Carbamates: Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Carbofuran: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic insecticide, an acaricide, and nematocide. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Aldicarb: Carbamate derivative used as an insecticide, acaricide, and nematocide.Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Butyrylcholinesterase: An aspect of cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8).Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Dielectric Spectroscopy: A technique of measuring the dielectric properties of materials, which vary over a range of frequencies depending on the physical properties of the material. The technique involves measuring, over a range of frequencies, ELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE and phase shift of an electric field as it passes through the material.Lettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)IowaUrethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Carbaryl: A carbamate insecticide and parasiticide. It is a potent anticholinesterase agent belonging to the carbamate group of reversible cholinesterase inhibitors. It has a particularly low toxicity from dermal absorption and is used for control of head lice in some countries.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Propoxur: A carbamate insecticide.Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Organophosphate Poisoning: Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Hydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Phosphotransferases (Carboxyl Group Acceptor): A class of enzymes that transfers phosphate groups and has a carboxyl group as an acceptor. EC 2.7.2.Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Chlorpyrifos: An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.CholinesterasesDieldrin: An organochlorine insecticide whose use has been cancelled or suspended in the United States. It has been used to control locusts, tropical disease vectors, in termite control by direct soil injection, and non-food seed and plant treatment. (From HSDB)Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Phenylcarbamates: Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Organothiophosphorus Compounds: Compounds containing carbon-phosphorus bonds in which the phosphorus component is also bonded to one or more sulfur atoms. Many of these compounds function as CHOLINERGIC AGENTS and as INSECTICIDES.Methomyl: A carbamate insecticide with anticholinesterase activity.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Poisoning: A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.Glycylglycine: The simplest of all peptides. It functions as a gamma-glutamyl acceptor.DDT: A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Diazinon: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an organothiophosphorus insecticide.Endosulfan: A polychlorinated compound used for controlling a variety of insects. It is practically water-insoluble, but readily adheres to clay particles and persists in soil and water for several years. Its mode of action involves repetitive nerve-discharges positively correlated to increase in temperature. This compound is extremely toxic to most fish. (From Comp Biochem Physiol (C) 1993 Jul;105(3):347-61)Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Dichlorvos: An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.Carbamyl Phosphate: The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).Maneb: Manganese derivative of ethylenebisdithiocarbamate. It is used in agriculture as a fungicide and has been shown to cause irritation to the eyes, nose, skin, and throat.Chlorpropham: A carbamate that is used as an herbicide and as a plant growth regulator.Parathion: A highly toxic cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.Sri LankaLindane: An organochlorine insecticide that has been used as a pediculicide and a scabicide. It has been shown to cause cancer.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.North CarolinaFenitrothion: An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.Chlorphenesin: A centrally acting muscle relaxant. Its mode of action is unknown. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1203)Dimethoate: An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic and contact insecticide.Zineb: An agricultural fungicide of the dithiocarbamate class. It has relatively low toxicity and there is little evidence of human injury from exposure.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Malathion: A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes.Carboxylesterase: Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS.Phosmet: An organothiophosphorus insecticide that has been used to control pig mange.Household Products: Substances or materials used in the course of housekeeping or personal routine.
