CapZ Actin Capping Protein: An actin capping protein that binds to the barbed-ends of ACTIN filaments. It is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha and a beta subunit. It regulates actin assembly by stabilizing actin oligomers for elongation. In SKELETAL MUSCLE, CapZ is localized to the Z-disk.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Actin Depolymerizing Factors: A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Actin Capping Proteins: Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.Gelsolin: A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.Sperm Capacitation: The structural and functional changes by which SPERMATOZOA become capable of oocyte FERTILIZATION. It normally requires exposing the sperm to the female genital tract for a period of time to bring about increased SPERM MOTILITY and the ACROSOME REACTION before fertilization in the FALLOPIAN TUBES can take place.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Caenorhabditis: A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Aphanomyces: A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Saprolegniaceae. It causes root rot in plants and is also a pathogen of FISHES.DNA, Algal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of algae.Astacoidea: A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.Destrin: A member of the actin depolymerizing factors. Its depolymerizing activity is independent of HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.Ursidae: The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.Sesamoid Bones: Nodular bones which lie within a tendon and slide over another bony surface. The PATELLA (kneecap) is a sesamoid bone.Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Pregnanediol: An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Polar Bodies: Minute cells produced during development of an OOCYTE as it undergoes MEIOSIS. A polar body contains one of the nuclei derived from the first or second meiotic CELL DIVISION. Polar bodies have practically no CYTOPLASM. They are eventually discarded by the oocyte. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Peptide Library: A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).WingDrosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Imaginal Discs: Hollow sacs of cells in LARVA that form adult structures in insects during BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Dendritic Spines: Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.Synchrotrons: Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.Incubators: Insulated enclosures in which temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions can be regulated at levels optimal for growth, hatching, reproduction, or metabolic reactions.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Molecular cloning and characterization of the human orthologue of male germ cell-specific actin capping protein alpha3 (cpalpha3). (1/64)

We report here the molecular cloning and characterization of a novel human actin capping protein alpha3 (cpalpha3) cDNA, an orthologue of the mouse male germ cell-specific cpalpha3, and the organization of the human cpalpha3 genomic structure. The entire coding region of the human cpalpha3 cDNA showed 82.1% similarity with the mouse cpalpha3. The predicted amino acid sequence was 91.3% identical to the mouse protein and the actin-binding motif in the C-terminal region is highly conserved among species. The mRNA of the human cpalpha3 gene was found to be exclusively expressed in the testis. Western blot analysis detected a 33 kDa protein in human testis and sperm. Immunohistochemistry showed that the main localization of human CPalpha3 protein was in the neck region of ejaculated sperm, with moderate and faint signals also detected in the tail and postacrosome region respectively. Furthermore the localization of CPalpha3 coincided with the species-specific distribution of actin in human sperm. The human cpalpha3 gene was mapped to chromosome 12p12 by computer database cloning of human genomic DNA and was proven to be intronless. CPalpha3 may play a physiologically important role in sperm architecture as well as in fertility of the human male.  (+info)

Actin capping protein: an essential element in protein kinase signaling to the myofilaments. (2/64)

Actin capping protein (CapZ) binds the barbed ends of actin at sarcomeric Z-lines. In addition to anchoring actin, Z-discs bind protein kinase C (PKC). Although CapZ is crucial for myofibrillogenesis, its role in muscle function and intracellular signaling is unknown. We hypothesized that CapZ downregulation would impair myocardial function and disrupt PKC-myofilament signaling by impairing PKC-Z-disc interaction. To test these hypotheses, we examined transgenic (TG) mice in which cardiac CapZ protein is reduced. Fiber bundles were dissected from papillary muscles and detergent extracted. Some fiber bundles were treated with PKC activators phenylephrine (PHE) or endothelin (ET) before detergent extraction. We simultaneously measured Ca2+-dependent tension and actomyosin MgATPase activity. CapZ downregulation increased myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity without affecting maximum tension or actomyosin MgATPase activity. Maximum tension and actomyosin MgATPase activity were decreased after PHE or ET treatment of wild-type (WT) muscle. Fiber bundles from TG hearts did not respond to PHE or ET. Immunoblot analysis revealed an increase in myofilament-associated PKC-epsilon after PHE or ET exposure of WT preparations. In contrast, myofilament-associated PKC-epsilon was decreased after PHE or ET treatment in TG myocardium. Protein levels of myofilament-associated PKC-beta were decreased in TG ventricle. C-protein and troponin I phosphorylation was increased after PHE or ET treatment in WT and TG hearts. Basal phosphorylation levels of C-protein and troponin I were higher in TG myocardium. These results indicate that downregulation of CapZ, or other changes associated with CapZ downregulation, increases cardiac myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity, inhibits PKC-mediated control of myofilament activation, and decreases myofilament-associated PKC-beta.  (+info)

V-1, a protein expressed transiently during murine cerebellar development, regulates actin polymerization via interaction with capping protein. (3/64)

V-1 is a 12-kDa protein consisting of three consecutive ANK repeats, which are believed to serve as the surface for protein-protein interactions. It is thought to have a role in neural development for its temporal profile of expression during murine cerebellar development, but its precise role remains unknown. Here we applied the proteomic approach to search for protein targets that interact with V-1. The V-1 cDNA attached with a tandem affinity purification tag was expressed in the cultured 293T cells, and the protein complex formed within the cells were captured and characterized by mass spectrometry. We detected two polypeptides specifically associated with V-1, which were identified as the alpha and beta subunits of the capping protein (CP, alternatively called CapZ or beta-actinin). CP regulates actin polymerization by capping the barbed end of the actin filament. The V-1.CP complex was detected not only in cultured cells transfected with the V-1 cDNA but also endogenously in cells as well as in murine cerebellar extracts. An analysis of the V-1/CP interaction by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy showed that V-1 formed a stable complex with the CP heterodimer with a dissociation constant of 1.2 x 10(-7) m and a molecular stoichiometry of approximately 1:1. In addition, V-1 inhibited the CP-regulated actin polymerization in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, our results suggest that V-1 is a novel component that regulates the dynamics of actin polymerization by interacting with CP and thereby participates in a variety of cellular processes such as actin-driven cell movements and motility during neuronal development.  (+info)

Crystal structure of CapZ: structural basis for actin filament barbed end capping. (4/64)

Capping protein, a heterodimeric protein composed of alpha and beta subunits, is a key cellular component regulating actin filament assembly and organization. It binds to the barbed ends of the filaments and works as a 'cap' by preventing the addition and loss of actin monomers at the end. Here we describe the crystal structure of the chicken sarcomeric capping protein CapZ at 2.1 A resolution. The structure shows a striking resemblance between the alpha and beta subunits, so that the entire molecule has a pseudo 2-fold rotational symmetry. CapZ has a pair of mobile extensions for actin binding, one of which also provides concomitant binding to another protein for the actin filament targeting. The mobile extensions probably form flexible links to the end of the actin filament with a pseudo 2(1) helical symmetry, enabling the docking of the two in a symmetry mismatch.  (+info)

Regulation of sodium channel activity by capping of actin filaments. (5/64)

Ion transport in various tissues can be regulated by the cortical actin cytoskeleton. Specifically, involvement of actin dynamics in the regulation of nonvoltage-gated sodium channels has been shown. Herein, inside-out patch clamp experiments were performed to study the effect of the heterodimeric actin capping protein CapZ on sodium channel regulation in leukemia K562 cells. The channels were activated by cytochalasin-induced disruption of actin filaments and inactivated by G-actin under ionic conditions promoting rapid actin polymerization. CapZ had no direct effect on channel activity. However, being added together with G-actin, CapZ prevented actin-induced channel inactivation, and this effect occurred at CapZ/actin molar ratios from 1:5 to 1:100. When actin was allowed to polymerize at the plasma membrane to induce partial channel inactivation, subsequent addition of CapZ restored the channel activity. These results can be explained by CapZ-induced inhibition of further assembly of actin filaments at the plasma membrane due to the modification of actin dynamics by CapZ. No effect on the channel activity was observed in response to F-actin, confirming that the mechanism of channel inactivation does not involve interaction of the channel with preformed filaments. Our data show that actin-capping protein can participate in the cytoskeleton-associated regulation of sodium transport in nonexcitable cells.  (+info)

