure. It is a potent chemical weapon that has been banned by international treaties.

There might be some confusion regarding "aniline mustard" because aniline was used in the production of mustard gas during World War I. However, there isn't any specific medical definition or application associated with the term "aniline mustard." If you have more context or information about where this term is being used, I could try to provide a more accurate answer.

Croton oil is a highly toxic, irritant, and vesicant liquid that is derived from the seeds of the croton tiglium plant. It is a type of unsaturated fatty acid known as an octadecatrienoic acid, and it contains a mixture of various chemical compounds including crotonic acid, diglycerides, and phorbol esters.

Croton oil is commonly used in laboratory research as a pharmacological tool to study the mechanisms of inflammation, pain, and skin irritation. It can also be used as a veterinary medicine to treat certain types of intestinal parasites in animals. However, due to its high toxicity and potential for causing severe burns and blisters on the skin, it is not used in human medicine.

It's important to note that croton oil should only be handled by trained professionals in a controlled laboratory setting, as improper use or exposure can result in serious injury or death.

"Vinyl compounds" is not a term used in medical definitions. It is a term used in chemistry and materials science to refer to a group of chemicals that contain carbon-based molecules with a vinyl group, which is a functional group consisting of a double bond between two carbon atoms, with one of the carbons also being bonded to a hydrogen atom (-CH2=CH-).

Vinyl compounds are used in various industrial and consumer products, including plastics, resins, adhesives, and coatings. Some vinyl compounds, such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), have been used in medical devices and supplies, such as intravenous (IV) bags, tubing, and blood vessel catheters. However, the use of PVC and other vinyl compounds in medical applications has raised concerns about potential health risks due to the release of toxic chemicals, such as phthalates and dioxins, during manufacturing, use, and disposal. Therefore, alternative materials are being developed and used in medical devices and supplies.

Combinatorial chemistry techniques are a group of methods used in the field of chemistry to synthesize and optimize large libraries of chemical compounds in a rapid and efficient manner. These techniques involve the systematic combination of different building blocks, or reagents, in various arrangements to generate a diverse array of molecules. This approach allows chemists to quickly explore a wide chemical space and identify potential lead compounds for drug discovery, materials science, and other applications.

There are several common combinatorial chemistry techniques, including:

1. **Split-Pool Synthesis:** In this method, a large collection of starting materials is divided into smaller groups, and each group undergoes a series of chemical reactions with different reagents. The resulting products from each group are then pooled together and redistributed for additional rounds of reactions. This process creates a vast number of unique compounds through the iterative combination of building blocks.
2. **Parallel Synthesis:** In parallel synthesis, multiple reactions are carried out simultaneously in separate reaction vessels. Each vessel contains a distinct set of starting materials and reagents, allowing for the efficient generation of a series of related compounds. This method is particularly useful when exploring structure-activity relationships (SAR) or optimizing lead compounds.
3. **Encoded Libraries:** To facilitate the rapid identification of active compounds within large libraries, encoded library techniques incorporate unique tags or barcodes into each molecule. These tags allow for the simultaneous synthesis and screening of compounds, as the identity of an active compound can be determined by decoding its corresponding tag.
4. **DNA-Encoded Libraries (DELs):** DELs are a specific type of encoded library that uses DNA molecules to encode and track chemical compounds. In this approach, each unique compound is linked to a distinct DNA sequence, enabling the rapid identification of active compounds through DNA sequencing techniques.
5. **Solid-Phase Synthesis:** This technique involves the attachment of starting materials to a solid support, such as beads or resins, allowing for the stepwise addition of reagents and building blocks. The solid support facilitates easy separation, purification, and screening of compounds, making it an ideal method for combinatorial chemistry applications.

Combinatorial chemistry techniques have revolutionized drug discovery and development by enabling the rapid synthesis, screening, and optimization of large libraries of chemical compounds. These methods continue to play a crucial role in modern medicinal chemistry and materials science research.

Fumigation is not typically considered a medical term, but it does have relevance to public health and environmental medicine. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), fumigation is defined as "the treatment of a building or commodity by introducing a gaseous pesticide (fumigant) in sufficient concentration to kill all stages of pests present."

Fumigation is used to control pests, such as insects, rodents, and other organisms that can cause harm to human health, property, or the environment. It is commonly used in agriculture to protect stored commodities from pests during transportation and storage. In addition, fumigation may be used in public health to disinfect buildings, equipment, and other items that have been infested with pests, such as bed bugs, cockroaches, or termites.

Fumigants are toxic gases that can cause harm to humans and animals if not handled properly. Therefore, fumigation should only be carried out by trained professionals who follow strict safety protocols to protect people, pets, and the environment from exposure.

Amidohydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of amides and related compounds, resulting in the formation of an acid and an alcohol. This reaction is also known as amide hydrolysis or amide bond cleavage. Amidohydrolases play important roles in various biological processes, including the metabolism of xenobiotics (foreign substances) and endogenous compounds (those naturally produced within an organism).

The term "amidohydrolase" is a broad one that encompasses several specific types of enzymes, such as proteases, esterases, lipases, and nitrilases. These enzymes have different substrate specificities and catalytic mechanisms but share the common ability to hydrolyze amide bonds.