  • Trade named Furadan, it is a WWII-era pesticide manufactured by FMC Corporation. (panna.org)
  • An insecticide standard consisted of 5 g carbofuran (Furadan[R] 3G, Bayer CropScience, Bogota, Colombia) per plant. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Furadan 3G (Carbofuran) a systematic N-methyl carbamate pesticide was orally administered at doses of 0.15, 0.1, and 0.05mg/kg body weight to normal male and female albino Wistar rat for eleven (11) weeks. (ispub.com)
  • Furadan is the registered trade name for insecticidal formulations of carbofuran 2, 3-dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranylmethylcarbamate (Edward, et al. (ispub.com)
  • 1980). The name Furadan is used predominantly in the field, whereas carbofuran ® (the common name) accepted by the American Standard Association has become the accepted name for the formulation used in the laboratory (Edward et al. (ispub.com)
  • 1980). The names Furadan and carbofuran ® have been used interchangeably (Niagara Chemical Division, FMC Corporation, unpublished). (ispub.com)
  • Furadan 3G granular (3% carbofuran ® in a sand core granule) replaced aldrin in Texas in 1970 (Edward et al. (ispub.com)
  • Technical grade Furadan 3G (carbofuran) was kindly provided by Mercy Agro Allied Company Ltd., located along Zaria - Samaru road and dissolved in distilled water as a vehicle for oral administration. (ispub.com)
  • Eighty-two bacterial isolates with potential Carbofuran degradation activity (Furadan®3SC) were obtained from soils cultivated with the potato variety Unica ( Solanum tuberosum ) in Silos, Norte de Santander (Colombia), with different records of pesticide application. (scielo.org.co)
  • Trade names for carbofuran include Furadan and Curater. (blogspot.com)
  • Urinary metabolites of carbofuran were detected by CDPR in 18 (58%) of 31 samples obtained up to 11 days following the exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Pesticide handlers and applicators are at greater risk for exposure and a number of incidents of systemic poisoning have been reported.After absorption, carbofuran is metabolized to phenolic metabolites and 3-hydroxycarbofuran, which are quickly eliminated in the urine. (cdc.gov)
  • This method assesses human exposure to select pesticide metabolites of non-persistent pesticides. (cdc.gov)
  • Pesticide refers to any substance or mixture of substances in the food of humans or animals, including any specified derivatives such as degradation and conversion products, metabolites, reaction products, and impurities, of toxicological significance [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The DNA damaging effects of the carbamate pesticide carbofuran and its four metabolites (carbofuranphenol, 3-ketocarbofuran, 3-hydrocarbofuran and nitrosocarbofuran) on mice were evaluated by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay and micronucleus test. (saladgaffe.cf)
  • Abstract Introduction Tobacco farming exposes workers to various health risks due to the high application of pesticides needed to control pests, weeds and fungal diseases that prevent the tobacco plant growth. (bvsalud.org)
  • carbofuran, carbosulfan, benfuracarb and furathiocarb, including the CXLs that were taken over in the EU legislation. (europa.eu)
  • EFSA recommends the withdrawal of the carbofuran and/or carbosulfan CXLs transposed in the EU legislation for mandarin, orange, sunflower, rape seed and spices. (europa.eu)
  • Neurotoxic metals such as lead, mercury, aluminum, cadmium and arsenic, as well as some pesticides and metal-based nanoparticles have been involved in AD due to their ability to increase beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide and the phosphorylation of Tau protein (P-Tau), causing senile/amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) characteristic of AD. (frontiersin.org)
  • Low-level organophosphate pesticide (OP's) exposure can be neurotoxic. (neurotox.com)
  • This herbicide is a member of the substituted urea class of pesticides, which are relatively nonselective and are usually applied to the soil as pre-emergence herbicides. (fsu.edu)
  • Systemic pesticides, on the other hand, are usually incorporated into the soil or onto seeds and move up into the stem, leaves, nectar, and pollen of plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • A systemic pesticide, which is incorporated into the soil or coated on seeds, may kill soil-dwelling insects, such as grubs or mole crickets as well as other insects, including bees, that are exposed to the leaves, fruits, pollen, and nectar of the treated plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extensive use of carbamate pesticides in agriculture has induced the rapid evolution and dissemination of specific degradative pathways for the compound in soil bacteria ( 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Describing movement of three pesticides in soil using a CSTR in series model. (cdc.gov)
  • 1974. Pesticide residues in the top soil of 5 west Alabama counties. (cdc.gov)
  • 1981. General method for determination of pesticide residues in samples of plant origin, soil, and water. (cdc.gov)
  • However, these pesticides are still frequently found in soil, from which they continue to cycle through the environment, as soil is a potential source to the atmosphere by way of volatilization and to water, plants, and animals by their movement via runoff * To whom correspondence should be addressed. (docmh.net)
  • Different studies demonstrated the bioaccumulation of organochlorine from contaminated soil to aerial and root tissues of different plants (5) and to organisms (6, 7), which can bioconcentrate these fat-soluble pesticides at times the level found in the surrounding environment. (docmh.net)