Linking the T cell surface protein CD2 to the actin-capping protein CAPZ via CMS and CIN85. (6/64)

Recruitment of CD2 to the immunological synapse in response to antigen is dependent on its proline-rich cytoplasmic tail. A peptide from this region (CD2:322-339) isolated CMS (human CD2AP); a related protein, CIN85; and the actin capping protein, CAPZ from a T cell line. In BIAcore analyses, the N-terminal SH3 domains of CMS and CIN85 bound CD2:322-339 with similar dissociation constants (KD = approximately 100 microm). CAPZ bound the C-terminal half of CMS and CIN85. Direct binding between CMS/CIN85 and CAPZ provides a link with the actin cytoskeleton. Overexpression of a fragment from the C-terminal half or the N-terminal SH3 domain of CD2AP in a mouse T cell hybridoma resulted in enhanced interleukin-2 production and reduced T cell receptor down-modulation in response to antigen. These adaptor proteins are important in T cell signaling consistent with a role for CD2 in regulating pathways initiated by CMS/CIN85 and CAPZ.  (+info)

Role for phosphoinositide 3-kinase in Fc gamma RIIA-induced platelet shape change. (7/64)

Platelets transform from disks to irregular spheres, grow filopodia, form ruffles, and spread on surfaces coated with anti-Fc gamma RIIA antibody. Fc gamma RIIA cross-linking leads to a tenfold increase in actin filament barbed end exposure and robust actin assembly. Activation of the small GTPases Rac and Cdc42 follows Fc gamma RIIA cross-linking. Shape change, actin filament barbed end exposure, and quantifiable actin assembly require phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) activity and a rise in intracellular calcium. PI3-kinase inhibition blocks activation of Rac, but not of Cdc42, and diminishes the association of Arp2/3 complex and CapZ with polymerized actin. Furthermore, addition of constitutively active D-3 phosphorylated polyphosphoinositides or recombinant PI3-kinase subunits to octylglucoside-permeabilized platelets elicits actin filament barbed end exposure by releasing gelsolin and CapZ from the cytoskeleton. Our findings place PI3-kinase activity upstream of Rac, gelsolin, and Arp2/3 complex activation induced by Fc gamma RIIA and clearly distinguish the Fc gamma RIIA signaling pathway to actin filament assembly from the thrombin receptor protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 pathway.  (+info)

Interactions between the evolutionarily conserved, actin-related protein, Arp11, actin, and Arp1. (8/64)

The dynein activator dynactin is a multiprotein complex with distinct microtubule- and cargo-binding domains. The cargo-binding domain contains a short, actin-like filament of the actin-related protein Arp1, a second actin-related protein, Arp11, and conventional actin. The length of this filament is invariant in dynactin isolated from multiple species and tissues, suggesting that activities that regulate Arp1 polymerization are important for dynactin assembly. Arp11 is present in a protein complex localized at the pointed end of the Arp1 minifilament, whereas actin capping protein (CapZ) is present at the barbed end. Either might cooperate with conventional actin to cap Arp1. We tested the ability of Arp11 to interact with conventional actin and found it could coassemble. Like Arp1, cytosolic Arp11 is found only in dynactin, suggesting that Arp11 and free cytosolic actin do not interact significantly. Recombinant Arp11 and Arp1 were demonstrated to interact by coprecipitation. We developed an in vivo assay for Arp11-Arp1 interaction based on previous observations that Arp1 forms filamentous assemblies when overexpressed in cultured cells. Arp11 significantly decreases the formation of these organized Arp1 assemblies. Finally, this assay was used to confirm the identity of a putative Arp11 homolog in Drosophila melanogaster.  (+info)

