An antibacterial agent that has been used in veterinary practice for treating swine dysentery and enteritis and for promoting growth. However, its use has been prohibited in the UK following reports of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p125)
Antiprotozoal and antimicrobial agent used mainly in veterinary practice.
Broad spectrum anthelmintic for livestock.
Infections with bacteria of the genus TREPONEMA.
An arsenical which has been used as a feed additive for enteric conditions in pigs and poultry. It causes blindness and is ototoxic and nephrotoxic in animals.
A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking agent, that causes persistent nicotinic activation resulting in spastic paralysis of susceptible nematodes. It is a drug of second-choice after benzimidazoles for treatment of ascariasis, hookworm, and pinworm infections, being effective after a single dose. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p920)
An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The use of humans as investigational subjects.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
Designs for approaching areas inside or outside facilities.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Pain in the breast generally classified as cyclical (associated with menstrual periods), or noncyclical, i.e. originating from the breast or nearby muscles or joints, ranging from minor discomfort to severely incapacitating.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized to one 10-carbon ring.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)
The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
The management of all procurement, distribution, and storage of equipment and supplies, as well as logistics management including laundry, processing of reusables, etc.
Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Antibacterials that are used as growth promoters in animal husbandry can affect the release of Shiga-toxin-2-converting bacteriophages and Shiga toxin 2 from Escherichia coli strains. (1/38)

Antibiotics are commonly used as growth promoters in animal husbandry worldwide. This practice has been linked to the emergence of particular antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and is now controversial. In this study, the ability of growth-promoting antibiotics to induce Shiga toxin (Stx)-converting bacteriophages from Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains was investigated. Subinhibitory concentrations of the antibacterial growth promoters olaquindox, carbadox, tylosin and monensin were used for induction experiments. The amount of mature Stx-converting phage particles released from induced and non-induced cultures was determined, and the production of Stx was simultaneously measured by ELISA. Whereas the quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide-type antibiotics olaquindox and carbadox enhanced the release of Stx-converting phage particles from STEC cells, tylosin and monensin decreased phage induction. The production of Stx increased or decreased simultaneously with the amount of free phages. The results of this study show that particular antibacterial growth promoters can induce Stx phages. In vivo induction of Stx phages from lysogenic STEC may increase the amount of free phages in the intestine and therefore may contribute to the spread of STEC and development of new STEC pathotypes.  (+info)

An investigation of the etiology of a mild diarrhea observed in a group of grower/finisher pigs. (2/38)

An investigation into a mild diarrhea in a group of grower/finisher pigs was carried out in order to determine the etiology. A tiamulin injection and a carbadox-medicated ration were given to pens of pigs in a 2 x 2 factorial experimental design. Pens of pigs were assessed a score, based on the consistency of the feces in the pen, each week. The clinical investigation looked for the intestinal pathogens Brachyspira pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae, Lawsonia intracellularis, Salmonella spp., Yersinia spp., transmissible gastroenteritis virus, and rotavirus. Despite a rigorous investigation, the diarrhea was not attributed to any pathogen. A mild colitis was noted among pigs necropsied while affected with diarrhea. Improved diagnostic tools may allow a more effective response to an outbreak of mild disease, while at the same time reducing the amount of antimicrobials used in swine production.  (+info)

Brewers dried yeast as a source of mannan oligosaccharides for weanling pigs. (3/38)

Brewers dried yeast, a source of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), was assessed as an alternative to an antimicrobial agent (carbadox) for young pigs in two experiments. The yeast contained 5.2% MOS. Agglutination tests confirmed adsorption of several serovars of E. coli and Salmonella spp. onto the yeast product. In Exp. 1, seven replicates (five pigs per pen) of 22-d-old pigs were fed a nonmedicated basal diet or the basal diet with carbadox (55 mg/kg), yeast (3%), or a combination of 3% yeast and 2% citric acid for 28 d. Carbadox did not improve growth performance. Growth rate and feed intake were depressed (P < 0.05) in pigs fed yeast alone or in combination with acid. Log counts of total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens in feces were not affected by diet, but Bifidobacteria spp. counts were lower (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the yeast + acid diet and lactobacilli counts were higher (P < 0.05) in pigs fed yeast. Fecal pH and VFA concentrations and intestinal morphological traits were not consistently affected by diet. Serum IgG levels were elevated in the yeast + acid (P < 0.01) group. In Exp. 2, the effects of yeast and carbadox additions to the diet on enteric microbial populations in young pigs housed in isolation units were evaluated. Pigs (n = 24) were weaned at 11 d of age (4.1 kg BW) and placed in isolation chambers (two pigs per chamber) equipped with individual air filtering systems and excrement containers. Treatments were a nonmedicated basal diet and the basal diet with 55 mg/kg of carbadox or with 3% yeast. Diets were fed for 29 d, then each pig was orally dosed with approximately 9.5 x 10(8) CFU of E. coli K88. Daily fecal E. coli K88 counts were not different (P > 0.05) among treatments, but fecal shedding of carbadox-resistant coliforms was higher (P < 0.01) during the 9-d period in pigs fed carbadox. Total fecal coliforms were consistently lower throughout the postinoculation period in pigs fed yeast (P < 0.05). Yeast reduced colonization oftotal coliforms in the duodenum,jejunum, cecum, and colon, but it did not have a consistent effect on colonization of E. coli K88. Pigs fed yeast tended (P < 0.10) to have higher serum IgG levels than controls. In these experiments, brewers dried yeast and carbadox had minimal effects on growth, microbial populations, and intestinal health traits of early-weaned pigs, but certain serum immunological traits were enhanced by feeding yeast.  (+info)

Effect of dietary mannanoligosaccharide and sodium chlorate on the growth performance, acute-phase response, and bacterial shedding of weaned pigs challenged with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. (4/38)

A 28-d experiment evaluated the growth, acute-phase response, and bacterial shedding patterns in pigs (n = 96; initially 6.8 +/- 1.3 kg) fed mannanoligosaccharides (MANNAN) and sodium chlorate (CHLORATE) before and after oral challenge with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (ST). The negative control diet contained no antimicrobial (CON), and the positive control contained carbadox (CARB; 55 ppm). Test diets contained (as-fed basis) MANNAN (1,500 ppm) or CHLORATE (800 ppm). Pigs were fed diets for 14 d and then given ST orally. Pigs fed CARB had greater ADG over the entire study than pigs from other treatments (P < 0.05). During wk 1 to 2, before ST challenge, feed intake (as-fed basis) was lower for pigs fed MANNAN and CHLORATE than pigs fed CARB (P < 0.05). During the final 2 wk, pigs fed CARB had greater feed intake than pigs on other treatments (P < 0.05). Gain/feed was greater for pigs fed CARB in the 2 wk before ST (P < 0.05); however, in wk 3 to 4 after ST, gain/feed was reduced for CON pigs compared to pigs on other treatments (P < 0.05). Serum IGF-I was decreased at 2 and 4 d after ST (P < 0.001), and, overall, IGF-I was greater in pigs fed CARB than CON or CHLORATE (P < 0.05). Serum haptoglobin concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) for all treatments at d 6 compared with d 13 after ST. Overall, haptoglobin was greater for MANNAN than for CARB and CHLORATE (P < 0.05) and tended to be increased (P < 0.06) relative to CON. Interleukin-6 was not affected by treatment or day post-ST challenge. Fecal shedding of salmonellae organisms was less for CHLORATE (P < 0.05) than all other treatments at 7 d after ST. Shedding scores decreased from d 7 to 14 after ST (P < 0.05) for the CON, CARB, and MANNAN treatments. We conclude that feeding MANNAN and CHLORATE before acute enteric disease challenge may support improved gut function as evidenced by improved gain/feed, and that CHLORATE may decrease bacterial shedding. But neither MANNAN nor CHLORATE enhanced growth relative to the absence of dietary antimicrobials, nor was either treatment as effective as CARB following ST challenge.  (+info)