  • Carbofuran also has contact activity against pests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pesticides are substances or a mixture of substances, of chemical or biological origin, used by human society to mitigate or repel pests such as bacteria, nematodes, insects, mites, mollusks, birds, rodents, and other organisms that affect food production or human health. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Pesticides are widely used in agriculture mainly to increase crop yields to cater huge supply of food products for increasing world population as well as to protect crops from pests and control insect-borne diseases. (ommegaonline.org)
  • Aldicarb is a carbamate pesticide primarily used historically as a nematicide in potato production, but also used for the control of pests such as aphids and spider mites. (blogspot.com)
  • Pesticides are substances used to control pests, including insects, water weeds, and plant diseases. (vt.edu)
  • The Pesticide Encyclopedia provides a comprehensive overview of the fight against pests, covering chemical pesticides, biocontrol agents and biopesticides. (credoreference.com)
  • Carbofuran , an N-methyl carbamate, is acutely toxic to humans, and one granule of the product can kill a bird. (panna.org)
  • A new study led by a preeminent Canadian toxicologist identifies acutely toxic pesticides as the most likely leading cause of the widespread decline in grassland-bird numbers in the United States, a finding that challenges the widely-held assumption that habitat loss is the primary cause of those population declines. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • 1980). In view of the above findings, the present study has been undertaken to attempt to characterize the effect of carbofuran ® on the eating and drinking behavior of animals, specifically the laboratory rats. (ispub.com)
  • Temporal effect of carbofuran on estrous cycle compensatory ovarian hypertrophy and follicles in hemiovariectomized albino mice. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Editorial Note: Pesticide exposure can cause serious acute illness among farm workers. (cdc.gov)
  • Because estimated acute intakes from some dietary components in young children may exceed recommended intake limits, U.S.EPA is in the process of revoking current regulations that allow carbofuran residues in food (U.S.EPA, 2009). (cdc.gov)
  • Active surveillance of acute pesticide poisonings in a potato-growing region of highland Ecuador during 1991-1992 uncovered a rate of 171/100 000, due predominantly to occupational exposures to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. (scielosp.org)
  • EFSA recommends, to maintain the MRL for carbofuran in fresh cultivated mushrooms at the current LOQ of 0.01* mg/kg, since higher values will result in an acute consumer intake concern. (europa.eu)
  • During a six-year period (from January 2009 to December 2014), specimens collected from 344 cases of suspected organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide poisonings in wildlife, including birds, were submitted to the Toxicology Laboratory (ARC-OVI) for analysis. (scielo.org.za)
  • The Toxicology Laboratory (ARC-OVI) performed all the analyses of suspected pesticide poisonings of wildlife reported in this article. (scielo.org.za)
  • This study aimed to characterize pesticide poisonings reported to a toxicological information center of the state of Goiás through a retrospective analysis from 2005 to 2015. (scielosp.org)
  • Further costing of pesticide poisonings should be carried out in other settings to provide appropriate information for decisions about pesticide use. (scielosp.org)
  • In addition, integrated pest management should be further evaluated as an appropriate technology to reduce the economic burden of illness from pesticide poisonings in developing countries. (scielosp.org)
  • Among these externalities, costs associated with human health impacts may be particularly important in the developing world, given that the majority of pesticide poisonings are thought to occur in these regions (2). (scielosp.org)
  • Suspected poisonings (n = 130) were defined as cases where brain ChE activity was ≥50% inhibited or a specific pesticide was identified in gastrointestinal contents. (usgs.gov)
  • The Agency concluded "that dietary, worker, and ecological risks are of concern for all uses of carbofuran. (panna.org)
  • This application note details the analysis of pesticide residues and pharmaceuticals of concern in drinking water samples present at trace levels (sub ppb). (waters.com)
  • The analysis of pesticide residues was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. (hindawi.com)
  • A comparison with results from urine and plasma samples demonstrated the relevance of hair analysis and, for many chemicals, its superiority over using fluids for differentiating animals from different groups and for re-attributing animals to their correct groups of exposure based on pesticide concentrations in the matrix. (springer.com)
  • Different national regulations have established maximum concentrations of pesticide residues (MRLs) permitted in honey, but the lack of homogeneity causes problems in international marketing and trade. (docmh.net)
  • On July 31 at 4 a.m., a cotton field was sprayed aerially with a solution containing as active ingredients 0.26% carbofuran (n-methyl carbamate), 0.05% abamectin (macrolytic lactone), and 0.05% mepiquat chloride (growth regulator). (cdc.gov)
  • 001) increase in water consumption for rats treated with 0.15, 0.1, and 0.05mg/kg carbofuran compared to control. (ispub.com)