Human CAPZA2 / CAPZ Alpha 2 Expression-Ready ORF Clone LS-N55517 is cloned in pLV-C-GFP containing tag (GFP, C-terminus). This construct is used in a Lentiviral expression system.
Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human CAPZA3 protein. CAPZA3 (AAH16745.1, 1 a.a. ~ 299 a.a) full-length human protein. (H00093661-B01) - Products - Abnova
Dynamic behavior of actin filaments in cells is the basis of many different cellular activities. Remodeling of the actin filament network involves polymerization and depolymerization of the filaments. Proteins that regulate these behaviors include proteins that sever and/or cap actin filaments. This report presents direct observation of severing of fluorescently-labeled actin filaments. Coverslips coated with gelsolin, a multi-domain, calcium-dependent capping and severing protein, bound rhodamine-phalloidin-saturated filaments along their length in the presence of EGTA. Upon addition of calcium, attached filaments bent as they broke. Actophorin, a low molecular weight, monomer sequestering, calcium-independent severing protein did not sever phalloidin-saturated filaments. Both gCap 39, a gelsolin-like, calcium-dependent capping protein that does not sever filaments, and CapZ, a heterodimeric, non-calcium-dependent capping protein, bound the filaments by one end to the coverslip. Visualization ...
Complete information for CAPZA2 gene (Protein Coding), Capping Actin Protein Of Muscle Z-Line Alpha Subunit 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
The KOMP Repository is located at the University of California Davis and Childrens Hospital Oakland Research Institute. Question? Comments? For Mice, Cells, and germplasm please contact us at [email protected], US 1-888-KOMP-MICE or International +1-530-752-KOMP, or for vectors [email protected] or +1-510-450-7917 ...
F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca(2+)-independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby blocking the exchange of subunits at these ends. Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments. The isoform beta-3 may play a role in spermatogenesis. Alternatively, may play a role in later maturation steps such as capacitation and fertilization which involve changes of membrane domains. May play a role in the regulation of cell morphology and cytoskeletal organization.
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Repros Therapeutics Inc (NASDAQ:RPRX) surged +12.19% and ended at $3.13. The total traded volume was 17.82 million shares and market capitalization arrived at
Learn Path 1 Female Repro 6 facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
Does Michael Swantak still do decal work? www.velographicdecals.com seems to not exist anymore. I havent been able to find a thread on the topic less
From the above, it is clear that filament architectures and mechanisms of assembly range from the simple isodesmic to extremely complex two‐protein matrix‐associated collaborative filament systems, and examples of such complex collaborative assemblies are probably fairly common as they are important components of large, self‐assembling systems. The addition of a lateral binding partner to all, or a subset of subunits along the filament, either through a neighbouring matrix or indeed another filament creates opportunities for complex and emerging properties of the resulting systems.. The most obvious, but by no means only consequence is that collaborative filaments may be restricted in occurrence to the site of the matrix or scaffold they bind to.. The large number of additional, lateral binding sites sometimes creates large cooperativity effects that enable filaments to bind with extreme affinity to their partner, even if the individual binding energies, per subunit, are rather small. The ...
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Repros Therapeutics says the FDA will continue partial clinical hold for uterine fibroid medication MarketWatch. 09:18 AM ET. ...
Repro Medical System Inc. financial and business news, updates, and information from The New York Times and other leading providers.
Study Repro Qsd flashcards from Osaama Aldabbagh's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
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Puberty, mensturation, conception, pregnancy, and healthy foetal development depend on the healthy function of the endocrine system.
Puberty, mensturation, conception, pregnancy, and healthy foetal development depend on the healthy function of the endocrine system.
Exact repro reissue of this late 60s recording from a 20-year old Willie Colon, following in the Fania labels tradition of amazing Latin soul. ...
DNA aneuploidy has been identified as a prognostic factor for epithelial malignancies. Further understanding of the translation of DNA aneuploidy into protein expression will help to define novel biomarkers to improve therapies and prognosis. DNA ploidy was assessed by image cytometry. Comparison of gel-electrophoresis-based protein expression patterns of three diploid and four aneuploid colorectal cancer cell lines detected 64 ploidy-associated proteins. Proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and subjected to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis resulting in two overlapping high-ranked networks maintaining Cellular Assembly and Organization, Cell Cycle, and Cellular Growth and Proliferation. CAPZA1, TXNL1, and HDAC2 were significantly validated by Western blotting in cell lines and the latter two showed expression differences also in clinical samples using a tissue microarray of normal mucosa (n=19), diploid (n=31), and aneuploid (n=47) carcinomas. The results suggest that distinct protein ...
Learn Physio 2 - Repro 1 facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
Does any one know if Lens and Repro have a web contact. I was hoping to buy something. After my fax died I reckoned on web contact only. Phone from AU is a bit of a long call:p
Get Repro India Ltd (REPRO-IN:National Stock Exchange of India) real-time stock quotes, news and financial information from CNBC.
THE WOODLANDS, Texas, March 16, 2011 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Repros Therapeutics Inc.® (Nasdaq:RPRX)today announced it has commenced dosing the 6 mg cohort in the Companys low dose study of Proellex® following a safety review of data from women that have completed 8 weeks of treatment at a 3 mg dose. No signals of liver toxicity were detected to date in the 3 mg group. Increased levels of drug activity were detected in this second cohort. The Company previously noted that it has observed signals of clinically relevant activity at even the lowest dose, 1 mg.
Below is a look at some of the headlines for companies that made news in the healthcare sector on March 17, 2014. Repros Therapeutics Inc. (Nasdaq:RPRX) reported it has received guidance from the FDA
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17/07/2014 - Shooting is about to get under way for the second instalment of the box-office smash, produced by Radar Films, Epithète Films and Gaumont
F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca(2+)-independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby blocking the exchange of subunits at these ends. Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments.
Looking for online definition of barbed end in the Medical Dictionary? barbed end explanation free. What is barbed end? Meaning of barbed end medical term. What does barbed end mean?
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View Notes - Study questions repro and urinary from APC 100 at UC Davis. Study Questions Urinary and Reproductive Systems 2011 More than one answer could be correct in these but not on the actual
Study repro 2.1- control of reproductive processes. flashcards from skye Thompson's university of Leicester class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
While working in Rosen lab, I discovered a novel actin regulatory assembly, the WASH Regulatory Complex (SHRC). WASH is a recently discovered member of the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP) family, which stimulates Arp2/3-mediated actin nucleation via a conserved C-terminal VCA element.. The activity of VCA is inhibited within the SHRC, which consists of four other core subunits in addition to WASH: FAM21, Strumpellin, SWIP, and CCDC53. The CapZ dimer also associates with the complex by interacting with the C-terminus of FAM21. Following reconstitution of the SHRC from insect cells, I elucidated its organizational architecture through bioinformatic, biochemical and electron microscopic analyses, and showed that it is distantly related to the well-known WAVE Regulatory Complex ...
The importance of including informative controls is similarly underscored in additional figures in the manuscript of Carmona-Rivera et al. In Fig. 1B of the manuscript, Carmona-Rivera et al. demonstrated that ACPAs target several proteins in NETs. Although the detection of antigens in NETs by RA autoantibodies is reproducible using PMA (Fig. 1B, lane 1), the inclusion of unstimulated neutrophils demonstrates that the same bands are also found (some even more prominently) in control cells (Fig. 1B, lane 2). This is far less than the prominent detection of autoantigens in hypercitrullinated neutrophils (Fig. 1B, lane 3). Nevertheless, the absence of controls in Fig. 1B of the manuscript makes it impossible to confirm whether citrullinated autoantigens are generated during NETosis. Because dying cells redistribute their intracellular proteins, it is not surprising that citrullinated proteins found in control neutrophils may be redistributed during NETosis (or any other form of cell death) and ...
Now, many years ago, I told an Anti-Choice person that if abortion is made illegal, then OTHER forms of birth control would be targeted for same actions. He claimed I was being Chicken Little. Contra-Contraception, May 7th 2006 Its on the New York Times web edition, if you dont want to click the…
