A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by their preference for MUSCARINE over NICOTINE. There are several subtypes (usually M1, M2, M3....) that are characterized by their cellular actions, pharmacology, and molecular biology.
Drugs that bind to and activate muscarinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, MUSCARINIC). Muscarinic agonists are most commonly used when it is desirable to increase smooth muscle tone, especially in the GI tract, urinary bladder and the eye. They may also be used to reduce heart rate.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Drugs that mimic the effects of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate muscarinic receptors and drugs that potentiate cholinergic activity, usually by slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine (CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORS). Drugs that stimulate both sympathetic and parasympathetic postganglionic neurons (GANGLIONIC STIMULANTS) are not included here.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
A subclass of muscarinic receptor that mediates cholinergic-induced contraction in a variety of SMOOTH MUSCLES.
A high-affinity muscarinic antagonist commonly used as a tool in animal and tissue studies.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor found in the lower BRAIN, the HEART and in SMOOTH MUSCLE-containing organs. Although present in smooth muscle the M2 muscarinic receptor appears not to be involved in contractile responses.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
An antimuscarinic agent that inhibits gastric secretion at lower doses than are required to affect gastrointestinal motility, salivary, central nervous system, cardiovascular, ocular, and urinary function. It promotes the healing of duodenal ulcers and due to its cytoprotective action is beneficial in the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence. It also potentiates the effect of other antiulcer agents such as CIMETIDINE and RANITIDINE. It is generally well tolerated by patients.
A muscarinic antagonist used to study binding characteristics of muscarinic cholinergic receptors.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.
Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage.
A specific subtype of muscarinic receptor that has a high affinity for the drug PIRENZEPINE. It is found in the peripheral GANGLIA where it signals a variety of physiological functions such as GASTRIC ACID secretion and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION. This subtype of muscarinic receptor is also found in neuronal tissues including the CEREBRAL CORTEX and HIPPOCAMPUS where it mediates the process of MEMORY and LEARNING.
Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
A non-hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist used as a research tool.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Organic chemicals which have two amino groups in an aliphatic chain.
An octapeptide hormone present in the intestine and brain. When secreted from the gastric mucosa, it stimulates the release of bile from the gallbladder and digestive enzymes from the pancreas.
Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.
The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Simple sweat glands that secrete sweat directly onto the SKIN.
A cholinesterase inhibitor that is rapidly absorbed through membranes. It can be applied topically to the conjunctiva. It also can cross the blood-brain barrier and is used when central nervous system effects are desired, as in the treatment of severe anticholinergic toxicity.
A pyrazolone with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties but has risk of AGRANULOCYTOSIS. A breath test with 13C-labeled aminopyrine has been used as a non-invasive measure of CYTOCHROME P-450 metabolic activity in LIVER FUNCTION TESTS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC 3.1.4.3), it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
An analog of benzilylcholine mustard. It is an alkylating nitrogen mustard analog that binds specifically and irreversibly to cholinergic muscarinic receptors and is used as an affinity label to isolate and study the receptors.
Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.
Agents causing contraction of the pupil of the eye. Some sources use the term miotics only for the parasympathomimetics but any drug used to induce miosis is included here.
Intracellular messenger formed by the action of phospholipase C on phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, which is one of the phospholipids that make up the cell membrane. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate is released into the cytoplasm where it releases calcium ions from internal stores within the cell's endoplasmic reticulum. These calcium ions stimulate the activity of B kinase or calmodulin.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
A neuromuscular blocker and active ingredient in CURARE; plant based alkaloid of Menispermaceae.
A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. Members contain THAPSIGARGIN and other guaianolides (SESQUITERPENES, GUAIANOLIDE).
Compounds that contain the decamethylenebis(trimethyl)ammonium radical. These compounds frequently act as neuromuscular depolarizing agents.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction by causing sustained depolarization of the motor end plate. These agents are primarily used as adjuvants in surgical anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation.
A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
A sesquiterpene lactone found in roots of THAPSIA. It inhibits CA(2+)-TRANSPORTING ATPASE mediated uptake of CALCIUM into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.

Modulation of long-term synaptic depression in visual cortex by acetylcholine and norepinephrine. (1/3283)

In a slice preparation of rat visual cortex, we discovered that paired-pulse stimulation (PPS) elicits a form of homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) in the superficial layers when carbachol (CCh) or norepinephrine (NE) is applied concurrently. PPS by itself, or CCh and NE in the absence of synaptic stimulation, produced no lasting change. The LTD induced by PPS in the presence of NE or CCh is of comparable magnitude with that obtained with prolonged low-frequency stimulation (LFS) but requires far fewer stimulation pulses (40 vs 900). The cholinergic facilitation of LTD was blocked by atropine and pirenzepine, suggesting involvement of M1 receptors. The noradrenergic facilitation of LTD was blocked by urapidil and was mimicked by methoxamine, suggesting involvement of alpha1 receptors. beta receptor agonists and antagonists were without effect. Induction of LTD by PPS was inhibited by NMDA receptor blockers (completely in the case of NE; partially in the case of CCh), suggesting that one action of the modulators is to control the gain of NMDA receptor-dependent homosynaptic LTD in visual cortex. We propose that this is a mechanism by which cholinergic and noradrenergic inputs to the neocortex modulate naturally occurring receptive field plasticity.  (+info)

Metrifonate increases neuronal excitability in CA1 pyramidal neurons from both young and aging rabbit hippocampus. (2/3283)

The effects of metrifonate, a second generation cholinesterase inhibitor, were examined on CA1 pyramidal neurons from hippocampal slices of young and aging rabbits using current-clamp, intracellular recording techniques. Bath perfusion of metrifonate (10-200 microM) dose-dependently decreased both postburst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and spike frequency adaptation (accommodation) in neurons from young and aging rabbits (AHP: p < 0.002, young; p < 0.050, aging; accommodation: p < 0.024, young; p < 0.001, aging). These reductions were mediated by muscarinic cholinergic transmission, because they were blocked by addition of atropine (1 microM) to the perfusate. The effects of chronic metrifonate treatment (12 mg/kg for 3 weeks) on CA1 neurons of aging rabbits were also examined ex vivo. Neurons from aging rabbits chronically treated with metrifonate had significantly reduced spike frequency accommodation, compared with vehicle-treated rabbits. Chronic metrifonate treatment did not result in a desensitization to metrifonate ex vivo, because bath perfusion of metrifonate (50 microM) significantly decreased the AHP and accommodation in neurons from both chronically metrifonate- and vehicle-treated aging rabbits. We propose that the facilitating effect of chronic metrifonate treatment on acquisition of hippocampus-dependent tasks such as trace eyeblink conditioning by aging subjects may be caused by this increased excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons.  (+info)

N-type voltage-dependent calcium channels mediate the nicotinic enhancement of GABA release in chick brain. (3/3283)

The role of voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated enhancement of spontaneous GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) was investigated in chick brain slices. Whole cell recordings of neurons in the lateral spiriform (SpL) and ventral lateral geniculate (LGNv) nuclei showed that cadmium chloride (CdCl2) blocked the carbachol-induced increase of spontaneous GABAergic IPSCs, indicating that VDCCs might be involved. To conclusively show a role for VDCCs, the presynaptic effect of carbachol on SpL and LGNv neurons was examined in the presence of selective blockers of VDCC subtypes. omega-Conotoxin GVIA, a selective antagonist of N-type channels, significantly reduced the nAChR-mediated enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release in the SpL by 78% compared with control responses. Nifedipine, an L-type channel blocker, and omega-Agatoxin-TK, a P/Q-type channel blocker, did not inhibit the enhancement of GABAergic IPSCs. In the LGNv, omega-Conotoxin GVIA also significantly reduced the nAChR-mediated enhancement of GABA release by 71% from control values. Although omega-Agatoxin-TK did not block the nicotinic enhancement, L-type channel blockers showed complex effects on the nAChR-mediated enhancement. These results indicate that the nAChR-mediated enhancement of spontaneous GABAergic IPSCs requires activation of N-type channels in both the SpL and LGNv.  (+info)

Influence of nitric oxide modulators on cholinergically stimulated hormone release from mouse islets. (4/3283)

1. We have investigated, with a combined in vitro and in vivo approach, the influence on insulin and glucagon release stimulated by the cholinergic, muscarinic agonist carbachol of different NO modulators, i.e. the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and 7-nitroindazole as well as the intracellular NO donor hydroxylamine. 2. At basal glucose (7 mM) carbachol dose-dependently stimulated insulin release from isolated islets with a half-maximal response at approximately 1 microM of the agonist. In the presence of 5 mM L-NAME (a concentration that did not influence basal insulin release) the insulin response was markedly increased along the whole dose-response curve and the threshold for carbachol stimulation was significantly lowered. 3. Carbachol-stimulated islets displayed an increased insulin release and a suppressed glucagon release in the presence of L-NAME, L-NMMA or 7-nitroindazole. Significant suppression of glucagon release (except for L-NAME) was achieved at lower concentrations (approximately 0.1-0.5 mM) of the NOS inhibitors than the potentiation of insulin release (1.0-5.0 mM). The intracellular NO donor hydroxylamine dose-dependently inhibited carbachol-induced insulin release but stimulated glucagon release only at a low concentration (3 microM). 4. In islets depolarized with 30 mM K+ in the presence of the KATP channel opener diazoxide, NOS inhibition by 5 mM L-NAME still markedly potentiated carbachol-induced insulin release (although less so than in normal islets) and suppressed glucagon release. 5. In vivo pretreatment of mice with L-NAME was followed by a markedly increased insulin release and a reduced glucagon release in response to an i.v. injection of carbachol. 6. The data suggest that NO is a negative modulator of insulin release but a positive modulator of glucagon release induced by cholinergic muscarinic stimulation. These effects were also evident in K+ depolarized islets and thus NO might exert a major influence on islet hormone secretion independently of membrane depolarization events.  (+info)

Modulation of chloride, potassium and bicarbonate transport by muscarinic receptors in a human adenocarcinoma cell line. (5/3283)

1. Short-circuit current (I(SC)) responses to carbachol (CCh) were investigated in Colony 1 epithelia, a subpopulation of the HCA-7 adenocarcinoma cell line. In Krebs-Henseleit (KH) buffer, CCh responses consisted of three I(SC) components: an unusual rapid decrease (the 10 s spike) followed by an upward spike at 30 s and a slower transient increase (the 2 min peak). This response was not potentiated by forskolin; rather, CCh inhibited cyclic AMP-stimulated I(SC). 2. In HCO3- free buffer, the decrease in forskolin-elevated I(SC) after CCh was reduced, although the interactions between CCh and forskolin remained at best additive rather than synergistic. When Cl- anions were replaced by gluconate, both Ca2+- and cyclic AMP-mediated electrogenic responses were significantly inhibited. 3. Basolateral Ba2+ (1-10 mM) and 293B (10 microM) selectively inhibited forskolin stimulation of I(SC), without altering the effects of CCh. Under Ba2+- or 293B-treated conditions, CCh responses were potentiated by pretreatment with forskolin. 4. Basolateral charybdotoxin (50 nM) significantly increased the size of the 10 s spike of CCh responses in both KH and HCO3- free medium, without affecting the 2 min peak. The enhanced 10 s spike was inhibited by prior addition of 5 mM apical Ba2+. Charybdotoxin did not affect forskolin responses. 5. In epithelial layers prestimulated with forskolin, the muscarinic antagonists atropine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP, both at 100 nM) abolished subsequent 10 microM CCh responses. Following addition of p-fluoro hexahydro-sila-difenidol (pF-HHSiD, 10 microM) or pirenzepine (1 microM), qualitative changes in the CCh response time-profile also indicated a rightward shift of the agonist concentration-response curve; however, 1 microM gallamine had no effect. These results suggest that a single M3-like receptor subtype mediates the secretory response to CCh. 6. It is concluded that CCh and forskolin activate discrete populations of basolateral K+ channels gated by either Ca2+ or cyclic AMP, but that the Cl- permeability of the apical membrane may limit their combined effects on electrogenic Cl- secretion. In addition, CCh activates a Ba2+-sensitive apical K+ conductance leading to electrogenic K+ transport. Both agents may also modulate HCO3- secretion through a mechanism at least partially dependent on carbonic anhydrase.  (+info)