Influence of carbadox on fasting oxygen consumption by portal vein-drained organs and by the whole animal in growing pigs. (5/38)

Fasting O2 consumption by the whole animal (W) and by portal vein-drained organs (PVDO) during the 24- to 30-h postprandial period were measured in seven growing pigs (36.1 +/- 2.3 kg) with catheters chronically placed in the hepatic portal vein, ileal vein, and carotid artery trained to consume 1.2 kg of a 16% CP corn soybean meal basal diet (B) once daily. The pigs were placed individually into an open-circuit, indirect calorimeter and connected to an arteriovenous (A-V) O2 difference analyzer for hourly simultaneous measurements of O2 consumption by W and PVDO. The PVDO O2 consumption was calculated by multiplying the A-V O2 difference by the portal vein blood flow rate derived from constant infusion of a p-aminohippuric acid solution into the ileal vein. After the initial series of hourly measurements, four pigs remained on the B diet and three pigs were fed a B + 55 ppm carbadox diet. Seven days later, the second series of measurements was made. In pigs fed the diet with carbadox added, the hourly W O2 consumptions were not different (P greater than .05) between the initial and second series and averaged 7.5 mL.min-1.kg of BW-1. However, the A-V O2 differences (mL/dL) were reduced (P less than .05) from 4.6 to 4.0 at 24 h, 4.8 to 4.0 at 25 h, and 4.6 to 4.0 at 29 h postprandial and the fractions of W O2 consumption used by PVDO (percentage) were reduced (P less than .05) from 28.6 to 21.6 at 26 h and 25.2 to 18.2 at 27 h postprandial.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  (+info)

Effects of supplementation of beta-glucans on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and immunity in weanling pigs. (6/38)

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of beta-glucan on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and immunity in weanling pigs. In Exp. 1, 210 weanling pigs (6.38 +/- 0.92 kg of BW) were fed dietary beta-glucan (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, or 0.04%) for 5 wk. In Exp. 2, 168 pigs (6.18 +/- 1.31 kg of BW) were fed no beta-glucan or antibiotics (T1), 0.02% beta-glucan (T2), only antibiotics (T3), or 0.02% beta-glucan with antibiotics (T4) for 8 wk. In Exp. 2, the antibiotics fed were apramycin and carbadox in phase I (0 to 2 wk) and carbadox and chlortetracycline in phase II (3 to 8 wk). During Exp. 2, the performance study was conducted for 5 wk, and the immune response was tested until 8 wk. In Exp. 1, there was a trend for a linear increase (P = 0.068) in ADG as the dietary beta-glucan concentration increased in the diet. The digestibilities of DM, GE, CP, ether extract, Ca, and P increased linearly (P < 0.05) in the beta-glucan-supplemented pigs. In Exp. 2, the overall ADG was greater (P < 0.05) in treatment T4 compared with the control group (T1). Also, except for P, this group showed greater (P < 0.05) nutrient digestibilities than the control group. In Exp. 2, at d 15, 24, and 46 antibody titers were measured by ELISA against Pasteurella multocida type A and D after vaccination with atrophic rhinitis, and they differed significantly (P < 0.05) with no particular trend. Flow cytometry was used to determine porcine lymphocyte subpopulations at 4 and 8 wk of Exp. 2. There was an increase in CD4 cells (P < 0.05) and a trend for an increase in CD8 cells (P < 0.10) at 8 wk in pigs fed the T2 diet compared with the other groups. Overall, increasing the dietary concentrations of beta-glucan did not improve ADG without antibiotic, and in weanling pigs antibiotics seem to be more effective in improving nutrient digestibilities and growth performance than beta-glucan.  (+info)

Effects of Acid LAC and Kem-Gest acid blends on growth performance and microbial shedding in weanling pigs. (7/38)

Weanling pigs with mean initial BW of 6.04 kg (Exp.1) and 5.65 kg (Exp. 2) and mean age at weaning of 18.2 d (Exp. 1) and 17.7 d (Exp. 2) were used in two 5-wk experiments (Exp. 1, n = 180; Exp. 2, n = 300) to evaluate the effects of an organic acid blend (Acid LAC, Kemin Americas Inc., Des Moines, IA) and an inorganic/organic acid blend (Kem-Gest, Kemin Americas Inc.) on weanling pig growth performance and microbial shedding. In Exp. 1, the 5 dietary treatments were 1) negative control, 2) diet 1 + 55 ppm carbadox, 3) diet 1 + 0.4% Acid LAC, 4) diet 1 + 0.2% Kem-Gest, 5) diet 1 + 0.4% Acid LAC and 0.2% Kem-Gest. In Exp. 2, the 6 dietary treatments were diets 1 through 4 corresponding to Exp. 1, plus 5) sequence 1: 0.4% Acid LAC for 7 d followed by 0.2% Kem-Gest for 28 d, and 6) sequence 2: 0.2% Kem-Gest for 7 d followed by 0.4% Acid LAC for 28 d. Pigs were housed at 6 (Exp. 1) or 10 (Exp. 2) pigs/pen. Treatments were fed throughout the experiment in 3 phases: d 0 to 7, d 7 to 21, and d 21 to 35. In Exp. 1, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among the dietary treatments at any time during the study. In Exp. 2, throughout the study, pigs fed carbadox (diet 2) and sequence 1 (diet 5) diets had the greatest ADG (d 0 to 35; 262, 294, 257, 257, 292, and 261 g/d, diets 1 through 6, respectively; P < 0.05), greater ADFI than all other acid treatments (P < 0.05), and tended to have greater ADFI than diet 1 (P < 0.10). Fecal pH, Escherichia coli concentrations, and Salmonella presence were determined at d 6, 20, and 34 for Exp. 1, and on d 32 for Exp. 2. For both experiments, there was no effect of treatment on the presence of fecal Salmonella (P > 0.10) at any sampling time. In Exp. 1, fecal E. coli concentrations for pigs fed the carbadox (P < 0.05) diet were greater than for pigs fed the combination diet with 0.4% Acid LAC and 0.2% Kem-Gest on d 34, and the pigs fed the negative control diet tended (P < 0.10) to have greater fecal E. coli concentrations than those fed the combination diet on d 34. In Exp. 2, fecal pH of pigs fed sequence 1 tended to be greater than fecal pH of pigs fed diet 1, diet 4, or sequence 2 (P < 0.10), but there was no dietary effect on fecal E. coli. In Exp. 1, growth performance of pigs fed the Acid LAC and Kem-Gest diets was similar to each other and to that of the carbadox-fed pigs. Adding the combination of 0.4% Acid LAC and 0.2% Kem-Gest to nursery pig diets reduced ADFI and pig growth rate. In Exp. 2, pigs fed the acid sequence of Acid LAC-Kem-Gest had similar growth performance to pigs fed carbadox, and this novel dietary acid sequence may have merit as a replacement for antibiotics in the nursery phase.  (+info)