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Chapter 33 Reproductive System Vocab. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests.
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Eleven Biotherapeutics Inc (NASDAQ:EBIO) stock is at $0.578, up +1.58 percent from its previous close of $0.57. The stock opened the session at $0.67 and
Dose: Feeding:0, 1, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100mM; Repro:0, 8, 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, 96, 112, 128, 144, 160mM; Growth:0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100mM ...
1.M.J.A.M. Van Putten and C.J. Stam, Application of a neural complexity measure to multichannel EEG, Phys Letters A 281(2-3): 131-141, 2001.. 2.M.J.A.M. van Putten, The colorful brain: Visualization of EEG background patterns, J Clin Neurophysiol, 25(2):63-68, 2008.. 3.M.J.A.M. van Putten, J.M. Peters, S.M. Mulder, J.A.M. de Haas, C.M.A. Bruijninckx and D.L.J. Tavy, A brain symmetry index (BSI) for online EEG monitoring in carotid endarterectomy, J Clin Neurophysiol 115(5): 1189-1194, 2004.. 4.M.J.A.M. van Putten, The revised Brain Symmetry Index, J Clin Neurophysiol 118(11): 2362-2367, 2007. 5.M.J.A.M. van Putten and D.L.J. Tavy, Continuous quantitative EEG monitoring in hemispheric stroke patients using the Brain Symmetry Index, Stroke 35(11): 2489-2492, 2004.. 6.M.J.A.M. van Putten and M.H.P.M. van Putten, Discovery of recurrent multiple brain states in non-convulsive status epilepticus. J Clin Neurophysiol, 118(12): 2798-2804, 2007. ...
Ive googled my rear off for a long time and found quite a few things on martial arts (this site being one of them). I am quite fond of the mechanics, physics, and genius behind many of these arts. While I come along many things that are perfectly explainable I come along some other things that are well, they may be Bullshido for lack of a better term. The concept of inner bodily energys (Qi,Chi,Ki and some other pronunciations) pops up in more then a few websites(and books). Some people claim
Purpose: To identify the causative gene for autosomal dominant total congenital cataract in a six-generation Australian family displaying linkage to chromosome 1p36. Methods: Eight candidate genes (HSPB7, FBXO42, EFHD2, ZBTB17, CAPZB, FBLIM1, ALDH4A1, and MFAP2) from within the previously defined linkage interval were selected based on expression in lens and their known or putative function. The coding exons were sequenced in multiple affected family members and compared to the reference sequence. Results: No segregating mutations were identified in any of the eight genes. Thirty-one polymorphisms were detected, 20 of which were in the exons and 11 in the flanking introns. Conclusions: Coding mutations in HSPB7, FBXO42, EFHD2, ZBTB17, CAPZB, FBLIM1, ALDH4A1, and MFAP2 do not account for congenital cataract in this family. ...
Repros Therapeutics low testosterone treatment - Androxal - has hit another Food and Drug Administration (FDA) roadblock. The pharmaceutical developer had planned to attend a preapproval meeting with the agency next week, however that meeting has been canceled.. The FDA cites concerns over the companys integral data on Androxal - a small-molecule therapy for the treatment of men with low testosterone - as the reason for the meetings cancellation. According to Repros, the meeting was cancelled "due to questions that arose late in the review regarding the bioanalytical method validation that could affect interpretability of certain pivotal study data.". CEO Joseph Podolski held a conference call with analysts where he explained that the FDA was concerned about the lab chosen by Repros to conduct testosterone tests, and whether Androxal truly met its primary endpoint in the Phase III clinical trial. Podolski defends the Repros-chosen lab, saying that it is CLIA-certified and was a reliable ...
The structural disorder of the F-actin filament is manifested by the variable crossover spacing and width along its length and has been the subject of many investigations. This disorder is now generally accepted to represent an intrinsic dynamic feature of the actin filament (Aebi et al., 1986). Attempts to quantify and parametrize this dynamic behavior of F-actin have produced two models: (a) "random twist with cumulative angular disorder" (Egelman et al., 1982; Stokes and DeRosier, 1987); and (b) "compensatory lateral slipping" (Bremer et al., 1991; Censullo and Cheung, 1993). Consistent with the lateral slipping model of Bremer et al. (1991), we found that the axial spacing and corresponding maximum width of individual filament crossovers appeared uncorrelated for all polymerization conditions assayed (including stabilization of the filaments by phalloidin; see Fig. 6 c). This finding further suggests that cumulative lateral slipping or angular disorder may indeed occur locally over short ...
References (1) Welch, M.D., Depace, A.H. , Vermas, s., Iwanatsu, A. and Mitchison, T.J. The human Arp2/3 complx is composed of evolutionarily conserved subunits and is localized to cellular regions of dynamic actin filament assembly. J Cell Biol. 1997; 138(2):375-384. (2) Narayanan, A., LeClaire, L.L., Barber, D.L. andJacobson, M.P. Phosphorylation of the Arp2 subunit relieves…
17th century (swept basket hilt ?) repro Total-48 3/4 Blade-40 1/2 Ricasso-2 1/2 Hilt-8 1/8 Grip and pommel-5 1/2 Wide-1 1/8 Thick-11/32 POB-10 7/8 from tang button and 37 7/8 Seems way out of balance unless you run two fingers in front of guard, then is is easy to move. Very flexible and well made. Both swords appear forged with careful attention to detail. Were there certain makers that manufactured these wall hangers? Why go all out on making them serviceable? Very interesting
The roles of various actin nucleators in oocyte maturation have been determined recently. In addition to FMN2 (Dumont et al., 2007; Leader et al., 2002) and Spire (Pfender et al., 2011), the Arp2/3 complex and its activators, including N-WASP, WAVE2 and JMY, are involved in spindle migration and polar body extrusion (Chaigne et al., 2013; Sun et al., 2011a; Sun et al., 2013; Sun et al., 2011c; Yi et al., 2013b; Yi et al., 2011). However, the roles of other actin-binding proteins in the regulation of actin filament formation during oocyte maturation are generally unknown. In this study, we showed that capping protein is essential for the regulation of actin filament reorganization during oocyte maturation.. An intriguing observation of this study is that capping protein did not necessarily localize in actin-rich regions of oocytes. The cortical actin cap, which forms near to the approaching spindle, contains a dense actin network (Yi and Li, 2012; Yi et al., 2013a), and its formation is dependent ...
Recently, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane has been subject to use restrictions due to its contribution to climate change.[12] It has a global warming potential of 1300.[13]. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has proposed 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane to be best replaced by a new fluorochemical refrigerant HFO-1234yf (CF3CF=CH2) in automobile air-conditioning systems.[14] California may also prohibit the sale of canned 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane to individuals to avoid non-professional recharge of air conditioners.[15] A ban had been in place in Wisconsin since October 1994 under ATCP 136 prohibiting sales of container sizes holding less than 15 lbs of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, but this restriction applied only when the chemical was intended to be a refrigerant. However, the ban was lifted in Wisconsin in 2012.[16] During the time that it was active, this Wisconsin-specific ban contained loopholes. For example, it was legal for a person to purchase gas duster containers with any amount of the ...
Repros Therapeutics Inc said the U.S. health regulators asked the company to propose a label that better defines the population of individuals who will benefit from the use its male-infertility drug Androxal, sending its shares soaring. ...
Phase 2 proof of concept study in obese men to assess drug impact on metabolic and quality of life parameters under a rigorous diet and exercise regimen Analyses at 3, 6 and 12 month time points Topline interim results for 3 and 6 months expected summer 2016. THE WOODLANDS, Texas, Feb. 16, 2016-- Repros Therapeutics Inc. ® today announced that it has fully...
0062] In some implementations, as illustrated by FIG. 4, a needle 122a can include a barbed end 146 defining a recessed engagement surface 148. The needle capture device can comprise a needle attachment fitting or cuff 136. Specifically, the needle attachment cuff 136 can have a roughly cylindrical shape and include an axial channel 150 configured to receive the barbed end 146 of needle 122a therein. In additional implementations, the needle attachment cuff 136 can include shapes other than cylindrical ones, such as, for example, conical. The needle attachment cuff 136 can include one or more features configured to lock the barbed end 146 of the needle 122a therein. For instance, as shown in FIG. 4, the needle attachment cuff 136 can include at least one tab 152. The tab 152 may be mechanically formed to be smaller than the diameter of surface 148. The tab 152 can be resiliently biased into channel 150. As the needle 122a advances into the needle attachment cuff 136, the barbed end 146 can ...
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Protropin penis enlargment - Endo/Repro Flashcards - Cram.com. The Natural Gain Plus program is the most powerful natural male enhancement program available anywhere in the world.
Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilins contribute to cytoskeletal dynamics by promoting rapid actin filament disassembly. In the classical view, ADF/cofilin sever filaments, and capping proteins block filament barbed ends whereas pointed ends depolymerize, at a rate that is still debated. Here, by monitoring the activity of the three mammalian ADF/cofilin isoforms on individual skeletal muscle and cytoplasmic actin filaments, we directly quantify the reactions underpinning filament severing and depolymerization from both ends. We find that, in the absence of monomeric actin, soluble ADF/cofilin can associate with bare filament barbed ends to accelerate their depolymerization. Compared to bare filaments, ADF/cofilin-saturated filaments depolymerize faster from their pointed ends and slower from their barbed ends, resulting in similar depolymerization rates at both ends. This effect is isoform specific because depolymerization is faster for ADF- than for cofilin-saturated filaments. We also ...
Cows that have difficulty calving, retained placentas, uterine infections, ketosis, displaced abomasums and mastitis will have more difficulty conceiving.
Coronin 1a兔多克隆抗体(ab72212)可与人样本反应并经WB, IP, IHC实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
Actin-Related Protein 2 (Arp2) [Homo Sapiens] P61160: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/p61160 Family: Arp 2 belongs to actin family and Arp 2 subfamily, which consists of 21 proteins form different species. It is a subunit of ARP2/3 complex, along with Arp 3 and other 5 subunits, i.e. p40 (ARPC1), p35 (ARPC2), p19 (ARPC3), p18 (ARPC4), and p14 (ARPC5). It…
This, along with plus end capping proteins, such as capZ stabilise the structure of the actin filament. End capping is ... is a protein which binds and caps the minus end of actin (the "pointed" end), regulating the length of actin filaments in ... The protein functions by physically blocking the spontaneous dissociation of ADP-bound actin monomers from the minus end of the ... TMOD1 TMOD2 TMOD3 TMOD4 Rao, J. N.; Madasu, Y.; Dominguez, R. (24 July 2014). "Mechanism of actin filament pointed-end capping ...
F-actin-capping protein subunit beta, also known as CapZβ is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPZB gene. CapZβ ... The protein regulates growth of the actin filament by capping the barbed end of growing actin filaments. CapZβ functions to cap ... CapZ works in concert with tropomodulin, which caps actin at pointed ends. In muscle, the interaction of CapZ with actin is ... CapZ interacts with α-actinin, nebulette, nebulin, HSC70. at the Z-disc. CAPZB is a member of the F-actin capping protein ...
Actin-capping protein, CapZ appears to affect the localization of PKCε to Z-lines and modulates the cardiomyocyte response to ... "Actin capping protein: an essential element in protein kinase signaling to the myofilaments". Circulation Research. 90 (12): ... Sarcomeric proteins have been identified in PKCε signaling complexes, including actin, cTnT, tropomyosin, desmin, and myosin ... Zeidman R, Trollér U, Raghunath A, Påhlman S, Larsson C (Jan 2002). "Protein kinase Cepsilon actin-binding site is important ...
"Interaction of S100a0 protein with the actin capping protein, CapZ: characterization of a putative S100a0 binding site in CapZ ... F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-2 also known as CapZ-alpha2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPZA2 gene. ... where it caps sarcomeric actin at Z-discs; the ratio of CapZ-alpha2 to CapZ-alpha1 varies significantly among different tissues ... CAPZA2 capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, alpha 2". "Protein sequence of human CAPZA2 (Uniprot ID: P47755)". ...
"Linking the T cell surface protein CD2 to the actin-capping protein CAPZ via CMS and CIN85". The Journal of Biological ... Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP), WASP-interacting protein (WIP), and ELMO1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 ( ... SH3 domain-containing kinase-binding protein 1 (synonims - CIN85, in rodents - Ruk) is an adaptor protein[disambiguation needed ... "SETA is a multifunctional adapter protein with three SH3 domains that binds Grb2, Cbl, and the novel SB1 proteins". Cellular ...
End-capping proteins such as CapZ prevent the addition or loss of monomers at the filament end where actin turnover is ... Actin polymerization together with capping proteins were recently used to control the 3-dimensional growth of protein filament ... including motor proteins, branching proteins, severing proteins, polymerization promoters, and capping proteins. ... Actin depolymerizing proteins such as ADF/cofilin.. The actin filament network in non-muscle cells is highly dynamic. The actin ...
... capz actin capping protein MeSH D12.776.220.525.032.750 - tropomodulin MeSH D12.776.220.525.212.500 - cofilin 1 MeSH D12.776. ... actin-related protein 2 MeSH D12.776.220.525.246.750 - actin-related protein 3 MeSH D12.776.220.525.475.100 - myosin heavy ... groel protein MeSH D12.776.602.500.500.100 - fusion proteins, bcr-abl MeSH D12.776.602.500.500.320 - fusion proteins, gag-onc ... oncogene protein v-maf MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.875 - oncogene proteins v-abl MeSH D12.776.964.700.750.882 - oncogene proteins ...
At the barbed end the capping protein (CapZαβ) binds the Arp1 filament in the same way that it binds actin, although with more ... an actin-related protein is a component of a filament that resembles F-actin". The Journal of Cell Biology. 126 (2): 403-412. ... actin, CapZ; and (3) the pointed end complex: Actr10/Arp11, DCTN4/p62, DCTN5/p25, and DCTN6/p27. DCTN2 (dynamitin) is also ... "Dynamics of cytoplasmic dynein in living cells and the effect of a mutation in the dynactin complex actin-related protein Arp1 ...
GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 involved in epithelial junction formation in association with the filamentous actin-capping protein CapZ ... "The junctional proteins cingulin and paracingulin modulate the expression of tight junction protein genes through GATA-4". PLoS ... Cingulin-like 1, also known as paracingulin or junction-associated-coiled-coil protein (JACOP), is a protein which is encoded ... The proteins present in this complex play a role in many cellular processes i.e., in the adhesion and barrier function of ...
... microfilament proteins MeSH D05.750.078.730.032 --- actin capping proteins MeSH D05.750.078.730.032.500 --- capz actin capping ... actin-related protein 2 MeSH D05.750.078.730.246.750 --- actin-related protein 3 MeSH D05.750.078.730.250 --- actins MeSH ... actin-related protein 2-3 complex MeSH D05.750.078.730.246.500 --- ... wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein family MeSH D05.750.078.730.912.500 --- wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein MeSH D05.750.078.730. ...
The plus ends of the actin filaments are located at the tip of the microvillus and are capped, possibly by capZ proteins, while ... 20 to 30 tightly bundled actin filaments are cross-linked by bundling proteins fimbrin (or plastin-1), villin and espin to form ... The nucleation of actin fibers occurs as a response to external stimuli, allowing a cell to alter its shape to suit a ... Actin filaments, present in the cytosol, are most abundant near the cell surface. These filaments are thought to determine the ...
CAPZA1 CAPZA2 CAPZA3 CAPZB CapZ Actin Capping Protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Heiss, Steven; Cooper, John (June 24, 1991). "Regulation of CapZ, an actin capping protein of chicken muscle, by anionic ... In molecular biology CapZ, also known as CAPZ; CAZ1 and CAPPA1, is a protein composed of alpha and beta subunits. Its main ... Gremm, D.; Wegner, A. (2000-07-01). "Gelsolin as a calcium-regulated actin filament-capping protein". European Journal of ...
Barbed-end uncapping by the removal of barbed-end-capping proteins (CapZ, Hsp70, EPS8) Barbed-end uncapping by actin-binding- ... Actin-binding proteins (ABPs) aid in the transformation of actin filaments throughout the actin remodeling process. These ... capping proteins Hsp70 and CapZ, thereby reinitiating barbed-end capping and greatly diminishing elongation. Despite the ... globular or G-actin and filament/filamentous or F-actin. Globular actin is the monomeric form of the protein while the ...
"Variant cDNAs encoding proteins similar to the alpha subunit of chicken CapZ". Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton. 18 (3): 204-14. doi: ... Unlike gelsolin and severin this protein does not sever actin filaments. The F-actin capping protein is a heterodimer composed ... the F-actin capping protein is a protein which binds in a calcium-independent manner to the fast-growing ends of actin ... Neither of the subunits shows sequence similarity to other filament-capping proteins. The alpha subunit is a protein of about ...
2003). "Linking the T cell surface protein CD2 to the actin-capping protein CAPZ via CMS and CIN85". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (25): ... F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPZA1 gene. CAPZA1 is a member of the F- ... actin capping protein alpha subunit family. This gene encodes the alpha subunit of the barbed-end actin binding protein. The ... independent barbed-end actin filament capping protein, CapZ, from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes". Biochemistry. 35 (11): ...
CapZ/Capping Protein a-Catenin Cofilin CR16 Caldesmon CCT Comitin Calicin Centuarin Coronin DBP40 Drebrin Dematin (Band 4.9) ... Actin-binding proteins (also known as ABP) are proteins that bind to actin. This may mean ability to bind actin monomers, or ... ActA Actibind Actin Actinfilin Actinogelin Actin-regulating kinases Actin-Related Proteins Actobindin Actolinkin Actopaxin ... Many actin-binding proteins, including α-actinin, β-spectrin, dystrophin, utrophin and fimbrin, do this through the actin- ...
"Linking the T cell surface protein CD2 to the actin-capping protein CAPZ via CMS and CIN85". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (25): 22396-403 ... The protein directly interacts with filamentous actin and a variety of cell membrane proteins through multiple actin binding ... "In vivo interaction of the adapter protein CD2-associated protein with the type 2 polycystic kidney disease protein, polycystin ... CD2-associated protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD2AP gene. This gene encodes a scaffolding molecule that ...