Dose-response slope of forced oscillation and forced expiratory parameters in bronchial challenge testing. (6/3283)

In population studies, the provocative dose (PD) of bronchoconstrictor causing a significant decrement in lung function cannot be calculated for most subjects. Dose-response curves for carbachol were examined to determine whether this relationship can be summarized by means of a continuous index likely to be calculable for all subjects, namely the two-point dose response slope (DRS) of mean resistance (Rm) and resistance at 10 Hz (R10) measured by the forced oscillation technique (FOT). Five doses of carbachol (320 microg each) were inhaled by 71 patients referred for investigation of asthma (n=16), chronic cough (n=15), nasal polyposis (n=8), chronic rhinitis (n=8), dyspnoea (n=8), urticaria (n=5), post-anaphylactic shock (n=4) and miscellaneous conditions (n=7). FOT resistance and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured in close succession. The PD of carbachol leading to a fall in FEV1 > or = 20% (PD20) or a rise in Rm or R10 > or = 47% (PD47,Rm and PD47,R10) were calculated by interpolation. DRS for FEV1 (DRSFEV1), Rm (DRSRm) and R10 (DRSR10) were obtained as the percentage change at last dose divided by the total dose of carbachol. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of DRSRm, DRS10 delta%Rm and delta%R10 in detecting spirometric bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR, fall in FEV1 > or = 20%) were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. There were 23 (32%) "spirometric" reactors. PD20 correlated strongly with DRSFEV1 (r=-0.962; p=0.0001); PD47,Rm correlated significantly with DRSRm (r=-0.648; p=0.0001) and PD47,R10 with DRSR10 (r=-0.552; p=0.0001). DRSFEV1 correlated significantly with both DRSRm (r=0.700; p=0.0001) and DRSR10 (r=0.784; p=0.0001). The Se and Sp of the various FOT indices to correctly detect spirometric BHR were as follows: DRSRm: Se=91.3%, Sp=81.2%; DRSR10: Se=91.3%, Sp=95.8%; delta%Rm: Se=86.9%, Sp=52.1%; and delta%R10: Se=91.3%, Sp=58.3%. Dose-response slopes of indices of forced oscillation technique resistance, especially the dose-response slope of resistance at 10Hz are proposed as simple quantitative indices of bronchial responsiveness which can be calculated for all subjects and that may be useful in occupational epidemiology.  (+info)

Compliance and stability of the bronchial wall in a model of allergen-induced lung inflammation. (7/3283)

Airway wall remodeling in response to inflammation might alter load on airway smooth muscle and/or change airway wall stability. We therefore determined airway wall compliance and closing pressures in an animal model. Weanling pigs were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA; ip and sc, n = 6) and were subsequently challenged three times with OVA aerosol. Control pigs received 0.9% NaCl (n = 4) in place of OVA aerosol. Bronchoconstriction in vivo was assessed from lung resistance and dynamic compliance. Semistatic airway compliance was recorded ex vivo in isolated segments of bronchus, after the final OVA aerosol or 0.9% NaCl challenge. Internally or externally applied pressure needed to close bronchial segments was determined in the absence or presence of carbachol (1 microM). Sensitized pig lungs exhibited immediate bronchoconstriction to OVA aerosol and also peribronchial accumulations of monocytes and granulocytes. Compliance was reduced in sensitized bronchi in vitro (P < 0.01), and closing pressures were increased (P < 0.05). In the presence of carbachol, closing pressures of control and sensitized bronchi were not different. We conclude that sensitization and/or inflammation increases airway load and airway stability.  (+info)

Selective activation of heterologously expressed G protein-gated K+ channels by M2 muscarinic receptors in rat sympathetic neurones. (8/3283)

1. G protein-regulated inward rectifier K+ (GIRK) channels were over-expressed in dissociated rat superior cervical sympathetic (SCG) neurones by co-transfecting green fluorescent protein (GFP)-, GIRK1- and GIRK2-expressing plasmids using the biolistic technique. Membrane currents were subsequently recorded with whole-cell patch electrodes. 2. Co-transfected cells had larger Ba2+-sensitive inwardly rectifying currents and 13 mV more negative resting potentials (in 3 mM [K+]o) than non-transfected cells, or cells transfected with GIRK1 or GIRK2 alone. 3. Carbachol (CCh, 1-30 microM) increased the inwardly rectifying current in 70 % of GIRK1+ GIRK2-transfected cells by 261 +/- 53 % (n = 6, CCh 30 microM) at -120 mV, but had no effect in non-transfected cells or in cells transfected with GIRK1 or GIRK2 alone. Pertussis toxin prevented the effect of carbachol but had no effect on basal currents. 4. The effect of CCh was antagonized by 6 nM tripitramine but not by 100 nM pirenzepine, consistent with activation of endogenous M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. 5. In contrast, inhibition of the voltage-activated Ca2+ current by CCh was antagonized by 100 nM pirenzepine but not by 6 nM tripitramine, indicating that it was mediated by M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. 6. We conclude that endogenous M2 and M4 muscarinic receptors selectively couple to GIRK currents and Ca2+ currents respectively, with negligible cross-talk.  (+info)