Effects of water and diet acidification with and without antibiotics on weanling pig growth and microbial shedding. (8/38)

Two 5-wk experiments were conducted to determine the effects of water and diet acidification with and without antibiotics on weanling pig growth performance and microbial shedding. In Exp. 1, 204 pigs (19.2 d of age) were used in a 3 x 2 factorial, with 3 dietary treatments fed with or without water acidification (2.58 mL/L of a propionic acid blend; KEM SAN, Kemin Americas, Des Moines, IA). Dietary treatments were: 1) control, 2) control + 55 ppm of carbadox (CB), and 3) dietary acid [DA; control + 0.4% organic acid-based blend (fumaric, lactate, citric, propionic, and benzoic acids; Kemin Americas)] on d 0 to 7 followed by 0.2% inorganic acid-based blend (phosphoric, fumaric, lactic, and citric acids; Kemin Americas) on d 7 to 34. In Exp. 2, 210 pigs (average 18.3 d of age) were fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments: 1) control, 2) control + 55 ppm of CB, and 3) control + 38.6 ppm of tiamulin + 441 ppm of chlortetracycline on d 0 to 7 followed by 110 ppm of chlortetracycline on d 7 to 35 (TC) with or without dietary acidification (same as Exp. 1) in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. For both experiments, the pigs were allotted based on genetics, sex, and initial BW [5.5 kg (Exp. 1) or 5.6 kg (Exp. 2)]. Pigs were housed at 6 or 7 (Exp. 1) and 7 (Exp. 2) pigs/pen. Treatments were fed in 3 phases: d 0 to 7, 7 to 21, and 21 to 35 (34 d, Exp. 1). Fecal grab samples were collected from 3 pigs/pen on d 6, 20, and 33 for measurement of pH and Escherichia coli. During phase 3 and overall in Exp. 1, pigs fed CB had greater (P < 0.001) ADG (overall ADG, 389 vs. 348, and 348 g/d, respectively), ADFI (P < 0.007, 608 vs. 559, and 554 g/d, respectively), and d 34 BW (P < 0.001, 18.8 vs. 17.3, and 17.3 kg, respectively) than pigs fed NC and DA. Phase 3 ADG was improved (P < 0.01) by water acidification across all diets. In Exp. 2, pigs fed CB and TC had greater ADG (P < 0.004; 315 and 303 vs. 270 g/d, respectively), ADFI (P < 0.01), and d 35 BW (P < 0.002; 16.7 and 16.2 vs. 15.1 kg, respectively) than pigs fed NC. There was a tendency (P < 0.08) for an improvement in ADG when DA was added to the NC or TC, but decreased ADG when DA was added to CB.  (+info)

