Carbadox: An antibacterial agent that has been used in veterinary practice for treating swine dysentery and enteritis and for promoting growth. However, its use has been prohibited in the UK following reports of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p125)Ronidazole: Antiprotozoal and antimicrobial agent used mainly in veterinary practice.Pyrantel Tartrate: Broad spectrum anthelmintic for livestock.QuinoxalinesTreponemal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus TREPONEMA.Arsanilic Acid: An arsenical which has been used as a feed additive for enteric conditions in pigs and poultry. It causes blindness and is ototoxic and nephrotoxic in animals.Zinc Oxide: A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Pyrantel: A depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking agent, that causes persistent nicotinic activation resulting in spastic paralysis of susceptible nematodes. It is a drug of second-choice after benzimidazoles for treatment of ascariasis, hookworm, and pinworm infections, being effective after a single dose. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p920)Lincomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Ethics Committees, Research: Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.United StatesSewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Architectural Accessibility: Designs for approaching areas inside or outside facilities.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Mastodynia: Pain in the breast generally classified as cyclical (associated with menstrual periods), or noncyclical, i.e. originating from the breast or nearby muscles or joints, ranging from minor discomfort to severely incapacitating.Sesquiterpenes, Germacrane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized to one 10-carbon ring.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Psychopharmacology: The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Food Additives: Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Chlortetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE with a 7-chloro substitution.alpha-Macroglobulins: Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Chloroform: A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.

Antibacterials that are used as growth promoters in animal husbandry can affect the release of Shiga-toxin-2-converting bacteriophages and Shiga toxin 2 from Escherichia coli strains. (1/38)

Antibiotics are commonly used as growth promoters in animal husbandry worldwide. This practice has been linked to the emergence of particular antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and is now controversial. In this study, the ability of growth-promoting antibiotics to induce Shiga toxin (Stx)-converting bacteriophages from Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains was investigated. Subinhibitory concentrations of the antibacterial growth promoters olaquindox, carbadox, tylosin and monensin were used for induction experiments. The amount of mature Stx-converting phage particles released from induced and non-induced cultures was determined, and the production of Stx was simultaneously measured by ELISA. Whereas the quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide-type antibiotics olaquindox and carbadox enhanced the release of Stx-converting phage particles from STEC cells, tylosin and monensin decreased phage induction. The production of Stx increased or decreased simultaneously with the amount of free phages. The results of this study show that particular antibacterial growth promoters can induce Stx phages. In vivo induction of Stx phages from lysogenic STEC may increase the amount of free phages in the intestine and therefore may contribute to the spread of STEC and development of new STEC pathotypes.  (+info)

An investigation of the etiology of a mild diarrhea observed in a group of grower/finisher pigs. (2/38)

An investigation into a mild diarrhea in a group of grower/finisher pigs was carried out in order to determine the etiology. A tiamulin injection and a carbadox-medicated ration were given to pens of pigs in a 2 x 2 factorial experimental design. Pens of pigs were assessed a score, based on the consistency of the feces in the pen, each week. The clinical investigation looked for the intestinal pathogens Brachyspira pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae, Lawsonia intracellularis, Salmonella spp., Yersinia spp., transmissible gastroenteritis virus, and rotavirus. Despite a rigorous investigation, the diarrhea was not attributed to any pathogen. A mild colitis was noted among pigs necropsied while affected with diarrhea. Improved diagnostic tools may allow a more effective response to an outbreak of mild disease, while at the same time reducing the amount of antimicrobials used in swine production.  (+info)

Brewers dried yeast as a source of mannan oligosaccharides for weanling pigs. (3/38)

Brewers dried yeast, a source of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS), was assessed as an alternative to an antimicrobial agent (carbadox) for young pigs in two experiments. The yeast contained 5.2% MOS. Agglutination tests confirmed adsorption of several serovars of E. coli and Salmonella spp. onto the yeast product. In Exp. 1, seven replicates (five pigs per pen) of 22-d-old pigs were fed a nonmedicated basal diet or the basal diet with carbadox (55 mg/kg), yeast (3%), or a combination of 3% yeast and 2% citric acid for 28 d. Carbadox did not improve growth performance. Growth rate and feed intake were depressed (P < 0.05) in pigs fed yeast alone or in combination with acid. Log counts of total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens in feces were not affected by diet, but Bifidobacteria spp. counts were lower (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the yeast + acid diet and lactobacilli counts were higher (P < 0.05) in pigs fed yeast. Fecal pH and VFA concentrations and intestinal morphological traits were not consistently affected by diet. Serum IgG levels were elevated in the yeast + acid (P < 0.01) group. In Exp. 2, the effects of yeast and carbadox additions to the diet on enteric microbial populations in young pigs housed in isolation units were evaluated. Pigs (n = 24) were weaned at 11 d of age (4.1 kg BW) and placed in isolation chambers (two pigs per chamber) equipped with individual air filtering systems and excrement containers. Treatments were a nonmedicated basal diet and the basal diet with 55 mg/kg of carbadox or with 3% yeast. Diets were fed for 29 d, then each pig was orally dosed with approximately 9.5 x 10(8) CFU of E. coli K88. Daily fecal E. coli K88 counts were not different (P > 0.05) among treatments, but fecal shedding of carbadox-resistant coliforms was higher (P < 0.01) during the 9-d period in pigs fed carbadox. Total fecal coliforms were consistently lower throughout the postinoculation period in pigs fed yeast (P < 0.05). Yeast reduced colonization oftotal coliforms in the duodenum,jejunum, cecum, and colon, but it did not have a consistent effect on colonization of E. coli K88. Pigs fed yeast tended (P < 0.10) to have higher serum IgG levels than controls. In these experiments, brewers dried yeast and carbadox had minimal effects on growth, microbial populations, and intestinal health traits of early-weaned pigs, but certain serum immunological traits were enhanced by feeding yeast.  (+info)

Effect of dietary mannanoligosaccharide and sodium chlorate on the growth performance, acute-phase response, and bacterial shedding of weaned pigs challenged with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. (4/38)

A 28-d experiment evaluated the growth, acute-phase response, and bacterial shedding patterns in pigs (n = 96; initially 6.8 +/- 1.3 kg) fed mannanoligosaccharides (MANNAN) and sodium chlorate (CHLORATE) before and after oral challenge with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (ST). The negative control diet contained no antimicrobial (CON), and the positive control contained carbadox (CARB; 55 ppm). Test diets contained (as-fed basis) MANNAN (1,500 ppm) or CHLORATE (800 ppm). Pigs were fed diets for 14 d and then given ST orally. Pigs fed CARB had greater ADG over the entire study than pigs from other treatments (P < 0.05). During wk 1 to 2, before ST challenge, feed intake (as-fed basis) was lower for pigs fed MANNAN and CHLORATE than pigs fed CARB (P < 0.05). During the final 2 wk, pigs fed CARB had greater feed intake than pigs on other treatments (P < 0.05). Gain/feed was greater for pigs fed CARB in the 2 wk before ST (P < 0.05); however, in wk 3 to 4 after ST, gain/feed was reduced for CON pigs compared to pigs on other treatments (P < 0.05). Serum IGF-I was decreased at 2 and 4 d after ST (P < 0.001), and, overall, IGF-I was greater in pigs fed CARB than CON or CHLORATE (P < 0.05). Serum haptoglobin concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) for all treatments at d 6 compared with d 13 after ST. Overall, haptoglobin was greater for MANNAN than for CARB and CHLORATE (P < 0.05) and tended to be increased (P < 0.06) relative to CON. Interleukin-6 was not affected by treatment or day post-ST challenge. Fecal shedding of salmonellae organisms was less for CHLORATE (P < 0.05) than all other treatments at 7 d after ST. Shedding scores decreased from d 7 to 14 after ST (P < 0.05) for the CON, CARB, and MANNAN treatments. We conclude that feeding MANNAN and CHLORATE before acute enteric disease challenge may support improved gut function as evidenced by improved gain/feed, and that CHLORATE may decrease bacterial shedding. But neither MANNAN nor CHLORATE enhanced growth relative to the absence of dietary antimicrobials, nor was either treatment as effective as CARB following ST challenge.  (+info)

Influence of carbadox on fasting oxygen consumption by portal vein-drained organs and by the whole animal in growing pigs. (5/38)

Fasting O2 consumption by the whole animal (W) and by portal vein-drained organs (PVDO) during the 24- to 30-h postprandial period were measured in seven growing pigs (36.1 +/- 2.3 kg) with catheters chronically placed in the hepatic portal vein, ileal vein, and carotid artery trained to consume 1.2 kg of a 16% CP corn soybean meal basal diet (B) once daily. The pigs were placed individually into an open-circuit, indirect calorimeter and connected to an arteriovenous (A-V) O2 difference analyzer for hourly simultaneous measurements of O2 consumption by W and PVDO. The PVDO O2 consumption was calculated by multiplying the A-V O2 difference by the portal vein blood flow rate derived from constant infusion of a p-aminohippuric acid solution into the ileal vein. After the initial series of hourly measurements, four pigs remained on the B diet and three pigs were fed a B + 55 ppm carbadox diet. Seven days later, the second series of measurements was made. In pigs fed the diet with carbadox added, the hourly W O2 consumptions were not different (P greater than .05) between the initial and second series and averaged 7.5 mL.min-1.kg of BW-1. However, the A-V O2 differences (mL/dL) were reduced (P less than .05) from 4.6 to 4.0 at 24 h, 4.8 to 4.0 at 25 h, and 4.6 to 4.0 at 29 h postprandial and the fractions of W O2 consumption used by PVDO (percentage) were reduced (P less than .05) from 28.6 to 21.6 at 26 h and 25.2 to 18.2 at 27 h postprandial.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  (+info)