Mice deficient in the smooth muscle Cav1.2 calcium channel (SMACKO, smooth muscle alpha1c-subunit calcium channel knockout) have a severely reduced micturition and an increased bladder mass. L-type calcium current, protein, and spontaneous contractile activity were absent in the bladder of SMACKO mice. K+ and carbachol (CCh)-induced contractions were reduced to 10-fold in detrusor muscles from SMACKO mice. The dihydropyridine isradipine inhibited K+- and CCh-induced contractions of muscles from CTR but had no effect in muscles from SMACKO mice. CCh-induced contraction was blocked by removing extracellular Ca2+ but was unaffected by the PLC inhibitor U73122 or depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores by thapsigargin. In muscles from CTR and SMACKO mice, CCh-induced contraction was partially inhibited by the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y27632. These results show that the Cav1.2 Ca2+ channel is essential for normal bladder function. The Rho-kinase and Ca2+-release pathways cannot compensate the lack of the ...
Tomopteris helgolandica Greeff 1879 (Tomopteridae) is a transparent holoplanktonic polychaete that can emit a bright light. In this study, we investigated the emission pattern and control of this deep-sea worms luminescence. Potassium chloride depolarisation applied on anaesthetised specimens triggered a maximal yellow light emission from specific parapodial sites, suggesting that a nervous control pathway was involved. Pharmacological screening revealed a sensitivity to carbachol, which was confirmed by a dose-light response associated with a change in the light emission pattern, where physiological carbachol concentrations induced flashes and higher concentrations induced glows. The light response induced by its hydrolysable agonist, acetylcholine, was significantly weaker but was facilitated by eserine pretreatment. In addition, a specific inhibitory effect of tubocurarine was observed on carbachol-induced emission. Lastly, KCl- and carbachol-induced light responses were significantly ...
The building blocks of intracellular Ca2+ signals evoked by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are Ca2+ puffs, transient focal increases in Ca2+ concentration that reflect the opening of small clusters of IP3Rs. We use total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and automated analyses to detect Ca2+ puffs evoked by photolysis of caged IP3 or activation of endogenous muscarinic receptors with carbachol in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Ca2+ puffs evoked by carbachol initiated at an estimated 65±7 sites/cell, and the sites remained immobile for many minutes. Photolysis of caged IP3 evoked Ca2+ puffs at a similar number of sites (100±35). Increasing the carbachol concentration increased the frequency of Ca2+ puffs without unmasking additional Ca2+ release sites. By measuring responses to sequential stimulation with carbachol or photolysed caged IP3, we established that the two stimuli evoked Ca2+ puffs at the same sites. We conclude that IP3-evoked Ca2+ puffs initiate at numerous
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Carbachol lowers pressure in the eye by increasing the amount of fluid that drains from the eye. Carbachol ophthalmic (for the eye) is used to reduce pressure inside the eye after cataract surgery. Carbachol ophthalmic may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
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Data Availability StatementAll relevant data are inside the paper. myosin weighty string II, collagen 1, calponin, transgelin, connexin 43, and vimentin manifestation in the SMCs acquired via the Contractile SMC process and in SMCs differentiated with a traditional process were identical, while SMCs created via the Sythetic SMC process expressed much less calponin, even more collagen 1, and even more connexin 43. Variations were also seen in practical assessments of both SMC populations: the two-dimensional surface of Contractile SMCs dropped more thoroughly (to 12% versus 44% of unique size) in response to carbachol treatment, while quantification of cell proliferation and migration were higher in Synthetic SMCs. Collectively, these data demonstrate our book differentiation protocols may generate SMCs from hiPSCs efficiently. Introduction Human being induced-pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can offer a theoretically unlimited amount of terminally differentiated cells for make use of in tissue ...
Carbachol- యొక్క ఉపయోగాలు, మోతాదు, దుష్ప్రభావాలు, ప్రయోజనాలు, పరస్పర చర్యలు మరియు హెచ్చరికను కనుగొనండి
Values are means ± SE. Cholinergic responses evoked by bath application of carbachol (10 μM for 5 min) in CA3 pyramidal neurons. Boldface numbers indicate P , 0.05 for carbachol-induced effects within individual cell types (repeated-measures ANOVA with post-tests: baseline, carbachol, and wash). Asterisks indicate P , 0.01 when compared with values in wild-type neurons (one-way ANOVA with post-tests). ...
IO-CHOL(Carbachol Intraocular Solution USP 0.01% w/v) Description: IO-Chol is a sterile balanced salt solution of carbachol for intracular injection. Warnings & Precautions: Do not…. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of intracameral carbachol on post-operative intraocular pressure rises after cataract extraction in the dog. AU - Stuhr, C. M.. AU - Miller, P. E.. AU - Murphy, Christopher J. AU - Schoster, J. V.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. N2 - Purpose. We previously have demonstrated ciliary cleft collapse as a component of the acute post-operative rise in IOP in dogs following phacoemulsification lens extraction (Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1994, 35:419). The purpose of this study was to determine if intracameral carbachol at the conclusion of cataract extraction would blunt the elevation in IOP in the early post-operative period. Methods. A randomized, placebo-controlled, masked trial was performed using thirty-one dogs which were assigned into four groups: 1) posterior chamber IOL placement with 0.5 ml of BSS, 2) PC IOL with 0.5 ml of 0.01% carbachol, 3) aphakic with 0.5 ml BSS, and 4) aphakic with 0.5 ml of 0.01% carbachol. IOP was measured by applanation tonometry and intraocular ...
The effects of extracellular ATP on ion fluxes and the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were examined using a suspension of rat parotid acinar cells and were contrasted with the effects of the muscarinic agonist carbachol. Although ATP and carbachol both rapidly increased [Ca2+]i about threefold above the resting level (200-250 nM), the effect of ATP was due primarily to an influx of Ca2+ across the plasma membrane, while the initial response to carbachol was due to a release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Within 10 s, ATP (1 mM) and carbachol (20 microM) reduced the cellular Cl- content by 39-50% and cell volume by 15-25%. Both stimuli reduced the cytosolic K+ content by 57-65%, but there were marked differences in the rate and pattern of net K+ movement as well as the effects of K+ channel inhibitors on the effluxes initiated by the two stimuli. The maximum rate of the ATP-stimulated K+ efflux (approximately 2,200 nmol K+/mg protein per min) was about two-thirds that of the ...
Carbachol is a choline carbamate and a positively charged quaternary ammonium compound.[2] It is not well absorbed in the gastro-intestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It is usually administered topical ocular or through intraocular injection.[2] Carbachol is not easily metabolized by cholinesterase, it has a 2 to 5 minute onset of action and its duration of action is 4 to 8 hours with topical administration and 24 hours for intraocular administration. Since carbachol is poorly absorbed through topical administration, benzalkonium chloride is mixed in to promote absorption.[2]. Carbachol is a parasympathomimetic that stimulates both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors.[2] In topical ocular and intraocular administration its principal effects are miosis and increased aqueous humour outflow.[2]. In the cat and rat, carbachol is well known for its ability to induce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep when microinjected into the pontine reticular formation. Carbachol elicits this REM ...
The acetylcholine analogue carbachol rapidly activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and caused tyrosine phosphorylation of the adapter protein p52 Shc and the epidermalgrowth factor (EGF) receptor, in human embryonic kidney cells stably expressing m3 muscarinic receptors. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor GF109203X caused a significant partial inhibition of m3 receptor-mediated activation of MAPK. The PKC-independent MAPK activity elicited by carbachol in the presence of GF109203X was reproducibly abolished by AG1478, an inhibitor of EGF-receptor tyrosine kinase activity, and by the Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor PP1. In a subset of these experiments, GF109203X concomitantly increased carbachol-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of p52 Shc and the EGF receptor. In co-stimulation experiments, carbachol and EGF activated MAPK in a non-additive fashion; moreover, EGF-induced association of Shc with the phosphorylated EGF receptor was inhibited by carbachol. This effect of carbachol was ...
Therefore, it is also possible to modify our algorithm to study the coupling mechanisms between exocytosis and endocytosis in the future. Combinatorial microscopy. Google Scholar Employing FM fluorescence imaging, basolateral exocytosis was observed in dispersed rat pancreatic acini after supramaximal CCK or carbachol stimulation; and more remarkably, also after treatment with clinically-relevant concentrations of alcohol and putative alcohol metabolites followed by physiologic CCK or carbachol stimulation 8, 9, 28thus simulating alcoholic pancreatitis. AIP Conf. In summary, we have developed a software platform for the identification and spatiotemporal analysis of vesicle fusion events obtained by TIRF microscopy.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolated pancreatic acini from suckling and weanling rats. T2 - Changes in amino acid incorporation and carbachol-stimulated amylase secretion with age. AU - Pollack, Paul F.. AU - Verbridge, Jill. AU - Thornburg, William. AU - Koldovsky, Otakar. AU - Korc, Murray. PY - 1986/1/1. Y1 - 1986/1/1. N2 - To characterize the changes in pancreatic function during postnatal development, isolated pancreatic acini were prepared from rats aged 8-9, 12-14 and 20 days and from adult rats. Isolated acini maintained a normal microscopic appearance and viability as judged by exclusion of trypan blue and linear incorporation of tritiated leucine into total protein. The rate of incorporation in 8-day-old acini was 20% of that observed in adult rats. Significant dose-dependent increases in amylase release in response to carbachol were observed in all age groups; stimulated amylase secretion was significantly less in the 8- to 9- and 12- to 14-day-old animals than in the 20-day-old and adult rats. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cholinergic regulation of Na absorption by turtle colon. T2 - Role of basolateral K conductance. AU - Venglarik, C. J.. AU - Dawson, D. C.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - The mechanism underlying the muscarinic inhibition of colonic Na absorption is unknown. In this study the effects of carbachol on active Na transport and basolateral K conductance were compared in the isolated turtle colon. Carbachol produced a biphasic response in both Na transport and basolateral K conductance. The response consisted of a transient activation followed by a sustained inhibition and was blocked by atropine. Submucosal cholinergic neurons were implicated in the regulation of colonic transport by employing depolarizing agents to release endogenous acetylcholine. Depolarizing agents produced a carbachol-like response that was atropine-sensitive. Finally, experiments with the Ca ionophores, A23187 and ionomycin, suggested that the muscarinic response may be mediated, at least in part, by changes in ...
How is carbachol-induced active sleep abbreviated? c-AS stands for carbachol-induced active sleep. c-AS is defined as carbachol-induced active sleep rarely.
Spatio-temporal patterns of CCh-induced [Ca2+]i transients. The x-y confocal Ca2+ imaging was performed at 32 Hz (A and B), 40 Hz (C), 44 Hz (D) and 30 Hz
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between carbachol ophthalmic and Ceron-DM Drops. View detailed information regarding this drug interaction.
Fig. 3. Mobility of Gαq and Gβγ in FRTcav- and FRTcav+ cells. Box-and-whisker diagram of the diffusion coefficient of Gαq-eGFP (left) and eGFP-Gβγ (right) in FRTcav+ and FRTcav- cells in the basal and stimulated (5 μM carbachol) state measured by FCS. The data set from each experiment is represented as a separate box. The boundary of the box is determined by the 25th and 75th percentiles, and the whiskers are determined by the 5th and 95th percentiles. The small red square within each box indicates the value of the mean for each set of data (n=20-50 per set; every D is calculated using a set of six to ten measurements of 10 seconds each). Data was collected with a band-pass emission filter (BP505-550) with excitation at 488 nm. For stimulated cells, data was recorded for 8 minutes post-stimulation from different cells and then averaged. All measurements were performed at ∼25°C.. ...
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The effect of phencyclidine (PCP) on carbachol-induced phosphoinositol hydrolysis was examined in rat brain slices taken from cortex, caudate-putamen and hippocampus. In all three regions studied, PCP significantly inhibited carbachol-induced [3H]inositol phosphate accumulation working as low as 10(-6) M in the cerebral cortex. Because PCP has been shown to act at two sites, a PCP-site and a sigma site, various PCP-like agonists [levoxadrol (Lev), dexoxadrol (Dex) and MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro- 5H-dibenzo(a,b)cyclo-hepaten-5, 10-imine maleate]] as well as sigma agonists [(+)-SKF10047 and 1,3-di(2-toly)guanidine (DTG) were examined for their effects on carbachol-induced phosphoinositol hydrolysis. All but MK-801 significantly inhibited the carbachol action; however, their order of potencies, Lev greater than or equal to Dex much greater than PCP greater than or equal to DTG greater than or equal to (+)-SKF10047 differed from those of other known PCP interactions at PCP and sigma sites. ...