A total of 180 weanling pigs (PIC TR4 ×1050, initially 11.1 lb and 21 d of age) were used in a 42-d growth trial to compare the effects of supplemental zinc, copper, and in-feed antimicrobial on weanling pig growth and antibiotic resistance of fecal Escherichia coli. There were 5 dietary treatments with 6 pens per treatment and 5 pigs per pen. Pens were assigned to dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design with main effects of copper sulfate (0 or 125 ppm) and zinc oxide (0 or 3,000 ppm for 14 d and 0 or 2,000 for 28 d). The fifth treatment was in-feed antimicrobial (50 g/ton neomycin sulfate and 50 g/ton oxytetracycline HCl). All diets were supplemented with165 ppm zinc and 16.5 ppm copper from the trace mineral premix. Fecal samples were collected from 3 pigs per pen on d 14 and 42 to determine total coliform and E. coli counts as well as E. coli antibiotic resistance rates. Pigs fed added zinc oxide had increased (P , ...
To confirm PRDC infection prior to treatment administration, four clinically ill pigs (as defined by the clinical scoring system) were humanely euthanized and necropsied 4 days post receipt (Day -1). Following confirmation of pneumonic lesions consistent with PRDC, 180 pigs were blocked by illness status (clinically ill or non-clinically ill), weight, and sex and randomly allotted to pens within treatment to obtain 10 pens per treatment and six pigs per pen. Treatment groups included THF provided as an in-feed antibiotic at 0 ppm (control), 137.5 ppm, or 165.0 ppm, with approximately equal numbers of male and female pigs per group (0 ppm: 29 males, 31 females; 137.5 ppm: 30 males, 30 females; 165.0 ppm: 31 males, 29 females).. Clinically ill pigs were assigned to pens first to ensure equal representation within each treatment group. When all clinically ill pigs had been assigned, the non-clinically ill pigs were assigned to pens so that each treatment contained pens having a mixture of ...
Studies2 on the effects of antibiotic feed additives have indicated significant improvements in growth rate and feed efficiency (Table 1). These studies, however, were conducted more than two decades ago, when disease pressures in pig farms were relatively greater than in todays facilities. With numerous improvements, such as multi-site pig production, nutrition, biosecurity, and overall pig husbandry practices in the last two decades, responses may not be as great. A more recent study3 on the use of in-feed antibiotics in modern production systems showed that such additives are still effective in improving growth in nursery pigs, although the magnitude of the response is less (Table 2). However, in finishing pigs, no improvement is noted. Many factors can affect the efficacy of antibiotic feed additives, including nutrition, management practices, and health status. When these factors are optimal, less or almost no response to antibiotics can be expected, especially with excellent sanitation ...
However, by focusing on the essential short-term effect of a fast growing livestock, the management of long-term consequences on animal and human health in view of in-feed antibiotics was underestimated over years. In the last decades a rethinking is taking place and with an increasing consumers demand for only safe products to appear in the food-chain, highest authorities of several countries counteract the use of antibiotics in sub-therapeutic quantities. In 2006, the European Union initiated the ban on the use of growth promoting in-feed antibiotics in animal production for reasons of antimicrobial resistance. Currently this prohibition is gradually spreading to other countries worldwide, with the USA restricting the use of antibiotic growth promoters by 2017. Nevertheless, by today there is no sufficient solution to counteract fully the production losses arising when omitting in-feed antibiotics. It is likely that countries, which have modern production systems applying good hygiene and ...
A 24-d growth study was conducted to evaluate the effects of low rates of a dietary acidifier, calcium propionate, on weanling pig growth performance. Experimental diets, fed from d 0 to 10, were a control diet with no acidifier, the control diet with 4 lb/ton of Kemgest, or the control diet with 4 or 8 lb/ton calcium propionate. From d 10 to 24, pigs were fed a common phase II diet containing no acidifier. Adding a low rate of acidifier to the diet had no influence on pig performance ...
Animal Research, formerly Annales de Zootechnie, publishes original articles, reviews, notes and symposium proceedings concerning research on farm animals
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Crystallization of poly(L-lactic acid)/poly(D-lactic acid) blend induced by organic solvents. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Concerns over the development of antimicrobial resistance led to a ban of all antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in the European Union in 2006. Before that, the use of Olaquindox, Carbadox, Virginiamycin and Tylosinphosphate among others had already been banned since 1999. A brief description of the history of legislation regarding feed use of antimicrobials and the experience of animal producers following the ban will serve to illustrate the consequences on animal performance and health. Furthermore, the use of alternative concepts in Europe will be discussed with a focus on phytogenic feed additives and feed and food safety.
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Formi NDF and the 3rd Generation acidifier Formi 3G have been formulated to replace the need for in-feed antibiotics, by ensuring a strong antibacterial impact against Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. The Formi product line, based on Addcons patented diformate technology ensures optimal efficiency, highest growth rates and maximum safety, which are key requirements in animal production worldwide - and are now available in the USA. Learn more ...
Formi NDF and the 3rd Generation acidifier Formi 3G have been formulated to replace the need for in-feed antibiotics, by ensuring a strong antibacterial impact against Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. The Formi product line, based on Addcons patented diformate technology ensures optimal efficiency, highest growth rates and maximum safety, which are key requirements in animal production worldwide - and are now available in the USA. Learn more ...
Reproductive disorders are one of the most critical problems that reduce the production and productivity of dairy cows. Failure in reproduction process leads to great economic losses to the farmers involved in livestock sector. Dr Srijit Tripathi, International Technical Manager at Ayurvet Limited, evaluates the benefits of treating reproductive disorders with phytogenics, a group of natural growth promoters used as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics. The history of the use of herbs for curing reproductive disorders started centuries ago, and the author outlines how these herbs can still be hugely relevant in practice today.. ...
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Written by: Bonnie Feldman, DDS, MBA, and Hailey Motooka. We all know that a picture is worth a thousand words, but why havent we applied this approach to helping us tell our health stories? At last, Katie McCurdy, the founder and creator of Pictal Health, has used her design skills to create an easy to use process that helps us visualize our own health histories.. For many years I have seen countless doctors and specialists-one of the many collateral effects of living with an autoimmune disease, like living with with uncertain diagnoses. More generally, diagnosing an autoimmune disease takes, on average, 4.6 years. Why so long? Symptoms of autoimmune diseases can vary significantly between individuals, depending upon genetic, behavioral, and environmental factors, presenting challenges to definitive diagnoses. Biomarkers that can be measured in blood are neither comprehensive nor definitive, and blood tests may not correlate with symptoms. Slow or incorrect diagnoses can also be attributed ...
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Add honey, acid blend, and yeast nutrient to 2 gallons of water and boil for 1/2 hour. Add this to 1-1/2 gallons of cold water in the primary fermenter. Pitch yeast when the temperature reaches 70-75 degrees. Use a blow off tube if you use a carboy. Allow fermentation to proceed for 3 weeks or more (up to several months). When the mead becomes fairly clear, rack to secondary. Attach air-lock. Leave the mead to sit at least 3 weeks. When yeast settles to bottom and is clear, it is ready to bottle. Adding 3/4 cup of corn sugar at bottling will produce a sparkling mead. Sparkling meads should not be made with an original gravity higher than 1.090 ...