Effects of supplementation of beta-glucans on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and immunity in weanling pigs. (6/38)

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of beta-glucan on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and immunity in weanling pigs. In Exp. 1, 210 weanling pigs (6.38 +/- 0.92 kg of BW) were fed dietary beta-glucan (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, or 0.04%) for 5 wk. In Exp. 2, 168 pigs (6.18 +/- 1.31 kg of BW) were fed no beta-glucan or antibiotics (T1), 0.02% beta-glucan (T2), only antibiotics (T3), or 0.02% beta-glucan with antibiotics (T4) for 8 wk. In Exp. 2, the antibiotics fed were apramycin and carbadox in phase I (0 to 2 wk) and carbadox and chlortetracycline in phase II (3 to 8 wk). During Exp. 2, the performance study was conducted for 5 wk, and the immune response was tested until 8 wk. In Exp. 1, there was a trend for a linear increase (P = 0.068) in ADG as the dietary beta-glucan concentration increased in the diet. The digestibilities of DM, GE, CP, ether extract, Ca, and P increased linearly (P < 0.05) in the beta-glucan-supplemented pigs. In Exp. 2, the overall ADG was greater (P < 0.05) in treatment T4 compared with the control group (T1). Also, except for P, this group showed greater (P < 0.05) nutrient digestibilities than the control group. In Exp. 2, at d 15, 24, and 46 antibody titers were measured by ELISA against Pasteurella multocida type A and D after vaccination with atrophic rhinitis, and they differed significantly (P < 0.05) with no particular trend. Flow cytometry was used to determine porcine lymphocyte subpopulations at 4 and 8 wk of Exp. 2. There was an increase in CD4 cells (P < 0.05) and a trend for an increase in CD8 cells (P < 0.10) at 8 wk in pigs fed the T2 diet compared with the other groups. Overall, increasing the dietary concentrations of beta-glucan did not improve ADG without antibiotic, and in weanling pigs antibiotics seem to be more effective in improving nutrient digestibilities and growth performance than beta-glucan.  (+info)

Effects of Acid LAC and Kem-Gest acid blends on growth performance and microbial shedding in weanling pigs. (7/38)

Weanling pigs with mean initial BW of 6.04 kg (Exp.1) and 5.65 kg (Exp. 2) and mean age at weaning of 18.2 d (Exp. 1) and 17.7 d (Exp. 2) were used in two 5-wk experiments (Exp. 1, n = 180; Exp. 2, n = 300) to evaluate the effects of an organic acid blend (Acid LAC, Kemin Americas Inc., Des Moines, IA) and an inorganic/organic acid blend (Kem-Gest, Kemin Americas Inc.) on weanling pig growth performance and microbial shedding. In Exp. 1, the 5 dietary treatments were 1) negative control, 2) diet 1 + 55 ppm carbadox, 3) diet 1 + 0.4% Acid LAC, 4) diet 1 + 0.2% Kem-Gest, 5) diet 1 + 0.4% Acid LAC and 0.2% Kem-Gest. In Exp. 2, the 6 dietary treatments were diets 1 through 4 corresponding to Exp. 1, plus 5) sequence 1: 0.4% Acid LAC for 7 d followed by 0.2% Kem-Gest for 28 d, and 6) sequence 2: 0.2% Kem-Gest for 7 d followed by 0.4% Acid LAC for 28 d. Pigs were housed at 6 (Exp. 1) or 10 (Exp. 2) pigs/pen. Treatments were fed throughout the experiment in 3 phases: d 0 to 7, d 7 to 21, and d 21 to 35. In Exp. 1, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in ADG, ADFI, or G:F among the dietary treatments at any time during the study. In Exp. 2, throughout the study, pigs fed carbadox (diet 2) and sequence 1 (diet 5) diets had the greatest ADG (d 0 to 35; 262, 294, 257, 257, 292, and 261 g/d, diets 1 through 6, respectively; P < 0.05), greater ADFI than all other acid treatments (P < 0.05), and tended to have greater ADFI than diet 1 (P < 0.10). Fecal pH, Escherichia coli concentrations, and Salmonella presence were determined at d 6, 20, and 34 for Exp. 1, and on d 32 for Exp. 2. For both experiments, there was no effect of treatment on the presence of fecal Salmonella (P > 0.10) at any sampling time. In Exp. 1, fecal E. coli concentrations for pigs fed the carbadox (P < 0.05) diet were greater than for pigs fed the combination diet with 0.4% Acid LAC and 0.2% Kem-Gest on d 34, and the pigs fed the negative control diet tended (P < 0.10) to have greater fecal E. coli concentrations than those fed the combination diet on d 34. In Exp. 2, fecal pH of pigs fed sequence 1 tended to be greater than fecal pH of pigs fed diet 1, diet 4, or sequence 2 (P < 0.10), but there was no dietary effect on fecal E. coli. In Exp. 1, growth performance of pigs fed the Acid LAC and Kem-Gest diets was similar to each other and to that of the carbadox-fed pigs. Adding the combination of 0.4% Acid LAC and 0.2% Kem-Gest to nursery pig diets reduced ADFI and pig growth rate. In Exp. 2, pigs fed the acid sequence of Acid LAC-Kem-Gest had similar growth performance to pigs fed carbadox, and this novel dietary acid sequence may have merit as a replacement for antibiotics in the nursery phase.  (+info)

Effects of water and diet acidification with and without antibiotics on weanling pig growth and microbial shedding. (8/38)

Two 5-wk experiments were conducted to determine the effects of water and diet acidification with and without antibiotics on weanling pig growth performance and microbial shedding. In Exp. 1, 204 pigs (19.2 d of age) were used in a 3 x 2 factorial, with 3 dietary treatments fed with or without water acidification (2.58 mL/L of a propionic acid blend; KEM SAN, Kemin Americas, Des Moines, IA). Dietary treatments were: 1) control, 2) control + 55 ppm of carbadox (CB), and 3) dietary acid [DA; control + 0.4% organic acid-based blend (fumaric, lactate, citric, propionic, and benzoic acids; Kemin Americas)] on d 0 to 7 followed by 0.2% inorganic acid-based blend (phosphoric, fumaric, lactic, and citric acids; Kemin Americas) on d 7 to 34. In Exp. 2, 210 pigs (average 18.3 d of age) were fed 1 of 3 dietary treatments: 1) control, 2) control + 55 ppm of CB, and 3) control + 38.6 ppm of tiamulin + 441 ppm of chlortetracycline on d 0 to 7 followed by 110 ppm of chlortetracycline on d 7 to 35 (TC) with or without dietary acidification (same as Exp. 1) in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. For both experiments, the pigs were allotted based on genetics, sex, and initial BW [5.5 kg (Exp. 1) or 5.6 kg (Exp. 2)]. Pigs were housed at 6 or 7 (Exp. 1) and 7 (Exp. 2) pigs/pen. Treatments were fed in 3 phases: d 0 to 7, 7 to 21, and 21 to 35 (34 d, Exp. 1). Fecal grab samples were collected from 3 pigs/pen on d 6, 20, and 33 for measurement of pH and Escherichia coli. During phase 3 and overall in Exp. 1, pigs fed CB had greater (P < 0.001) ADG (overall ADG, 389 vs. 348, and 348 g/d, respectively), ADFI (P < 0.007, 608 vs. 559, and 554 g/d, respectively), and d 34 BW (P < 0.001, 18.8 vs. 17.3, and 17.3 kg, respectively) than pigs fed NC and DA. Phase 3 ADG was improved (P < 0.01) by water acidification across all diets. In Exp. 2, pigs fed CB and TC had greater ADG (P < 0.004; 315 and 303 vs. 270 g/d, respectively), ADFI (P < 0.01), and d 35 BW (P < 0.002; 16.7 and 16.2 vs. 15.1 kg, respectively) than pigs fed NC. There was a tendency (P < 0.08) for an improvement in ADG when DA was added to the NC or TC, but decreased ADG when DA was added to CB.  (+info)

*Antibiotic use in livestock

Carbadox Swine[9] Laidlomycin Beef cattle[9] Lasalocid Ionophore Beef cattle[9][10] ...

*Makhluf Haddadin

The latter are exemplified by the trade names of Carbadox and Mecadox which were marketed by the drug company: Chas. Pfizer. ...

*Quinoxaline

... carbadox, echinomycin, levomycin and actinoleutin. They can be formed by condensing ortho-diamines with 1,2-diketones. The ...

*List of drugs: C-Ca

... carbadox (INN) carbaldrate (INN) carbamazepine (INN) carbamide peroxide carbantel (INN) carbaril (INN) carbarsone (INN) ...

*List of MeSH codes (D03)

... carbadox MeSH D03.438.857.160 --- 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione MeSH D03.438.857.233 --- echinomycin MeSH D03.438. ...

*Food Animal Concerns Trust

... ensuring that the cancer-causing swine drug carbadox is withdrawn from the food supply, and encouraging the FDA to collect data ...

*List of MeSH codes (D02)

... carbadox MeSH D02.241.081.251.145 --- carbamyl phosphate MeSH D02.241.081.251.150 --- carbaryl MeSH D02.241.081.251.165 --- ...