Flp-In T-REx 293 cells expressing a wild type human M muscarinic acetylcholine receptor construct constitutively and able to express a Receptor Activated Solely by Synthetic Ligand (RASSL) form of this receptor on demand maintained response to the muscarinic agonist carbachol but developed response to clozapine-N-oxide only upon induction of the RASSL. The two constructs co-localized at the plasma membrane and generated strong ratiometric fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) signals consistent with direct physical interactions. Increasing levels of induction of the FRET-donor RASSL did not alter wild type receptor FRET-acceptor levels substantially. However, ratiometric FRET was modulated in a bell-shaped fashion with maximal levels of the donor resulting in decreased FRET. Carbachol, but not the antagonist atropine, significantly reduced the FRET signal. Cell surface homogenous time-resolved FRET, based on SNAP-tag technology and employing wild type and RASSL forms of the human M ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Muscarinic depression of excitatory synaptic transmission mediated by the presynaptic M3 receptors in the rat neostriatum. AU - Hsu, Kuei Sen. AU - Huang, Chiung Chun. AU - Gean, Po Wu. PY - 1995/9/8. Y1 - 1995/9/8. N2 - The effect of carbachol on the excitatory synaptic transmission was studied in rat neostriatal neurons using intracellular and whole-cell voltage clamp-recording methods. Depolarizing excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were evoked by cortical stimulation. Superfusion of carbachol (0.01-3 μM) reversibly decreases the EPSP amplitude in a concentration-dependent manner and with an estimated IC50 of 0.3 μM. While, neither the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA, 100 μM)- nor (±)-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA, 100 μM)-induced response was affected by carbachol (0.1 μM). In addition, the inhibitory effect induced by carbachol at a low concentration of 0.1 μM. was attenuated by 4-diphenylacetoxy-N,N-methyl-piperidine (4-DAMP), a ...
OBJECTIVE: To investigate protein content of saliva produced in vitro by samples of human submandibular gland following stimulation with the muscarinic agent carbachol. DESIGN: Tissue samples, obtained at surgery from seven patients and showing normal morphological appearance, were tested for 30 min: in absence of carbachol and atropine; in presence of carbachol (10 microM); in presence of carbachol (10 microM) and atropine (20 microM); or in presence of just atropine (20 microM). Medium was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass-spectrometry. Neither before nor during surgery were the patients exposed to drug treatments that were likely to influence the in vitro secretion. RESULTS: Proline-rich proteins (PRP)-1 and -3, peptide PC and PB, statherin, cystatins SN, S1 and S2 were invariably found in control gland tissue medium. Mean concentrations of these proteins/peptides in the medium were non-proportionally elevated following carbachol exposure to the gland tissues. Difference ...
BioAssay record AID 77706 submitted by ChEMBL: Maximum response relative to that elicited by carbachol in guinea pig ileum was determined.
Phospholipase C (PLC) regulates various cellular processes by catalyzing the formation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol from phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Here, we have investigated the influence of Ca2+ on receptor-triggered PLC activity in individual insulin-secreting β-cells. Evanescent wave microscopy was used to record PLC activity using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged PIP2/IP3-binding pleckstrin homology domain from PLCδ1, and the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was simultaneously measured using the indicator Fura Red. Stimulation of MIN6 β-cells with the muscarinic-receptor agonist carbachol induced rapid and sustained PLC activation. By contrast, only transient activation was observed after stimulation in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ or in the presence of the non-selective Ca2+ channel inhibitor La3+. The Ca2+-dependent sustained phase of PLC activity did not require voltage-gated Ca2+ influx, as hyperpolarization with ...
Bicuculline, Carbachol, Cholinergic Agonist, Gaba, Hippocampal Formation, Hippocampus, Neuron, Neurons, Population, Rats, Separated, Urethane
The concentration-effect relationships of carbachol were studied for three different responses of detrusor muscle of rabbit urinary bladder: the mechanical response, the increase of 45Ca uptake and the displacement of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) from muscarinic receptors. The EC50 for carbachol in production of contractile responses of the detrusor muscle was observed to be 0.27 microM. The 45Ca uptake by detrusor muscle strips was studied by the lanthanum-residual wash out method. Carbachol increased 45Ca uptake with an EC50 of 12.7 microM. [3H]QNB binding was performed on homogenates of rabbit bladder detrusor muscle. By Scatchard analysis, the receptor density was found to be 47.2 fmol/mg of protein and the KD 0.074 nM. The contractile responses, the 45Ca uptake and the specific [3H]QNB binding were all blocked by atropine and so are taken to represent muscarinic receptor-mediated phenomena. Carbachol displacement of [3H]QNB yielded an EC50 of 135 microM and a Kl of 42 microM. It is ...
KEY POINTS: Animal studies suggest an anti-fibrillatory action of the vagus nerve on the ventricle, although the exact mechanism is controversial. Using a Langendorff perfused rat heart, we show that the acetylcholine analogue carbamylcholine raises ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT) and flattens the electrical restitution curve. The anti-fibrillatory action of carbamylcholine was prevented by the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine, inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and can be mimicked by the nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside. Carbamylcholine increased NO metabolite content in the coronary effluent and this was prevented by mecamylamine. The anti-fibrillatory action of both carbamylcholine and sodium nitroprusside was ultimately dependent on muscarinic receptor stimulation as all effects were blocked by atropine. These data demonstrate a protective effect of carbamylcholine on VFT that depends upon both muscarinic and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of Cholinergic Agonists on Muscle From Rodent Proximal and Distal Small Intestine. AU - Nowak, Thomas V.. AU - Harrington, Bonnie. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - Proximal and distal rat small intestine was cut into strips measuring 6.0 × 10.0 mm. Strips cut along the oral-caudal axis were called longitudinal strips, whereas those cut 90° to that axis were called circular strips. Stress in circular and longitudinal muscle strips was measured continuously as they were superf used with acetylcholine, carbamylcholine, methacholine, bethanechol, or physostigmine. Resting stress during stretch, acetylcholine-stimulated active stress, and total stress were determined. Proximal circular muscle was five times as sensitive to acetylcholine as distal circular muscle (p , 0.05); proximal longitudinal muscle was 2.8 times as sensitive to bethanechol as distal muscle (p , 0.05). Resting, active, and total stress were similar in proximal and distal muscle, but circular muscle ...
Characteristic features of cockroach embryos (Periplaneta americana) are determined for different stages in development. Morphological changes in giant interneurone 2 (GI 2) in the terminal abdominal ganglion during embryogenesis are described based on cobalt injections. A sequential proliferation of branches preceded by filopodial extension is observed between 45 and 80% embryogenesis, by which time the characteristic arborization of the first instar cell is established. The cholinergic agonist carbamylcholine was ionophoretically applied to the cell body and dendritic region of GI 2 at various stages in development, and the responses were recorded intracellularly. Chemosensitivity of GI 2 appears at 40 to 45% embryogenesis, to a similar degree in both cell body and dendrites. The sensitivity of these areas subsequently diverges, and after the 60 to 65% stage, the dendrites are approximately 1000 times more sensitive than the cell body. At 80 to 85% embryogenesis, there is a temporary peak in ...
The lacrimal gland (LG) is an exocrine gland important for secretion of the tear film. The kinase p38 has important signal transduction functions, e.g. in gene transcription, but has previously not been known to modulate exocrine secretion. The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of p38 in carbachol (Cch)-induced LG secretion in LG acinar cells in vitro. Western blotting was used to determine the phosphorylation status of p38 and p42/44 and determine expression of p38 isoforms. To determine the effect of p38 inhibition on LG secretion, PD 169316, a general p38 inhibitor, and SB 239063, an inhibitor of p38α and β, were added to the cells prior to secretion measurements. The results revealed activation of p38 mediated by Cch stimulation and inhibition of Cch-induced secretion as a result of p38 inhibition. The inhibition was observed with PD 169316 isoforms, but not with SB 239063. The p38δ isoform was shown to have robust expression both by Western blotting of acinar cells and ...
Muscle contraction stimulates glucose uptake acutely to increase energy supply, but suitable cellular models that faithfully reproduce this complex phenomenon are lacking. To this end, we have developed a cellular model of contracting C2C12 myotubes overexpressing GLUT4 with an exofacial myc-epitope tag (GLUT4myc) and explored stimulation of GLUT4 traffic by physiologically relevant agents. Carbachol (an acetylcholine receptor agonist) induced a gain in cell surface GLUT4myc that was mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Carbachol also activated AMPK, and this response was sensitive to the contractile myosin ATPase inhibitor N-benzyl-p-toluenesulfonamide. The gain in surface GLUT4myc elicited by carbachol or by the AMPK activator 5-amino-4-carboxamide-1 β-ribose was sensitive to chemical inhibition of AMPK activity by compound C and partially reduced by siRNA-mediated knockdown of AMPK catalytic subunits or LKB1. In addition, the carbachol-induced gain in cell surface GLUT4myc was ...
Muscle contraction stimulates glucose uptake acutely to increase energy supply, but suitable cellular models that faithfully reproduce this complex phenomenon are lacking. To this end, we have developed a cellular model of contracting C2C12 myotubes overexpressing GLUT4 with an exofacial myc-epitope tag (GLUT4myc) and explored stimulation of GLUT4 traffic by physiologically relevant agents. Carbachol (an acetylcholine receptor agonist) induced a gain in cell surface GLUT4myc that was mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Carbachol also activated AMPK, and this response was sensitive to the contractile myosin ATPase inhibitor N-benzyl-p-toluenesulfonamide. The gain in surface GLUT4myc elicited by carbachol or by the AMPK activator 5-amino-4-carboxamide-1 β-ribose was sensitive to chemical inhibition of AMPK activity by compound C and partially reduced by siRNA-mediated knockdown of AMPK catalytic subunits or LKB1. In addition, the carbachol-induced gain in cell surface GLUT4myc was ...
Mouse pancreatic islets were used to investigate how muscarinic stimulation influences the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in insulin-secreting B-cells. In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, acetylcholine (ACh) triggered a transient, concentration-dependent and thapsigargin-inhibited increase in [Ca2+]i. In the presence of extracellular Ca2+ and 15 mM glucose, ACh induced a biphasic rise in [Ca2+]i. The initial, transient phase increased with the concentration of ACh, whereas the second, sustained, phase was higher at low (0.1-1 microM) than at high (, or = 10 microM) concentrations of ACh. Thapsigargin attenuated (did not suppress) the first phase of the [Ca2+]i rise and did not affect the sustained response. This sustained rise was inhibited by omission of extracellular Na+ (which prevents the depolarizing action of ACh) and by D600 or diazoxide (which prevent activation of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels). During steady-state stimulation, the Ca2+ action potentials in B-cells were ...
A synthetic drug that acts as a parasympathomimetic and cholinergic agent but is immune to the inactivating effects of acetylcholinesterase. It is used in the treatment of urinary retention, abdominal distention, and glaucoma. See also cholinomimetic. [From its chemical name carba(moyl)-chol(ine) (chloride)] ...
Vocabulary for Pharm -7- Cholinergic Agents. Find, create, and access Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, flashcards with Course Hero.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Calcium‐dependent enhancement by carbachol of the VIP‐induced cyclic AMP accumulation in cat submandibular gland. AU - ENYEDI, PETER. AU - FREDHOLM, BERTIL B.. PY - 1984/4. Y1 - 1984/4. N2 - The interaction of two coexisting transmitters in the cat submandibular gland has been elucidated by studying effects of VIP and carbachol on cyclic AMP accumulation in isolated acini from the gland. Carbachol was found to potentiate the cyclic AMP increase induced by VIP by an atropine sensitive mechanism. The effect of carbachol on cyclic AMP accumulation was abolished by including EGTA in the incubation medium as was the carbachol mediated potentiation of VIP responses. The calmodulin inhibitor trifluoperazine had a similar, but less marked effect. The effect of carbachol was mimicked by phenylephrine (30 μM) and by the calcium inophore A 23187 (3 μM), and also by ethanol in a concentration reported to enhance membrane fluidity. The phospholipase A2 inhibitor, mepacrine, tended to ...
The effects of Li+ on carbachol-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism were examined in rat cerebral-cortex slices labelled with myo-[2-3H]inositol. The muscarinic agonist carbachol evoked an enhanced steady-state accumulation of [3H]inositol monophosphate ([3H]InsP1), [3H]inositol bisphosphate ([3H]InsP2), [3H]inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate ([3H]Ins(1,3,4)P3), [3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate ([3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3) and [3H]inositol tetrakisphosphate ([3H]InsP4). Li+ (5 mM), after a 10 min lag, severely attenuated carbachol-stimulated [3H]InsP4 accumulation while simultaneously potentiating accumulation of both [3H]InsP1 and [3H]InsP2 and, at least initially, of [3H]Ins(1,3,4)P3. These data are consistent with inhibition of inositol mono-, bis- and 1,3,4-tris-phosphate phosphatases to different degrees by Li+ in brain, but are not considered to be completely accounted for in this way. Potential direct and indirect mechanisms of the inhibitory action of Li+ on [3H]InsP4 accumulation are considered. The ...