Proteases, for example, are a major group of amidohydrolases that specifically cleave peptide bonds in proteins. They are involved in various physiological processes, such as protein degradation, digestion, and regulation of biological pathways. Esterases and lipases hydrolyze ester bonds in various substrates, including lipids and other organic compounds. Nitrilases convert nitriles into carboxylic acids and ammonia by cleaving the nitrile bond (C≡N) through hydrolysis.

Amidohydrolases are found in various organisms, from bacteria to humans, and have diverse applications in industry, agriculture, and medicine. For instance, they can be used for the production of pharmaceuticals, biofuels, detergents, and other chemicals. Additionally, inhibitors of amidohydrolases can serve as therapeutic agents for treating various diseases, such as cancer, viral infections, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Organothiophosphorus compounds are a class of chemical compounds that contain carbon (organo-) and thiophosphorus bonds. Thiophosphorus refers to a phosphorus atom bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. These compounds have various applications, including use as plasticizers, flame retardants, insecticides (such as malathion and parathion), and nerve agents (such as sarin and VX). They can be synthesized through the reaction of organolithium or Grignard reagents with thiophosphoryl chloride. The general structure of these compounds is R-P(=S)Y, where R is an organic group, P is phosphorus, and Y is a group that determines the properties and reactivity of the compound.

'Methanosarcina barkeri' is not a medical term, but a species name in the domain of microbiology. It refers to a type of archaea (single-celled organisms) that is capable of methanogenesis - producing methane as a metabolic byproduct. This microorganism is commonly found in anaerobic environments such as wetlands, digestive tracts of animals, and sewage sludge. It's not something that typically has a direct medical definition or relevance, unless in the context of specific research or environmental/industrial settings.

Inbred A mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings. This results in a high degree of genetic similarity among individuals within the strain, making them useful for research purposes where a consistent genetic background is desired. The Inbred A strain is maintained through continued brother-sister mating. It's important to note that while these mice are called "Inbred A," the designation does not refer to any specific medical condition or characteristic. Instead, it refers to the breeding practices used to create and maintain this particular strain of laboratory mice.

Herbicides are a type of pesticide used to control or kill unwanted plants, also known as weeds. They work by interfering with the growth processes of the plant, such as inhibiting photosynthesis, disrupting cell division, or preventing the plant from producing certain essential proteins.

Herbicides can be classified based on their mode of action, chemical composition, and the timing of their application. Some herbicides are selective, meaning they target specific types of weeds while leaving crops unharmed, while others are non-selective and will kill any plant they come into contact with.

It's important to use herbicides responsibly and according to the manufacturer's instructions, as they can have negative impacts on the environment and human health if not used properly.

Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a chemical one. However, it does have relevance to the medical field in certain contexts, such as in laboratory settings or pharmaceutical manufacturing. Here's a definition of TFA:

Trifluoroacetic acid (C2HF3O2) is an inorganic compound that is a colorless liquid at room temperature. It has a strong, pungent odor and is highly corrosive. In the chemical industry, it is commonly used as a reagent or solvent due to its ability to dissolve a wide range of organic compounds.

In the medical field, TFA may be encountered in laboratory settings where it can be used for various purposes such as peptide synthesis, chromatography, and other chemical reactions. It is also sometimes used as an ingredient in certain pharmaceutical formulations, although its use is generally limited due to its potential toxicity.

It's worth noting that TFA is not a medication or drug, but rather a chemical compound with various industrial and laboratory applications.

'Mosquito Control' is not a medical term per se, but it is a public health concept that refers to the systematic reduction or elimination of mosquito populations through various methods to prevent or minimize the transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. This multidisciplinary field involves entomologists, ecologists, engineers, and public health professionals working together to manage mosquito habitats, apply insecticides, and educate communities about personal protection measures. By controlling mosquito populations, we can significantly reduce the risk of contracting vector-borne illnesses such as malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, Zika virus, and West Nile virus, among others.

A sterol esterase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sterol esters, which are fatty acid esters of sterols (such as cholesterol) that are commonly found in lipoproteins and cell membranes. Sterol esterases play a crucial role in the metabolism of lipids by breaking down sterol esters into free sterols and free fatty acids, which can then be used in various biochemical processes.

There are several types of sterol esterases that have been identified, including:

1. Cholesteryl esterase (CE): This enzyme is responsible for hydrolyzing cholesteryl esters in the intestine and liver. It plays a critical role in the absorption and metabolism of dietary cholesterol.
2. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL): This enzyme is involved in the hydrolysis of sterol esters in adipose tissue, as well as other lipids such as triacylglycerols. It is regulated by hormones such as insulin and catecholamines.
3. Carboxylesterase (CES): This enzyme is a broad-specificity esterase that can hydrolyze various types of esters, including sterol esters. It is found in many tissues throughout the body.