*Brachyspira

... the quinoxaline carbadox, the pleuromodulins tiamulin and valnemulin, as well as the aminoglycoside gentamicin, an important ...

*Flumequine

... for flumequine and carbadox based on evidence showing both are direct acting genotoxic carcinogens, therefore the Committee was ...

*Carbadox

... is a veterinary drug that combats bacterial infection in swine, particularly swine dysentery. In early 2004, it was ... Australia forbids the use of carbadox in food producing animals. Maximum Residue Limits, Health Canada, retrieved 2010-07-27 ... The European Union also forbids the use of carbadox at any level. It is approved in the United States for use in swine for up ... Ungemach, Fritz R. "WHO Food Additives Series: 51 CARBADOX (addendum)". WHO Food Additives Series. INCHEM. Retrieved 23 Mar ...
A total of 180 weanling pigs (PIC TR4 ×1050, initially 11.1 lb and 21 d of age) were used in a 42-d growth trial to compare the effects of supplemental zinc, copper, and in-feed antimicrobial on weanling pig growth and antibiotic resistance of fecal Escherichia coli. There were 5 dietary treatments with 6 pens per treatment and 5 pigs per pen. Pens were assigned to dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design with main effects of copper sulfate (0 or 125 ppm) and zinc oxide (0 or 3,000 ppm for 14 d and 0 or 2,000 for 28 d). The fifth treatment was in-feed antimicrobial (50 g/ton neomycin sulfate and 50 g/ton oxytetracycline HCl). All diets were supplemented with165 ppm zinc and 16.5 ppm copper from the trace mineral premix. Fecal samples were collected from 3 pigs per pen on d 14 and 42 to determine total coliform and E. coli counts as well as E. coli antibiotic resistance rates. Pigs fed added zinc oxide had increased (P , ...
To confirm PRDC infection prior to treatment administration, four clinically ill pigs (as defined by the clinical scoring system) were humanely euthanized and necropsied 4 days post receipt (Day -1). Following confirmation of pneumonic lesions consistent with PRDC, 180 pigs were blocked by illness status (clinically ill or non-clinically ill), weight, and sex and randomly allotted to pens within treatment to obtain 10 pens per treatment and six pigs per pen. Treatment groups included THF provided as an in-feed antibiotic at 0 ppm (control), 137.5 ppm, or 165.0 ppm, with approximately equal numbers of male and female pigs per group (0 ppm: 29 males, 31 females; 137.5 ppm: 30 males, 30 females; 165.0 ppm: 31 males, 29 females).. Clinically ill pigs were assigned to pens first to ensure equal representation within each treatment group. When all clinically ill pigs had been assigned, the non-clinically ill pigs were assigned to pens so that each treatment contained pens having a mixture of ...
Studies2 on the effects of antibiotic feed additives have indicated significant improvements in growth rate and feed efficiency (Table 1). These studies, however, were conducted more than two decades ago, when disease pressures in pig farms were relatively greater than in todays facilities. With numerous improvements, such as multi-site pig production, nutrition, biosecurity, and overall pig husbandry practices in the last two decades, responses may not be as great. A more recent study3 on the use of in-feed antibiotics in modern production systems showed that such additives are still effective in improving growth in nursery pigs, although the magnitude of the response is less (Table 2). However, in finishing pigs, no improvement is noted. Many factors can affect the efficacy of antibiotic feed additives, including nutrition, management practices, and health status. When these factors are optimal, less or almost no response to antibiotics can be expected, especially with excellent sanitation ...
However, by focusing on the essential short-term effect of a fast growing livestock, the management of long-term consequences on animal and human health in view of in-feed antibiotics was underestimated over years. In the last decades a rethinking is taking place and with an increasing consumers demand for only safe products to appear in the food-chain, highest authorities of several countries counteract the use of antibiotics in sub-therapeutic quantities. In 2006, the European Union initiated the ban on the use of growth promoting in-feed antibiotics in animal production for reasons of antimicrobial resistance. Currently this prohibition is gradually spreading to other countries worldwide, with the USA restricting the use of antibiotic growth promoters by 2017. Nevertheless, by today there is no sufficient solution to counteract fully the production losses arising when omitting in-feed antibiotics. It is likely that countries, which have modern production systems applying good hygiene and ...
A total of 192 pigs (initially 13.61b and 18 d of age) were used in a 27-d growth assay to determine the effects of different ZnO sources on weanling pig growth performance. The four experimental treatments consisted ...
Animal Research, formerly Annales de Zootechnie, publishes original articles, reviews, notes and symposium proceedings concerning research on farm animals
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Concerns over the development of antimicrobial resistance led to a ban of all antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in the European Union in 2006. Before that, the use of Olaquindox, Carbadox, Virginiamycin and Tylosinphosphate among others had already been banned since 1999. A brief description of the history of legislation regarding feed use of antimicrobials and the experience of animal producers following the ban will serve to illustrate the consequences on animal performance and health. Furthermore, the use of alternative concepts in Europe will be discussed with a focus on phytogenic feed additives and feed and food safety.
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Formi NDF and the 3rd Generation acidifier Formi 3G have been formulated to replace the need for in-feed antibiotics, by ensuring a strong antibacterial impact against Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. The Formi product line, based on Addcons patented diformate technology ensures optimal efficiency, highest growth rates and maximum safety, which are key requirements in animal production worldwide - and are now available in the USA. Learn more ...
Formi NDF and the 3rd Generation acidifier Formi 3G have been formulated to replace the need for in-feed antibiotics, by ensuring a strong antibacterial impact against Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. The Formi product line, based on Addcons patented diformate technology ensures optimal efficiency, highest growth rates and maximum safety, which are key requirements in animal production worldwide - and are now available in the USA. Learn more ...
Reproductive disorders are one of the most critical problems that reduce the production and productivity of dairy cows. Failure in reproduction process leads to great economic losses to the farmers involved in livestock sector. Dr Srijit Tripathi, International Technical Manager at Ayurvet Limited, evaluates the benefits of treating reproductive disorders with phytogenics, a group of natural growth promoters used as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics. The history of the use of herbs for curing reproductive disorders started centuries ago, and the author outlines how these herbs can still be hugely relevant in practice today.. ...
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Add honey, acid blend, and yeast nutrient to 2 gallons of water and boil for 1/2 hour. Add this to 1-1/2 gallons of cold water in the primary fermenter. Pitch yeast when the temperature reaches 70-75 degrees. Use a blow off tube if you use a carboy. Allow fermentation to proceed for 3 weeks or more (up to several months). When the mead becomes fairly clear, rack to secondary. Attach air-lock. Leave the mead to sit at least 3 weeks. When yeast settles to bottom and is clear, it is ready to bottle. Adding 3/4 cup of corn sugar at bottling will produce a sparkling mead. Sparkling meads should not be made with an original gravity higher than 1.090 ...
Web Page| https://allendandhislesbian420subsmartteam.wordpress.com/googles-headquarters-are-only-miles-away-from-the-free-form-amino-acid-supplier-my-alternative-medical-discoveries-were-based-on-3-24-2014/ My Free Form Amino Acid Source of Record is JoMarLabs in Campbell, California, not far from Mountain View. This is the Only Supplier in the United States where one can buy the affordable amino acid blends that I used extensively for years. JoMar is considered an amino acid wholesaler, but they sell to…
Aminolytes 352gm (30 servings) by Beast Sports AMINOLYTES TM an amino acid blend with electrolytes to enhance muscle endurance during workout and
I also try to get at least 60 low-glycemic carbs on my fast days. It is the brain that needs those 60 carbs, and I also get 60 grams of protein. I can eat pecans, and fruit, a real treat. They recommend a cup of bouillion soup daily to fill you up and replace sodium lost through water loss ...
I also try to get at least 60 low-glycemic carbs on my fast days. It is the brain that needs those 60 carbs, and I also get 60 grams of protein. I can eat pecans, and fruit, a real treat. They recommend a cup of bouillion soup daily to fill you up and replace sodium lost through water loss ...
It is better to prevent hepatitis with vaccine rather trying to cure it after getting infected. Hepatitis is a viral infection affecting the liver. Hepatitis gets in to the body without any alarm. It can be transmitted through water and food, sharing the towel, blood transfusion or even during sex ...
If you are traveling through water, then you want to make sure that you are prepared for the weather through specific supplies and pieces of equipment.
Neil Jaworski, a Ph. D. candidate in the Stein Monogastric Nutrition Laboratory, presents results of his research into the effects of supplementing complex, high-fiber pig diets with direct-fed microbials selected for their ability to secrete fiber-degrading enzymes. Adapted from a presentation at the 2014 ASAS Midwestern Section meeting, Des Moines, IA, March 17-19.. ...
The cattle producer has at his disposal numerous tools and management practices which can serve to improve the health, performance and productivity of his animals. These can include various medications and antibiotics, ionophores, a host of implants, trace element compounds and vitamins of all sorts. One area that has gained a fair bit of press is that of the feeding of yeast cultures and direct-fed microbials.
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Dog food with direct fed microbials, or better known as good bacteria or probiotics is definitely a good choice when it comes to a holistic dog food.
London, UK (PRWEB) March 24, 2015 -- The value of the market for agricultural microbials is projected to reach more than USD 4.456 billion by 2019-end,
Brookside Agra is now offering Calf-Rescue oral nutritional supplement for dairy and beef calves. When given as directed, Calf-Rescue provides select vitamins and a stabilized source of direct-fed microbials (probiotics) to maintain a healthy ...
Copyright 2014 East West Essentials. All Rights Reserved. The material on this website is for informational purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for the advice and care of your physician. As with all new weight loss or weight maintenance regimes, the nutrition program described on the Website should be followed only after first consulting with your physician to make sure it is appropriate for your individual circumstances. Keep in mind that nutritional needs vary from person to person, depending on age, sex, health status, and total diet. Responsibility for any adverse effects that may result from the use or application of the information contained on this Website is expressly disclaimed ...
Once again nutrex comes though with another amazing product this time its postlift that is here to help secure your workout gains. Postlift made a big difference with my workouts with more muscle recovery along with and increase in muscle growth. The cluster dextrin along with the betaine anhydrous helped with extra energy along with adding more strength during my workouts. All my lifts went up even with my weaker body parts like legs I found myself with more and added increase of energy along with wanting to do more reps, and weight. The essential amino acid blend was another important agent with my workouts. It made a really made a difference because I will workout late at night around 10 or 11pm then go back the following morning at 5am to lift again. With the amino acid blend that nutrex added in this product it cut down on the recovery time along with a reduce DOMS and soreness with my muscles. The recovery time was a lot quicker then similar products that I have taking before. And we ...
Stable sealing of lungs tissue is the core principle and the key condition for positive results of postoperative recovery period after thoracic surgery. Hardest complication in thoracic surgery is the inconsistency of bronchial stump, the bronchial fistulas (15,5%). Due to this possibility of glue usage for lung surface processing with sealing effect is the most actual for thoracic surgery; as the possibility of adequate elasticity while lungs tissue elongation with min. collateral effects.. The advantages of LTG: inexpensiveness, highly adhesiveness and hydrophilia, ability to change elasticity, viscosity, adhesiveness, high rupture strength, microbiological stability, low toxicity. In our thoracic department actively applied till September 2010 latex glue, resulted drainage period average 2-3 days after operations (in purulent-destructive processes max 5 days). ...
Clinical studies described here show that perfluoropolyether phosphate behaves as a very mild acidic agent, being effective in decreasing the pH without increasing the collateral effects of acidic compositions.
