Captopril: A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Enalapril: An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Lisinopril: One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors), orally active, that has been used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Enalaprilat: The active metabolite of ENALAPRIL and a potent intravenously administered angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is an effective agent for the treatment of essential hypertension and has beneficial hemodynamic effects in heart failure. The drug produces renal vasodilation with an increase in sodium excretion.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Perindopril: An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is used in patients with hypertension and heart failure.Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.Angiotensin I: A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.Cilazapril: One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors) used for hypertension. It is a prodrug that is hydrolyzed after absorption to its main metabolite cilazaprilat.Ramipril: A long-acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is a prodrug that is transformed in the liver to its active metabolite ramiprilat.Teprotide: A synthetic nonapeptide (Pyr-Trp-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gln-Ile-Pro-Pro) which is identical to the peptide from the venom of the snake, Bothrops jararaca. It inhibits kininase II and ANGIOTENSIN I and has been proposed as an antihypertensive agent.TetrazolesBradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Losartan: An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Kinins: A generic term used to describe a group of polypeptides with related chemical structures and pharmacological properties that are widely distributed in nature. These peptides are AUTACOIDS that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Thus, they comprise a subset of the large number of mediators that contribute to the inflammatory response. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p588)Hypertension, Renovascular: Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.Saralasin: An octapeptide analog of angiotensin II (bovine) with amino acids 1 and 8 replaced with sarcosine and alanine, respectively. It is a highly specific competitive inhibitor of angiotensin II that is used in the diagnosis of HYPERTENSION.ThiazepinesHydrochlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.Radioisotope Renography: Graphic tracing over a time period of radioactivity measured externally over the kidneys following intravenous injection of a radionuclide which is taken up and excreted by the kidneys.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Receptors, Bradykinin: Cell surface receptors that bind BRADYKININ and related KININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The identified receptor types (B-1 and B-2, or BK-1 and BK-2) recognize endogenous KALLIDIN; t-kinins; and certain bradykinin fragments as well as bradykinin itself.Tetrahydroisoquinolines: A group of ISOQUINOLINES in which the nitrogen containing ring is protonated. They derive from the non-enzymatic Pictet-Spengler condensation of CATECHOLAMINES with ALDEHYDES.Hydralazine: A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.3-Mercaptopropionic Acid: An inhibitor of glutamate decarboxylase. It decreases the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID concentration in the brain, thereby causing convulsions.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Fosinopril: A phosphinic acid-containing angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of hypertension. It is a prodrug that is converted to its active metabolite fosinoprilat.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Biphenyl CompoundsImidazolidines: Compounds based on reduced IMIDAZOLINES which contain no double bonds in the ring.Angiotensins: Oligopeptides which are important in the regulation of blood pressure (VASOCONSTRICTION) and fluid homeostasis via the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. These include angiotensins derived naturally from precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, and those synthesized.Angioedema: Swelling involving the deep DERMIS, subcutaneous, or submucosal tissues, representing localized EDEMA. Angioedema often occurs in the face, lips, tongue, and larynx.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Hypertension, Renal: Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.Technetium Tc 99m Mertiatide: A technetium diagnostic aid used in renal function determination.Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate: A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Iodohippuric Acid: An iodine-containing compound used in pyelography as a radiopaque medium. If labeled with radioiodine, it can be used for studies of renal function.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Isosorbide: 1,4:3,6-Dianhydro D-glucitol. Chemically inert osmotic diuretic used mainly to treat hydrocephalus; also used in glaucoma.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Benzimidazoles: Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.Isosorbide Dinitrate: A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.Furosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Receptor, Bradykinin B2: A constitutively expressed subtype of bradykinin receptor that may play a role in the acute phase of the inflammatory and pain response. It has high specificity for intact forms of BRADYKININ and KALLIDIN. The receptor is coupled to G-PROTEIN, GQ-G11 ALPHA FAMILY and G-PROTEIN, GI-GO ALPHA FAMILY signaling proteins.Receptors, Angiotensin: Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Digitalis: A genus of toxic herbaceous Eurasian plants of the Plantaginaceae which yield cardiotonic DIGITALIS GLYCOSIDES. The most useful species are Digitalis lanata and D. purpurea.Hyperkalemia: Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Thirst: A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Angiotensinogen: An alpha-globulin of about 453 amino acids, depending on the species. It is produced by the liver and secreted into blood circulation. Angiotensinogen is the inactive precursor of natural angiotensins. Upon successive enzyme cleavages, angiotensinogen yields angiotensin I, II, and III with amino acids numbered at 10, 8, and 7, respectively.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Neprilysin: Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Receptor, Bradykinin B1: A subtype of BRADYKININ RECEPTOR that is induced in response to INFLAMMATION. It may play a role in chronic inflammation and has a high specificity for KININS lacking the C-terminal ARGININE such as des-Arg(10)-kallidin and des-Arg(9)-bradykinin. The receptor is coupled to G-PROTEIN, GQ-G11 ALPHA FAMILY and G-PROTEIN, GI-GO ALPHA FAMILY signaling proteins.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.Albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Kallidin: A decapeptide bradykinin homolog cleaved from kininogen by kallikreins. It is a smooth-muscle stimulant and hypotensive agent that acts by vasodilatation.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Thiorphan: A potent inhibitor of membrane metalloendopeptidase (ENKEPHALINASE). Thiorphan potentiates morphine-induced ANALGESIA and attenuates naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.