Sterol esterases are important targets for drug development, as inhibiting these enzymes can have therapeutic effects in a variety of diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Ethylene oxide is a colorless gas at room temperature and pressure with a faintly sweet odor. It is used primarily as a sterilant, especially for medical equipment, but also has applications in the manufacture of other chemicals, including antifreeze and textile products. Ethylene oxide is highly flammable and reactive, and exposure can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, as well as more serious health effects with prolonged or high-level exposure. It is also a known human carcinogen, meaning that it has been shown to cause cancer in humans.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Analogues of carbamates with only one of the oxygens replaced by sulfur are called thiocarbamates (2 and 3). Carbamates with ... The salt ammonium carbamate is generated by treatment of ammonia with carbon dioxide: 2 NH3 + CO2 → NH4[H2NCO2] Carbamate ... However, the -ate suffix is also more specific because it suggests carbamates must be derived from the acid of carbamate, or ... Furthermore, carbamate esters are urethanes but not all urethanes are carbamate esters. This further suggests that ...
... (Fentanyl ethyl carbamate, Fentanyl ethylformate) is an opioid analgesic that is an analog of fentanyl and ...
... is poisoning due to exposure to carbamates. Carbamates are typically used as pesticides; however, some also ... v t e (All stub articles, Toxicology stubs, Poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes, Carbamates). ... King, Andrew M.; Aaron, Cynthia K. (February 2015). "Organophosphate and Carbamate Poisoning". Emergency Medicine Clinics of ...
Carbamate Ethyl carbamate (urethane) "Alfa Aesar Methyl carbamate". Alfa Aesar. Alfa Aesar. Retrieved 4 October 2021. Jäger, ... Methyl carbamate also is used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, insecticides, and urethane. N-Methyl carbamates are widely ... Methyl carbamate is prepared by the reaction of methanol and urea: CO(NH2)2 + CH3OH → CH3OC(O)NH2 + NH3 It also forms in the ... Methyl carbamate is used primarily in the textile and polymer industries as a reactive intermediate. In the textile industry, ...
Carbamates of other metals, such as calcium, can be produced by reacting ammonium carbamate with a suitable salt of the desired ... Ammonium carbamate is a chemical compound with the formula [NH4][H2NCO2] consisting of ammonium cation NH+4 and carbamate anion ... "Production of metal carbamates". US Patent US2023890A Jäger, Peter; Rentzea, Costin N.; Kieczka, Heinz (2000). "Carbamates and ... 2NH3 Lower temperatures shift the equilibrium towards the carbamate. At higher temperatures ammonium carbamate condenses into ...
... is the organic compound with the formula C6H5CH2OC(O)NH2. The compound can be viewed as the ester of carbamic ... Benzyl carbamate is used as a protected form of ammonia in the synthesis of primary amines. After N-alkylation, C6H5CH2OC(O) ... Sanchez-Sancho, Francisco; Romero, Jose Antonio; Fernandez-Ibanez, M. Angeles (2010). "Benzyl Carbamate". E-EROS Encyclopedia ... Meyer, Hartmut; Beck, Albert K.; Sebesta, Radovan; Seebach, Dieter (2008). "Benzyl Isopropoxymethyl Carbamate - an ...
Other carbamates include methyl carbamate, butyl carbamate, and phenyl carbamate (m. p. 149-152 °C), which can also be prepared ... Ethyl carbamate was reclassified as a Group 2A carcinogen by IARC in 2007. Ethyl carbamate is frequently used as an anaesthetic ... These other carbamates (methyl, butyl, and phenyl) are only used in small quantities for research purposes. Carbamate Methyl ... Amounts of both ethyl carbamate and methyl carbamate have also been found in wines, sake, beer, brandy, whiskey and other ...
... is no longer used for this purpose in most developed nations due to the availability of much safer ... Chlorphenesin carbamate (Maolate, Musil) is a centrally acting muscle relaxant used to treat muscle pain and spasms. ... Kurachi M, Aihara H (September 1984). "Effect of a muscle relaxant, chlorphenesin carbamate, on the spinal neurons of rats". ... A related chemical, chlorphenesin (C9H11ClO3) without the carbamate group, is used as a preservative in products such as ...
In enzymology, a carbamate kinase (EC 2.7.2.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + NH3 + CO2 ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:carbamate phosphotransferase. Other names in common use include CKase, ... Bishop SH, Grisolia S (1966). "Crystalline carbamate kinase". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 118 (1): 211-5. doi:10.1016/s0926-6593(66 ...
... (AQC) is a fluorogenic, amine labeling dye that is not fluorescent itself, but ... 6-Aminoquinolyl-N-Hydroxysuccinimidyl Carbamate, and Its Application for the Analysis of Hydrolysate Amino Acids via High- ... Carbamates, All stub articles, Organic compound stubs). ...
Carbamates like EA-3990 are well absorbed by the lungs, gastrointestinal tracts, and the skin. Signs and symptoms from exposure ... EA-3990 is a deadly carbamate nerve agent. It is lethal because it inhibits acetylcholinesterase. Inhibition causes an overly ... "Carbamates". Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press. pp. 338-339. ISBN ... Carbamate nerve agents, Pyridines, Quaternary ammonium compounds, Bromides, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Biscarbamates, ...
Carbamate insecticides, Anilines, Aromatic carbamates, Phenol esters, Dimethylamino compounds). ... Aminocarb is a carbamate insecticide widely used to protect cotton fields, crop fields, and forests from insect infestation. It ... ISBN 978-1-4398-2060-5. Aizawa, Hiroyasu (2001). "Carbamates". Metabolic Maps. pp. 74-81. doi:10.1016/B978-012045605-5/50007-6 ...