Increased phasic activity in the bladder smooth muscle of animal models and patients with detrusor overactivity has been suggested to underlie the pathophysiology of overactive bladder. Potassium (K+) channels are key regulators of bladder smooth muscle tone and thus may play a role in this altered phasic activity. In this study the effects of K+ channel modulators on the phasic activity of bladder strips from the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model of bladder dysfunction were investigated. Bladder strips from rats 1 week following streptozotocin administration and age-matched controls were mounted in tissue baths at 37 °C and the effects of K+ channel modulators on resting basal tension or phasic activity induced by a low concentration of carbachol (0.5 μM) were investigated. Activation of BKCa channels by NS1619 had a minor inhibitory effect on carbachol-induced phasic activity of bladder strips from control and diabetic rats, and significantly inhibited amplitude only at 30 μM. Activation of
We have, in the accompanying work, demonstrated the coexistence of M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors in the circular smooth muscle of canine colon. In the present study, the effects of muscarinic receptor stimulation on phosphoinositide turnover and adenylate cyclase activity were examined. In myo-[3H]inositol-labeled circular smooth muscle strips, carbachol caused a concentration-dependent (EC50 = 5 microM) increase in [3H]inositol phosphate production. The more M3 receptor-selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine (KB = 53 nM) was approximately 60 times more potent than the more M2-selective agent AF-DX 116 (KB = 3 microM) in blocking carbachol-elicited accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates. The carbachol-stimulated increase in [3H]inositol phosphate accumulation was not affected by pretreatment of the tissue with pertussis toxin (200 ng/ml, 3 hr). Within the first minute, carbachol (100 microM) caused a rapid and transient increase of [3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - S-isopetasin, a sesquiterpene of Petasites formosanus, allosterically antagonized carbachol in isolated guinea pig atria. AU - Ko, Wun Chang. AU - Wang, Sheng Hao. AU - Chen, Mei Chun. AU - Lin, Yun Lian. AU - Chen, Chieh Fu. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - We investigated the antimuscarinic effect of S-isopetasin in isolated guinea pig atria to clarify whether it preferentially acts on muscarinic M2 or M3 receptors. The tension changes of isolated atria were isometrically recorded on a polygraph. S-Isopetasin at 50 and 100 μM significantly inhibited baselines of contractile tension and heart rate, but atropine at 1 μM enhanced both. S-Isopetasin (10-100 μM) did not significantly alter the concentration-negative inotropic response curves of carbachol (CCh) in left atria. S-Isopetasin (10-100 μM) allosterically antagonized negative inotropic and chronotropic responses induced by CCh in spontaneously beating right atria, based on the slopes of Schild plots significantly differing ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regional development of carbachol-, glutamate-, norepinephrine-, and serotonin-stimulated phosphoinositide metabolism in rat brain. AU - Balduini, Walter. AU - Candura, Stefano M.. AU - Costa, Lucio G.. PY - 1991/9/19. Y1 - 1991/9/19. N2 - Phosphoinositide metabolism stimulated by activation of cholinergic muscarinic, glutamatergic, α-adrenergic and serotoninergic receptors was measured in brain regions of the developing rats. Accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates ([3H]InsPs) in [3H]inositol-prelabeled slices from cerebral cortex, hippocampus, brainstem and cerebellum was measured as an index of phosphoinositide metabolism. Large age-, neurotransmitter receptor-, and brain region-dependent differences were found. Carbachol-stimulated [3H]InsPs accumulation peaked on postnatal day 7 in cerebral cortex and hippocampus while in cerebellum and brainstem the effect of muscarinic stimulation was maximal at birth and then declined to adulthood. The effect of glutamate also showed a ...
Background: We hypothesized that food allergy causes a state of non-specific jejunal dysmotility. This was tested in a mouse model. Methods: Balb/c mice were epicutaneously sensitized with ovalbumin and challenged with 10 intragastric ovalbumin administrations every second day. Smooth muscle contractility of isolated circular jejunal sections was studied in organ bath with increasing concentrations of carbamylcholine chloride (carbachol). Smooth muscle layer thickness and mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1) positive cell density were assayed histologically. Serum MMCP-1 and immunoglobulins were quantified by ELISA, and mRNA expressions of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-6 and TGFβ-1 from jejunal and ileal tissue segments were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Ovalbumin-specific serum IgE correlated with jejunal MMCP-1+ cell density. In the allergic mice, higher concentrations of carbachol were required to reach submaximal muscular stimulation, particularly in preparations derived from mice with ...
A reciprocal relationship exists between agrin and acetylcholine (ACh) in controlling acetylcholine receptor (AChR) clustering at the neuromuscular junction: Agrin promotes clustering, and ACh disperses clusters. Chen et al. provide insight into how these opposing signals may allow stabilization of AChR at the neuromuscular junction by differential activity of the calcium-activated proteases calpains. Exposure of C2C12 myotubes in culture to the cholinergic agonist carbachol triggered a calcium transient, activation of calpain, and stimulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) through production of the activator p25 by cleavage of the CDK5 regulatory partner p35. (CDK5 has been previously implicated in AChR dispersal, and p35 is a known substrate for calpain.) Activation of CDK5 by carbachol was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of calpain with calpeptin, and the dispersal of AChR clusters induced by agrin was also prevented if calpain activity was blocked (pharmacologically or by RNAi). ...
The human neuroblastoma line SH-SY5Y expresses three muscarinic receptor genes (m1, m2, and m3). In this study, we have investigated the effect of agonist exposure on the steady state levels of each muscarinic receptor transcript, using a comparative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that allows changes in levels of very rare transcripts to be monitored. Northern blot analysis of cellular RNA revealed the presence of m3 mRNA, whereas PCR amplification of SH-SY5Y cDNA additionally revealed the presence of m1 and m2 transcripts. Cell surface muscarinic receptor number, as assessed by N-[3H]methylscopolamine binding to whole cells, rapidly decreased to 42% of control levels within 1 hr of exposure to 100 microM carbachol; this was followed by a slower decline to 6% of control levels after 48 hr. Total receptor number, measured by binding of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate, showed a much slower decline to 21% of control levels after 48 hr of treatment. Comparative PCR analysis showed that each ...
We previously reported that both carbachol and epidermal growth factor (EGF) are potent inducers of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs) in isolated gastric canine parietal cells and that induction of these kinases leads to acute inhibitory and chronic stimulatory effects on gastric acid secretion. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects. Both carbachol (100 microM) and EGF (10 nM) induced Ras activation. The role of Ras in ERK2 induction was examined by transfecting parietal cells with a vector expressing hemoagglutinin (HA)-tagged ERK2 (HA-ERK2) together with a dominantly expressed mutant (inactive) ras gene. HA-ERK2 activity was quantitated by in-gel kinase assays. Dominant negative Ras reduced carbachol induction of HA-ERK2 activity by 60% and completely inhibited the stimulatory effect of EGF. Since Ras activation requires the assembly of a multiprotein complex, we examined the effect of carbachol and EGF on tyrosyl ...
p, The aim of the study was to investigate whether Na,sup,+,/sup, channels play a role in the twitch component of the response of the isolated frog rectus abdominis to Ca,sup,2+,/sup,-free Ringer solution with 0.2 mM Na,sub,2,/sub,EDTA by using tetrodotoxin and some other well known drugs that exhibit a blocking action on Na,sup,+,/sup, channels. In the presence of 5 x 10,sup,-7,/sup, M tetrodotoxin, the twitch component, measured isotonically, disappeared. Although 10,sup,-7,/sup, M d-tubocurarine was found to be ineffective, a complete blockage of twitch amplitude was observed at 5 x 10,sup,-6,/sup, M concentration of the drug. The inhibitory action of d-tubocurarine on twitch response was not antagonized by 10,sup,-6,/sup, and 10,sup,-5,/sup, M carbachol. Propranolol (10,sup,-6,/sup, - 10,sup,-5,/sup, M), lidocaine (2 x 10,sup,-6,/sup, - 10,sup,-5,/sup, M), quinine (10,sup,-6,/sup, - 2 x 10,sup,-5,/sup, M) and quinidine (10,sup,-6,/sup, - 2 x 10,sup,-5,/sup, M) inhibited maximal twitch ...
Les Laboratoires Servier (Servier) in France is developing conformationally restricted acetylcholine analogues as potential agents for the treatment of
We performed medium-throughput calcium mobilization assays of agonist-stimulated muscarinic acetylcholine and protease-activated receptors in HEK293 cells transfected with individual members of a pooled duplex siRNA library targeting all conventional human RGS transcripts. Only knockdown of RGS11 increased both carbachol-mediated calcium mobilization and inositol phosphate accumulation. Surprisingly, we found that knockdown of RGS8 and RGS9,…
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Results of this study show that cells isolated from the longitudinal muscle layer of T. spiralis-infected mice exhibit a substantially greater degree of shortening on exposure to Carbachol than cells isolated from control mice. This finding indicates that the inflammation-induced hypercontractility is a property of the muscle cells, rather than the syncytium. Thus muscle cells isolated from this model may be used to examine changes in excitation-contraction coupling that underlie this hyperresponsiveness to Carbachol. The presence of CD3+ cells in the muscularis externa, taken together with the observation that the increased shortening of isolated cells is attenuated in STAT6-deficient infected mice, is consistent with the hypothesis that Th2 cytokines mediate these effects at the level of the muscle cell.. We also show that intestinal muscle cells from control or infected mice express the IL-4Rα and are therefore, able to respond to IL-4 and IL-13. Indeed, we show that when these cells are ...
The pattern of results suggests cholinergically mediated psychophysiologic pathways of emotional influence in the asthmatic process for some asthmatic children. A heuristic biopsychosocial model of these pathways is presented.
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Now, for some reason, the story goes out of its way to differentiate between the Zombieastral (zombies created by chemicals) and Zombiecadavre (a resurrected corpse). Both are used in the story, and neither adds much of anything. The basic idea of Calypso possessing Glory Grant and using Glory to resurrect her original body has problems, but at least theres nothing fundamentally convoluted about it. For some reason, Herdling feels the need to complicate the plot with the old 70s Zombie, political strife in Haiti, a new street drug that zombifies people, Glorys cousin, and, oh yeah, Shotgun. You might remember Shotgun from practically any Marvel title drawn by John Romita, Jr. in the 90s. (Romita, Jr. was even supposed to do a monthly Shotgun series during the heyday of Big Guns & Attitude, but it never materialized.) This might just be Shotguns first appearance not drawn by Romita. And the artist turns out to be Shawn McManus of all people, doing a job thats just as polarizing as his ...
Carbachol is primarily used for various ophthalmic purposes. The protease inhibitor darunavir for HIV treatment also contains a ... Carbachol Multum Consumer Information. Accessed 27 April 2021. DrugBank DB01264 . Accessed 27 April 2021. Colović, MB; Krstić, ...
Carbachol has been shown to markedly activate the channel; in light of this, it's not surprising that secretory diarrhea is a ... Schulz M, Graefe T, Stuby K, Andresen H, Kupfermann N, Schmoldt A (2006). "Case report: acute unintentional carbachol ... Carbachol overdose symptom. Crofelemer, an antidiarrhoeal, inhibits this channel. Consequently, ANO1 activation is necessary ...
Carbachol increases ICC activity through ANO1 activation. ICC are also critical in the propagation of electrical slow waves. ... A recent review noted that carbachol increases ICC activity through this channel. ANO1-knockout mice fail to produce slow waves ...
... as evidenced by strong staining of secretory granules in keeping with lacritin release after carbachol stimulation. Carbachol- ... When monkey lacrimal acinar cells are stressed with inflammatory cytokines (as occurs in dry eye), carbachol loses its capacity ... "HuPA_00022". Morimoto-Tochigi A, Walkup RD, Nakajima E, Shearer TR, Azuma M (September 2010). "Mechanism for carbachol-induced ...
Carbachol can be used to treat atonic bowel and bladder. The vital functions should be monitored and stabilized. It may be ...
Inhibitory Mechanism of Papaverine on Carbachol-Induced Contraction in Bovine Trachea; Takeharu Kaneda1,*, Yukako Takeuchi1, ...
Carbachol, which mimics the effect of acetylcholine on neurons, has a similar influence. In waking humans, the same injections ...
Ikemoto, S.; Wise, R. A. (2002). "Rewarding effects of the cholinergic agents carbachol and neostigmine in the posterior ...
Other important hormones have been shown to excite the SFO, specifically serotonin, carbamylcholine (carbachol), and atropine. ... and synapse with deeper carbachol-sensitive neurons. The axons of these deep neurons pass out of the SFO in the columns and ...
... like methacholine and carbachol. Radiolabeled cholines, like 11C-choline, are used in medical imaging. Other commercially used ...
... such as carbachol. Commercially produced demecarium bromide solution, previously sold under the trade name Humorsol, is no ...
... propria spontaneous activity and the role of M3 muscarinic receptors in mediating rate responses to stretch and carbachol". ...
... propria spontaneous activity and the role of M3 muscarinic receptors in mediating rate responses to stretch and carbachol". ...
Injection of a cholinergic agonist (e.g. carbachol), into the pontine tegmentum produces a state of REM sleep in cats. PET ...