These include the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril. Captopril is based on the peptidic bradykinin potentiating ... Enzymes in turn are composed of amino acids and often non-peptidic cofactors that are essential for enzyme function. The basic ... they possess enzymes that are functional under quite unusual conditions. These enzymes are of potential use in the food, ... Its mechanism of action is inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme. Another notable example is opium is extracted from ...
"History of the design of captopril and related inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme". Hypertension. 17 (4): 589-592. doi ... It is an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor), which inhibits the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin ... Captopril was the first antihypertension drug developed by Ondetti and Cushman. Many ACE inhibitors have been developed since ... "Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from the venom of bothrops jararaca. Isolation, elucidation of structure, and ...
ACE inhibitors-inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme are often used to reduce the formation of the more potent ... Captopril is an example of an ACE inhibitor. ACE cleaves a number of other peptides, and in this capacity is an important ... and locally expressed angiotensin-converting enzyme, chymase or other enzymes can transform it into angiotensin II.[11][12][13] ... Direct renin inhibitors can also be used for hypertension.[16] The drugs that inhibit renin are aliskiren[17] and the ...
... protease inhibitors and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (e.g. captopril). Type 2 diabetes True xerostomia, caused by ...
ACE inhibitors-inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme are often used to reduce the formation of the more potent ... Captopril is an example of an ACE inhibitor. ACE cleaves a number of other peptides, and in this capacity is an important ... Angiotensin I is subsequently converted to angiotensin II by the enzyme angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) found in the lungs ... and locally expressed angiotensin-converting enzyme, chymase or other enzymes can transform it into angiotensin II. This ...
... was designed based on a carboxypeptidase A inhibitor. Carboxypeptidase A and the target enzyme of Captopril, angiotensin- ... This allowed for a potent carboxypeptidase A inhibitor to be used to inhibit the enzyme and, thus, lower blood pressure through ... These changes make the bond between the enzyme and ligand, whether it is substrate or inhibitor, much stronger. This property ... These allosteric sites are involved in creating the ligand-enzyme specificity seen in most bioactive enzymes. One of these ...
... and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors were developed through rational drug design. In 1977 captopril, an orally ... Ondetti MA, Rubin B, Cushman DW (April 1977). "Design of specific inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme: new class of ... Jensen C, Herold P, Brunner HR (May 2008). "Aliskiren: the first renin inhibitor for clinical treatment". Nature Reviews Drug ... More recently angiotensin receptor blockers and renin inhibitors have also been introduced as antihypertensive agents. Esunge ...
Pharmacology and clinical use of angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitors : [proceedings of] First International Symposium on ... Captopril, Munich, May 4, 1979 / edited by Franz Gross [and] Rainer K. Liedtke Rainer K. Liedtke personal medical Blog. Drugs ... Pharmacology and clinical use of ACE inhibitors' (with F. Gross, University of Heidelberg), 'Relative Intelligence'. Scripts ...
The use of the test to identify reduced renal function after test doses of captopril (an angiotensin-converting enzyme ... inhibitor drug) has also been used to identify the cause of hypertension in patients with renal failure. Initially there was ... 1994). "Captopril renal scintigraphy in patients with hypertension and chronic renal failure". J. Nucl. Med. 35 (2): 251-4. ... Kahn D, Ben-Haim S, Bushnell DL, Madsen MT, Kirchner PT (1994). "Captopril-enhanced 99Tcm-MAG3 renal scintigraphy in subjects ...