The five most popular stories on CNN.com in the past 24 hours, according to NewsPulse.. Weeklong budget extension possible, source says: Budget negotiators are working on a proposal to keep the federal government open for another week while Democratic and Republican leaders put together a broader deal, a senior Republican close to the talks told CNN Friday night.. 10 things that could ruin your day if the government shuts down: The list of collateral effects of a potential government shutdown keeps growing and people are none too pleased about it. Here are just a few of the negative impacts that could arise if Congress and the White House fail to reach an agreement on the budget.. Do you know who I am? Iverson asks police: Former NBA star Allen Iverson launched an expletive-ridden tirade against police when a car belonging to him was pulled over for a traffic violation last week, at one point telling the officer, Take the vehicle, I have 10 more, according to a police report.. Budget ...
Today we went to Memorial Hospital to have a biopsy done on the enlarged lymph nodes in Pats groin area. Not a pleasant ride. We are under flood warnings. It stormed last night and was lightening and raining when we left the house. Just to make it out of our driveway we had to go through water that was up to our bumper. Then we had to go through water on the road that was not quite as deep but was not easy as it was a large area. I live in a flood zone ...
You want to give your body the nutrition that it requires; not only so you can burn more and lose more weight, but also to ensure you are going to feel and look your best, when you are trying to lose weight. Even if it takes a little more time, you have to understand how to incorporate the right amino acid blends into the mix. If you would like to learn more about the products we offer, and how you are going to achieve the best results, there is more than one option to consider. Visit our site today to learn more about our amino acids, as well as the other injection forms we offer, to help you with weight loss, and all your goals as it relates to fitness ...
This article looks at some of the possible side effects of Serovital-hgh, an amino acid blend which supposedly increases growth hormone.
But consider how much water you need to drink with a single gel. 1 pack weighs roughly an ounce, most of which is carbs. The optimal concentration of carbs for maximal absorption during hard efforts is 6-8%, but lets go with 10% to simplify the math. Thus, you should ideally drink 10 oz of water per pack of gel! There is no way in the world that any of us can gulp that much in an hour at water stops alone without losing time, even if we were to hit them all up along the way. Personally, I would say that the most I can drink running through water stops is 6-8 oz per hour, and if I were to consume 2 gels per hour -- which is the current recommendation -- that would leave me with a fluid deficit of 12-14 oz. The problem with not hydrating properly after consuming gels is that water is drawn from your circulation into the gut to dilute the concentrated carbs contained in the gel. Less water in your circulation, less blood volume, poorer oxygen transport, with the end result equaling poorer running ...
[170 Pages Report] Bionematicides Market report categorizes the global market by Type (Microbials & Biochemicals), Crop Type (Cereals & Grains, Oilseeds & Pulses, and Fruits & Vegetables), Form (Liquid and Dry), Mode of Application, & by Region
The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary Bacillus-based direct-fed microbials (DFMs) on macrophage functions and resistance against experimental coccidiosis in broiler chickens. Birds were fed diets containing one of eight Bacillus subtilis strains (designated Bs2084, LSSAO1, 3AP4, Bs18, 15AP4, 22CP1, Bs27, and Bs278) or one multiple-strain DFM product (AVICORR™) for 21 days, and then the chickens were uninfected or orally infected with 5000 Eimeria maxima (EM) oocysts. At day 21 (before EM challenge), strong phagocytosis ability using BSA-coated fluorescent latex beads and GFP-labeled salmonella was seen in animal given Bs18, 15AP4, Bs27, or Bs278 compared with the no DFM control group. At day 27 (6 days post infection), EM-induced reduction of body weight gain was significantly decreased by adding 15AP4 or Bs27 into broiler diets compared with no DFM/EM inoculated control. Serum Nitric oxide levels were increased in infected animals fed with Bs27 compared with the ...
How to grow a small bottled water delivery business Big bottled water industry players such as Aquafina (Pepsi), Dasani (Coke), Evian, Fiji and Poland Spring (Nestle) have made a very profitable business of extracting water from underground aquifers and springs or purifying water for bottling, labelli
Foal Response - Premium quality, bovine colostrum paste supplement with essential nutrients for foals. Ideal for newborns, older foals, or weanlings. Contains a combination of colostrums, direct-fed microbials and other essential nutrients. Dosage: 1 tube administered orally immediately after birth. Additional tubes may be given as needed.
is taken care by these plates and plays a vital role in formation of the lobules in liver. Within each lobule a central vein pass by. The peripheral edge of each lobule comprises of a branch of hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery. This results in a wide space between each and every hepatic plate. The GI tract serves the function of absorption and the process is hosted by the portal ...
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The hospital compartment. Traditionally, hospitals have been considered the main reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. The intestinal tract is the main reservoir of resistant bacteria among hospitalized patients. As previously stated, a recognized collateral effect of antimicrobial therapy is the possible selection of resistant microbiota. This altered microbiota may contaminate the hospital environment and from there it reaches other patients and surfaces via cross contamination. Around 20%-40% of nosocomial infections can be mainly attributed to cross-infection via the hands of healthcare personnel.34 Less frequently, patients can become colonized with nosocomial pathogens by direct contact with contaminated surfaces or equipment. In some cases, the extent of patient-to-patient transmission has been found to be directly proportional to the level of environmental contamination. Moreover, inadequate environmental cleaning and hygiene help maintain these microorganisms in the ...
Current antifungal agents in medicine presents high toxicity and collateral effects, targets limited cell constituents and different resistance mechanisms have already been described. In order to identify novel potential antifungal drug targets, two hypothetical Candida albicans genes potentially essential and with singular expression profile have been characterized. The ORF CaYlr339c is conserved among fungal species from Candida and Saccharomyces genus, is transcribed in yeast and hyphae and an approximately 18-kDa protein was identified in hyphae and yeasts C. albicans cell extracts by western blotting. The ORF CaYdr187c is conserved in a few representatives of the Saccharomyces genus, is transcribed only in yeasts and potentially codifies a surface protein. These findings indicate that the selected ORFs are real genes and could be good candidates for the discovery of new functions and the development of new antifungal agents in the future. In an attempt to test the possible role of the ...
Etoposide is a potent anticancer drug commonly used in a variety of malignancies. High protein binding, requirement of fairly high doses of drugs to achieve sustained plasma levels and hypersensitivty issues are related to its use. One promising alternative for the efficient delivery of etoposide to tumoral tissue relies on the use of nanocarriers that could efficiently encapsulate and release hydrophobic drugs to the target site, while decreasing undesired collateral effects. The group has previously developed a variety of modified amphiphilic glycol chitosan (GPC) based polysoaps which can form nano size clusters that has the capability of efficiently encapsulating hydrophobic drugs molecules increasing bioavailability e.g. in the gut or across the blood-brain-barrier. In current study a etoposide-GPC formulation is prepared and well characterized using NMR, gel permeation chromatography, multi angle light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy. Stability of the formulation was checked for 3
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 7681-76-7 Ronidazole. We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
Today I came home from work and was standing talking to a neighbor when I started to get a wavy water like vision out the side of my left eye. I only had the wavy water like vision in part of my vision...
Some very basic elements of human development related to water, sanitation and hygiene that were accepted in the 19th and early 20th centuries are still unavailable to a large proportion of pregnant women in the 21st century, write the authors of a new Simavi study [1]. Each year 290,000 women die from complications during pregnancy,…
A clinical trial was conducted to evaluate effects of two intervention strategies on the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 shedding by feedlot steers using 384 steers and 48 pens. Intervention strategies were a direct fed microbial or vaccination against E. coli O157:H7. No differences in performance or carcass yield were observed for direct fed microbial or vaccination treatments, compared to the control. Vaccination significantly reduced the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7. In addition, we also observed a non-significant decrease in the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 with inclusion of the direct fed microbial.
A University of Oklahoma-led research team has conducted a study on the diversity of microbial communities that demonstrates the effects of human-caused changes in climate, land use and other factors. In this study, researchers show the diversity of soil bacteria, fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria all are better predicted by variation in environmental temperature rather than pH.. Jizhong Zhou, director of the Institute for Environmental Genomics and professor in the Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology and School of Civil Environmental Sciences, OU Colleges of Arts and Sciences and Gallogly College of Engineering, leads the research project with assistance from the University of Arizona, The Santa Fe Institute, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa and University of New Mexico. Zhou is an affiliate of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Tsinghua University.. The significance of this research project follows: (1) first demonstration that temperature plays a primary role ...
Fruit seems to cause issues for me. If I eat fruit and take digestive enzymes it seems to help me not have bad reactions.. Skepticism and Key Points. First, I dont know if I have Candida. In fact, there are so many species of Candida nobody really knows if Candida Alibicans is the culprit, but one this is certain-whatever is going on it is gastrointestinal related. Candida is so poorly researched and my doctors look at me like all the rest, like Im insane when I talk about it-"ONLY AIDS PATIENTS GET THAT". Probiotics are iffy. Consumer reports found many to be bullshit. Did you know that the probiotics you buy in the store DO NOT colonize the gut? I found a few that can like S. Boulardii and Coagulans, but the lactobacilli family doesnt colonize.. Growing and packaging lactocailli is a much easier process and is the only microbials many companies are familiar with. These microbials can withstand a lot more than other types being why these are the big craze. They cannot make nor do they know ...
I found a recipe for Mead in a book callled Mad about Mead that I just started and it called for 16lbs of Wildflower honey and 6 t of yeast nutrients and 4 t of acid blend for 5 gal. Yeast recommended was Epernay 2. After reading posts by chuck and others I am wondering if it is really needed or is way too much. Its a darker honey that according to posts on this site should not need much if any acids or nutrients. Yet this recipe comes from Pamela Spencer, the author of the book and one who
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TeleNos is focused on introducing environmental and green products to the Spain and Portugal. Our key product range is WaterBox - a revolutionary water generator that turns the humidity of the air into pure drinking water, thus saving precious water resources, reducing carbon emissions associated with water deliveries and purifying the air ...
Every chemical reaction that occurs in the human body occurs through water. All cells in the human body are soaked in water. Nutrients and oxygen are transported throughout the body using water and individual cells need water to bring the nutrients and oxygen into them. Water is used to cool the body down through the action of perspiration. Water lubricates joints and internal organs, such as the eyeballs. ...
BHS TREC is a three-phase event. Phase One consists of orienteering on horseback, where riders follow a route on a map at pre-determined speeds. Phase Two tests control of paces, and Phase Three can be up to 5km long. This part of the competition involves the skills and hazards that any rider might encounter out hacking: mounting and dismounting, going through water, under low hanging trees, opening gates, traversing narrow paths, going over bridges, jumping fallen logs and so on. It is completely in tune with the BHS objectives to help riders improve their skills to make riding in the countryside safer and more enjoyable ...