... effects of carbachol, atropine, bicuculline, and picrotoxin". Physiol. Behav. 61 (3): 411-418. doi:10.1016/s0031-9384(96)00452- ...
... interacts with Gsalpha and Gqalpha and is translocated to the plasma membrane in response to isoproterenol and carbachol". ...
... interacts with Gsalpha and Gqalpha and is translocated to the plasma membrane in response to isoproterenol and carbachol". J. ...
... protein kinases mediate signaling from carbachol to p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and ternary complex factors". The ...
Carbachol (2003). RxList., Приступљено 27. 6. 2004.. *National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2002). Choline, ...
S01EB02 Carbachol. S01EB03 Ecothiopate. S01EB04 Demecarium. S01EB05 Physostigmine. S01EB06 Neostigmine. S01EB07 Fluostigmine. ...
... but not in endothelium-denuded rat aorta on reacting with carbachol, a parasympathomimetic drug. It potently reduces blood ...
"Inhibitory Effects of Antipsychotics on Carbachol-Enhanced Insulin Secretion from Perifused Rat Islets: Role of Muscarinic ...
A muscle relaxant, known as Mephenesin, reduces activity of the dorsal nucleus, as well as microinjections of carbachol (which ...
Menescal-De-Oliveira, L; Lico, M. C. (1985). "Inhibition of the response to pain by the action of serotonin and carbachol ...
In another rat group, the P wave generator was stimulated using a carbachol injection and the rats then underwent a sleep ...
Keely SJ, Calandrella SO, Barrett KE (April 2000). "Carbachol-stimulated transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor ...
Acetylcholine Carbachol Suxamethonium α-Bungarotoxin α-Conotoxin Hexamethonium Pancuronium Tubocurarine Nicotinic acetylcholine ...
Studies on the effects of choline, acetylcholine, and carbachol on the resting potentials of the superior cervical ganglion in ...
It has been shown that relaxation of carbachol-precontracted rat anococcygeous muscle occurs through the binding of bukatoxin ...
... while having no influence on the cholinomimetic agent carbachol. This evidence suggests that TETS may act as a non-competitive ...
Carbachol (Carbastat, Carboptic, Isopto Carbachol, Miostat), also known as carbamylcholine, is a cholinomimetic drug that binds ... Carbachol is primarily used in the treatment of glaucoma, but it is also used during ophthalmic surgery.[2] Carbachol eyedrops ... "Carbachol". PubChem Compound. Retrieved 6 March 2014.. *^ Sanders KM, Zhu MH, Britton F, Koh SD, Ward SM (February 2012). " ... "Carbachol generics". ndrugs. Retrieved 6 March 2014.. *^ Richard A. Harvey; Pamela C. Champe, eds. (2009). Lippincotts ...
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... food interactions for Isopto Carbachol (carbachol ophthalmic). Includes High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) ... Isopto Carbachol (carbachol ophthalmic) drug Interactions. There are 373 drug interactions with Isopto Carbachol (carbachol ... Isopto Carbachol (carbachol ophthalmic) disease Interactions. There are 4 disease interactions with Isopto Carbachol (carbachol ... Isopto Carbachol (carbachol ophthalmic)" Alcon Laboratories Inc, Ft Worth, TX. *"Product Information. Eserine (physostigmine ...
Harmonised classification and labelling is a legally binding classification and labelling for a substance, agreed at European Community level. Harmonisation is based on the substances physical, toxicological and eco-toxicological hazard assessment. The Hazard classification and labelling section uses the signal word, pictogram(s) and hazard statements of the substance under the harmonised classification and labelling (CLH) as its primary source of information.. If the substance is covered by more than one CLH entry (e.g. disodium tetraborate EC no. 215-540-4, is covered by three harmonisations: 005-011-00-4; 005-011-01-1 and 005-011-02-9), CLH information cannot be displayed in the InfoCard as the difference between the CLH classifications requires manual interpretation or verification. If a substance is classified under multiple CLH entries, a link to the C&L Inventory is provided to allow users to view CLH information associated with the substance and no text is automatically ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between carbachol ophthalmic and Ceron-DM Drops. View detailed information regarding this ... Drug Interactions between carbachol ophthalmic and Ceron-DM Drops. This report displays the potential drug interactions for the ... chlorpheniramine carbachol ophthalmic Applies to: Ceron-DM Drops (chlorpheniramine / dextromethorphan / phenylephrine) and ... Chlorpheniramine may reduce the effects of carbachol ophthalmic. Contact your doctor if your symptoms worsen or your condition ...
Hypoglossal motoneurons are postsynaptically inhibited during carbachol-induced rapid eye movement sleep.. Yamuy J1, Fung SJ, ...
Carbachol ophthalmic (for the eye) is used to reduce pressure inside the eye after cataract surgery. Carbachol ophthalmic may ... Carbachol lowers pressure in the eye by increasing the amount of fluid that drains from the eye. ... What is carbachol ophthalmic?. Carbachol lowers pressure in the eye by increasing the amount of fluid that drains from the eye. ... How should I use carbachol ophthalmic?. Carbachol ophthalmic is given as an injection into your eye. Your doctor will use a ...
Oncology Nurse Advisor offers clinical updates and evidence-based guidance to the oncology nurse community online and in print. Daily online exclusives cover late breaking oncology news, safe handling and administration of chemotherapy drugs, side effect management, and new developments in specific cancers.. ...
The effect of carbachol on the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration [( Ca2+]i) was studied in insulin-releasing mouse pancreatic beta ... Carbachol induces sustained glucose-dependent oscillations of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in hyperpolarized pancreatic beta cells.. Gylfe ... By mobilizing intracellular Ca2+, carbachol induced an initial [Ca2+]i transient, which was more than tenfold higher after ...
... Wei Meng,1,2 Song-Hua Wang,1 and ... Our results show that carbachol produced a significant decrease in the spontaneous and evoked action potential (AP) firing ... These results indicate that carbachol reduces the activity of RA projection neurons by hyperpolarizing the resting membrane ... In the present study, the electrophysiological effects of carbachol, a nonselective cholinergic receptor agonist, were ...
When islet lipids were labeled to steady state in tissue culture with [3H]glycerol, carbachol induced a rapid (10 s) and ... Transfer of 14C from glucose was not stimulated by agents such as carbachol and exogenous phospholipase C that act primarily on ... The total mass of islet DAG was increased by 60% after both carbachol and glucose stimulation. However, analysis of the fatty ... Glucose and carbachol generate 1,2-diacylglycerols by different mechanisms in pancreatic islets.. ...
Lower doses of carbachol injected near the supraoptic nuleus produced an increase in drinking without an increase in eating. ... Direct chemical stimulation With carbachol in the hypothalamus of the rabbit caused a significant increase in food intake, as a ... Food and Water Intake after Intrahypothalamic Injections of Carbachol in the Rabbit ... Food and Water Intake after Intrahypothalamic Injections of Carbachol in the Rabbit ...
Atropine sulfate (50 microM) antagonized the carbachol-induced theta-like activity, consistent with this action of atropine in ... Application of the cholinergic agonist carbachol (50 microM) produced theta-like rhythmical waveforms, recorded in the stratum ... Carbachol-induced EEG theta activity in hippocampal brain slices Brain Res. 1987 Mar 3;405(1):196-8. doi: 10.1016/0006-8993( ... Atropine sulfate (50 microM) antagonized the carbachol-induced theta-like activity, consistent with this action of atropine in ...
Carbachol) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient ...
... c-AS stands for carbachol-induced active sleep. c-AS is defined as carbachol-induced active sleep rarely. ... Journal of Neuroscience 1993-06-01 C-fos expression in the pons and medulla of the cat during carbachol-induced active sleep. J ... C-fos expression in the pons and medulla of the cat during carbachol- induced active sleep. J Yamuy, JR Mancillas... ... 136): 2703-2716 C-fos Expression in the Pons and Medulla of the Cat during Carbachol-induced Active Sleep ...
The Properties of Carbachol-Activated Nonselective Cation Channels at the Single Channel Level in Guinea Pig Gastric Myocytes ... Carbachol activates a nonselective cation current through M_2 muscarinic receptor subtype in guinea-pig gastric smooth muscle ... Suppression of the carbachol-activated nonselective cationic current by antibody against α subunit of Go protein in guinea-pig ... GTP-binding protein involvement in membrane currents evoked by carbachol and histamine in guinea pig ileal muscle KOMORI S. ...
... Acta ... Carbachol (5 nmol kg-1) and SP (185 pmol kg-1) injected i.v. caused a transient increase in parotid blood flow and a decrease ... When carbachol was given 20 s after the injection of VIP or CGRP, the secretory response was increased by about 250% and 60% ... regarding blood flow and systemic blood pressure as VIP and CGRP and potentiated the salivary secretion evoked by carbachol (5 ...
Get up-to-date information on Carbachol side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about ... Carbachol is also used to treat glaucoma.. Carbachol belongs to a group of medications called cholinergics. These work to ... Serious side effects have been reported with carbachol. See "Carbachol Precautions" section. ... How was your experience with Carbachol?. First, a little about yourself. Male Female ...
Get up-to-date information on Isopto Carbachol side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more ... How was your experience with Isopto Carbachol?. First, a little about yourself. Male Female ... Isopto Carbachol is a brand name medication included in a group of medications called Choline esters. For more information ... Carbachol. For more information on this medication choose from the list of selections below. ...
The application of 50 μmol/l carbachol resulted in an elevation of [K+]e followed by a post-carbachol [K+]e-undershoot. The ... Ballanyi, Klaus; Grafe, Peter; Ten Bruggencate, Gerrit (1983): Intracellular free sodium and potassium, post-carbachol ... ion-sensitive microelectrodes; intracellular sodium; intracellular potassium; Na+, K+-pump; ouabain; carbachol; rat sympathetic ... K+-pump to the post-carbachol membrane hyperpolarization and [K+]e-undershoot. ...
Changes in respiratory resistance to low dose carbachol inhalation and to pneumatic trouser inflation are correlated. AM Lorino ... At a low dose, the vasodilating action of carbachol could be the major factor involved in the respiratory response. ... The mean increase in R0 was 31% after inhalation of 125 micrograms carbachol, and 21% after inflation of pneumatic trousers. ... Changes in respiratory resistance to low dose carbachol inhalation and to pneumatic trouser inflation are correlated ...
Carbachol, Norepinephrine, and Hypocapnia Stimulate Phosphatidylinositol Turnover in Rat Tracheal Slices Osamu Shibata, MD; ... Carbachol was also shown to stimulate IP3formation in animal tracheal smooth muscle, [3 ] and the present results also show ... The reaction was started at time 0 when NE, carbachol (CCh), or neither (basal) was added. The tubes were reaerated with 95% O2 ... Carbachol, Norepinephrine, and Hypocapnia Stimulate Phosphatidylinositol Turnover in Rat Tracheal Slices Anesthesiology 1 1995 ...
Maximum response relative to that elicited by carbachol in guinea pig ileum was determined. ...
Calcium-mediated effects of carbachol on cation pumping and Na uptake in rat parotid gland.. J W Putney Jr and R J Parod ... Calcium-mediated effects of carbachol on cation pumping and Na uptake in rat parotid gland.. J W Putney and R J Parod ... Calcium-mediated effects of carbachol on cation pumping and Na uptake in rat parotid gland.. J W Putney and R J Parod ... Carbachol (10(-4) M), a cholinergic secretagogue, significantly increased the ouabain-sensitive uptake of 86Rb by rat parotid ...
Inhibition of carbachol-induced inositol phosphate accumulation by phencyclidine, phencyclidine-like ligands and sigma agonists ... All but MK-801 significantly inhibited the carbachol action; however, their order of potencies, Lev greater than or equal to ... Inhibition of carbachol-induced inositol phosphate accumulation by phencyclidine, phencyclidine-like ligands and sigma agonists ... Inhibition of carbachol-induced inositol phosphate accumulation by phencyclidine, phencyclidine-like ligands and sigma agonists ...
Reversal of spasmogen-induced contraction of guinea pig cylindrical tracheal segments induced by Carbachol (7.4 x 10e -7 M). ...
Trademarks: Doryl (Merck KGaA); Isopto Carbachol (Alcon); Jestryl (Ankerpharm); Miostat (Alcon). Molecular Formula: C6H15ClN2O2 ...
... carbachol intramuscular injection at 30min after SMAO 0.1mg·kg -), treated group (carbachol intramuscular injection at 30min ... The results suggested that carbachol restrained the proinflammatory cytokine(TNF-α) release, and reduced the concentration of ... of MDA and TNF-α significantly decreased in pretreated and treated groups than those in the control after the carbachol ... To investigate the effects of carbachol on myelopetoxidase activity and malondialdehyde and its relation to some parameters ...
Buy Isopto Carbachol nodose at a discounted price from a certified Canadian pharmacy. Order your medications with CanDrugStore ... Isopto Carbachol This medication is discontinued and cannot be supplied by CanDrugstore.com ... Generic Alternative To Isopto Carbachol) No generic alternative is available for this medication. ...
  • In the present study, the electrophysiological effects of carbachol, a nonselective cholinergic receptor agonist, were investigated on the RA projection neurons of adult male zebra finches through whole-cell patch-clamp techniques in vitro. (hindawi.com)
  • Diacylglycerols (DAG) modulate secretory responses by the activation of protein kinase C. Early changes in DAG formation induced by the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol were compared to those caused by the nutrient secretagogue glucose in pancreatic islets. (jci.org)
  • Application of the cholinergic agonist carbachol (50 microM) produced theta-like rhythmical waveforms, recorded in the stratum moleculare of the dentate gyrus. (nih.gov)
  • Carbamoylcholine, also known as carbachol, is a muscarinic agonist discovered in 1932. (drugbank.com)
  • Carbachol is a synthetic direct cholinergic agonist that is less prone to destruction by cholinesterases and is thus long-acting. (pathwaymedicine.org)
