A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
Graphic tracing over a time period of radioactivity measured externally over the kidneys following intravenous injection of a radionuclide which is taken up and excreted by the kidneys.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.
A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.
A technetium diagnostic aid used in renal function determination.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.
A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.
A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.
An iodine-containing compound used in pyelography as a radiopaque medium. If labeled with radioiodine, it can be used for studies of renal function.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
An octapeptide analog of angiotensin II (bovine) with amino acids 1 and 8 replaced with sarcosine and alanine, respectively. It is a highly specific competitive inhibitor of angiotensin II that is used in the diagnosis of HYPERTENSION.
An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.
1,4:3,6-Dianhydro D-glucitol. Chemically inert osmotic diuretic used mainly to treat hydrocephalus; also used in glaucoma.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
A generic term used to describe a group of polypeptides with related chemical structures and pharmacological properties that are widely distributed in nature. These peptides are AUTACOIDS that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Thus, they comprise a subset of the large number of mediators that contribute to the inflammatory response. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p588)
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.
Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).
An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.
A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.
Cell surface receptors that bind BRADYKININ and related KININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The identified receptor types (B-1 and B-2, or BK-1 and BK-2) recognize endogenous KALLIDIN; t-kinins; and certain bradykinin fragments as well as bradykinin itself.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Tetrazoles are heterocyclic organic compounds containing a 1,3,5-triazole ring with an additional nitrogen atom, often used in pharmaceuticals as bioisosteres for carboxylic acid groups due to their isoelectronic nature and similar hydrogen bonding capabilities.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
The active metabolite of ENALAPRIL and a potent intravenously administered angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is an effective agent for the treatment of essential hypertension and has beneficial hemodynamic effects in heart failure. The drug produces renal vasodilation with an increase in sodium excretion.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The Nobel Prize is not a medical term, but a prestigious international award given annually in several categories, including Physiology or Medicine, for significant contributions to humanity that have conferred the greatest benefit to mankind.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
A long-acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is a prodrug that is transformed in the liver to its active metabolite ramiprilat.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors), orally active, that has been used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure.
Carbanilides are a class of chemical compounds used in pharmaceuticals and agriculture, characterized by the substitution of a carbonyl group with a carbanilide group, which has shown to have fungicidal, bacteriostatic, and anti-inflammatory properties.

Restriction of placental and fetal growth in sheep alters fetal blood pressure responses to angiotensin II and captopril. (1/1305)

1. We have measured arterial blood pressure between 115 and 145 days gestation in normally grown fetal sheep (control group; n = 16) and in fetal sheep in which growth was restricted by experimental restriction of placental growth and development (PR group; n = 13). There was no significant difference in the mean gestational arterial blood pressure between the PR (42.7 +/- 2.6 mmHg) and control groups (37.7 +/- 2.3 mmHg). Mean arterial blood pressure and arterial PO2 were significantly correlated in control animals (r = 0.53, P < 0.05, n = 16), but not in the PR group. 2. There were no changes in mean arterial blood pressure in either the PR or control groups in response to captopril (7.5 microg captopril min-1; PR group n = 7, control group n = 6) between 115 and 125 days gestation. After 135 days gestation, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the fetal arterial blood pressure in the PR group but not in the control group during the captopril infusion (15 microg captopril min-1; PR group n = 7, control group n = 6). 3. There was a significant effect (F = 14.75; P < 0.001) of increasing doses of angiotensin II on fetal diastolic blood pressure in the PR and control groups. The effects of angiotensin II were different (F = 8.67; P < 0.05) in the PR and control groups at both gestational age ranges. 4. These data indicate that arterial blood pressure may be maintained by different mechanisms in growth restricted fetuses and normally grown counterparts and suggests a role for the fetal renin-angiotensin system in the maintenance of blood pressure in growth restricted fetuses.  (+info)

Inhibition of beta-myosin heavy chain gene expression in pressure overload rat heart by losartan and captopril. (2/1305)