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I also try to get at least 60 low-glycemic carbs on my fast days. It is the brain that needs those 60 carbs, and I also get 60 grams of protein. I can eat pecans, and fruit, a real treat. They recommend a cup of bouillion soup daily to fill you up and replace sodium lost through water loss ...
I also try to get at least 60 low-glycemic carbs on my fast days. It is the brain that needs those 60 carbs, and I also get 60 grams of protein. I can eat pecans, and fruit, a real treat. They recommend a cup of bouillion soup daily to fill you up and replace sodium lost through water loss ...
It is better to prevent hepatitis with vaccine rather trying to cure it after getting infected. Hepatitis is a viral infection affecting the liver. Hepatitis gets in to the body without any alarm. It can be transmitted through water and food, sharing the towel, blood transfusion or even during sex ...
If you are traveling through water, then you want to make sure that you are prepared for the weather through specific supplies and pieces of equipment.
Neil Jaworski, a Ph. D. candidate in the Stein Monogastric Nutrition Laboratory, presents results of his research into the effects of supplementing complex, high-fiber pig diets with direct-fed microbials selected for their ability to secrete fiber-degrading enzymes. Adapted from a presentation at the 2014 ASAS Midwestern Section meeting, Des Moines, IA, March 17-19.. ...
The cattle producer has at his disposal numerous tools and management practices which can serve to improve the health, performance and productivity of his animals. These can include various medications and antibiotics, ionophores, a host of implants, trace element compounds and vitamins of all sorts. One area that has gained a fair bit of press is that of the feeding of yeast cultures and direct-fed microbials.
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Dog food with direct fed microbials, or better known as good bacteria or probiotics is definitely a good choice when it comes to a holistic dog food.
London, UK (PRWEB) March 24, 2015 -- The value of the market for agricultural microbials is projected to reach more than USD 4.456 billion by 2019-end,
Brookside Agra is now offering Calf-Rescue oral nutritional supplement for dairy and beef calves. When given as directed, Calf-Rescue provides select vitamins and a stabilized source of direct-fed microbials (probiotics) to maintain a healthy ...
Copyright 2014 East West Essentials. All Rights Reserved. The material on this website is for informational purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for the advice and care of your physician. As with all new weight loss or weight maintenance regimes, the nutrition program described on the Website should be followed only after first consulting with your physician to make sure it is appropriate for your individual circumstances. Keep in mind that nutritional needs vary from person to person, depending on age, sex, health status, and total diet. Responsibility for any adverse effects that may result from the use or application of the information contained on this Website is expressly disclaimed ...
Once again nutrex comes though with another amazing product this time its postlift that is here to help secure your workout gains. Postlift made a big difference with my workouts with more muscle recovery along with and increase in muscle growth. The cluster dextrin along with the betaine anhydrous helped with extra energy along with adding more strength during my workouts. All my lifts went up even with my weaker body parts like legs I found myself with more and added increase of energy along with wanting to do more reps, and weight. The essential amino acid blend was another important agent with my workouts. It made a really made a difference because I will workout late at night around 10 or 11pm then go back the following morning at 5am to lift again. With the amino acid blend that nutrex added in this product it cut down on the recovery time along with a reduce DOMS and soreness with my muscles. The recovery time was a lot quicker then similar products that I have taking before. And we ...
A new study, published in the journal Obesity, looked at whether or not the pandemic did worsen childhood obesity.. The tragic COVID-19 pandemic has collateral effects extending beyond direct viral infection, said co-author Myles Faith, a childhood obesity expert at the University of Buffalo.. Faith and the rest of the researchers surveyed 41 overweight children under confinement in the city of Verona, Italy. The researchers collected information regarding their diet, activity and sleep for a period of three weeks.. Their questions for the study participants focused on physical activity, eating habits, screen time, sleep, as well as the consumption of red meat, pasta, snacks, fruits and vegetables. This information was then compared to data from the previous year.. Compared to the previous year, the children ate an additional meal per day, slept in an extra half hour and spent an extra five hours per day in front of their phone, the television and computer screens. (Related: Responsible TV and ...
Stable sealing of lungs tissue is the core principle and the key condition for positive results of postoperative recovery period after thoracic surgery. Hardest complication in thoracic surgery is the inconsistency of bronchial stump, the bronchial fistulas (15,5%). Due to this possibility of glue usage for lung surface processing with sealing effect is the most actual for thoracic surgery; as the possibility of adequate elasticity while lungs tissue elongation with min. collateral effects.. The advantages of LTG: inexpensiveness, highly adhesiveness and hydrophilia, ability to change elasticity, viscosity, adhesiveness, high rupture strength, microbiological stability, low toxicity. In our thoracic department actively applied till September 2010 latex glue, resulted drainage period average 2-3 days after operations (in purulent-destructive processes max 5 days). ...
Clinical studies described here show that perfluoropolyether phosphate behaves as a very mild acidic agent, being effective in decreasing the pH without increasing the collateral effects of acidic compositions.
The five most popular stories on CNN.com in the past 24 hours, according to NewsPulse.. Weeklong budget extension possible, source says: Budget negotiators are working on a proposal to keep the federal government open for another week while Democratic and Republican leaders put together a broader deal, a senior Republican close to the talks told CNN Friday night.. 10 things that could ruin your day if the government shuts down: The list of collateral effects of a potential government shutdown keeps growing and people are none too pleased about it. Here are just a few of the negative impacts that could arise if Congress and the White House fail to reach an agreement on the budget.. Do you know who I am? Iverson asks police: Former NBA star Allen Iverson launched an expletive-ridden tirade against police when a car belonging to him was pulled over for a traffic violation last week, at one point telling the officer, Take the vehicle, I have 10 more, according to a police report.. Budget ...
Today we went to Memorial Hospital to have a biopsy done on the enlarged lymph nodes in Pats groin area. Not a pleasant ride. We are under flood warnings. It stormed last night and was lightening and raining when we left the house. Just to make it out of our driveway we had to go through water that was up to our bumper. Then we had to go through water on the road that was not quite as deep but was not easy as it was a large area. I live in a flood zone ...
You want to give your body the nutrition that it requires; not only so you can burn more and lose more weight, but also to ensure you are going to feel and look your best, when you are trying to lose weight. Even if it takes a little more time, you have to understand how to incorporate the right amino acid blends into the mix. If you would like to learn more about the products we offer, and how you are going to achieve the best results, there is more than one option to consider. Visit our site today to learn more about our amino acids, as well as the other injection forms we offer, to help you with weight loss, and all your goals as it relates to fitness ...
This article looks at some of the possible side effects of Serovital-hgh, an amino acid blend which supposedly increases growth hormone.