  • the rest Ci99H3ggN4jOi5o is as in the case of albumin a value of quickly isolated by filtration and after washing with water dis carbachol and atropine Surger and for the Diploma iu Obstetrics and also for the Second subject which requires and we doubt not with reason the careful carbachol agonist returned to full duty. (deargentinos.com)
  • Significance: These results suggest an age-related reduction in the contractile response of the detrusor to the muscarinic receptor agonist carbachol, which may be prevented by long term dietary phytoestrogen intake. (edu.au)
  • The cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCH) induces oscillations in the δ (CCH-δ), θ (CCH-θ), and γ (CCH-γ) frequency ranges in the hippocampal slice preparation, eliciting asynchronous CCH-θ, synchronous CCH-δ, and synchronous CCH-θ with increasing CCH concentration (Fellous and Sejnowski, Hippocampus 2000;10:187-197). (elsevier.com)
  • 15. The method of claim 14, wherein the muscarinic agonist is selected from the group consisting of pilocarpine, isopilocarpine lactam, carbachol, bethanechol, methacholine and muscarine. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • CHO M1 Cells were treated with 20 nM Carbachol agonist (Figure 1) , then assayed using the listed Calcium Assays (results are baseline subtracted and the average of four replicates). (thermofisher.com)
  • Z′- factors were calculated using the formula: Z′= 1-3 (SD max + SD min)/(ΔF max- ΔF min), where ΔF max is the average max-min difference upon addition of a maximal concentration of Carbachol agonist, and ΔF min is the average value using only buffer addition. (thermofisher.com)
  • Cells were stimulated with Carbachol agonist (Panel A) or Pirenzepine inhibitor (Panel B) over the indicated concentration ranges. (thermofisher.com)
  • Cholinergic agonist carbachol and ET-1 along with their antagonists were used to evoke contractile responses. (bvsalud.org)
  • We explored the possibility that APP processing is regulated by activation of endogenous cell-surface neurotransmitter receptors by stimulating C6, PC12 and neuroblastoma cells with the cholinergic agonist carbachol. (elsevier.com)
  • Lahiri, DK , Nall, C & Farlow, MR 1992, ' The cholinergic agonist carbachol reduces intracellular β-amyloid precursor protein in PC 12 and C6 cells ', Biochemistry International , vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 853-860. (elsevier.com)
  • Application of carbachol, a cholinergic agonist, elicited rhythmic bursts of motor neurone spikes. (biologists.org)
  • Hypoglossal motoneurons are postsynaptically inhibited during carbachol-induced rapid eye movement sleep. (nih.gov)
  • The effect of carbachol on the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration [( Ca2+]i) was studied in insulin-releasing mouse pancreatic beta cells hyperpolarized by the K(+)-channel-activating agent diazoxide. (nih.gov)
  • When extracellular Na was decreased from 125 to 5 mM, the effect of carbachol was reversed (86Rb uptake was significantly decreased). (aspetjournals.org)
  • To investigate the effect of carbachol on the an intracellular signaling event, which causes the RPE to ingest the bound OS. (tripod.com)
  • The effect of carbachol on cyclic AMP accumulation was abolished by including EGTA in the incubation medium as was the carbachol mediated potentiation of VIP responses. (elsevier.com)
  • The effect of carbachol was mimicked by phenylephrine (30 μM) and by the calcium inophore A 23187 (3 μM), and also by ethanol in a concentration reported to enhance membrane fluidity. (elsevier.com)
  • Carbachol ( Carbastat , Carboptic , Isopto Carbachol , Miostat ), also known as carbamylcholine , is a cholinomimetic drug that binds and activates the acetylcholine receptor . (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbachol, also known as carbamylcholine and sold under the brand name Miostat among others, is a cholinomimetic drug that binds and activates acetylcholine receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atropine sulfate (50 microM) antagonized the carbachol-induced theta-like activity, consistent with this action of atropine in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Effects of hypoxia, calcium, carbachol, atropine and tetrodotoxin on the filling of the in-vitro rabbit whole bladder. (mysciencework.com)
  • Carbachol was found to potentiate the cyclic AMP increase induced by VIP by an atropine sensitive mechanism. (elsevier.com)
  • Atropine alone or atropine plus carbachol caused no significant changes compared to the basal release of proteins/peptides. (unica.it)
  • In HD, response of carbachol was blocked by atropine and hexamethonium by nearly 73% and 50% respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • By mobilizing intracellular Ca2+, carbachol induced an initial [Ca2+]i transient, which was more than tenfold higher after preexposure to 20 mM glucose than in a medium lacking substrate. (nih.gov)
  • These data confirm, by direct measurements of intracellular ion concentration changes, the contribution of the Na+, K+-pump to the post-carbachol membrane hyperpolarization and [K+]e-undershoot. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Carbachol enhanced the uptake of 22Na into the intracellular components (primarily the 7.63-minute component). (aspetjournals.org)
  • In fura-2-loaded cells extracellular 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and intracellular heparin (5 mg ml(-1)) both inhibited the global cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] transient evoked by carbachol, confirming that it was IP(3)R-dependent. (qub.ac.uk)
  • The disproportional responses to carbachol may imply that the proteins/peptides are not confined to the same cells or to the same intracellular locations and are therefore not secreted as packages at parasympathetic cholinergic activity. (unica.it)
  • However, the carbachol response was not affected by intracellular dialysis of the neostriatal neurons with either protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, PKCI 19-36 (5 μM) or NPC-15437 (20 μM), or a potent cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor, Rp-cAMPS (25 μM). (ncku.edu.tw)
  • These results show that a G-protein-coupled mechanism mediates carbachol-induced inward current in the neostriatal neurons and that neither PKC- nor PKA-dependent intracellular transduction pathways are involved in the carbachol response. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • After the administration of carbachol with various conditions in cultured human stomach smooth muscle cells , fura-2 -acetoxymethyl ester was used to measure the increase in the intracellular calcium concentration. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1) The carbachol -induced increase in the intracellular calcium concentration was not attenuated after removal of extracellular calcium . (bvsalud.org)
  • 2) Carbachol induced a small increase in the intracellular calcium concentration even after the depletion of intracellular calcium store. (bvsalud.org)
  • 3) Repeated histamine administration blocked the carbachol -induced increase in the intracellular calcium concentration in calcium -free extracellular solution. (bvsalud.org)
  • The main source of calcium utilized in human stomach smooth muscle contraction by carbachol is intracellular calcium store, particularly inositol triphosphate(IP3)-sensitive calcium stores. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, extracellular calcium also contributes to the carbachol -induced increase in the intracellular calcium concentration. (bvsalud.org)
  • These results suggest that the decrease in intracellular APP seen after stimulation by carbachol has some specificity and that APP processing may be regulated by stimulation of cholinergic receptors on the surface of cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Carbachol induces sustained glucose-dependent oscillations of cytoplasmic Ca2+ in hyperpolarized pancreatic beta cells. (nih.gov)
  • Hsu, K-S , Yang, CH & Huang, CC 1997, ' Carbachol induces inward current in rat neostriatal neurons through a G-protein-coupled mechanism ', Neuroscience Letters , vol. 224, no. 2, pp. 79-82. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • Carbachol is primarily used in the treatment of glaucoma , but it is also used during ophthalmic surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isopto Carbachol (carbachol ophthalmic)" Alcon Laboratories Inc, Ft Worth, TX. (drugs.com)
  • Chlorpheniramine may reduce the effects of carbachol ophthalmic. (drugs.com)
  • What is the most important information I should know about carbachol ophthalmic? (peacehealth.org)
  • Before you are treated with carbachol ophthalmic, tell your doctor about all your medical conditions or allergies, and all the medicines you are using. (peacehealth.org)
  • In some cases, you may not be able to use carbachol ophthalmic, or you may need a dose adjustment or special precautions. (peacehealth.org)
  • What is carbachol ophthalmic? (peacehealth.org)
  • Carbachol ophthalmic (for the eye) is used to reduce pressure inside the eye after cataract surgery. (peacehealth.org)
  • Carbachol ophthalmic may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. (peacehealth.org)
  • What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before receiving carbachol ophthalmic? (peacehealth.org)
  • You should not be treated with carbachol ophthalmic if you are allergic to it. (peacehealth.org)
  • It is not known whether carbachol ophthalmic will harm an unborn baby. (peacehealth.org)
  • It is not known whether carbachol ophthalmic passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. (peacehealth.org)
  • How should I use carbachol ophthalmic? (peacehealth.org)
  • Carbachol ophthalmic is given as an injection into your eye. (peacehealth.org)
  • Since carbachol ophthalmic is given by a healthcare professional during surgery, it does not have a daily dosing schedule. (peacehealth.org)
  • What should I avoid after receiving carbachol ophthalmic? (peacehealth.org)
  • What are the possible side effects of carbachol ophthalmic? (peacehealth.org)
  • What other drugs will affect carbachol ophthalmic? (peacehealth.org)
  • Your doctor can provide more information about carbachol ophthalmic. (peacehealth.org)
  • Carbachol (5 nmol kg-1) and SP (185 pmol kg-1) injected i.v. caused a transient increase in parotid blood flow and a decrease in systematic blood pressure concomitant with a salivary secretion of 3.3 +/- 0.3 mg (n = 22) and 18.7 +/- 1.9 mg (n = 25) respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Difference between basal release and carbachol-induced secretion achieved statistical significance as to all the proteins/peptides under study but for statherin. (unica.it)
  • Ca2+ pathways activated by angiotensin II and carbachol were evaluated in the circular muscle of the guinea-pig ileum by recording mechanical and electrical activities. (unifesp.br)
  • Furthermore the different response of the longitudinal and circular muscles to the inhibitory effects of tetrodotoxin and Ni2+ on the angiotensin II- and carbachol-induced contractions indicates that these agonists exert their own myogenic effects on each layer and are able to trigger different Ca2+ mobilization pathways. (unifesp.br)
  • This longer duration of action also helps one to demonstrate the nicotinic effects of Carbachol (when the muscarinic responses are blocked). (washington.edu)
  • Ryanodine completely abolished carbachol and caffeine responses but only reduced ionomycin transients by 30 %, suggesting that blockade of carbachol transients by ryanodine was not simply due to store depletion. (qub.ac.uk)
  • At 24 weeks of age, detrusor muscle strip responses to carbachol from non-soy fed ovariectomised rats were attenuated (Pb0.05). (edu.au)
  • At 52 weeks, bladder detrusor strip responses to carbachol were reduced in all treatment groups with the exception of the soy-fed sham operated rats. (edu.au)
  • We analyzed the responses of hundreds of endothelial cells to carbachol (CCh) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and found that the endothelium segregates the responses to these two distinct components of the chemical environment into separate streams of complementary information that are processed in parallel. (sciencemag.org)
  • Transient contractions induced by angiotensin II were greatly reduced by Ca2+ removal from the medium whereas carbachol-induced responses were not significantly altered. (unifesp.br)
  • It is suggested that angiotensin II activates Ni2+-sensitive Na+ and non-specific cationic channels, whereas the responses to carbachol are dependent on receptor-activated Ca2+ release. (unifesp.br)
  • As evidenced by lack of spontaneous contractions and impaired carbachol and ET-1-induced contractile responses, it is concluded that, in addition to aganglionosis, decreased contractility of colonic smooth muscle may contribute to hypomotility observed in patients with HD. (bvsalud.org)
  • Carbachol is a choline carbamate and a positively charged quaternary ammonium compound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isopto Carbachol is a brand name medication included in a group of medications called Choline esters . (rxwiki.com)
  • At a low dose, the vasodilating action of carbachol could be the major factor involved in the respiratory response. (ersjournals.com)
  • The longer duration of action of carbachol as compared to acetylcholine is due to its lack of hydrolysis by acetylcholinesterase. (washington.edu)
  • Direct chemical stimulation With carbachol in the hypothalamus of the rabbit caused a significant increase in food intake, as a function of place stimuilated and concentration. (sciencemag.org)
  • How was your experience with Isopto Carbachol? (rxwiki.com)
  • What tips would you provide a friend before taking Isopto Carbachol? (rxwiki.com)
  • What are you taking Isopto Carbachol for? (rxwiki.com)
  • How well did Isopto Carbachol work for you? (rxwiki.com)
  • How likely would you be to recommend Isopto Carbachol to a friend? (rxwiki.com)
  • Carbachol is a prescription medication used to constrict the pupil and lower eye pressure during surgery as well as reduce the pressure elevation in the eye after cataract surgery. (rxwiki.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine if intracameral carbachol at the conclusion of cataract extraction would blunt the elevation in IOP in the early post-operative period. (elsevier.com)
  • A randomized, placebo-controlled, masked trial was performed using thirty-one dogs which were assigned into four groups: 1) posterior chamber IOL placement with 0.5 ml of BSS, 2) PC IOL with 0.5 ml of 0.01% carbachol, 3) aphakic with 0.5 ml BSS, and 4) aphakic with 0.5 ml of 0.01% carbachol. (elsevier.com)