A Chinese Ghost story is definitely something you should look into if youre looking for something safe to watch around kids that ISNT Pokemon. Just thought Id say that right away. It is a typical tale of "timeless love" and "good and evil." Its got high points and low points- the only low ones being that its hard to follow at times. A Chinese Ghost Story isnt incredibly plotty, but events conveniently happen a lot. The actual story comes about when a tax collector name Ning has a scary daydream about a ghost. It chases him through water, and changes its shape often. At the very end, it changes into his ex-girlfriend, Xiu Lan. Ning wakes up, continues on his way, and recalls that he got his dog, Solid Gold, from Xiu Lan. While collecting his debts, he goes into a town that seems to be occupied only by the dead. He meets up with Xiu Xien, a ghost who ends up saving his hide later on. With that all said and done, he wants to be her friend. Theres several issues that come along with being a ...
Its the buzzword in the industry right now, but what exactly constitutes a "biological" is a bit fuzzy. Microbials, biofungicides, bioinsecticides, bioherbicides, biostimulants, biorationals, biofertility, biocontrols and inoculants are all commonly-used terms in this space.. We all know that the world is made up of living organisms, and thats essentially what a biological product is - a living organism. For decades farmers and scientists have been using these living organisms for crop production, animal health and human health.. In terms of agriculture, any product that contains a living organism is considered a biological product. An example is a bacteria or fungus applied to the seed or other plant part that works to enhance the plant.. However, the results have historically been hit-and-miss, but this is changing. Todays scientific advances allow us to harness these organisms with great precision. These organisms are found everywhere in our environment, from the soil to the shell of an ...
I came across a very, let's say... interesting bug on my FarmVille farm today. When scrolling up to my large animal storage area, I found that my new Sheep Pen and my Pig Pen had become
Many drugs that are taken by mouth are absorbed into the hepatic portal vein and undergo metabolism in the liver; this may reduce the amount of active drug that enters the peripheral circulation very considerably, so that parenteral administration is necessary. ...
The 2 reports, they wrote, "identified exceptional results in individuals who had been Formerly dealt with although not using medication at some time of assessment compared with people today getting medication. Nonetheless, nonmedicated individuals experienced extra favorable premorbid features while in the study by Harrow and colleagues and experienced significantly less intense health issues from the study by Moilanen and colleagues, suggesting that in naturalistic uncontrolled research, medication position may possibly in part be the consequence of whether people are executing nicely or poorly as opposed to the induce ...
A reader forward me a link to the USA FDA approved probiotics for animals [FDA page]. The official list for humans is likely further restricted. There are web-sites that specialize in the sale of these DFMs for animal use. Approved Probiotics DFM FDA and Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) approved microbial species are: Aspergillus…
Q:Do you have a formulation for neomycin 15-mg and hydrocortisone 50-mg suppositories? A:Hydrogenated vegetable oils, such as fatty acid blend (Fatty-blend, Gallipot; Fattibase, Paddock) and cocoa butter (theobroma oil), melt at body temperature to release a drug and are the vehicles usually selected for this type of suppository. They tend to be less irritating to sensitive tissue than polyethylene glycol-based suppository material, although they can "leak" slightly, especially when an injured anus is involved. Hydrocortisone and neomycin sulfate exhibit poor vegetable oil solubility, and therefore they should release well from the hydrogenated vegetable oil without absorption competition. Cocoa butter is used little because it exhibits polymorphism, making temperature control more important. The fatty acid blends do not exhibit this drawback. Hydrocortisone USP is a white to practically white, odorless, crystalline powder that melts at ~215˚C with decomposition. Because the fatty acid blend ...
Surgical brain injury (SBI) defines complications induced by intracranial surgery, such as cerebral edema and other secondary injuries. In our study, intrathymic and hepatic portal vein injection of allogeneic myelin basic protein (MBP) or autogeneic brain cell suspensions were administered to a standard SBI model. Serum pro-inflammatory IL-2, anti-inflammatory IL-4 concentrations and the CD4(+)T/CD8(+)T ratio were measured at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 d after surgery to verify the establishment of immune tolerance. Furthermore, we confirmed neuroprotective effects by evaluating neurological scores at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 d after SBI. Anti-Fas ligand (FasL) immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assays of brain sections were tested at 21 d after surgery. Intrathymic injections of MBP or autogeneic brain cell suspensions functioned by both suppressing secondary inflammatory reactions and improving prognoses, whereas hepatic portal vein injections of autogeneic brain cell suspensions exerted a better effect than ...
Dietary fiber is defined by CODEX Alimentarius as carbohydrate polymers with 10 or more monomeric units, which are not hydrolyzed by the endogenous enzymes in the small intestine of humans [1]. This all-encompassing definition includes fiber naturally occurring in foods, as well as processed (physically, chemically or enzymatically) fiber from raw materials and synthetic fractions, in order to meet the needs of regulation and the associated labeling market. A substantial body of evidence demonstrates that fiber ingredients (mainly non-starch polysaccharides, NSP) constitutes an important component of a balanced diet and may affect many facets of animal nutrition and gut health, especially in young monogastrics [2-8]. The impact of dietary fiber on gut health opens a window in search for in-feed antibiotic alternatives. A prebiotic effect of dietary fiber will help to reduce the antibiotic usage in livestock and this will reduce the risk of transferring the antibiotic resistance gene to human ...
0159]1. Cynthia Q Sun et al (Chemico-Biological Interactions 140 (2002), pp 185-198). [0160]2. R. Corinne Sprong et al (Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, April 2001, pp 1298-1301). [0161]3. Schuster et al (Pharmacology and Therapeutics in Dentistry 5: pp 25-33; 1980) [0162]4. Gudmundur Bergsson et al (Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, November 2001, pp 3209-3212). [0163]5. Yong-Ching Yang et al. J. Chin. Inst. Chem. Engrs., Vol 34, No 6, 617-623. A Process for Synthesis of High Purity Monglyceride [0164]6. Catrienus DeJong and Herman T. Badings 1990. Determination of free fatty acids in milk and cheese, procedures for extraction, clean up and capillary gas chromatographic analysis. Journal of high resolution chromatography, Vol. 13, February 1990. Pages 94-98. [0165]7. Halldor Thormar et al (Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy; January 1987, pp 27-31) This author reports the growth inhibitory properties of various free fatty acids against Enterococci, which are gram-positive, and ...
Here we report a 3D printable polymer that retains uniform mechanical strength after printing and can be used with a conventional fused filament fabrication (FFF) printer. To achieve this, a synthetic polymer containing dynamic Diels-Alder functionality was blended with commercially available polylactic acid
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Prior work has demonstrated the ability of common property systems to sustain institutional arrangements governing natural resources over long periods of time. Much of this work has focused on irrigation systems where upstream users agree to management arrangements that distribute water resources across both upstream and downstream users. A series of design principles have been identified that tend to lead to long-term sustained water management in these types of irrigation systems. However, this prior work has focused on the aggregate outcomes of the water system, and there has been little work evaluating the heterogeneity of water delivery within irrigation systems in developing countries. Heterogeneity of water resources within these systems has implications for livelihood outcomes because it can be indicative of a social, technological, and/or biophysical element facilitating or detracting from water delivery. We present a multilevel analysis of households nested within 25 smallholder ...
Speaking to reporters aboard in Hanoi, U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice threatens unspecified bad consequences for Iran: "I think they have to take any Chapter 7 resolution seriously. You know, Chapter 7 resolutions--its a small club. It now includes North Korea, it includes for not much longer Iraq. Its a really small club. And to be in that club has all kinds of collateral effects that I think the Iranians will not be able to ignore. They already have banks leaving Iran and refusing to deal with their accounts. I think that you will see that investment decisions about Iran are affected by the fact that theyre under a Chapter 7 resolution with the potential for further sanctions. Whatever this initial list looks like, theres always the potential for future sanctions. So you know, I know that the Iranians have a tendency to say, oh, well, they really dont care if theyre under Security Council sanctions. Well, most people try to avoid Security Council sanctions for a reason, and the ...
Histoplasmosis treated the sort of treatment will depend on upon the earnestness of your infection. The malady may leave into equal parts a month without requiring any treatment. Your signs end up being more unfortunate or last over a month, you may require an antagonistic to infectious sedate like itraconazole pillor Amphotericin-B given intravenously. You have an incapacitated immune structure, you may get scattered histoplasmosis. This infers the illness has spread all through your body and may spoil your cerebrum, liver or bone marrow. This is managed using intravenous Amphotericin-B and diverse pharmaceuticals for quite a while. Oral hostile to contamination specialists are used to treat delicate celluliti, more genuine cases must be treated with intravenous against microbials in a specialists office. Against microbials that may be used fuse cephalosporins, dicloxacillin, clindamycin, or vancomycin. Swelling can be reduced by raising the impacted zone, for instance, the legs or arms. To ...
A blend of inorganic acids with a low foam detergent designed to rapidly attack scale and stone to leave metal surfaces sparkling and is especially formulated to passivate and re-passivate stainless steel.This acid blend will help remove the stubborn protein stain (blue rainbow) as well as food deposits like starch. ...
The widest variety of amino acid supplements including intra workouts, pure amino acids and amino acid blends. We have the house favorites such as xtend, yummy sports, inspired bcaa, ehp labs bcaa. Cheapest prices and multiple checkout methods for your favorite supplements available including afterpay
Today Protecting Our Waters heads to Dimock for a press conference, rally and water delivery for affected families there, joining with the people of Dimock along with allies including Frack Action, Water Defense, Delaware Riverkeeper Network, Earthworks Oil and Gas Accountability Project. Details about the action are here. Why, when the EPA claims there is no…
Veritas Vision A bit of boredom and a bit of spice marked Veritas CEO Gary Blooms opening speech here at the Veritas Vision conference.. The boredom charge may come off harsh, but the accusation is most certainly apt as Bloom spoke with massive "Utility Now" signs surrounding him on stage. The utility computing message is all well and good, but you have to wonder if its time hasnt passed.. For years, companies such as IBM, EMC, HP and Sun Microsystems have littered the collective mind of the IT industry with fanciful analogies comparing the delivery of processing power or storage with turning on a faucet and watching water trickle out. And here, about thirty minutes into Blooms keynote, the exec had the audacity to keep the water dream alive, walking the Veritas audience through the inner-workings of water delivery systems and all of their glory. Seriously, he did.. Given this staid performance, you might think Bloom hasnt heard the fluff charges surrounding utility computing. Not ...
A consortium including South West Water Delivery Alliance H50, Kier, Arcadis and Radius Subterra have won the highly coveted UKSTT Project of the Year, the New Installation - Water & Wastewater and the Environmental awards at this years 24th Gala Dinner and Awards ceremony for their work on the Mayflower Water Treatment Works slip-lining project. The awards recognise companies who can demonstrate substantial and real benefits of the use of trenchless technologies, in each of the different categories.. Read Full Article ...