But consider how much water you need to drink with a single gel. 1 pack weighs roughly an ounce, most of which is carbs. The optimal concentration of carbs for maximal absorption during hard efforts is 6-8%, but lets go with 10% to simplify the math. Thus, you should ideally drink 10 oz of water per pack of gel! There is no way in the world that any of us can gulp that much in an hour at water stops alone without losing time, even if we were to hit them all up along the way. Personally, I would say that the most I can drink running through water stops is 6-8 oz per hour, and if I were to consume 2 gels per hour -- which is the current recommendation -- that would leave me with a fluid deficit of 12-14 oz. The problem with not hydrating properly after consuming gels is that water is drawn from your circulation into the gut to dilute the concentrated carbs contained in the gel. Less water in your circulation, less blood volume, poorer oxygen transport, with the end result equaling poorer running ...
I looked for you as my eyes squinted into fog I saw your luminescence a beacon lighting way forward unwittingly becoming life raft I tried not to cling to the wreckage but swim deeply through water unafraid did it matter what direction or where I would end up? without you there is a drowned map…
I looked for you as my eyes squinted into fog I saw your luminescence a beacon lighting way forward unwittingly becoming life raft I tried not to cling to the wreckage but swim deeply through water unafraid did it matter what direction or where I would end up? without you there is a drowned map…
[170 Pages Report] Bionematicides Market report categorizes the global market by Type (Microbials & Biochemicals), Crop Type (Cereals & Grains, Oilseeds & Pulses, and Fruits & Vegetables), Form (Liquid and Dry), Mode of Application, & by Region
Carbadox Swine[9] Laidlomycin Beef cattle[9] Lasalocid Ionophore Beef cattle[9][10] ...
The latter are exemplified by the trade names of Carbadox and Mecadox which were marketed by the drug company: Chas. Pfizer. ...
... carbadox, echinomycin, levomycin and actinoleutin. They can be formed by condensing ortho-diamines with 1,2-diketones. The ...
... carbadox MeSH D03.438.857.160 - 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione MeSH D03.438.857.233 - echinomycin MeSH D03.438.857.885 - ...
Cadmium and cadmium compounds Carbadox (methyl N-[(E)-(1,4-dioxidoquinoxaline-1,4-diium-2-yl)methylideneamino]carbamate) - GHS ...
... ensuring that the cancer-causing swine drug carbadox is withdrawn from the food supply, and encouraging the FDA to collect data ...
... carbadox MeSH D02.241.081.251.145 - carbamyl phosphate MeSH D02.241.081.251.150 - carbaryl MeSH D02.241.081.251.165 - ...
... the quinoxaline carbadox, the pleuromodulins tiamulin and valnemulin, as well as the aminoglycoside gentamicin, an important ...
... carbadox (INN) carbaldrate (INN) carbamazepine (INN) carbamide peroxide carbantel (INN) carbaril (INN) carbarsone (INN) ...
... for flumequine and carbadox based on evidence showing both are direct acting genotoxic carcinogens, therefore the Committee was ...
... is a veterinary drug that combats infection in swine, particularly swine dysentery. Carbadox is indicated for control ... The European Union also forbids the use of carbadox at any level. Australia forbids the use of carbadox in food producing ... Carbadox is approved in the United States only for use in swine and may not be used within 42 days of slaughter or used in ... In animal models, carbadox has been shown to be carcinogenic[citation needed] and to induce birth defects. The Food and Drug ...
Carbadox Prohibition) (Revocation) Order 1987 SI 1987/2216 Medicines (Exemptions from Licences) (Carbadox and Olaquindox) Order ...
Carbadox is a veterinary drug that combats infection in swine, particularly swine dysentery. Carbadox is indicated for control ... The European Union also forbids the use of carbadox at any level. Australia forbids the use of carbadox in food producing ... Carbadox is approved in the United States only for use in swine and may not be used within 42 days of slaughter or used in ... In animal models, carbadox has been shown to be carcinogenic[citation needed] and to induce birth defects. The Food and Drug ...
An exploratory study was made of the mechanisms underlying the toxic action of carbadox in young pigs: dehydration, loss of ... Administration of carbadox in the feed, in dosages of 150 ppm (approximately 6 mg·kg−1 b.wt·day−1) caused a rapid decline in ... Carbadox aldosterone adrenal damage zona glomerulosa electrolyte homeostasis pig This is a preview of subscription content, log ... An exploratory study was made of the mechanisms underlying the toxic action of carbadox in young pigs: dehydration, loss of ...
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations Carbadox (ICSC) Carbadox (WHO Food Additives Series 27) CARBADOX (JECFA Evaluation) ... No new experimental data on the metabolism of carbadox or on the genotoxicity or carcinogenicity of carbadox and its ... The author concluded that maternally toxic doses of carbadox caused embryo-toxicity and embryolethality. Carbadox was also ... CARBADOX (addendum). First draft prepared by. Professor Fritz R. Ungemach. Institute of Pharmacology, Pharmacy and Toxicology, ...
Phibro submits carbadox safety studies. Phibro has submitted several new studies confirming safety of carbadox, which is used ...
Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (‎2002 : Geneva, Switzerland)‎; World Health Organization; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (‎World Health OrganizationWorld Health Organization, 2003)‎ ...
... is proposing an order to revoke the approved method for detecting residues of carbadox, a carcinogenic new animal drug used in ... B. History of Carbadox Approvals. Currently, there are three approved NADAs for use of carbadox in medicated swine feed, either ... B. The Current Approved Method for Carbadox That Measures QCA as the Marker Residue for Carbadox Is Inadequate. Under section ... When CVM approved the current regulatory method for carbadox in 1998, our understanding of carbadox metabolism, based on the ...
After 3-weeks of continuous carbadox administration, all pigs were switched to a maintenance diet without carbadox. DNA was ... After 3-weeks of continuous carbadox administration, all pigs were switched to a maintenance diet without carbadox. DNA was ... suggesting that carbadox pretreatment prevented an increase of E. coli populations. In-feed carbadox caused striking effects ... suggesting that carbadox pretreatment prevented an increase of E. coli populations. In-feed carbadox caused striking effects ...
While the safety of carbadox continues to be debated, one thing is for sure: the process for Phibro to seek a hearing and the ... It has been known that carbadox was a carcinogen since before it was first approved in 1972. But, because FDA at that time ... In 1998, FDA again found that carbadox residues did not pose a risk to humans consuming pork products. However, based on the ... Phibro will continue to market the product and to vigorously defend [carbadox] based on more than 40 years of science and safe ...
Another common find was carbadox, an antibiotic approved for use only on swine. This antibiotic was found in 28 percent of the ... lakes and the "perplexing" part is that many of the carbadox detections were nowhere near swine or other livestock facilities. ...
Carbadox is the only drug for certain health problems in swine production. At the same time Carbadox is slowly metabolized. The ... Examination of Carbadox genotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Ispitivanje genotoksičnog efekta Carbadoxa in vitro i in vivo ... Due to its bactericidal activity Carbadox is used for treatment of swine dysentery and salmonellosis. Also, it can be used as a ... Carbadox je sintetsko organsko jedinjenje (Metil-3(2quinoksal-metilen) karbozat-N1-N4 dioksid) sa baktericidnim dejstvom koje ...
Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food : sixtieth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Geneva, Switzerland) (2002 : , World Health Organization , Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Material type: ...
556.100 Carbadox.. §556.110 Carbomycin.. §556.113 Ceftiofur.. §556.115 Cephapirin.. §556.118 Chloramine-T.. §556.120 ...
Carbadox Swine[9] Laidlomycin Beef cattle[9] Lasalocid Ionophore Beef cattle[9][10] ...
Results of search for su:{Carbadox} and location:READING-RM Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available ...
Carbadox. 100 mg. DRE-C10968300. Add to basket Carbamazepin. 100 mg. DRE-C10968500. Add to basket ...
Carbadox. 100 mg. DRE-C10968300. Add to basket Carbamazepin. 100 mg. DRE-C10968500. Add to basket ...
558.115 - Carbadox. § 558.128 - Chlortetracycline. § 558.140 - Chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine. § 558.175 - Clopidol. § ...
556.100 - Carbadox. § 556.110 - Carbomycin. § 556.113 - Ceftiofur. § 556.115 - Cephapirin. § 556.118 - Chloramine-T. § 556.120 ...