Carbamates like EA-4056 are well absorbed by the lungs, gastrointestinal tracts, and the skin. Signs and symptoms from exposure ... EA-4056 is a deadly carbamate nerve agent. It is lethal because it inhibits acetylcholinesterase. Inhibition causes an overly ... "Carbamates". Handbook of toxicology of chemical warfare agents (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press. pp. 338-339. ISBN ... Carbamate nerve agents, Pyridines, Quaternary ammonium compounds, Bromides, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Biscarbamates, ...
Carbamate is also a term used for esters of carbamic acids, such as methyl carbamate H2N−C(=O)−OCH3. The carbamoyl functional ... Methyl carbamate and ethyl carbamate are among the simplest examples and have historically been used in the textile industry, ... Benzyl carbamate is also known. The enzyme carbamate kinase, involved in several metabolic pathways of living organisms, ... carbamic acids carbamate anions carbamate esters carbamoyl chlorides Many substituted carbamic acids (RHNCOOH or RR′NCOOH), can ...
DMCC is a starting material for the insecticide class of the dimethyl carbamates which act as inhibitors of ... De Cusati, P. F.; Olofson, R. A. (1990). "A simple synthesis of 1-(1,3-butadienyl)carbonates and carbamates". Tetrahedron ... Unsaturated conjugated aldehydes such as crotonaldehyde (trans-but-2-enal) react with DMCC forming dienyl carbamates, which can ... Jäger, P.; Rentzea, C. N.; Kieczka, H. (2014). "Carbamates and carbamoyl chloride". Ullmann's Fine Chemicals. Weinheim: Wiley- ...
Carbamates are a class of depressants or "tranquilizers" that are synthesized from urea. Carbamates have anxiolytic, muscle ... Carbamates are fatal in overdose, which is why many have been replaced with benzodiazepines. It is not recommended to use most ... Other carbamates block sodium channels. Phenprobamate was used as an anxiolytic and is still sometimes used in Europe for ... It is a carbamate with muscle relaxant effects. Tetrabamate is a controversial drug that is a combination of febarbamate, ...
"Ethyl carbamate". Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2013. DrugBank. "Fenfluramine". ...
Conversion of primary alcohols to carbamates. Conversion of carboxylic acids and the acid chlorides into nitriles. Preparation ...
... and carbamates. Research undertaken by C.J. Pound and later the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation ( ...
The carbamate pesticides are also examples of reversible AChE inhibitors. The organophosphate pesticides such as malathion, ... ISBN 978-1-00-009898-3. Gupta RC (2006). "Classification and Uses of Organophosphates and Carbamates". In Gupta RC (ed.). ... Kuhr RJ, Dorough HW (1976). Carbamate Insecticides: Chemistry, Biochemistry, and Toxicology. Cleveland: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0- ... Toxicology of Organophosphate and Carbamate Compounds. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press. pp. 5-24. ISBN 978-0-08-054310-9. ...
Similarly, reacts with alcohols to form carbamates. It is used in addition with triethylamine to activate nitro groups to ...
Organophosphates, carbamates, and pyrethroids are widely used. The first case of pyrethroid resistance was reported by Beugnet ...
... is the carbamate derivative of guaifenesin, but does not produce guaifenesin as a metabolite, because the ... Unlike other carbamates such as meprobamate and its prodrug carisoprodol, methocarbamol has greatly reduced abuse potential. ... All the major metabolites are unhydrolyzed carbamates. Small amounts of unchanged methocarbamol are also excreted in the urine ... Alternatively, methocarbamol may act via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, similarly to carbamate. In healthy individuals, ...
The carbamate functional group readily hydrolyses in water, and in bodily conditions. The metabolite thus formed from ... King AM, Aaron CK (February 2015). "Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning". Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America. 33 ( ... Aromatic carbamates, Pyrroles, Pyrroloindoles, Secondary amines, Alkaloids found in Fabaceae, Plant toxins, Ophthalmology drugs ...
Carbamate poisoning can present similarly. Prevention efforts include banning very toxic types of organophosphates. Among those ... Toxicity, Organophosphate and Carbamate at eMedicine Moore C (2009). Children and Pollution: Why Scientists Disagree. Oxford ... Current antidotes for OP poisoning consist of a pretreatment with carbamates to protect AChE from inhibition by OP compounds ... Leibson T, Lifshitz M (2008). "Organophosphate and Carbamate Poisoning: Review of the Current Literature and Summary of ...
King, Andrew M.; Aaron, Cynthia K. (February 2015). "Organophosphate and Carbamate Poisoning". Emergency Medicine Clinics of ...
Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides have a similar mode of action. They affect the nervous system of target pests (and ... In general, a pesticide is a chemical (such as carbamate) or biological agent (such as a virus, bacterium, or fungus) that ... Chlorinates such as DDT were dominant, but they were replaced in the U.S. by organophosphates and carbamates by 1975. Since ... Organophosphates are quite toxic to vertebrates and have in some cases been replaced by less toxic carbamates.: 136-137 ...
Allophonate esters arise from the condensation of carbamates. Karachinskii, S. V.; Dragalov, V. V.; Chimishkyan, A. L.; ...
Ghosh AK, Brindisi M (April 2015). "Organic carbamates in drug design and medicinal chemistry". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry ...
Positive allosteric modulators: barbiturates, benzodiazepines, certain carbamates (ex. carisoprodol, meprobamate, lorbamate), ...
Analogues of carbamates with only one of the oxygens replaced by sulfur are called thiocarbamates (2 and 3). Carbamates with ... The salt ammonium carbamate is generated by treatment of ammonia with carbon dioxide: 2 NH3 + CO2 → NH4[H2NCO2] Carbamate ... However, the -ate suffix is also more specific because it suggests carbamates must be derived from the acid of carbamate, or ... Furthermore, carbamate esters are urethanes but not all urethanes are carbamate esters. This further suggests that ...