AIM: To study the effects of losartan and captopril on beta-myosin heavy chain (MHC), and alpha-MHC gene expression. METHODS: Pressure overload was produced by abdominal aortic coarctation (AAC) in rats. alpha- and beta-MHC mRNA were measured by Northern blot. RESULTS: In left ventricular myocardium of sham-operated rats, the alpha-MHC mRNA predominated, while the beta-MHC mRNA was only detectable. In response AAC, there was a 70-fold increase in the beta-MHC mRNA (P < 0.01), while alpha-MHC mRNA reduced to 26% (P < 0.01). Losartan (3 mg.kg-1.d-1, i.g. for 11 d) to AAC rats caused inhibitions of beta-MHC by 96% and alpha-MHC by 86% gene expression without lowering blood pressure. A reduction in beta-MHC mRNA was also seen in captopril-treated rats (30 mg.kg-1.d-1, i.g. for 11 d), but the inhibitory effect of captopril on alpha-MHC mRNA was less than that of losartan (44% vs 86%, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The shift of MHC isoform induced by pressure overload is due to up-regulation of beta-MHC and down-regulation of alpha-MHC gene expression. Inhibition of beta-MHC gene expression by losartan is achieved primarily by direct blockade of angiotensin II type I receptors in the myocardium, independent on hemodynamics.  (+info)

Effects of captopril and enalaprilat on intracellular Ca2+, Na+ contents and pH in hypoxic and reoxygenated cardiomyocytes. (3/1305)

AIM: To study the mechanisms of captopril (Cap) and enalaprilat (Ena) protective effects on hypoxic and reoxygenated cardiac myocytes. METHODS: Using fluorescent probes Fura 2-AM, BCECF/AM, SBFI/AM combined with computer image processing techniques to measure intracellular ion concentrations. RESULTS: [Ca2+]i (165 +/- 8 nmol.L-1) and [Na+]i (9.2 +/- 0.8 mmol.L-1) were higher but [pH]i (6.7 +/- 0.3) was lower in hypoxic and reoxygenated myocytes (196 +/- 14 nmol.L-1, 9.3 +/- 1.3 mmol.L-1, 6.61 +/- 0.19, respectively) than in normal ones. Cap and Ena reduced [Ca2+]i (149 +/- 11 and 152 +/- 10 nmol.L-1 respectively) and intracellular acidosis (7.11 +/- 0.22 and 7.2 +/- 0.4, respectively) during hypoxia. Cap also decreased [Na+]i in hypoxic myocytes (8.1 +/- 0.9 mmol.L-1). During reoxygenation, Cap decreased [Ca2+]i and [Na+]i but Ena had no significant effect on them. Cap or Ena had no additive effect when combined with verapamil (Ver). CONCLUSION: Cap and Ena protected hypoxic and reoxygenated cardiomyocytes, but the mechanisms were not the same.  (+info)

Neurogenic plasma leakage in mouse airways. (4/1305)

1. This study sought to determine whether neurogenic inflammation occurs in the airways by examining the effects of capsaicin or substance P on microvascular plasma leakage in the trachea and lungs of male pathogen-free C57BL/6 mice. 2. Single bolus intravenous injections of capsaicin (0.5 and 1 micromol kg(-1), i.v.) or substance P (1, 10 and 37 nmol kg(-10, i.v.) failed to induce significant leakage in the trachea, assessed as extravasation of Evans blue dye, but did induce leakage in the urinary bladder and skin. 3. Pretreatment with captopril (2.5 mg kg(-1), i.v.), a selective inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), either alone or in combination with phosphoramidon (2.5 mg kg(-1), i.v.), a selective inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase (NEP), increased baseline leakage of Evans blue in the absence of any exogenous inflammatory mediator. The increase was reversed by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist Hoe 140 (0.1 mg kg(-1), i.v.). 4. After pretreatment with phosphoramidon and captopril, capsaicin increased the Evans blue leakage above the baseline in the trachea, but not in the lung. This increase was reversed by the tachykinin (NK1) receptor antagonist SR 140333 (0.7 mg kg(-1), i.v.), but not by the NK2 receptor antagonist SR 48968 (1 mg kg(-1), i.v.). 5. Experiments using Monastral blue pigment as a tracer localized the leakage to postcapillary venules in the trachea and intrapulmonary bronchi, although the labelled vessels were less numerous in mice than in comparably treated rats. Blood vessels of the pulmonary circulation were not labelled. 6. We conclude that neurogenic inflammation can occur in airways of pathogen-free mice, but only after the inhibition of enzymes that normally degrade inflammatory peptides. Neurogenic inflammation does not involve the pulmonary microvasculature.  (+info)

Quality of life in chronic heart failure: cilazapril and captopril versus placebo. Cilazapril-Captopril Multicentre Group. (5/1305)