A fetus is very clever, even at an early age. Positive. I ought to be aware that there is some controversy surrounding the security of water delivery proper now. On Monday, the World Health Group stated Zika was prone 17 weeks of pregnancy development continue to unfold to most international locations all through the Americas. Theyre entitled to it, despite the fact that the most important portion of the opposite provisions of the Act do not apply to them. Do you end up working to the lavatory, solely to urinate a tiny amount and then in 5 minutes have to go again. Ignore the myth that IVF never works first time; half of all IVF babies are made 17 weeks of pregnancy development a primary cycle. Codeine-based analgesia can cause respiratory problems for the baby within the later levels of being pregnant and should only be taken within the early phases underneath a health care providers supervision. The placenta is an organ that acts as a filter. Likewise, if youre utilizing an ovulation ...
1F0F: Role of the hinge region and the tryptophan residue in the synthetic antimicrobial peptides, cecropin A(1-8)-magainin 2(1-12) and its analogues, on their antibiotic activities and structures.
Increased antibiotic resistance in soils could have broad consequences to public health through potential exposure through water and food supplies.
Jump-Start Plus from Manna Pro is a multi-species oral microbial gel that provides a healthier microbial balance, helps keep animals on feed during stress and aids in digestion of nutrients for maximum feed efficiency. Jump Start Plus contains 2 billion CFU viable microbials/gm, vitamins and minerals. Labeled for horses, alpaca, llama, beef and dai
Solapur: The entire state of Maharashtra is facing drought like situation this summer. The condition in rural areas is the worst where people face hardships for water and they have to walk 5 km to get one pot/bucket of drinking water. In an attempt to serve humanity, the local unit of Jamiat-e- Ulema Hind has started supplying free water to more than 100 villages of 6 Talukas in SolapurDistrict through water tankers regularly.Unit head Moulana Ibrahim told Twocircles.net: "We are running this project under the guidance of our state unit and have planned to cover the entire district and provide drinking water to people in the rural area ...
Most of this decrease is attributed to a combination of urbanization and poor agricultural methods that have led to loss of topsoil through water and wind erosion. Historically, large tracts of farmland have been located near metropolitan areas. In recent times, these urban centers have grown outward into large suburban areas, and this sprawl has consumed many acres of farmland ...
[229 Pages Report] Top 10 Trends in Agricultural Biologicals Market Industry (Biopesticides, Biostimulants, Biofertilizers, Agricultural Inoculants, Agricultural Microbials, and Biological Seed Treatment)
The girl had a blocked hepatic portal vein, which drains blood from the gut and spleen to the liver. She is recovering from the life-saving surgery performed by a team at the University of Gothenburg.
comes in contact with the blood. The structuring aspect is taken care by these plates and plays a vital role in formation of the lobules in liver. Within each lobule a central vein pass by. The peripheral edge of each lobule comprises of a branch of hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery. This results in a wide space between each and every hepatic plate. The GI tract serves the function of ...
A sample handler moves and positions racks, containing sample tubes, in an analytical instrument. The sample handler has an in-feed and out-feed that advance sample tube racks using a walking beam mechanism. The racks are seated within the in-feed and are transported onto a cross-feed. The racks and tubes contained thereon are moved past detection devices that identify the samples and measure various properties thereof. Thereafter, the cross-feed moves the racks to a position behind the out-feed where the walking beam mechanism moves the tube racks out of the analytical instrument.
Lowest prices on PROBIOS. Visit GregRobert Pet for fast shipping and satisfaction guaranteed. Probios is the worlds most widely recognized, researched and used brand of direct-fed microbials.Probios Microbial Products contain guaranteed levels of Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus.Pro
The Sjogrens Syndrome is a disease that affects around 0,5% of the population and is mainly characterized for inflammatory involvement of salivary and lacrimal glands.. The xerostomia leads to low quality of life caused by dry sensations that can disturb the taste, the speaking, the swallow and chewing functions in the affected patients. The absent saliva can cause increase of dental caries and decays.. Until now, there is no effective treatment that increases the amount of saliva and the patients have low improvements with cholinergic drugs such as pilocarpine and cevimeline. These drugs can cause unpleasant collateral effects. ...
California sea lions use their sensitive whiskers to detect signals in the water and can angle them in different orientations to effect the frequency and vel...
This is very interesting, Im curious to which type of supply lines were present also, the reason I ask is Ive read that copper has natural antimicrobial properties, however Ive not read how strong the properties are, and could it possibly inhibit, or destroy dangerous microbials from overtaking water we use, or is the flow rate to quick to make any noticeable difference. Were there any of the pathogens, or microbials present In homes plumbed in copper, vs. Galvanized, pvc, cpvc, pex? I would think the galvanized would be the most vulnerable to corrosion, and buildup of a biofilm after the coating erodes, Thank you ...
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L-Arginine is supposed to help with erection stiffness, Ive taken it for awhile as its in my protein drinks and also in my mega man multivitamin power I put in with the protein powder. I cant say if it does make a huge difference cause I have used it for along time and being in my mid 20s surely helps, but I would say give that a try. I think it is in the original op "cocktail" list for that reason as he stated it does help a lot with EQ but not at all as an effect for cum volume. I currently havent gone full in on with these supplements as of yet, I do take a 25mg zinc pill, 154mg vitamin e, between (2000-3000mg of fish oils/1000-1500mg of omega 3 fatty acid blend) and 1824mg of L-Arginine in my protein drinks (along with lots of other amino acids and vitamin profile). Ill be trying 1200mg of sunflower lecithin soon (when it comes in; hopefully this week), Im interested too see what the effects will have for me. Pygeum Im still not sure of, it seems to be talked about more as a pre-cum ...
Just Water is proud to be the only bulk water delivery organization in New Zealand to have achieved ABWI and HACCP certification. One reason why the body needs enough water is for temperature control which is accomplished due to the thermal properties of water and the efficiency of the release of heat from the physique when sweat evaporates from the surface of skin.. They are most useful to students of nutrition when understood in the context of why the physique needs water and how it utilizes it. Here is a list of 12 of the health rewards of water in the human diet. For the duration of this diet regime plan it is advisable that you consume at least ten 8-ounce glasses of water each and each and every day.. Even so, I did try it… all although I did not shed 10lbs…I lost 5. I mainly consider I did not drop all 10, since I didnt follow as suggested when it came to the water intake. Or if you have already attempted this diet program in the past, share with us your benefits and ...
Need quality water from a local water carrier that offers reliable service and competitive pricing? Call Hibiscus Water Supply, we service the Hibiscus Coast, Rodney District, North Shore and West Auckland areas offering water carrier, water tank cleaning and earth-moving contracting services.. Our team offer a friendly, honest and reliable service with guaranteed volumes. And as the longest-running and most experienced local operators, you can rely on us for quality water delivery, tank cleaning and earth-moving services.. Why us? Our water is quality tested, We are available 7 days a week and we offer WINZ quotes.. Get in touch with us for more information, and to discuss your requirements; or explore our website and book online today! ...
Since the new federal guidelines regarding livestock, medications came out there has been a controversy as to what will be restricted and to whom. Some folks are saying that as of January 1st, 2017 you will no longer be able to buy the types of "fish antibiotics" that are commonly stockpiled by preppers.. Jan 1 they will be illegal to obtain without a prescription! But this really isnt about fish folks. Wake up and prepare to kiss your food good bye. The link to the antibiotics, given through water, that are going off OTC is as follows and it applies to both major (cattle, swine, poultry and goats) and minor (fish & bees) species. Below are two well thought out points of view.. My advice is to go ahead and stock up now that way no matter who is correct youll still be covered, because as I always say, "Its better to have it and not need it than to need it and not have it.". The 9 Best Survival Antibiotics. There are a lot of antibiotics, but Ive narrowed it down to what I think are the 9 ...
The Charcot syndrome Marie Tooth is the most frequent hereditary neuromuscular diseases: there is no curative treatment at present, on the other hand precautionary measures can be taken (physiotherapy, port of splints, orthopaedic surgery and technical assistants). In the literature and in our recent study (evaluation of the pain in the disease of CMT - Reference center of the neuromuscular diseases - CHU Bow) the frequency of the pain is important varying from 66 to 96 % cases, affecting especially hands and lower limbs. The care of the pain in the Charcot syndrome Marie Tooth is not codified. The transcutaneous neurostimulation(TENS) is a not medicinal and not invasive therapeutics, without any brought back collateral effect, used at the same time in the chronic pain and acute since 1960, as well for the neuropathic pains that musculo-scrawny. No study was realized this day on the use of the TENS with analgesic aim in the CMT. We suggest studying the analgesic efficiency of the TENS in the ...
This paper provides an overview of the literature investigating the functional relationship between the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and maladaptive behavior (i.e., aggression, tantrums) in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Digital searches were conducted to identify single subject design studies published between 1994 and 2012. While nine studies were identified, only three explicitly addressed the collateral effects of PECS training on reduction of maladaptive behavior. Of the seven participants across these three studies, four demonstrated an inverse relationship between PECS exchange and reduction of maladaptive behavior. Results are promising in terms of functional communication. However, the authors suggest caution due to limited number of publications to date. ...
Prenatal Nutrients Tablets Multivitamin and Mineral Formula for Pregnant and Lactating Women SUGAR AND STARCH FREE Prenatal Needs Suggested Use: As a dietary supplement for pregnant and lactating women, four (4) tablets daily preferable at mealtime, or as directed by a healthcare practitioner. Serving Size 4 Tablets Amount Per 4 Tablets Ingredients: Soy Protein Isolate/Amino Acid Blend (L-Glutamic Acid, L-Aspartic Acid, L-Leucine, L-Arginine, L-Lysine, L-Phenylalanine, L-Serine, L- Proline, L-Valine, L-Isoleucine, L-Alanine, Glycine, L-Threonine, L-Tyrosine, L-Hisitidine, L-Cysteine, 160 mg Calories 10 Total Carbohydrate 2 g (less than 1%) Dietary Fiber 1 g (4%) Vitamin A (as palmitate 3000 IU, 63% [5000 IU] as natural beta carotene) 8000 IU (100%) Vitamin C (as L-ascorbic acid) 100 mg (167%) Manganese (as manganese chelate, manganese gluconate) 2 mg Vitamin D (as cholecalciferol) 400 IU (100%) Choline (as choline bitartrate) 4 mg Inositol 10 mg Chromium (as chromium picolinate
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) was blended with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with various reactive processing agents to decrease its brittleness and enhance its processability. Three diisocyanates, namely, hexamethylene diisocyanate, poly(hexamethylene diisocyanate), and 1,4-phenylene diisocyanate, were used as compatibilizing agents. The morphology, thermomechanical properties, and rheological behavior were investigated with scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, tensile testing, dynamomechanical thermal analysis in torsion mode (dynamic mechanical analysis), and oscillatory rheometry with a parallel-plate setup. The presence of the diisocyanates resulted in an enhanced polymer blend compatibility; this led to an improvement in the overall mechanical performance but did not affect the thermal stability of the system. A slight reduction in the PHBV crystallinity was observed with the incorporation of the diisocyanates. The ...
Features: • Vertically suspends from the scope eliminating the need for a water bottle and holder.. • One configuration, utilizes two sources of Insufflation - room air and CO2.. • Eliminates reprocessing of the reusable water bottles. Use it for the day then discard.. Bridges the gap between reusable bottles and smart caps.. All endoscopic disinfection guidelines state that water bottles should be reprocessed and traced. Single-use Water bottle is an innovative system that offers a safe and convenient alternative to reprocessing reusable water bottle systems, or fixing bottle caps onto bottles of sterilised water. Sterile, Simple, Safe and Effective water delivery. Simple fixing onto the endoscope.. Different adaptors can be inserted into the bottle for use with different scopes.. No tubing like reusable bottles and smart caps means that there is less likelihood of pressure blow back upon scope removal, and there is also one less potential area fro cross-contamination.. The removal of the ...