Caldwell JE, Heiss SG, Mermall V, Cooper JA (Oct 1989). "Effects of CapZ, an actin capping protein of muscle, on the ... It also seems that in the case of actin, the CAP protein is required as a possible cofactor in actin's final folding states. ... beta actin ACTC1 - actin, alpha, cardiac muscle 1 ACTG1 - gamma actin 1 ACTG2 - gamma actin 2, smooth muscle, enteric Actin ... Actin Filaments (F-actin) grow from the polymerization of G-actin monomers MBInfo - Actin Binding MBInfo - Actin Nucleation ...
Caldwell JE, Heiss SG, Mermall V, Cooper JA (Oct 1989). "Effects of CapZ, an actin capping protein of muscle, on the ... It also seems that in the case of actin, the CAP protein is required as a possible cofactor in actin's final folding states.[42 ... These proteins are called actin-binding proteins (ABP) and they are involved in actin's polymerization, depolymerization, ... In this way there are three species of actin in a filament: ATP-Actin, ADP+Pi-Actin and ADP-Actin.[47][60] The amount of each ...
... a barbed-end actin capping protein from the Z line of skeletal muscle, with actin. CapZ blocks actin polymerization and ... CapZ has no measureable ability to sever actin filaments in a filament dilution assay. CapZ nucleates actin polymerization at a ... CapZ inhibits the polymerization of ATP-actin onto filament ends with ATP subunits slightly less than onto ends with ADP ... No significant binding is observed between CapZ and rhodamine-labeled actin monomers by fluorescence photobleaching recovery. ...
... Alignments can be refined by adding alignments from ... Subunits of heterodimeric actin filament capping protein Capz alignments. These alignments are sequences aligned to the 0047485 ... Home > SCOP hierarchy > Subunits of heterodimeric actin filament capping protein Capz > Alignments for region 4-269 from ... that Represent all Proteins of Known Structure." J. Mol. Biol., 313(4), 903-919. ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha (IPR002189). Short name: CapZ_alpha Overlapping homologous superfamilies *F-actin-capping ... Unlike gelsolin and severin this protein does not sever actin filaments. The F-actin capping protein is a heterodimer composed ...
CapZ actin capping protein‎ (6 В). *. ► Catenins‎ (3 К, 9 В). *. ► CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein-beta‎ (7 В) ... Protein (lb); protein (nb); Protéin (su); Protein (hif); 朊 (lzh); بروتين (ar); Protein (br); ပရိုတိန်း (my); 蛋白質 (yue); Белок ( ... प्रोटिन (dty); Prótín (is); Protein (ms); protein (tr); لحمیات (ur); Bielkovina (sk); білок (uk); 蛋白质 (zh-cn); Protein (gsw); ... protein (sco); Уураг (mn); protein (nn); ಪ್ರೋಟೀನ್ (kn); پرۆتین (ckb); protein (en); fehérje (hu); પ્રોટિન (gu); प्रोटिन (new); ...
Disease causing mutations in inverted formin 2 regulate its binding to G-actin, F-actin capping protein (CapZ α-1) and profilin ... CapZ Actin Capping Protein, Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental, HEK293 Cells, Humans, Microfilament Proteins, Mutation, ... Since both these proteins are involved in the dynamic turnover and restructuring of the actin cytoskeleton these changes ... and GFP-Trap purification coupled with MS we demonstrate that INF2 interacts with profilin 2 and the F-actin capping protein, ...
Disease causing mutations in inverted formin 2 regulate its binding to G-actin, F-actin capping protein (CapZ α-1) and profilin ... Since both these proteins are involved in the dynamic turnover and restructuring of the actin cytoskeleton these changes ... and GFP-Trap purification coupled with MS we demonstrate that INF2 interacts with profilin 2 and the F-actin capping protein, ... Mutations to the formin homology 2 domain of INF2 protein have unexpected effects on actin polymerization and severing. Vinay ...
Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments. The isoform beta-3 ... independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby blocking the exchange of subunits at these ... F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca(2+)- ... View protein in InterPro. IPR037282. CapZ_alpha/beta. IPR001698 ... composed of F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha (CAPZA1, CAPZA2 or CAPZA3), F-actin-capping protein subunit beta (CAPZB), ...
Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments. ... independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby blocking the exchange of subunits at these ... F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca(2+)- ... View protein in InterPro. IPR002189 CapZ_alpha. IPR037282 CapZ_ ... View protein in InterPro. IPR002189 CapZ_alpha. IPR037282 CapZ_alpha/beta. IPR042276 CapZ_alpha/beta_2. IPR042489 CapZ_alpha_1 ...
Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments (By similarity). ... independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby blocking the exchange of subunits at these ... F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca(2+)- ... IPR042489 CapZ_alpha_1. IPR017865 F-actin_cap_asu_CS. The ... F-actin capping protein complex Source: FlyBaseInferred from direct assayi*. "Subunits of the Drosophila actin-capping protein ...
Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments. ... independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby blocking the exchange of subunits at these ... F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca(2+)- ... View protein in InterPro. IPR037282. CapZ_alpha/beta. IPR001698 ... View protein in InterPro. IPR037282. CapZ_alpha/beta. IPR001698. CAPZB. IPR019771. F-actin_capping_bsu_CS. ...
Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments. ... independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby blocking the exchange of subunits at these ... F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca(2+)- ... IPR042489 CapZ_alpha_1. IPR017865 F-actin_cap_asu_CS. The ... IPR002189 CapZ_alpha. IPR037282 CapZ_alpha/beta. IPR042276 CapZ_alpha/beta_2. IPR042489 CapZ_alpha_1. IPR017865 F-actin_cap_asu ...
F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-1. Names. Cap Z. capZ alpha-1. capping actin protein of muscle Z-line alpha subunit 1. ... CAPZA1 capping actin protein of muscle Z-line subunit alpha 1 [Homo sapiens] CAPZA1 capping actin protein of muscle Z-line ... Title: Disease causing mutations in inverted formin 2 regulate its binding to G-actin, F-actin capping protein (CapZ α-1) and ... mDia1 displaced from the barbed end by CapZ Actin Capping Protein can randomly slide along the actin filament and later return. ...
Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments. ... independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby blocking the exchange of subunits at these ... F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca(2+)- ... View protein in InterPro. IPR037282 CapZ_alpha/beta. IPR042276 ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. D3BLH6. F-actin-capping protein subunit beta. Sporothrix insectorum ...
Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments. ... independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby blocking the exchange of subunits at these ... F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca(2+)- ... View protein in InterPro. IPR037282 CapZ_alpha/beta. IPR042276 ... View protein in InterPro. IPR037282 CapZ_alpha/beta. IPR042276 CapZ_alpha/beta_2. IPR001698 CAPZB. IPR019771 F-actin_capping_ ...
Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments. ... independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby blocking the exchange of subunits at these ... F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca(2+)- ... View protein in InterPro. IPR037282 CapZ_alpha/beta. IPR042276 ... Protein. Similar proteins. Species. Score. Length. Source. W7ELE2. F-actin-capping protein subunit beta. Bipolaris oryzae ATCC ...
Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments. ... independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby blocking the exchange of subunits at these ... F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca(2+)- ... View protein in InterPro. IPR037282 CapZ_alpha/beta. IPR042276 ... Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments.UniRule annotation. , ...
Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments. ... independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby blocking the exchange of subunits at these ... F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca(2+)- ... IPR037282. CapZ_alpha/beta. IPR017865. F-actin_cap_asu_CS. The ... View protein in InterPro. IPR002189. CapZ_alpha. IPR037282. CapZ_alpha/beta. IPR017865. F-actin_cap_asu_CS. ...
... capping actin protein of muscle Z-line subunit beta), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. ... CapZ_alpha/beta CapZ_alpha/beta_2 CAPZB F-actin_capping_bsu_CS ... capping protein (actin filament) muscle Z-line, beta. capping ... cytoskeleton organization blood coagulation F-actin capping protein complex regulation of lamellipodium assembly actin ... cytoskeleton organization blood coagulation F-actin capping protein complex regulation of lamellipodium assembly actin ...
Protein Coding), Capping Actin Protein Of Muscle Z-Line Alpha Subunit 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, ... The phosphorylation of CapZ-interacting protein (CapZIP) by stress-activated protein kinases triggers its dissociation from ... It is the alpha subunit of the barbed-end actin binding protein Cap Z. By capping the barbed end of actin filaments, Cap Z ... Protein Symbol:. P47755-CAZA2_HUMAN. Recommended name:. F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha-2 Protein Accession:. P47755. ...