2 factorial placebo-controlled trial of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) captopril, isosorbide ... A randomised factorial trial assessing early oral captopril, oral mononitrate, and intravenous magnesium sulphate in 58 050 ...
... captopril & other angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, spironolactone, and eplerenone. Hydrolyzed protein or 5'- ...
Ondetti started work on the isolation of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. By 1973, work on ACE inhibitors stopped ... Ondetti had discovered Captopril, an ACE inhibitor with much better activity than previous compounds. Ondetti published his ... Ondetti M A, Rubin B, Cushman D W. Design of specific inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme: new class of orally active ... Ondetti M A, Sabo E F. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from the venom of Bothrops jararaca. Isolation, elucidation of ...
ACE inhibitors inhibit the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), an enzyme responsible for the conversion of ... captopril enalapril fosinopril lisinopril moexipril perindopril quinapril ramipril trandolapril benazepril A systematic review ... Renin comes one level higher than angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the renin-angiotensin system. Inhibitors of renin can ... February 13, 2003). "A comparison of outcomes with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and diuretics for hypertension in ...
... , sold under the trade name Capoten, is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used for the treatment of ... "collected-product inhibitor" of the converting enzyme. Captopril was developed from this peptide after it was found via QSAR- ... as other ACE inhibitors) overdose can be antagonized with naloxone. Captopril challenge test Captopril suppression test Walker ... profile of captopril is similar to other ACE inhibitors, with cough being the most common ADR. However, captopril is also ...
Some common ACE Inhibitors are: Benazepril (Lotensin) Captopril (Capoten) Enalapril (Vasotec) Lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril) ... Drug-induced angioedema is a known complication of the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II ... "Multicenter study of patients with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema who present to the emergency ... antagonists (ARBs), and Angiotensin-Neprilysin Inhibitor LCZ969. The angioedema appears to be dose dependent as it may resolve ...
... an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. It is used to assist in the diagnosis of renal artery stenosis. It is not generally ... The captopril challenge test (CCT) is a non-invasive medical test that measures the change in renin plasma-levels in response ... An abnormal captopril test is indicative of the presence of renovascular disease. CCT in adults is known to have high ... Contrast with captopril suppression test used to diagnose primary aldosteronism Gauthier B, Trachtman H, Frank R, Pillari G. ...
Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor. Drug class. Captopril, the first synthetic ACE inhibitor ... Not to be confused with Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.. An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a ... The main differences lie with captopril, the first ACE inhibitor. Captopril has a shorter duration of action and an increased ... Frequently prescribed ACE inhibitors include benazepril, zofenopril, perindopril, trandolapril, captopril, enalapril, ...
This is increased in people with kidney problems Captopril, the first ACE inhibitor, is a functional and structural analog of a ... Lisinopril is a drug of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class used primarily in treatment of high blood ... Lisinopril was the third ACE inhibitor (after captopril and enalapril) and was introduced into therapy in the early 1990s. A ... Jenny Bryan for The Pharmaceutical Journal, 17 Apr 2009 "From snake venom to ACE inhibitor-the discovery and rise of captopril ...
An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of ... The main differences lie with captopril, the first ACE inhibitor. Captopril has a shorter duration of action and an increased ... Their discoveries led to the development of captopril, the first orally-active ACE inhibitor, in 1975. Captopril was approved ... Captopril, enalapril, lisinopril and perindopril are known to be removable by hemodialysis. The ACE inhibitors are ...
"History of the design of captopril and related inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme.", Hypertension, Journal of the ... This led to the development of Captopril, the first ACE inhibitor. When the adverse effects of Captopril became apparent new ... the researchers compared a few mercaptoacyl amino acid inhibitors and concluded that the binding of the inhibitor to the enzyme ... 1982), "Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: Importance of the Amide Carbonyl of Mercaptoacyl Amino Acids for Hydrogen ...
Jenny Bryan for The Pharmaceutical Journal, 17 Apr 2009 From snake venom to ACE inhibitor - the discovery and rise of captopril ... It is in the angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) family of medications. Enalapril was patented in 1978 and came into ... Last updated April 2011 Menard J and Patchett A. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Pp 14-76 in Drug Discovery and ... undergoes biotransformation to enalaprilat Squibb developed the first ACE inhibitor, captopril, but it had adverse effects such ...