Organophosphates and carbamates. Organophosphates are organic compounds that contain phosphorus, while carbamates are salts or ... In different ways, organophosphates and carbamates tend to cause the nervous system to stop working properly. Some are used in ...
... *Selected Metallic Ions Identified in Waste ... Interaction Profile for Mixtures of Insecticides: Pyrethroids, Organophosphorus Compounds, and Carbamates. Atlanta, GA: U.S. ...
... and carbamate poisoning in a variety of clinical scenarios. Pesticide poisoning is the most common cause of OPC and carbamate ... poisoning as the vast majority of pesticides still contain OPCs and carbamates. ... 8] In 2019, 1978 cases of OPC exposure, 1238 cases of carbamate exposure, and 42 cases of combined OPC and carbamate exposure ... The main difference in the mechanisms of action between OPCs and carbamates is that carbamates spontaneously hydrolyze from the ...
US-2846465-A chemical patent summary.
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: methyl (2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl)carbamate, 58635-45-3.
... Molecular Formula: C16H18N4O4 ... 2-[(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)carbamoyloxy]ethyl N-(6-methylpyridin-2-yl)carbamate ...
Home / Need help now? / First Aid for dogs / Poisons & Toxins / Medication & Drugs / Flea & Tick Control (Carbamate) - dogs ... Junquera P (2013) Carbamates for veterinary use on livestock, viewed 15/11/13, from parasitipedia.net… ... Carbamate insecticides cause nerves/neurons to remain in constant activity and excitation. ... Blodgett DJ (2006) Organophosphate and Carbamate Insecticides In: Small Animal Toxicology. 2ndEdn. Peterson ME & Talcott PA. ...
... Molecular Formula: C6H9Cl4NO2 ...
Other Ethyl Carbamate Precursors in Juice and Wine. AVF Proj. ID: 9528 / Year Posted: 1995. /Cat.: Enology, Ethyl Carbamate ... Post-bottling formation of ethyl carbamate in wines that have tested negative for both urea and ethyl carbamate upon leaving ... and found that indeed this compound might be a precursor of ethyl carbamate in wines. We also synthesized several glucose-urea ... that diacetyl-urea adducts did not seem to be responsible for post-bottling ethyl carbamate formation. We have since reexamined ...
Is methyl carbamate toxic?. * Exposure to Phenol, 3-(1-Methylethyl)-, Methyl- carbamate can cause rapid, severe carbamate ... What is an example for carbamate pesticide?. admin. 09/10/2022. What is an example for carbamate pesticide?. Aldicarb, carbaryl ... What are oxime carbamate pesticides?. The carbamate insecticides are of two types, esters of N-methyl (or N,N-dimethyl) ... What carbamate means?. Definition of carbamate : a salt or ester of carbamic acid especially : one that is a synthetic organic ...
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: tert-Butyl (2-{[2-(tert-butylamino)-2-oxo-1-phenylethyl](2-furylmethyl)amino}-2-oxoethyl)carbama.
[312283-45-7], MFCD08276406, Allyl [3-(2-nitrobenzenesulfonamido)propyl]carbamate
This increases the anticholinesterase activity of the carbamate propoxur through calcium-dependent regulation of ...
Findings of the WHO EMRO Pediatric Insecticide Study Group on organophosphate / carbamate poisoning in children published ... carbamates, identifying those requiring referral to higher level facilities. The decision aid for referral, which is in line ... "A clinical decision aid for triage of children younger than 5 years and with organophosphate or carbamate insecticide exposure ...
Cyclic carbamates of lactose, and 3- and 2-fucosyl lactose, were used for the conjugation with building blocks containing ... Cyclic carbamates of lactose, and 3- and 2-fucosyl lactose, were used for the conjugation with building blocks containing ... Oligosaccharides containing the 1,2-cyclic carbamate group were attached to building blocks with a primary amino group to yield ... Oligosaccharides containing the 1,2-cyclic carbamate group were attached to building blocks with a primary amino group to yield ...
tert-butyl N-[(5-bromo-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)methyl]carbamate - [B82993]. ... tert-butyl N-[(5-bromo-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)methyl]carbamate - [B82993] ... tert-butyl N-[(5-bromo-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)methyl]carbamate ...
... carbamate 153086-78-3 from AK Scientific, in San Francisco, California ... tert-Butyl [2-[2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxy]ethyl]carbamate. Add to Favorites ...
In 2021, Top exporters of Cyclic amides (including cyclic carbamates) and their derivatives; n.e.s. in item no. 2924.2 to ... HS Code 292429: Cyclic amides (including cyclic carbamates) and their derivatives; n.e.s. in item no. 2924.2. Please note: ... Cyclic amides (including cyclic carbamates) and their derivatives; n.e.s. in item no. 2924.2. 2021. France. 304.84. 1,023. Kg. ... Cyclic amides (including cyclic carbamates) and their derivatives; n.e.s. in item no. 2924.2. 2021. France. 91.64. 25,730. Kg. ...
Silane coupling agents have the ability to form a durable bond between organic and inorganic materials to generate desired heterogeneous environments or to incorporate the bulk properties of different phases into a uniform composite structure. The general formula has two classes of functionality. The hydrolyzable group forms stable condensation products with siliceous surfaces and other oxides such as those of aluminum, zirconium, tin, titanium, and nickel. The organofunctional group alters the wetting or adhesion characteristics of the substrate, utilizes the substrate to catalyze chemical transformations at the heterogeneous interface, orders the interfacial region, or modifies its partition characteristics, and significantly effects the covalent bond between organic and inorganic materials. ...
Benzoheterocyclic oxime carbamates. The anti-Mtb activity of a library of small polar molecules has been evaluated29,30 and ... 29,30). These compounds were hypothesized to act as prodrugs by undergoing Mtb-mediated hydrolysis of the carbamate moiety to ... In addition, the chemically synthesized oxime congeners of the carbamates were inactive against Mtb (MIC , 160 µM). It has been ... Benzoheterocyclic oxime carbamates active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis: synthesis, structure-activity relationship, ...