1989). Effects of CapZ, an actin capping protein of muscle, on the polymerization of actin. Biochemistry 28, 8506-8514. doi: ... actin filament capping mediated by capping protein through the direct interaction between capping protein and the capping- ... Actin-capping protein is essential for asymmetric division during oocyte maturation. (A) Knockdown of CapZα1 and CapZβ2 was ... mediated knockdown of CapZα and CapZβ, ectopic expression of capping protein and expression of capping-protein-binding region ...
F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca(2+)-independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby ... Capping protein muscle Z line alpha 1 antibody. *CapZ alpha 1 antibody ... Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments. ... Lysates/proteins at 10 µg per lane.. Secondary. All lanes : HRP labelled goat anti-rabbit at 1/2000 dilution. Predicted band ...
"Variant cDNAs encoding proteins similar to the alpha subunit of chicken CapZ". Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton. 18 (3): 204-14. doi: ... Unlike gelsolin and severin this protein does not sever actin filaments. The F-actin capping protein is a heterodimer composed ... the F-actin capping protein is a protein which binds in a calcium-independent manner to the fast-growing ends of actin ... Neither of the subunits shows sequence similarity to other filament-capping proteins. The alpha subunit is a protein of about ...
... capping protein (CapZ) probably binds the barbed ends of actin filaments at the Z line. The in vivo role of this protein in non ... Capping protein controls the addition of actin subunits to the barbed end of actin filaments and nucleates actin polymerization ... Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton in yeast capping protein mutants.. Amatruda JF1, Cannon JF, Tatchell K, Hug C, Cooper JA. ... indicating that capping protein regulates actin-filament distribution in vivo. ...
F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca(2+)-independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby ... Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments. ... CapZ beta. *Capzb. *CAPZB_HUMAN. *DKFZp686K0524. *F actin capping protein beta subunit ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. By ...
Linking the T cell surface protein CD2 to the actin-capping protein CAPZ via CMS and CIN85. J. Biol. Chem. 278,22396 -22403. ... family proteins promote actin polymerization, while Cofilin, Cyclase-associated protein (CAP) and capping proteins (CPs) ... We have found that Capping protein α (Cpa) and Capping protein β (Cpb), which prevent extension of the barbed ends of actin ... Capping protein, Cofilin and CAP all restrict actin filament polymerization (Bamburg, 1999; Gottwald et al., 1996; Schafer et ...
  • Myosin II (in green, between filaments) cross links antiparallel actin mediates contraction due to its ATPase-dependent motor domain, and its cross-linking, ATPase-independent activities. (cellmigration.org)
  • This complex (composed of tropomyosin, troponin C, I, and T) regulates Myosin II interaction with actin. (tebu-bio.com)
  • in mice expressing a constitutively-active PKCε, all sarcomeric proteins showed greater association with PKCε, and the cTnT, tropomyosin, desmin and myosin light chain-2 exhibited changes in post-translational modifications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Actin is one of two major muscle proteins that play a crucial role in muscle cell contraction, the other protein being myosin . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • It is as a polymer, F-actin, that it appears as thin filaments, which are interwoven with thick myosin filaments. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A relatively simple and ubiquitous protein, being found in most cells, Actin nonetheless demonstrates the extraordinary complexity-and one might say beauty-of creation, requiring a precise order of amino acids folded into a precise three-dimensional shape, and needing myosin, end capping proteins, ATP, and cell signaling mechanisms to function in muscle contraction. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In inducing cell motility , one end of the actin filament elongates while the other end contracts, presumably by myosin II molecular motors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, the respective ends of the actin microfilament are often specified by their appearance under transmission electron microscopy during a technique known as "decoration", where the addition of myosin results in distinctive actin-myosin binding at each terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the enterocyte microvillus, the structural core is attached to the plasma membrane along its length by lateral arms made of myosin 1a and Ca2+ binding protein calmodulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myosin 1a functions through a binding site for filamentous actin on one end and a lipid binding domain on the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plus ends of the actin filaments are located at the tip of the microvillus and are capped, possibly by capZ proteins, while the minus ends are anchored in the terminal web composed of a complicated set of proteins including spectrin and myosin II. (wikipedia.org)
  • F-actin is present throughout the cell body, which interacts with myosin to generate traction force. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Much like microtubules , actin filaments are polarized, with their fast-growing barbed-ends (because of their appearance in electron micrographs after binding of myosin S1 sub-fragments) and a slow-growing pointed-end (again based on the pattern created by S1 binding). (thefullwiki.org)
  • Szent-Gyorgyi had previously described the more viscous form of myosin produced by slow muscle extractions as 'activated' myosin, and, since Straub's protein produced the activating effect, it was dubbed actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Firstly, through motor proteins, like dynein, kinesin and myosin, which transform the energy stored in ATP into directed movement to, for instance, facilitate organelle transport along microtubule- and actin-filaments. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • Following up on the discovery of Ilona Banga & Szent-Györgyi in 1941 that the coagulation only occurs in some mysosin extractions and was reversed upon the addition of ATP, Straub identified and purified actin from those myosin preparations that did coagulate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results of these studies provide new information about the molecular mechanisms of severing and capping by well-characterized proteins as well as definition of a novel type of severing activity. (rupress.org)
  • Human PRKCE gene (Ensembl ID: ENSG00000171132) encodes the protein PKCε (Uniprot ID: Q02156), which is 737 amino acids in length with a molecular weight of 83.7 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vivo actin polymerization is catalyzed by a class of filament end-tracking molecular motors known as actoclampins . (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, deciphering the molecular interactions of proteins forming Z-lines is pivotal for understanding the regulation of myofibril assembly, sarcomeric organization, and mechanical properties of striated muscle. (rupress.org)
  • Molecular simulations suggest that close interactions between PIP2 and the β-tentacle of CapZ are modified by phosphorylation at T267. (rupress.org)
  • Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes the molecular interactions between PIP2 and CapZ, which are decreased by PIP2 availability or by the β-tentacle truncation. (rupress.org)
  • Advances in fluorescence microscopy, molecular biology and biochemistry have enabled the discovery of the processes underlying motility and the identification of the major proteins behind these processes. (ijbs.com)
  • In muscle, two giant proteins, titin and the actin‐binding nebulin, are possible candidates to act as a molecular blueprint (see review by Trinick, 1994 ). (embopress.org)
  • In vitro analyses of chicken and budding yeast CP revealed that deletions or point mutations in either the α or β tentacles do not affect protein stability but reduce the capping affinity, while a complete removal of both tentacles fully abrogates the actin-binding activity , . (plos.org)
  • A significant advance in this direction was made when biophysical studies helped identify regions where different force generating proteins are located, measured ( in vitro ) the exact forces generated by some of these proteins [ 2 - 6 ], and measured ( in vivo ) the forces associated with movement [ 7 - 9 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • A major breakthrough in analysing the regulation of actin polymerization has been the ability to initiate the process in vitro using purified proteins and a combination of biochemical fractionation and informed guesswork. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Different laboratories have used either the bacteria Shigella and Listeria , the GTPase Cdc42, or micelles of the phospholipid phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate (PIP 2 ) to initiate actin polymerization in vitro . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Arp2/3 complex can be activated in vitro by binding to the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein WASP/N-WASP via the carboxy-terminal acidic region of these proteins (Tom Pollard, Salk Institute). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using a biochemical fractionation approach, Rajat Rohatgi and Marc Kirschner (Harvard Medical School) reported that Cdc42- and PIP 2 -induced actin polymerization in vitro requires a complex of proteins that includes N-WASP, the Arp2/3 complex, and an as yet unidentified 140kDa Cdc42-interacting protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It nucleates a branching filament network in vitro, as is also found in the actin tails generated by Listeria (Gary Borisy, University of Wisconsin). (biomedcentral.com)
  • These interactions allow the assembly of a ternary complex of titin, actin and α‐actinin in vitro , and are expected to constrain the path of titin in the Z‐disk. (embopress.org)