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor[2]. captopril, lisinopril -oxacin. Quinolone-derived antibiotics. levofloxacin, ... Platelet aggregation inhibitor[2]. clopidogrel, ticagrelor -axine. Dopamine and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor[2] ...
... pril for ACE inhibitors (e.g. captopril) -sartan for angiotensin II receptor antagonists (e.g. losartan) -tinib for tyrosine ... ase for enzymes (e.g. alteplase) -azepam for benzodiazepines (e.g. diazepam and oxazepam) -caine for local anaesthetics (e.g. ... kinase inhibitors (e.g. imatinib) -vastatin for HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, a group of cholesterol lowering agents (e.g. ... Examples are: -anib for angiogenesis inhibitors (e.g. pazopanib) -anserin for serotonin receptor antagonists, especially 5-HT2 ...
... is a novel mammalian metallocarboxypeptidase and a homologue of angiotensin-converting enzyme insensitive to ACE inhibitors". ... Cloning and functional expression as a captopril-insensitive carboxypeptidase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (43): ... Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) is an exopeptidase that catalyses the conversion of angiotensin I to the nonapeptide ... Tipnis SR, Hooper NM, Hyde R, Karran E, Christie G, Turner AJ (Oct 2000). "A human homolog of angiotensin-converting enzyme. ...
... converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker, which can interfere with renal autoregulation and produce acute ... Comparison of sublingual captopril and nifedipine in immediate treatment of hypertensive emergencies. A randomized, single- ... Both sublingual nifedipine and sublingual captopril can substantially lower the BP within 10 to 30 minutes in many patients. A ... See "Renal effects of ACE inhibitors in hypertension".) Several parenteral antihypertensive agents are most often used in the ...
... inhibitor drugs. It is thought that bradykinin is converted to inactive metabolites by ACE, therefore inhibition of this enzyme ... such as captopril (trademarked Capoten). Currently, bradykinin inhibitors (antagonists) are being developed as potential ... Icatibant is one such inhibitor. Additional bradykinin inhibitors exist. It has long been known in animal studies that ... by the enzyme kallikrein. Moreover, there is compelling evidence that plasmin, a fibrinolytic enzyme, is able to generate ...
... after taking any other angiotensin II receptor blocker or an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (eg, captopril) ...
Drouet A, Bouvet O. Lithium and converting enzyme inhibitors. Moderate. These medicines may cause some risk when taken together ... Effect of captopril on prostacyclin and nitric oxide formation in healthy human subjects: interaction with low dose ... Sirolimus and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors together induce tongue oedema in renal transplant recipients. Medical ... ACE inhibitors in combination with mTOR inhibitors in kidney transplant recipients. buy acticin use ...
Angiotensin, converting enzyme inhibitors, Atherosclerosis, Captopril, Cholesterol, Fosinopril, lntimal thickening, Minipigs ... We evaluated the two angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors captopril and fosinopril with regard to possible ... Antiatherosclerotic Effects of the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Captopril and Fosinopril in Hypercholesterolemic ... angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, atherosclerosis, bradykinin, endothelium, in vitro, ...
... with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril could permanently alter the course of hypertension. Mating pairs of ... hypertension by early treatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril. ... hypertension by early treatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril. ... hypertension by early treatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril. ...
... has molecular characteristics similar to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors of the sulfhydryl subclass. To assess ... Comparative Effects of a Novel Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor versus Captopril on Plasma Angiotensins after Myocardial ... has molecular characteristics similar to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors of the sulfhydryl subclass. To assess ... rats administered captopril (1 mg/kg, i.m.), and (4) a similar group of rats given TBTIF (1 mg/kg, i.m.). Both drugs were ...
2017) Orally Administered Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-Inhibitors Captopril and Isoleucine-Proline-Proline Have Distinct ... 2017) Orally Administered Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme-Inhibitors Captopril and Isoleucine-Proline-Proline Have Distinct ... Components of RAS, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), have been detected locally in the gut epithelium. In addition, ...
Captopril/hydrochlorothiazide is an oral medication used to treat high blood pressure. Learn who its for, how it works, its ... Captopril belongs to a class of drugs called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Hydrochlorothiazide belongs to a ... Captopril belongs to a class of drugs called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. ... Highlights for captopril-hydrochlorothiazide. Oral tablet. 1 Captopril/hydrochlorothiazide is a combination of two drugs in a ...