aldehydes, anticonvulsants, antiepileptics, aromatic allylic alcohols, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, bromides, carbamates, ...
CARBAMATE AldrichCPR; CAS Number: 197455-54-2; Linear Formula: C20H23NO2; find -S891762 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, ...
10 years Chemicals from Amsterdam! (sold strictly for research ...
Pages in category Carbamate. The following 4 pages are in this category, out of 4 total. ... Retrieved from https://psychonautwiki.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Carbamate&oldid=139559 ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule ethyl carbamate (C3H7NO2) from the PQR. ...
Carbamate mixers are produced in 316L urea grade/25.22.2-UNS S31050 ... La Meccanica Padana manufactures the complete Mixer for carbamate.. Carbamate Mixers are equipment manufactured in different ...
A class of synthetic organic pesticides derived from carbamic acid, commonly used for locust control such as bendiocarb insecticide. ...
How To Use carbamate In A Sentence. * Most of them belong to the carbamate, nicotinoid and organophosphorus families. ... Carbamate columns designed for analysis of carbamates specified in United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) ... Organophosphate and carbamates are nerve poisons that lower the blood levels of an enzyme called cholinesterase, which aids in ... The Union Carbide Company used methyl isocyanate in manufacturing Carbaryl (carbamate) pesticides. Use Your Knowledge of ...
  • Typically, polyurethane polymers are made by combining diisocyanates, e.g. toluene diisocyanate, and diols, where the carbamate groups are formed by reaction of the alcohols with the isocyanates: RN=C=O + R′OH → RNHC(O)OR′ The so-called carbamate insecticides feature the carbamate ester functional group. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to their use as insecticides, carbamates are used to treat certain medical diseases, such as glaucoma and myasthenia gravis (neostigmine, physostigmine). (medscape.com)
  • Carbamate insecticides cause nerves/neurons to remain in constant activity and excitation. (lortsmith.com)
  • When applied to crops or directly to the soil as systemic insecticides, organophosphates and carbamates generally persist from only a few hours to several months. (shabupc.com)
  • Methyl carbamate also is used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, insecticides, and urethane. (shabupc.com)
  • N-Methyl carbamates are widely used as insecticides. (shabupc.com)
  • Carbamate Insecticides Severe toxicity, including respiratory depression and seizures, can occur. (shabupc.com)
  • The carbamate insecticides are of two types, esters of N-methyl (or N,N-dimethyl) carbamic acid with either a phenol or an oxime. (shabupc.com)
  • Cases listed as organophosphates (and the other categories as well) may also include other insecticides such as carbamates and organochlorines in a single product. (missouri.edu)
  • Agricultural use of carbamate insecticides and risks of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) have been linked in some but not all occupational epidemiologic studies. (who.int)
  • Moreover, studies on associated risks of NHL by histological subtype of NHL and by type of carbamate insecticides used are scarce. (who.int)
  • We evaluated the effects of carbamate insecticides on the risks of NHL and three major histological subtypes of NHL - multiple myeloma (MM), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia / small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) - in a sample of 65,630 French farmers from the prospective cohort AGRICAN. (who.int)
  • Their answers were crossed with data from the French crop-exposure matrix, PESTIMAT, to assess their exposure to 19 specific carbamate insecticides by purpose of pesticide use (soil, animals, barns or seeds). (who.int)
  • Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models with age as time scale and gender as a covariate were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for NHL risks (by subtype and overall) associated with exposure to carbamate insecticides. (who.int)
  • The risk of MM was elevated in participants who had used any carbamate insecticides at least on barns (HR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.00-2.87). (who.int)
  • The risk of MM was also increased for those who used any carbamate insecticides on animals (HR = 1.64, 95% CI: 0.96-2.81) and at least on soil (HR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.75-2.15) although the 95% CIs included 1.00. (who.int)
  • Use of any carbamate insecticides was not associated with CLL/SLL (HR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.57-1.36), DLBCL (HR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.39-1.24) or NHL overall (HR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.80-1.27). (who.int)
  • Our results may suggest a potential role of carbamate insecticides use on animals or barns in the etiology of MM. Further analyses on specific carbamate insecticides and respective duration of use are ongoing. (who.int)
  • Requires Citation] In contrast, the substance commonly called "urethane", ethyl carbamate, is neither a component of polyurethanes, nor is it used in their manufacture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Post-bottling formation of ethyl carbamate in wines that have tested negative for both urea and ethyl carbamate upon leaving the winery, continues to pose a problem for the industry. (avf.org)
  • We had previously reported (AVF, 1994-95) that diacetyl-urea adducts did not seem to be responsible for post-bottling ethyl carbamate formation. (avf.org)
  • We have since reexamined the behavior of 3a, 6a-dimethylglycoluril (one of the adducts of urea and diacetyl) and found that indeed this compound might be a precursor of ethyl carbamate in wines. (avf.org)