Carbadox - WikipediaCarbadox - Wikipedia

Carbadox is a veterinary drug that combats bacterial infection in swine, particularly swine dysentery. In early 2004, it was ... Australia forbids the use of carbadox in food producing animals. Maximum Residue Limits, Health Canada, retrieved 2010-07-27 ... The European Union also forbids the use of carbadox at any level. It is approved in the United States for use in swine for up ... Ungemach, Fritz R. "WHO Food Additives Series: 51 CARBADOX (addendum)". WHO Food Additives Series. INCHEM. Retrieved 23 Mar ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbadox

Hypoaldosteronism in piglets induced by carbadox | SpringerLinkHypoaldosteronism in piglets induced by carbadox | SpringerLink

An exploratory study was made of the mechanisms underlying the toxic action of carbadox in young pigs: dehydration, loss of ... Administration of carbadox in the feed, in dosages of 150 ppm (approximately 6 mg·kg−1 b.wt·day−1) caused a rapid decline in ... Carbadox aldosterone adrenal damage zona glomerulosa electrolyte homeostasis pig This is a preview of subscription content, log ... An exploratory study was made of the mechanisms underlying the toxic action of carbadox in young pigs: dehydration, loss of ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01946407

Browsing Publications by Subject CarbadoxBrowsing Publications by Subject "Carbadox"

Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (‎2002 : Geneva, Switzerland)‎; World Health Organization; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (‎World Health OrganizationWorld Health Organization, 2003)‎ ...
more infohttps://extranet.who.int/iris/restricted/handle/10665/26724/browse?authority=Carbadox&type=mesh

Frontiers | Carbadox has both temporary and lasting effects on the swine gut microbiota | MicrobiologyFrontiers | Carbadox has both temporary and lasting effects on the swine gut microbiota | Microbiology

After 3-weeks of continuous carbadox administration, all pigs were switched to a maintenance diet without carbadox. DNA was ... After 3-weeks of continuous carbadox administration, all pigs were switched to a maintenance diet without carbadox. DNA was ... suggesting that carbadox pretreatment prevented an increase of E. coli populations. In-feed carbadox caused striking effects ... suggesting that carbadox pretreatment prevented an increase of E. coli populations. In-feed carbadox caused striking effects ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00276/full