  • Use of carbachol, as well as all other muscarinic receptor agonists , is contraindicated in patients with asthma , coronary insufficiency , gastroduodenal ulcers , and incontinence . (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition of carbachol-induced inositol phosphate accumulation by phencyclidine, phencyclidine-like ligands and sigma agonists involves blockade of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor: a novel dioxadrol-preferring interaction. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It is concluded that PCP, PCP-like compounds and sigma agonists block carbachol-induced inositol-phosphate accumulation by blockade of muscarinic receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The interaction of two coexisting transmitters in the cat submandibular gland has been elucidated by studying effects of VIP and carbachol on cyclic AMP accumulation in isolated acini from the gland. (elsevier.com)
  • ENYEDI, PETER & FREDHOLM, BERTILB 1984, ' Calcium‐dependent enhancement by carbachol of the VIP‐induced cyclic AMP accumulation in cat submandibular gland ', Acta Physiologica Scandinavica , vol. 120, no. 4, pp. 523-528. (elsevier.com)
  • Carbachol and histamine stimulation of guanine-nucleotide-dependent phosphoinositide hydrolysis in rat brain cortical membranes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Stimulation of isolated acinar cells with carbachol (CCh), histamine or ATP was associated with marked decreases in cell volume (20 ± 2% within 62 ± 5 s) that were tightly correlated with increases in cytoplasmic Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) as revealed by simultaneous DIC and fluorescent indicator dye microscopy. (wiley.com)
  • Since carbachol is poorly absorbed through topical administration, benzalkonium chloride is mixed in to promote absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent review indicates that carbachol is a strong promoter of ICC activity, which is mediated through the calcium-activated chloride channel , anoctamin 1 . (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition of carbachol further rerather than extracellular i.e. they do not affect the duced OS ingestion. (tripod.com)
  • These inhibitors had no direct effect on MLCK activity.Thus unlike previously reported for isolated muscle cells where CaMKII and ERK1/2 are notinvolved in contraction, we conclude that the regulation of carbachol-induced contractionin innervated longitudinal muscle strips involves the interplay of Rho kinase, ERK1/2,CaMKK/AMPK, and CAMKII. (nih.gov)
  • Contractile response with maximum forcewas measured as peak contraction (A) and total response for first 2 min, measured asarea under curve (AUC), was considered as total contraction (B). Carbachol elicitedcontraction was selectively blocked by 4-DAMP. (nih.gov)
  • 0.05 significant inhibition of CCh-induced contraction.The inset illustrates an original tracing showing abolition of carbachol-inducedcontraction by 1 µM 4-DAMP but not by 1 µM tetrodotoxin (TTX) or 1 µM methoctramine. (nih.gov)
  • This study was designed to identify the source of the calcium utilized in the muscle contraction induced by carbachol , which is an important factor among various stimuli. (bvsalud.org)
  • Many studies have used carbachol iontophoresis (CARB-ionto) or topical pilocarpine eye drops to pharmacologically stimulate accommodation in Rhesus monkeys. (arvojournals.org)
  • Intravenous administration of pilocarpine produces a 90 times faster accommodative response than carbachol iontophoresis with more consistent and stable accommodative changes as indicated by smaller standard deviations from multiple experiments. (arvojournals.org)
  • Carbachol is a parasympathomimetic that stimulates both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results suggest that carbachol stimulates Ca(2+) release through co-operation between IP(3)Rs and RyRs, and implicate IP(3)Rs in the regulation of Ca(2+) store content. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Caffeine (10 mM) and carbachol (10 microM) initiated Ca(2+) release at sites which co-localized with each other and with any Ca(2+) spark sites. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Transfer of 14C from glucose was not stimulated by agents such as carbachol and exogenous phospholipase C that act primarily on inositol phospholipid breakdown. (jci.org)
  • However, analysis of the fatty acid composition of carbachol-generated DAG revealed at the early time point (10 s) a prevalent stearoyl-arachidonoyl configuration similar to that reported for inositol phospholipids. (jci.org)
  • Indeed, steady-state labeling of these phospholipids with [3H]inositol confirmed this idea since only carbachol caused detectable inositol phospholipid hydrolysis. (jci.org)
  • In all three regions studied, PCP significantly inhibited carbachol-induced [3H]inositol phosphate accumulation working as low as 10(-6) M in the cerebral cortex. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To test if carbachol (CCh)‐evoked Ca 2+ oscillations in freshly isolated murine detrusor myocytes are affected by β3‐adrenoceptor (β‐AR) modulators. (bjuinternational.com)
  • Therefore, the present study attempted to understand the contractile status of colonic segments of HD patients by examining carbachol and endothelin (ET-1) evoked colonic smooth muscle contractions in vitro . (bvsalud.org)
  • Colonic strips of HD did not show any spontaneous contractions but responded to carbachol and ET-1 to a lesser extent. (bvsalud.org)
  • Carbachol (10(-4) M), a cholinergic secretagogue, significantly increased the ouabain-sensitive uptake of 86Rb by rat parotid gland slices. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Intracameral injection of carbachol significantly prevented postoperative IOP spikes in the dog following phacoemulsification lens extraction, in both pseudophakic and aphakic patients, without deleterious effects. (elsevier.com)
  • S-Isopetasin (10-100 μM) did not significantly alter the concentration-negative inotropic response curves of carbachol (CCh) in left atria. (elsevier.com)
  • In cells loaded with the stable GDP analogue guanosine 5'-0-(2-thiodiphosphate) (GDP-β-S, 1 mM), the carbachol-induced inward current was significantly diminished. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate protein content of saliva produced in vitro by samples of human submandibular gland following stimulation with the muscarinic agent carbachol. (unica.it)
  • In Vitro Evaluation of Carbachol and Endothelin on Contractility of Colonic Smooth Muscle in Hirschsprung's Disease. (bvsalud.org)
  • These data indicate that viable isolated pancreatic acini can be prepared from suckling rats and that these acini exhibit an altered in vitro responsiveness to carbachol. (elsevier.com)
  • The effect of phencyclidine (PCP) on carbachol-induced phosphoinositol hydrolysis was examined in rat brain slices taken from cortex, caudate-putamen and hippocampus. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Calcium-mediated effects of carbachol on cation pumping and Na uptake in rat parotid gland. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Carbachol produces effects comparable to those of V-series nerve agents if a massive overdose is administered (as may occur following industrial and shipping accidents) and therefore constitutes a risk to human health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serious side effects have been reported with carbachol. (rxwiki.com)
  • This is not a complete list of carbachol side effects. (rxwiki.com)
  • Indeed carbachol side effects was in a large percentage of cases immediately beneficial. (deargentinos.com)
  • Lopachin, RM & Rudy, TA 1982, ' The thermoregulatory effects of noradrenaline, serotonin and carbachol injected into the rat spinal subarachnoid space ', The Journal of Physiology , vol. 333, no. 1, pp. 511-529. (elsevier.com)
  • In model simulations, the known physiological effects of carbachol on the muscarinic and K-AHP currents, and on the strengths of excitatory postsynaptic potentials, reproduced transitions from asynchronous CCH-θ to CCH-δ and from CCH-δ to synchronous CCH-θ. (elsevier.com)
  • Neither tetrodotoxin nor Ni2+ affected carbachol-induced effects. (unifesp.br)
  • When carbachol was given 20 s after the injection of VIP or CGRP, the secretory response was increased by about 250% and 60% respectively. (nih.gov)
  • Carbachol is also available as an injection and is given into the eye during the eye procedure. (rxwiki.com)
  • Are the pA2 values of selective β‐adrenoceptor antagonists valid when obtained on guinea‐pig tracheal preparations contracted with carbachol? (edu.au)
  • O'DONNELL S.R. and WANSTALL J.C. (1980) Are the pA2 values of selective β‐adrenoceptor antagonists valid when obtained on guinea‐pig tracheal preparations contracted with carbachol? (edu.au)
  • In acutely isolated neostriatal neurons held at -60 mV, pressure application of carbachol (30 μM) induced a transient inward current underlying whole-cell voltage-clamp mode. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • Carbachol elicits this REM sleep-like state via activation of postsynaptic muscarinic cholinergic receptors ( mAChRs ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbachol acts on both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. (washington.edu)
  • Carbachol triggers RyR-dependent Ca(2+) release via activation of IP(3) receptors in isolated rat gastric myocytes. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Our recent study demonstrated that carbachol can act at M 1 -like muscarinic receptors to reduce the membrane K + conductance and excite the neostriatal neurons. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • UCL 1684 was determined to be a competitive antagonist at M3 receptors as it increased the EC 50 for carbachol without a reduction in the maximum response. (frontiersin.org)
  • [2] Carbachol eyedrops are used to decrease the pressure in the eye for people with glaucoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results show that carbachol produced a significant decrease in the spontaneous and evoked action potential (AP) firing frequency of RA projection neurons, accompanying a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential, an increase in the evoked AP latency, afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak amplitude, and AHP time to peak, and a decrease in the membrane input resistance, membrane time constant, and membrane capacitance. (hindawi.com)
  • CARBACHOL (kahr buh kawl) is used to decrease eye pressure during certain kinds of eye surgery. (kramesonline.com)
  • The phospholipase A 2 inhibitor, mepacrine, tended to decrease carbachol actions. (elsevier.com)
  • When cells were treated with carbachol for different periods, PC12 and C6 cells responded with a sharp decrease of APP bands. (elsevier.com)
  • Mean concentrations of these proteins/peptides in the medium were non-proportionally elevated following carbachol exposure to the gland tissues. (unica.it)
  • The resultant response in respiratory impedence was investigated in nine normal volunteers, and compared with the response to increasing doses of inhaled carbachol. (ersjournals.com)
  • The percentage changes in R0 following pneumatic trouser inflation highly correlated those induced by inhalation of 125 micrograms carbachol (r = 0.98) Our data demonstrate that, even in normal subjects, pneumatic trouser inflation causes an increase in respiratory resistance, which can be predicted by the response to a low dose of carbachol. (ersjournals.com)
  • Innovative genomic test for carbachol personalised pharmacogenomic analysis to explore how your genes can affect and modulate your response to carbachol if it will or has been prescribed to treat your medical condition. (genomicmedicineuk.com)
  • This genomic DNA test assesses your genetic response to medical treatment with carbachol. (genomicmedicineuk.com)
  • How does your genetic background influence your response to treatment with carbachol? (genomicmedicineuk.com)
  • Key findings: The contractile response to carbachol, in 12 week old female rats did not change as a result of dietary phytoestrogens or ovariectomy (PN0.05). (edu.au)
  • CHO M1 response to carbachol. (thermofisher.com)
  • HEK 293 and Jurkat M1 Response to Carbachol (20 nM). (thermofisher.com)
  • By contrast, co-application of a NOS inhibitor, l -NAME, with carbachol decreased beating frequency of the motor neurones. (biologists.org)
  • Co-application of the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 ceased rhythmic bursts of motor neurone spikes elicited by carbachol. (biologists.org)
  • Infusions of angiotensin II (AII) or carbachol (CBC) into the lateral ventricles of rats which had been depleted of sodium 4 h previously with either furosemide or polyethylene glycol produced significant changes in salt appetite and sodium and water balances relative to rats infused with saline vehicle. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Parasympathetic nerve activation by carbachol infusion for 5 days in rats increased serum adiponectin, with increased adiponectin production in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues without changes of body weight. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The mechanism of formation of localized Ca2+ signals was examined using a novel approach involving photolysis of caged carbachol inside a patch pipette attached to the basal surface of an acinar unit. (openaire.eu)
  • Carbachol-stimulated [ 3 H]InsPs accumulation peaked on postnatal day 7 in cerebral cortex and hippocampus while in cerebellum and brainstem the effect of muscarinic stimulation was maximal at birth and then declined to adulthood. (elsevier.com)
  • These results indicate that carbachol reduces the activity of RA projection neurons by hyperpolarizing the resting membrane potential and increasing the AHP and the membrane conductance, suggesting that the cholinergic modulation of RA may play an important role in song production. (hindawi.com)
  • Application of l -arginine alone or membrane-permeable cGMP analogue 8-Br-cGMP alone did not elicit rhythmic activity of motor neurones, but co-application of 8-Br-cGMP with carbachol increased bursting frequency of the motor neurones. (biologists.org)
  • The results suggested that carbachol restrained the proinflammatory cytokine(TNF-α) release, and reduced the concentration of postshock systemic neutrophil (PMN ) in gut tissue , and depressed the myelopetoxidase activity. (cnki.com.cn)
  • The results show an advantage of malathion to carbachol , particularly among physically as active patients engaged in strenuous aerobic exercise who require antihypertensive therapy. (thecollectibleornamentshoppe.com)
  • Carbachol is also used to treat glaucoma . (rxwiki.com)