  • When subjected to acid hydrolysis under conditions similar to those found in wine, these urea adducts also released urea with the production of ethyl carbamate. (avf.org)
  • This behavior indicates that these compounds, that could form prior to fermentation, might also be responsible for post-bottling ethyl carbamate formation in wine. (avf.org)
  • When the Sunday Herald revealed in May that single malt whiskies were contaminated with high levels of a cancer-causing toxin, ethyl carbamate , the agency insisted that the health risks were minimal. (linguix.com)
  • Alcoholic beverage consumption and ethyl carbamate (urethane). (bvsalud.org)
  • In different ways, organophosphates and carbamates tend to cause the nervous system to stop working properly. (cdc.gov)
  • Organophosphates and carbamates, although different structurally, both inhibit cholinesterase activity. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Organophosphates and carbamates are common causes of poisoning and poison-related deaths worldwide. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Organophosphates and carbamates are absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, and skin. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Pesticide poisoning is the most common cause of OPC and carbamate poisoning, as the vast majority of pesticides still contain OPCs and carbamates. (medscape.com)
  • What is an example for carbamate pesticide? (shabupc.com)
  • The state-run Xinhua news agency said police in the northeastern province of Jilin found traces of the toxic pesticide carbamate in partially consumed bottles of the drink recovered from a local hospital where the victims sought treatment. (linguix.com)
  • Laboratory analysis indicated that the product contained the carbamate pesticide aldicarb (2-methyl-2-(methylthio)-propionaldehyde O-(methylcarbamoyl) oxime), which is not registered for use as a rodenticide in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • What is methyl carbamate used for? (shabupc.com)
  • What is N-methyl carbamate? (shabupc.com)
  • Is methyl carbamate toxic? (shabupc.com)
  • The Union Carbide Company used methyl isocyanate in manufacturing Carbaryl ( carbamate ) pesticides. (linguix.com)
  • What are organophosphate and carbamate pesticides? (shabupc.com)
  • However, the use of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides such as chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion, carbofuran and carbaryl has greatly increased because of their less detrimental effects on the environment, resulting from a small persistence time (2 h to 8 weeks). (shabupc.com)
  • What are oxime carbamate pesticides? (shabupc.com)
  • Many commonly used chemicals, especially organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, poison mammals by this mechanism. (linguix.com)
  • 112 In the 1930s, the synthesis of aliphatic esters of carbamic acid led to the development and introduction of carbamate pesticides, marketed initially as -fungicides. (mhmedical.com)
  • Organic phosphorus compounds (OPs) and carbamates are the two groups of cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides that commonly produce human toxicity. (mhmedical.com)
  • Organophosphorus (OP) compounds and carbamates, also known as cholinesterase inhibitors, are widely used pesticides. (mhmedical.com)
  • RÉSUMÉ Une intervention éducative culturellement adaptée a été mise au point à l'intention des familles d'agriculteurs du gouvernorat de Menoufia (Égypte) afin de leur permettre d'améliorer leurs connaissances et leurs pratiques en ce qui concerne la protection de leurs enfants contre l'exposition aux pesticides. (who.int)
  • Most of them belong to the carbamate , nicotinoid and organophosphorus families. (linguix.com)
  • However, seven of the top ten categories listed in Table 1 (organophosphates, pyrethrins/pyrethroids, hypochlorite disinfectants, carbamates, organochlorines, phenoxy herbicides and anticoagulant rodenticides) are much more likely to require medical attention. (missouri.edu)
  • Although not usually isolated as such, the salt ammonium carbamate is produced on a large scale as an intermediate in the production of the commodity chemical urea from ammonia and carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oligosaccharides containing the 1,2-cyclic carbamate group were attached to building blocks with a primary amino group to yield the corresponding urea derivatives. (uzh.ch)
  • Carbamate Mixers are equipment manufactured in different types of materials in according to customer's specifications and they are used for combining elements needed for the production of Urea. (meccanicapadana.com)
  • the term "urethane links" describe how carbamates polymerize. (wikipedia.org)
  • OPCs and carbamates also bind to erythrocyte cholinesterase (also known as red blood cell [RBC] cholinesterase) on RBCs and plasma cholinesterase (also known as pseudocholinesterase, serum cholinesterase, or butyrylcholinesterase) in the serum. (medscape.com)
  • Organophosphate and carbamates are nerve poisons that lower the blood levels of an enzyme called cholinesterase, which aids in the regulation of the nervous system. (linguix.com)
  • Although OPC and carbamates are structurally distinct, they have similar clinical manifestations and generally require the same management. (medscape.com)
  • Organophosphates are organic compounds that contain phosphorus, while carbamates are salts or esters of carbamic acid. (cdc.gov)
  • While carbamic acids are unstable, many carbamate esters and salts are stable and well known. (wikipedia.org)
  • The salt ammonium carbamate is generated by treatment of ammonia with carbon dioxide: 2 NH3 + CO2 → NH4[H2NCO2] Carbamate esters also arise via alcoholysis of carbamoyl chlorides: R2NC(O)Cl + R'OH → R2NCO2R' + HCl Alternatively, carbamates can be formed from chloroformates and amines: R'OC(O)Cl + R2NH → R2NCO2R' + HCl Carbamates may be formed from the Curtius rearrangement, where isocyanates formed are reacted with an alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Definition of carbamate : a salt or ester of carbamic acid especially : one that is a synthetic organic insecticide. (shabupc.com)