... carbadox, and olaquindox. 2000: Denmark actions: * Ban on growth promotion antibiotics for pigs at weaning. 2002: Denmark ... Carbadox; Approved uses by animal: Cattle: [Empty]; Poultry: [Empty]; Swine: [Check]. Antibiotic class: Ionophores; FDA ranking ...
Carbadox: not found. *Cefotaxime: not found. *Clinafloxacin: not found. *Cloxcillin: not found ...
Carbadox. Carob Germ. Carob Meal. Cashew Nut Byproduct. Catfish Offal Meal. Choline Chloride. Chromium Tripicolinate. ...
Effects of carbadox on microbial ecology in ileal digesta and feces of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 3):107 (Abstr ... Effects of carbadox on microbial ecology in ileal digesta and feces of weanling pigs. ...
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Determination of Carbadox Metabolite by GC/ECD. 2010-03-24. CLG-CBX2. Confirmation of Carbadox Metabolite in Swine Liver by GC/ ... Screen of Carbadox Metabolite QCA by HPLC-MS-MS. 2016-03-31. ...
The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) annual edition is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the departments and agencies of the Federal Government produced by the Office of the Federal Register (OFR) and the Government Publishing Office.. Download the Code of Federal Regulations in XML.. Download the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations in XML.. Monthly Title and Part user viewing data for the e-CFR is available for download in CSV format.. Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules for the Code of Federal Regulations and the United States ...
Currently just for Carbadox; other antimicrobial agar dilution MICs may be performed as needed. ...
Carbadox - an evaluation. Baars, A.J. (1997). Wageningen : RIKILT-DLO, (Report / DLO-State Institute for Quality Control and ...
carbadox. Treatment of bacterial enteritis and. bacterial pneumonia. 10-25 carbadox; oxytetracycline BW dosage: 10 mg/lb/d. 42 ...
During Phase 2 of the study (d 7 to d 21), the ADG of pigs fed the carbadox diet was similar to the ADG of pigs fed the ... These results indicate that the acid blend diets have similar or may be even greater effects than carbadox in the control of E ... Pigs fed the crossover 1 diet and the carbadox diet had similar ADFI at this time period, and both of these treatments had ... The feed conversion efficiency of pigs fed the crossover 2 diet (P,.05) and the carbadox diet (P,.10) were better than pigs fed ...
However, carbadox MIC results for Brachyspira species obtained by the BMD method can be one to five dilutions higher than those ... In our study, one B. hampsonii isolate and seven B. hyodysenteriae isolates with carbadox MICs of ≥0.125 μg/ml by the AD method ... Epizootiological studies on R plasmid with carbadox resistance. Nihon Juigaku Zasshi 45:165-170. doi:10.1292/jvms1939.45.165. ... The evaluation of carbadox susceptibilities by the AD method in this study identified a bimodal distribution for each ...
  • NEN-EN 17049 specifies a high performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the identification of tylosin, spiramycin, virginiamycin, carbadox and olaquindox in animal feeds. (nen.nl)
  • The method is suitable for the identification of low concentrations of tylosin, spiramycin, virginiamycin, carbadox and olaquindox in compound animal feeds. (nen.nl)
  • A limit of identification of 1 mg/kg for tylosin, spiramycin and virginiamycin, 4 mg/kg for carbadox and 3 mg/kg for olaquindox should be obtained by using the described method. (nen.nl)
  • Before that, the use of Olaquindox, Carbadox, Virginiamycin and Tylosinphosphate among others had already been banned since 1999. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • At the request of the Canadian Government, the Codex Committee on Veterinary Drug Residues in Foods placed carbadox on the list of priorities for the sixtieth meeting of the Expert Committee and asked it to review all relevant data on the toxicology and residues of carbadox and its metabolites in porcine tissues, including analytical methods for their detection that had been generated since the previous evaluation by JECFA. (inchem.org)
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM), is proposing an order to revoke the approved method for detecting residues of carbadox, a carcinogenic new animal drug used in swine feed. (federalregister.gov)
  • But, because FDA at that time believed that all carcinogenic residues from carbadox would not be detectable in swine tissue after a specified period of time (i.e., the withdrawal period), FDA approved carbadox under the DES Proviso to the Delaney Clause. (fdalawblog.net)
  • In 1998, FDA again found that carbadox residues did not pose a risk to humans consuming pork products. (fdalawblog.net)
  • The company "has failed to provide sufficient scientific data to demonstrate the safety of this drug given evidence that carbadox may result in carcinogenic residues," said Michael Taylor, FDA's deputy commissioner for foods and veterinary medicine. (agri-pulse.com)
  • The approved Mecadox label requires a 42-day withdrawal period pre-harvesting, and to date we have not seen any hazardous residues of carbadox being detected from pig meat treated in accordance with the approved label. (agri-pulse.com)
  • FDA said the cancer risk was based on an "assumed lifetime of consuming pork liver or other pork products containing carbadox residues. (agri-pulse.com)
  • An exploratory study was made of the mechanisms underlying the toxic action of carbadox in young pigs: dehydration, loss of appetite and at autopsy seemingly specific and selective structural alterations of the glomerular zone of the adrenal cortex. (springer.com)
  • Our results indicate that with carbadox a functional and possibly reversible extirpation of the adrenal zona glomerulosa can be achieved in pigs. (springer.com)
  • The quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide compound carbadox (methyl-3-[quinoxalinyl-methylene]carbazate- N 1 , N 4 -dioxide) is used in pigs as a growth-promoting agent for the improvement of weight gain and feed efficiency and as an antibacterial drug for prevention and control of dysentery and bacterial enteritis in pigs. (inchem.org)
  • It concluded that use of carbadox according to good practice in veterinary medicine (no use in finisher pigs and a withdrawal period of at least 28 days) does not represent a dietary hazard to human health. (inchem.org)
  • Phibro has submitted several new studies confirming safety of carbadox, which is used to control bacterial diseases in pigs. (feedstuffs.com)
  • Six pigs (initially 3-weeks old) received feed containing carbadox and six received unamended feed. (frontiersin.org)
  • After 3-weeks of continuous carbadox administration, all pigs were switched to a maintenance diet without carbadox. (frontiersin.org)
  • Phylotype analysis using 16S rRNA sequences showed the gradual development of the non-medicated swine gut microbiota over the 8-week study, and that the carbadox-treated pigs had significant differences in bacterial membership relative to non-medicated pigs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Enumeration of fecal Escherichia coli showed that a diet change concurrent with carbadox withdrawal was associated with an increase in the E. coli in the non-medicated pigs, suggesting that carbadox pre-treatment prevented an increase of E. coli populations. (frontiersin.org)
  • In-feed carbadox caused striking effects within 4 days of administration, with significant alterations in both community structure and bacterial membership, notably a large relative increase in Prevotella populations in medicated pigs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Carbadox is a quinoxaline-di-N-oxide antibiotic compound that is fed to almost a third of nursery-age pigs in the US to control enteric diseases and improve feed efficiency ( USDA, 2007 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • During Phase 2 of the study (d 7 to d 21), the ADG of pigs fed the carbadox diet was similar to the ADG of pigs fed the crossover 1 diet sequence. (purdue.edu)
  • Oliver and Wells concluded that lysozyme is a suitable alternative to carbadox/copper sulphate diets fed to pigs weaned from the sow at 24 days of age. (thepigsite.com)
  • The results showed that by two days after the initiation of carbadox in the feed, the bacteria in the carbadox-fed pigs were expressing different genes than the bacteria in the non-medicated pigs. (usda.gov)
  • These differences showed that the bacteria in the carbadox-fed pigs were not multiplying or metabolizing carbohydrates as they normally would. (usda.gov)
  • Interestingly, these differences also showed that phages were being induced in the carbadox-fed pigs two days after carbadox initiation. (usda.gov)