  • However, the mechanism of the interaction between Hsp27 and actin is unclear and controversial and a binding study of the interaction between the two proteins in vitro has not been reported [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In order to address some of these issues we have investigated the interaction between Hsp27 and actin, in vitro , using fluorescence probes attached to Hsp27. (hindawi.com)
  • CapZ is associated with membranes in cells and it is generally assumed that this interaction is mediated by polyphosphoinositides (PPI) particularly PIP 2 , which has been characterized in vitro . (biomedcentral.com)
  • At the hinge of these two domains Cap32/34 contains an elongated and highly flexible loop, which has been reported to be important for the interaction of cytoplasmic CP with actin and might contribute to the more dynamic actin-binding of cytoplasmic compared to sarcomeric CP (CapZ). (nih.gov)
  • In cardiac muscle cells, PKCε regulates muscle contraction through its actions at sarcomeric proteins, and PKCε modulates cardiac cell metabolism through its actions at mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has also been observed that CapZ functions to organize myofilaments during myofibrillogenesis and is present at Z-discs in muscle prior to the striation of actin filaments, suggesting that CapZ may function to direct the polarity and organization of sarcomeric actin during I-band formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • specifically, its role in regulating cardiac muscle contraction via targeting the sarcomeric proteins, as well as modulating cardiac cell energy production and metabolism by targeting cardiac mitochondria. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We describe here a novel sarcomeric 145-kD protein, myopalladin, which tethers together the COOH-terminal Src homology 3 domains of nebulin and nebulette with the EF hand motifs of α-actinin in vertebrate Z-lines. (rupress.org)
  • Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) demonstrates that the kinetic binding constant of CapZ to sarcomeric thin filaments in living muscle cells increases with stiffness or PMA treatment but is diminished by PIP2 reduction. (rupress.org)
  • The sarcomeric Z‐disk, the anchoring plane of thin (actin) filaments, links titin (also called connectin) and actin filaments from opposing sarcomere halves in a lattice connected by α‐actinin. (embopress.org)
  • The sarcomeric Z‐disk therefore represents a model system for the controlled assembly of actin filaments. (embopress.org)
  • Yeast cells in which the CAP2 gene was disrupted by an insertion or a deletion had an abnormal actin distribution, including the loss of actin cables. (nih.gov)
  • By knocking down or ectopically overexpressing this protein, we revealed that it is crucial for efficient spindle migration and maintenance of the cytoplasmic actin mesh density. (biologists.org)
  • Expression of the capping-protein-binding region of CARMIL (also known as LRRC16A) impaired spindle migration and polar body extrusion during oocyte maturation and decreased the density of the cytoplasmic actin mesh. (biologists.org)
  • Conservation and divergence between cytoplasmic and muscle-specific actin capping proteins: insights from the crystal structure of cytoplasmic Cap32/34 from Dictyostelium discoideum. (nih.gov)
  • To elucidate structural and functional differences between cytoplasmic and sarcomercic CP variants, we have solved the atomic structure of Cap32/34 (32=β- and 34=α-subunit) from the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium at 2.2 Å resolution and compared it to that of chicken muscle CapZ. (nih.gov)
  • Actin filaments can also participate in certain cell junctions, such as those in cytoplasmic streaming when the cell cytoplasm is flowing, and in contraction of the cell during cytokinesis (division of the cell cytoplasm following nucleus division). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • When we examined protein extracts from stably transfected C2C12 cells expressing H222P lamin A (C2-H222P) at lower levels (24,25), we observed an increase in cytoplasmic relative to nuclear pERK1/2 compared with cells expressing wild-type lamin A (C2-WT) (Fig. 1B). (deepdyve.com)
  • The cytoplasmic protein localizes to membrane ruffles, lipid rafts, and the leading edges of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the second part of this work, the crystal structure of Cap32/34 from Dictyostelium discoideum - the first high resolution structure of a cytoplasmic capping protein - is reported. (uni-goettingen.de)
  • Focal-adhesion kinases (FAKs), cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases involved in signalling through integrins. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • The amino-acid sequence of the FERM domain is highly conserved among ERM proteins and is responsible for membrane association by direct binding to the cytoplasmic domain or tail of integral membrane proteins. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • Sequence alignment of tail regions of Twinfilin isoforms from different species with boxed region highlighting conservation of residues critical for binding to Capping Protein (CP). (nih.gov)
  • Hsp70 and signal translocation sequence target protein to TOM → TIM → signal sequence cleaved → hsp60 help fold the rest inside mito. (caribbeanmedstudent.com)
  • Data from computer-aided sequence and structure analyses further suggest that CapZ could become partially buried in the lipid bilayer probably under mildly acidic conditions, in a manner that is not only dependent on the presence of PPIs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CapZ proteins have been isolated from various species, and sequence studies demonstrate extensive homology among Drosophila , Saccharomyces , Dictyostelium, Acanthamoeba , Caenorhabditis and vertebrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The search for highly hydrophobic or amphipathic segments within the CapZ sequence includes the construction of plots of the average hydrophobicity and of the average hydrophobic moment [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Further analysis of these fibroblasts should certainly provide important information on the role of N-WASP in actin polymerization and cell motility. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Actin participates in many important cellular processes, including muscle contraction, cell motility, cell division and cytokinesis, vesicle and organelle movement, cell signaling, and the establishment and maintenance of cell junctions and cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, using purified actin-binding proteins and a bacterial actin-based motility system, Loisel et al. (biologists.org)
  • Actin polymerization not only drives the motility of leukocytes, fibroblasts, keratocytes, and amoebae, but also provides the propulsive force for the movement of intracellular bacteria including Listeria , Shigella , and Rickettsia as well as the poxvirus, vaccinia. (asmscience.org)
  • These experimental techniques alone, however, cannot adequately explain whether these proteins are capable of generating the required forces for motility nor the physical mechanisms employed. (ijbs.com)
  • In addition to its role in many cellular processes, Capping Protein acts as a main tumor suppressor module in Drosophila and in humans, in part, by restricting the activity of Yorkie/YAP/TAZ oncogenes. (plos.org)
  • In vivo , a truncated form of Drosophila cpa deleted of the C-terminal 28 amino acids has no effect on F-actin when expressed alone but promotes F-actin accumulation when co-expressed with full length cpb . (plos.org)
  • In Drosophila , mutations in either cpa or cpb , lead to accumulation of F-actin within the cell and give rise to identical developmental phenotypes that are tissue specific. (biologists.org)
  • activate the Arp2/3 complex and help to form new branched actin filaments. (biologists.org)
  • This indicates the importance of various actin-binding proteins in Arp2/3-mediated actin reorganization. (biologists.org)
  • CPs and the Arp2/3 complex, which promotes filament branching, favor formation of the short highly branched actin filaments required to generate protrusive force at the leading edge of migrating cells. (biologists.org)
  • We recently showed that the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family member, WASH, localizes to endosomal subdomains and regulates endocytic vesicle scission in an Arp2/3-dependent manner. (pnas.org)
  • They act in large part by regulating the actin nucleating activity of the ubiquitous Arp2/3 complex. (pnas.org)
  • WASP proteins stimulate Arp2/3 complex using a conserved C-terminal VCA (Verprolin homologous, central hydrophobic, and acidic) region. (pnas.org)
  • Another important component in filament production is the Arp2/3 complex, which nucleates new actin filaments while bound to existing filaments, thus creating a branched network. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This localization of the Arp2/3 complex is consistent with it playing an important role in initiating actin polymerization in lamellipodia and by microorganisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, the Arp2/3 complex is not localized to filopodia, consistent with the fact that actin filaments are bundled in parallel in filopodia and not in a branching network. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is quite probable that N-WASP/WASP is not responsible for recruiting the Arp2/3 complex to lamellipodia, and thus the search is on for other proteins that interact with the complex. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The longitudinal column of fibrous sheath in Akap4-KO male mice was absent, and the residues of transverse rib remained, which was consistent with the immunofluorescence localization of AKAP3 protein. (bvsalud.org)