  • Agricultural exposure is the most common cause of OPC and carbamate poisoning. (medscape.com)
  • Carbamates are cleared spontaneously within about 48 hours after exposure. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Blockade of AChE is the most clinically significant effect of OPs and carbamates because this leads to the accumulation of excessive amounts of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors (found on various cholinergic secretory cells), at nicotinic receptors (located on skeletal neuromuscular junctions and autonomic ganglia), and in the CNS. (mhmedical.com)
  • Cyclic carbamates of lactose, and 3- and 2'-fucosyl lactose, were used for the conjugation with building blocks containing photoactivable diazirine, benzophenone or aryl azido groups. (uzh.ch)
  • The conjugation of cyclic carbamate-derivatized oligosaccharides with photoactivable aryl azido groups thus represents a convenient approach to study protein-carbohydrate interactions. (uzh.ch)
  • In organic chemistry, a carbamate is a category of organic compounds with the general formula R2NC(O)OR and structure >N−C(=O)−O−, which are formally derived from carbamic acid (NH2COOH). (wikipedia.org)
  • 14. The coating composition of claim 13, further comprising one or more curing agents, optionally other glycidyl carbamate-functional compounds, optionally one or more organic solvents, and optionally one or more coating additives. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 25. A method of making an alcohol-modified glycidyl carbamate resin containing glycidyl carbamate functional compounds, comprising the step of substituting about 5% to about 45% of the glycidyl groups in the glycidyl carbamate functional compounds with an alcohol. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 26. The method of claim 25, wherein at least some of the glycidyl carbamate functional compounds are selected from the group consisting of biuret glycidyl carbamate functional compounds, triisocyanurate glycidyl carbamate functional compounds, iminooxadiazine dime compounds, multi-functional allophanate compounds having at least three pendent glycidyl carbamate groups, and combinations thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • [ 3 ] Carbamates, such as physostigmine and neostigmine, are commonly used to treat diseases such as glaucoma and myasthenia gravis. (medscape.com)
  • OPCs and carbamates bind to an active site of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and inhibit the functionality of this enzyme by means of steric inhibition. (medscape.com)
  • The main difference in the mechanisms of action between OPCs and carbamates is that carbamates spontaneously hydrolyze from the AChE site within 24 hours, whereas OPCs undergo aging. (medscape.com)
  • Emergency department (ED) physicians may encounter organophosphorous compound (OPC) and carbamate poisoning in a variety of clinical scenarios. (medscape.com)
  • Although most patients with OPC and carbamate poisoning have a good prognosis, severe poisoning is potentially lethal. (medscape.com)
  • How does carbamate cause poisoning? (shabupc.com)
  • RCON3 → RNCO + N2 RNCO + R′OH → RNHCO2R′ Within nature carbon dioxide can bind with neutral amine groups to form a carbamate, this post-translational modification is known as carbamylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of amine-based carbamates with their dual function, acting as amine curing agents and CO2 blowing agents after their decomposition without by-products, are promising for ecofriendly epoxy foams as high-performance materials. (uni-bayreuth.de)
  • The viscosity is altered not only by blending neat amine and its derived carbamate at a fixed pre-curing time, but also by changing the pre-curing time at a fixed blend ratio. (uni-bayreuth.de)
  • The study proves that the blending of neat amine and carbamate is beneficial for the foaming performance of carbamate systems. (uni-bayreuth.de)
  • as well as salts with the carbamate anion H2NCOO− (e.g. ammonium carbamate). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fenoxycarb has a carbamate group but acts as a juvenile hormone mimic, rather than inactivating acetylcholinesterase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Requires Citation] Commonly, urethanes made by a non-isocyanate route are called carbamates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminal amino groups of valine residues in the α- and β-chains of deoxyhemoglobin exist as carbamates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ε-amino groups of the lysine residues in urease and phosphotriesterase also feature carbamate. (wikipedia.org)
  • 27. The method of claim 26, wherein the resin contains at least one glycidyl carbamate functional compound where none of the glycidyl groups are substituted with an alcohol. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The carbamate derived from aminoimidazole is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of inosine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carbamate is formed when an uncharged lysine side chain near the ion reacts with a carbon dioxide molecule from the air (not the substrate carbon dioxide molecule), which then renders it charged, and, therefore, able to bind the Mg2+ ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbamates, however, reversibly bind to the active site and do not undergo aging. (medscape.com)
  • In water solutions, the carbamate anion slowly equilibrates with the ammonium NH+ 4 cation and the carbonate CO2− 3 or bicarbonate HCO− 3 anions: H2NCO−2 + 2 H2O ⇌ NH+4 + HCO−3 + OH− H2NCO−2 + H2O ⇌ NH+4 + CO2−3 Calcium carbamate is soluble in water, whereas calcium carbonate is not. (wikipedia.org)
  • We describe herein a reaction for the chemo-and site-selective replacement of carbamates with various other carbamates only at the N-Terminus of peptides. (elsevierpure.com)