Captopril prevents conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, resulting in lower aldosterone ... Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Class Summary. ACE inhibitors suppress the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. ... The drugs of choice for hypertension related to ADPKD are angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II ... It may induce a more complete inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system than ACE inhibitors, it does not affect the response ...
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Class Summary. ACE inhibitors may prevent the conversion of angiotensin I to ... Captopril has a short half-life, which makes it an important drug for initiation of ACE inhibitor therapy. It can be started at ... Yusuf S, Sleight P, Pogue J, Bosch J, Davies R, Dagenais G. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on ... Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors. Class Summary. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors prevent acute cardiac ischemic complications ...
Captopril This medication is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor), prescribed for high blood pressure ( ... Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors - ICD Code -Y52.4 Benazepril This medication is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE ... Captopril and Hydrochlorothiazide. This medication belongs to a group of drugs called ACE inhibitors, prescribed for ... This medication is an ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor, prescribed for high blood pressure either alone or with ...
The Use of Captopril-Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor for Cystinuria During COVID-19 Pandemic ... The Use of Captopril-Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor for Cystinuria During COVID-19 Pandemic Chandra Shekhar ... The Use of Captopril-Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor for Cystinuria During COVID-19 Pandemic Chandra Shekhar ... ACE2 (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2), COVID-19, and ACE Inhibitor and Ang II (Angiotensin II) Receptor Blocker Use During the ...
Captopril, sold under the trade name Capoten, is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used for the treatment of ... "collected-product inhibitor" of the converting enzyme. Captopril was developed from this peptide after it was found via QSAR- ... as other ACE inhibitors) overdose can be antagonized with naloxone. Captopril challenge test Captopril suppression test Walker ... profile of captopril is similar to other ACE inhibitors, with cough being the most common ADR. However, captopril is also ...
... competitive inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). - Mechanism of Action & Protocol. ... CaptoprilSQ-14534SA333SQ14534SQ 14534SA 333SA-333Angiotensin-converting Enzyme (ACE)Inhibitorinhibitorinhibit ... Captopril (SQ-14534) is a potent, competitive inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). ... Captopril (SQ-14534) is a potent, competitive inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). ...
Oval and has been identified as Captopril 50 mg. It is supplied by Teva Pharmaceuticals USA. ... Drug class: Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Consumer resources. *Captopril. *Captopril (Advanced Reading) ... Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Pregnancy Category:. D - Positive evidence of risk. CSA Schedule:. Not a controlled ... and belongs to the drug class Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. There is positive evidence of human fetal risk during ...
Patient information for CAPTOPRIL AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE 50MG/25MG TABLETS Including dosage instructions and possible side ... Captopril belongs to a group of medicinal products called. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors. ACE inhibitors. ... Captopril belongs to a group of medicinal products called. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors. ACE inhibitors. ... S553 LEAFLET Captopril 20160528. CAPTOPRIL AND HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE 50mg/25mg. TABLETS. Your medicine is known as Captopril and ...
Captopril and conventional treatment did not differ in efficacy in preventing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The ... Background: Angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been used for more than a decade to treat high blood pressure, ... The Captopril Prevention Project (CAPPP) is a randomised intervention trial to compare the effects of ACE inhibition and ... Interpretation: Captopril and conventional treatment did not differ in efficacy in preventing cardiovascular morbidity and ...
Captopril oral tablet is used to treat high blood pressure, heart failure, and other conditions. Learn about side effects, ... Captopril belongs to a class of drugs called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. A class of drugs is a group of ... Captopril only comes as a tablet you take by mouth.. *Captopril is used to treat high blood pressure, heart failure, heart ... Captopril is a prescription drug. It comes as an oral tablet.. Captopril is only available as a generic drug. Generic drugs ...
Captopril (Capoten®). *. - After oral administration, peak plasma concentrations reached in 1 hr. Presence of food reduces ... "Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs), Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists (ARBs), and Direct Renin Inhibitors for ... Abbreviations: ACEI(s) = angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor(s); hr = hour(s); LV = left ventricular; MI = myocardial ... Comparative Effectiveness of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEIs) and Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists (ARBs) ...