  • This is partly because of the decisions to ban drugs like metridonazole and carbadox for pigs. (pigprogress.net)
  • We evaluated the susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae , B. hampsonii , Brachyspira pilosicoli , and Brachyspira murdochii to tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin, and tylosin by broth microdilution and that to carbadox by agar dilution. (asm.org)
  • In general, Brachyspira species showed high susceptibility to tiamulin, valnemulin, and carbadox, heterogeneous susceptibility to doxycycline, and low susceptibility to lincomycin and tylosin. (asm.org)
  • Four antibiotics are not used in human medicine and will therefore continue to be available, among which carbadox and tiamulin. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Carbadox and olaquindox are analysed as such. (nen.nl)
  • 9. The composition according to claim 1, wherein the growth-promoting component is a conventional growth promoter selected from the group consisting of nitrovin, olaquindox, carbadox, and cyadox. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • R plasmid with carbadox resistance from Escherichia coli of porcine origin. (asm.org)
  • Carbadox is a veterinary drug that combats infection in swine, particularly swine dysentery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbadox is an in-feed antibiotic that is widely used in swine production to prevent dysentery and to improve feed efficiency. (frontiersin.org)
  • Due to its bactericidal activity Carbadox is used for treatment of swine dysentery and salmonellosis. (ac.rs)
  • Carbadox was originally approved in the early 1970s for treatment of swine dysentery and bacterial swine enteritis, but the FDA said it has also been used for weight gain and feed efficiency. (agri-pulse.com)
  • The In-Feed Antibiotic Carbadox Induces Phage Gene Transcription in the Swine Gut Microbiome. (nih.gov)
  • Previous research from our research group has shown that carbadox induces phages in swine gut bacteria and in Salmonella Typhimurium, a foodborne pathogen. (usda.gov)
  • Administration of carbadox in the feed, in dosages of 150 ppm (approximately 6 mg·kg −1 b.wt·day −1 ) caused a rapid decline in the plasma aldosterone levels (to 10% of control) followed by significant changes in the sodium and potassium levels in blood. (springer.com)
  • Characteristic for the toxic action of carbadox are the rapid and seemingly selective and specific alterations in the aldosterone-releasing zona glomerulosa of the adrenals. (springer.com)
  • The goal of this study was to characterize the effects of carbadox and its withdrawal on the swine gut microbiota. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the current study, we analyzed whether carbadox caused changes in gene expression of the swine gut bacterial community and in the fecal phage diversity. (usda.gov)
  • We investigated the in vivo effects of carbadox on swine gut bacterial gene expression via sequencing total fecal bacterial mRNA and phage populations via sequencing total fecal double-stranded DNA phages five days prior to and one, two and seven days following continual in-feed carbadox. (usda.gov)
  • In 1986, the Center for Science in the Public Interest filed a Citizen Petition asking FDA to withdraw the approval of carbadox due to concerns over carcinogenicity of specified metabolites of the drug. (fdalawblog.net)
  • Carbadox therefore caused a decrease in the abundance of other gut bacteria but did not affect the absolute abundance of Prevotella . (frontiersin.org)
  • It is important to study possible side-effects of carbadox use because it has been shown to promote bacterial evolution, which could indirectly impact antibiotic resistance in bacteria of clinical importance. (usda.gov)
  • However, research suggests that carbadox inhibits bacteria by intercalating DNA and causing mutation in bacteria. (biomin.net)
  • The latter are exemplified by the trade names of Carbadox and Mecadox which were marketed by the drug company: Chas. (wikipedia.org)
  • CVM is proposing to revoke the approved method for carbadox based on our determination that it is inadequate to monitor residue of carcinogenic concern in compliance with FDA's operational definition of no residue because there is no established relationship between QCA measured by the approved method and the residue of carcinogenic concern. (federalregister.gov)
  • When comparing beta-diversity of bacterial FigFam annotations, the control and carbadox communities were distinct two days post carbadox introduction. (usda.gov)
  • This effect was driven by carbadox-associated lower expression of FigFams (n equals 66) related to bacterial respiration, carbohydrate utilization, and RNA metabolism (q value less than 0.1), suggesting bacteriostatic or bactericidal effects within certain populations. (usda.gov)
  • Bacterial Whack-a-Mole: Reconsidering the Public Health Relevance of Using Carbadox in Food Animals. (nih.gov)
  • however, the effects of carbadox on swine microbiome functions are poorly understood. (usda.gov)
  • At that time, the Committee was not able to establish an ADI because carbadox and some of its metabolites (desoxycarbadox and hydrazine) were found to be genotoxic and carcinogenic in rodents. (inchem.org)
  • In a three-generation study, with two litters per generation, Charles River C-D rats were given diets containing carbadox at concentrations providing a dose of 0, 1 or 2.5 mg/kg bw per day. (inchem.org)
  • A study of the teratogenicity of carbadox in rats has been reported since the Committee s previous evaluation. (inchem.org)
  • All the examined concentrations of Carbadox significantly increased SCEs and consistently manifested a dose-dependent pattern. (ac.rs)
  • However, as of August 2018, FDA had indefinitely stayed its withdrawal of approval and carbadox remains available. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA was extracted from feces ( n = 142) taken before, during, and following (6-week withdrawal) carbadox treatment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Second, and perhaps more interesting, is that FDA bases its proposed withdrawal on a conclusion that carbadox no longer can use the "DES Proviso" exception to the Delaney Clause. (fdalawblog.net)
  • The aim of this work was an examination of Carbadox genotoxicity in vivo and in vitro. (ac.rs)
  • In vivo genotoxicity of Carbadox was examined on metaphase chromosomes from bone marrow cells of BALB/c strain male mice. (ac.rs)
  • In vitro genotoxicity of different doses of Carbadox was examined on cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. (ac.rs)
  • There was a positive correlation between the number of bone marrow cells with cytogenetic changes and the dose of Carbadox. (ac.rs)
  • Carbadox is the only drug for certain health problems in swine production. (ac.rs)
  • Carbadox is a known carcinogen, so removing this drug from the food supply is a victory for public health," the group said. (agri-pulse.com)
  • In the United States (USA), carbadox is commonly used in the weaner phase to control enteric disease (colibacillosis). (biomin.net)
  • Australia forbids the use of carbadox in food producing animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbadox was banned for use in food-producing animals in the European Union in 1999 because of its genotoxic and carcinogenic properties and for the safety of workers. (inchem.org)
  • In 2004, carbadox was banned by the Canadian government as a livestock feed additive and for human consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • This antibiotic was found in 28 percent of the lakes and the "perplexing" part is that many of the carbadox detections were nowhere near swine or other livestock facilities. (aquarius-systems.com)
  • Carbadox is approved in the United States only for use in swine and may not be used within 42 days of slaughter or used in pregnant animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental animals were intragastrically treated with three different doses of Carbadox. (ac.rs)
  • Carbadox is given to what animals? (memorize.com)
  • In animal models, carbadox has been shown to be carcinogenic[citation needed] and to induce birth defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to a 2012 report from the Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, more than 40 percent of nurseries used carbadox in feed for 23 days, on average. (agri-pulse.com)
  • However, based on the 2003 JECFA report and the published literature, FDA has reversed course, finding that the data no longer support a finding that carbadox meets the DES Proviso standard, and, therefore, the general prohibition against approval in the Delaney Clause applies. (fdalawblog.net)

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