After Years of Debate, FDA Proposes to Withdraw Carbadox from Medicated Swine FeedAfter Years of Debate, FDA Proposes to Withdraw Carbadox from Medicated Swine Feed

While the safety of carbadox continues to be debated, one thing is for sure: the process for Phibro to seek a hearing and the ... It has been known that carbadox was a carcinogen since before it was first approved in 1972. But, because FDA at that time ... In 1998, FDA again found that carbadox residues did not pose a risk to humans consuming pork products. However, based on the ... Phibro will continue to market the product and to vigorously defend [carbadox] based on more than 40 years of science and safe ...
more infohttp://www.fdalawblog.net/2016/04/after-years-of-debate-fda-proposes-to-withdraw-carbadox-from-medicated-swine-feed/

WHO HQ Library catalog ›

    Results of search for su:{Carbadox}WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Carbadox}'

Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food : sixtieth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives Geneva, Switzerland) (2002 : , World Health Organization , Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Material type: ...
more infohttps://kohahq.searo.who.int/cgi-bin/koha/opac-search.pl?q=su:%7BCarbadox%7D

Clenbuterol hydrochloride- CAS Number 21898-19-1Clenbuterol hydrochloride- CAS Number 21898-19-1

Carbadox. 100 mg. DRE-C10968300. Add to basket Carbamazepin. 100 mg. DRE-C10968500. Add to basket ...
more infohttps://www.lgcstandards.com/PL/en/Clenbuterol-hydrochloride/p/DRE-C11668550

Chloramphenicol- CAS Number 56-75-7Chloramphenicol- CAS Number 56-75-7

Carbadox. 100 mg. DRE-C10968300. Add to basket Carbamazepin. 100 mg. DRE-C10968500. Add to basket ...
more infohttps://www.lgcstandards.com/GB/en/Chloramphenicol/p/DRE-C11120000

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

558.115 - Carbadox. § 558.128 - Chlortetracycline. § 558.140 - Chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine. § 558.175 - Clopidol. § ...
more infohttps://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=558

CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21CFR - Code of Federal Regulations Title 21

556.100 - Carbadox. § 556.110 - Carbomycin. § 556.113 - Ceftiofur. § 556.115 - Cephapirin. § 556.118 - Chloramine-T. § 556.120 ...
more infohttps://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=556

GAO-11-801, Antibiotic Resistance: Agencies Have Made Limited Progress Addressing Antibiotic Use in AnimalsGAO-11-801, Antibiotic Resistance: Agencies Have Made Limited Progress Addressing Antibiotic Use in Animals

... carbadox, and olaquindox. 2000: Denmark actions: * Ban on growth promotion antibiotics for pigs at weaning. 2002: Denmark ... Carbadox; Approved uses by animal: Cattle: [Empty]; Poultry: [Empty]; Swine: [Check]. Antibiotic class: Ionophores; FDA ranking ...
more infohttps://www.gao.gov/assets/330/323097.html

Targeted National Sewage Sludge Survey - SourceWatchTargeted National Sewage Sludge Survey - SourceWatch

Carbadox: not found. *Cefotaxime: not found. *Clinafloxacin: not found. *Cloxcillin: not found ...
more infohttps://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/TNSSS

Targeted National Sewage Sludge Survey - SourceWatchTargeted National Sewage Sludge Survey - SourceWatch

Carbadox: not found. *Cefotaxime: not found. *Clinafloxacin: not found. *Cloxcillin: not found ...
more infohttps://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/Targeted_National_Sewage_Sludge_Survey

Effects of carbadox on microbial ecology in ileal digesta and feces of weanling pigs | Hans H. SteinEffects of carbadox on microbial ecology in ileal digesta and feces of weanling pigs | Hans H. Stein

Effects of carbadox on microbial ecology in ileal digesta and feces of weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 87 (E-Suppl. 3):107 (Abstr ... Effects of carbadox on microbial ecology in ileal digesta and feces of weanling pigs. ...
more infohttps://nutrition.ansci.illinois.edu/node/223

eCFR - Code of Federal RegulationseCFR - Code of Federal Regulations

The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) annual edition is the codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the departments and agencies of the Federal Government produced by the Office of the Federal Register (OFR) and the Government Publishing Office.. Download the Code of Federal Regulations in XML.. Download the Electronic Code of Federal Regulations in XML.. Monthly Title and Part user viewing data for the e-CFR is available for download in CSV format.. Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules for the Code of Federal Regulations and the United States ...
more infohttps://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?mc=true&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title21/21cfr558_main_02.tpl

Bacteriology/Mycology | Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory - University of MinnesotaBacteriology/Mycology | Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory - University of Minnesota

Currently just for Carbadox; other antimicrobial agar dilution MICs may be performed as needed. ...
more infohttps://www.vdl.umn.edu/services-fees/bacteriologymycology

Fact Sheet: In-feed antibioticsFact Sheet: In-feed antibiotics

carbadox. Treatment of bacterial enteritis and. bacterial pneumonia. 10-25 carbadox; oxytetracycline BW dosage: 10 mg/lb/d. 42 ...
more infohttps://www.aasv.org/shap/issues/v17n5/v17n5p272.html

Fact Sheet: In-feed antibioticsFact Sheet: In-feed antibiotics

carbadox. Treatment of bacterial enteritis and. bacterial pneumonia. 10-25 carbadox; oxytetracycline BW dosage: 10 mg/lb/d. 42 ...
more infohttps://www.aasv.org/jshap/issues/v17n5/v17n5p272.html

Purdue 2003 Swine Research ReportPurdue 2003 Swine Research Report

During Phase 2 of the study (d 7 to d 21), the ADG of pigs fed the carbadox diet was similar to the ADG of pigs fed the ... These results indicate that the acid blend diets have similar or may be even greater effects than carbadox in the control of E ... Pigs fed the crossover 1 diet and the carbadox diet had similar ADFI at this time period, and both of these treatments had ... The feed conversion efficiency of pigs fed the crossover 2 diet (P,.05) and the carbadox diet (P,.10) were better than pigs fed ...
more infohttp://www.ansc.purdue.edu/swine/swineday/sday03/16.htm

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Brachyspira Species Isolated from Swine Herds in the United States | Journal of...Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Brachyspira Species Isolated from Swine Herds in the United States | Journal of...

However, carbadox MIC results for Brachyspira species obtained by the BMD method can be one to five dilutions higher than those ... In our study, one B. hampsonii isolate and seven B. hyodysenteriae isolates with carbadox MICs of ≥0.125 μg/ml by the AD method ... Epizootiological studies on R plasmid with carbadox resistance. Nihon Juigaku Zasshi 45:165-170. doi:10.1292/jvms1939.45.165. ... The evaluation of carbadox susceptibilities by the AD method in this study identified a bimodal distribution for each ...
more infohttps://jcm.asm.org/content/54/8/2109

Poisons and toxic agents | The Pig SitePoisons and toxic agents | The Pig Site

Antibacterial medicines - carbadox, furazolidone, monensin, sulphadimidine. *Trace elements e.g. iron, copper, zinc, iodine, ...
more infohttps://thepigsite.com/disease-and-welfare/managing-welfare/poisons-toxic-agents
  • An exploratory study was made of the mechanisms underlying the toxic action of carbadox in young pigs: dehydration, loss of appetite and at autopsy seemingly specific and selective structural alterations of the glomerular zone of the adrenal cortex. (springer.com)
  • Our results indicate that with carbadox a functional and possibly reversible extirpation of the adrenal zona glomerulosa can be achieved in pigs. (springer.com)
  • Six pigs (initially 3-weeks old) received feed containing carbadox and six received unamended feed. (frontiersin.org)
  • After 3-weeks of continuous carbadox administration, all pigs were switched to a maintenance diet without carbadox. (frontiersin.org)
  • Enumeration of fecal Escherichia coli showed that a diet change concurrent with carbadox withdrawal was associated with an increase in the E. coli in the non-medicated pigs, suggesting that carbadox pre-treatment prevented an increase of E. coli populations. (frontiersin.org)
  • In-feed carbadox caused striking effects within 4 days of administration, with significant alterations in both community structure and bacterial membership, notably a large relative increase in Prevotella populations in medicated pigs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Carbadox is a quinoxaline-di-N-oxide antibiotic compound that is fed to almost a third of nursery-age pigs in the US to control enteric diseases and improve feed efficiency ( USDA, 2007 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • During Phase 2 of the study (d 7 to d 21), the ADG of pigs fed the carbadox diet was similar to the ADG of pigs fed the crossover 1 diet sequence. (purdue.edu)
  • Oliver and Wells concluded that lysozyme is a suitable alternative to carbadox/copper sulphate diets fed to pigs weaned from the sow at 24 days of age. (thepigsite.com)
  • In general, Brachyspira species showed high susceptibility to tiamulin, valnemulin, and carbadox, heterogeneous susceptibility to doxycycline, and low susceptibility to lincomycin and tylosin. (asm.org)
  • Second, and perhaps more interesting, is that FDA bases its proposed withdrawal on a conclusion that carbadox no longer can use the "DES Proviso" exception to the Delaney Clause. (fdalawblog.net)
  • Administration of carbadox in the feed, in dosages of 150 ppm (approximately 6 mg·kg −1 b.wt·day −1 ) caused a rapid decline in the plasma aldosterone levels (to 10% of control) followed by significant changes in the sodium and potassium levels in blood. (springer.com)