Professional guide for Captopril. Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions ... Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitors: May enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. ... Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors lisinopril, enalapril, ramipril, benazepril, quinapril, Altace. High Blood Pressure ... AzaTHIOprine: Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors may enhance the myelosuppressive effect of AzaTHIOprine. Monitor therapy ...
Captopril. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Protease Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Molecular Mechanisms of ... To study the renal blood oxygenation, the subjects took captopril (25mg).. Drug: captopril 25mg renal blood oxygenation after ... Increased Renal Oxygenation and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibition. The safety and scientific validity of this study is ... The purpose of this study is measure the alterations in renal blood oxygenation after angiotensin II converting enzyme ...
... systolic function who have remained clinically stable while receiving digoxin and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors. ... and an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (captopril or enalapril). The patients were randomly assigned in a double-blind ... Withdrawal of digoxin from patients with chronic heart failure treated with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors. RADIANCE ... it is not clear whether the drug has a role when patients are receiving angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, as is often ...
... of a single bout of low-intensity resistance exercise on recovery blood pressure in hypertensive women receiving captopril. ... 0/Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors; 62571-86-2/Captopril From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library ... Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use*. Blood Pressure. Captopril / therapeutic use*. Exercise / ... 7048628 - Effect of captopril on blood pressure and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in hyper.... 9208358 - Comparison of ...
... comparison between delapril and captopril. ... pressure and metabolic response to converting enzyme inhibitor ...
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Captopril. 6.25 to 12.5 mg three times per day, titrate up to 25 to 50 mg as ... Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors should be administered within the first 24 hours to all patients with heart failure, ... angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and statins. These medications may be used for STEMI ... Loading dose of 0.1 mg per kg, followed by 0.25 mg per kg per hour; only provisional use of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor in patients ...
  • 18 Similar to the current analysis, the previous study analyzed data from an administrative database, and the results suggested that ramipril was associated with lower mortality compared with most other ACE inhibitors. (cmaj.ca)
  • Our data suggest that captopril may resensitize the cardiac but not the mononuclear leukocyte beta-adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase system after long-term catecholamine exposure. (ahajournals.org)
  • Angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have been used for more than a decade to treat high blood pressure, despite the lack of data from randomised intervention trials to show that such treatment affects cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. (nih.gov)
  • Captopril and conventional treatment did not differ in efficacy in preventing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. (nih.gov)
  • The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) 2013 Heart Failure Guidelines recommend the use of ACE inhibitors, along with other guideline-directed medical therapies, to prevent progression of HF and reduced ejection fraction in asymptomatic patients with or without a history of myocardial infarction (Stage B HF), or to treat those with symptomatic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction to reduce morbidity and mortality (Stage C HFrEF). (drugs.com)
  • In several of these indications, ACE inhibitors are used first-line as several agents in the class have been clinically shown to be superior to other classes of drugs in the reduction of morbidity and mortality . (wikidoc.org)
  • For heart failure, the 2013 ACCF/AHA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure (HF) recommends ACE inhibitors in all patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFreEF) to reduce morbidity and mortality with a level A of evidence. (nih.gov)
  • However, animal data reveal increased morbidity and mortality in fetuses exposed to ACE inhibitors in utero. (motherisk.org)
  • 1980). Most subsequent ACE inhibitors are given as prodrugs , to improve oral bioavailability . (bionity.com)
  • These findings indicate that captopril is neuroprotective for nigrostriatal DA neurons in both acute and chronic rodent PD models. (elsevier.com)
  • Based on limited high-quality evidence, American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Heart Failure Society of America guidelines recommend ARB/neprilysin inhibitor therapy as a first-line alternative to ACE inhibitors for those with symptomatic heart failure who are not hypotensive or intolerant of angiotensin system antagonists. (aafp.org)
  • Very potent inhibitors of the protease have been synthesised, but pharmacokinetic issues (including problems associated with crossing the blood-brain barrier) remain to be solved. (hindawi.com)
  • Dans l'optique des indications cliniques largement répandues, et en augmentation constante, de l'usage des IECA, la réaction indésirable et possiblement grave qu'est l'œdème de Quincke, et son traitement, doivent être connus des anesthésiologistes et de tous les cliniciens concernés par le contrôle des voies aériennes. (springer.com)
  • The results of successful trials, particularly the Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) trial, 13 led many physicians to believe that class effect was so powerful that any ACE inhibitor would be beneficial in any of the indications that had been studied with specific individual agents. (cmaj.ca)