  • A carbamate group, carbamate ester (e.g., ethyl carbamate), and carbamic acids are functional groups that are inter-related structurally and often are interconverted chemically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Urethane (ethyl carbamate) was once produced commercially in the United States as a chemotherapy agent and for other medicinal purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bemis J C, Labash C, Avlasevich S L, Carlson K, Berg A, Torous D K, Barragato M, James T, Gregor M, Dertinger S D (2015) Rat Pig-a mutation assay responds to the genotoxic carcinogen ethyl carbamate but not the non-genotoxic carcinogen methyl carbamate. (springer.com)
  • Carbofuran is a plant systemic and has a high water solubility, which allows the pesticide to be taken into the roots or leaves. (fsu.edu)
  • 2002). Carbofuran (2, 3-dihydro-2, 2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranylmethylcarbamate), is a systemic N-methyl carbamate pesticide with predominantly contact (dermal-absorption through the intact skin) and stomach action (vomiting, nausea, abdominal cramp, diarrhea) (Kaliwal et al. (ispub.com)
  • 1.4 The Detection Verification Level (DVL) and Reporting Range for the carbamates are listed in Table 1. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The resulting evaluation procedure is generic and allows the rejection of spurious measurements based on their dynamic responses, and was effectively applied for the binary detection of carbofuran in apple extracts. (mdpi.com)
  • Simultaneous pulsed flame photometric and mass spectrometric detection for enhanced pesticide analysis capabilities. (cdc.gov)
  • Poisoning events were classified as confirmed (n = 205) when supported by findings of ≥50% inhibition of cholinesterase (ChE) activity in brain tissue and the detection of a specific pesticide in the gastrointestinal contents of one or more carcasses. (usgs.gov)
  • The carbamate has a relatively short residual lifetime, rendering it useful on forage and vegetable crops. (fsu.edu)
  • Although major pest outbreaks have occurred, such as potato blight ( Phytopthora infestans ), which destroyed most potato crops in Ireland during the mid-nineteenth century, not until later that century were pesticides such as arsenic, pyrethrum, lime sulfur, and mercuric chloride used. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Crayfish ( Procambarus clarkii ) identified in the crops of some herons contained carbofuran residues of up to 0.6 parts per million wet weight, providing additional evidence of exposure. (bioone.org)
  • Carbofuran is a carbamate pesticide that is used on various field crops such as potatoes and corn. (blogspot.com)
  • For example, ammonium carbamate is generated by treatment of ammonia with carbon dioxide 2 NH3 + CO2 → NH4[H2NCOCarbamates also arise via hydrolysis of chloroformamides and subsequent esterification: R2NC(O)Cl + H2O → R2NCO2H + HCl Carbamates may be formed from the Curtius rearrangement, where isocyanates formed are reacted with an alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNCO + R′OH → RNHCO2R′ Although most of this article concerns organic carbamates, the inorganic salt ammonium carbamate is produced on a large scale as an intermediate in the production of the commodity chemical urea from ammonia and carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The carbamate is formed when an uncharged lysine side chain near the ion reacts with a carbon dioxide molecule from the air (not the substrate carbon dioxide molecule), which then renders it charged, and, therefore, able to bind the Mg2+ ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organochlorine pesticides have been restricted or banned in agriculture since 1978 in North America and Europe because of their persistence and bioaccumulation in the environment. (docmh.net)
  • The mechanism of action displayed by this diverse group of pesticides is probably by chemically combining with biological amines and thiols. (fsu.edu)
  • All products containing carbofuran generally cause unreasonable adverse effects on humans and the environment and do not meet safety standards, and therefore are ineligible for reregistration. (panna.org)
  • Both the adverse effects of pesticides and the ubiquity of human exposure to these chemicals have been documented by an increasing number of data sets (Ntzani et al. (springer.com)
  • The widespread use of pesticides and the scientific interest in potential adverse health effect of pesticides exposure have increased the demand for fast and robust analytical methods for measuring markers of possible pesticides. (cdc.gov)
  • Ideal pesticides must act selectively against certain pest organisms without adverse effects to non-target organisms. (ommegaonline.org)
  • Several studies have demonstrated that vegetables sprayed with pesticides will absorb them internally, which can create adverse effects [ 10 - 12 ] when they are consumed by humans and animals. (hindawi.com)
  • Neonicotinoids are especially likely to cause cumulative effects on bees due to their mechanism of function as this pesticide group works by binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brains of the insects, and such receptors are particularly abundant in bees. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other pesticide residues found on leaves in the first field were abamectin (up to 0.009 ug/cm2) and dicofol (up to 0.58 ug/cm2). (cdc.gov)
  • However, honey consumers of both countries should not be concerned about the amounts of pesticide residues found in honeys available on the market. (docmh.net)