OBJECTIVE: To measure quality of life (QOL) in patients with mild to moderate heart failure treated with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors cilazapril or captopril. DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled, parallel groups trial. SUBJECTS: 367 patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) heart failure class II (62%), III (36%) or IV (1%). METHODS: Patients were randomised to receive cilazapril 1 mg daily (n = 191) or captopril 25 mg three times daily (n = 90) for 24 weeks, or placebo for 12 weeks followed by cilazapril 1 mg daily for a further 12 weeks (n = 86). If patients had not responded after four weeks cilazapril was increased to 2.5 mg daily and captopril to 50 mg three times daily. QOL was assessed at baseline, 12, and 24 weeks using the sickness impact profile (SIP), the profile of mood states (POMS), the Mahler index of dyspnoea-fatigue, and a health status index (HSI). RESULTS: The physical dimension of the SIP averaged 7 units at baseline and improved after 12 weeks by 2.24 units in the cilazapril group, 2.38 units in the captopril group, and 1.51 units in the placebo group. The difference between drug and placebo was therefore 0.73 units (95% CI -0.86 to 2.32) for cilazapril, and 0.87 units (95% CI -0.96 to 2.70) for captopril, with small non-significant effect sizes (a statistical method for estimating the importance of a treatment related change) of 0.12 and 0.14. Similar results were observed for the total POMS and HSI scores. Although QOL improved more on the ACE inhibitors than on placebo, the effect sizes were not significant (< or = 0.26). CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in QOL in mild to moderate heart failure were small when treated with cilazapril or captopril compared with placebo.  (+info)

Renal and metabolic clearance of N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (AcSDKP) during angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in humans. (6/1305)

We investigated the contributions of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and glomerular filtration to creating the new metabolic balance of the hemoregulatory peptide N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (AcSDKP) that occurs during acute and chronic ACE inhibition in healthy subjects. We also studied the effect of chronic renal failure on the plasma concentration of AcSDKP during long-term ACE inhibitor (ACEI) treatment or in its absence. In healthy subjects, a single oral dose of 50 mg captopril (n=32) and a 7-day administration of 50 mg captopril BID (n=10) resulted in a respective 42-fold (range, 18- to 265-fold) and 34-fold (range, 24-fold to 45-fold) increase in the ratio of urinary AcSDKP to creatinine accompanied by a 4-fold (range, 2- to 6.8-fold) and 4.8-fold (range, 2.6- to 11.8-fold) increase in plasma AcSDKP levels. Changes in plasma AcSDKP and in vitro ACE activity over time showed an intermittent reactivation of ACE between each captopril dose. In subjects with chronic renal failure (creatinine clearance<60 mL/min per 1.73 m2), plasma AcSDKP levels were 22 times higher (95% confidence interval, 15 to 33) in the ACEI group (n=35) than the control group (n=23); in subjects with normal renal function, they were only 4.1 times higher (95% confidence interval, 3.2 to 5.3) in the ACEI group (n=19) than the non-ACEI group (n=21). Renal failure itself led to a slight increase in plasma AcSDKP concentration. In conclusion, intermittent reactivation of ACE between doses of an ACEI is the major mechanism accounting for the lack of major AcSDKP accumulation during chronic ACE inhibition in subjects with normal renal function.  (+info)

Hypotensive response to captopril: a potential pitfall of scintigraphic assessment for renal artery stenosis. (7/1305)

A characteristic pattern seen on captopril renography is described that is due to systemic hypotensive response. Most patients with these findings on captopril renography do not receive renal artery angiograms in our clinic because it is usually recognized. However, this pattern has received little attention in the medical literature and may be misinterpreted as being due to physiologically significant renal artery hypertension. METHODS: Over the last 3 y, renal artery angiograms were performed on three patients with systemic hypotensive response pattern on captopril renography. This allowed a unique opportunity to correlate the results of the captopril renogram with the renal artery angiograms in this patient population. Captopril renography was performed with a glomerular filtration agent, diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), and a tubular agent, o-iodohipurate (OIH). RESULTS: Renal artery angiograms showed no evidence of renal artery stenosis in three patients with systemic hypotensive response pattern on captopril renography. Systemic hypotension on captopril renograms results in preserved uptake of both DTPA and OIH and hyperconcentration in the cortex and collecting system. CONCLUSION: The systemic hypotensive response pattern seen on captopril renography is a distinctive pattern that does not represent physiologically significant renal artery stenosis.  (+info)

Value of captopril renal scintigraphy in hypertensive patients with renal failure. (8/1305)

The aims of this study were to show the value of captopril renal scintigraphy for detecting a renovascular cause in hypertensive patients with renal failure and to assess the ability to predict the beneficial effect of revascularization on renal function. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with renal failure (mean glomerular filtration rate = 35 mL/min) underwent renal scintigraphy after injection of 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine. Baseline scintigraphy was performed, and the test was repeated 24 h later after oral administration of 50 mg captopril given 60 min before the test. RESULTS: In 5 of 6 patients with a renovascular cause for renal failure, and 2 of 3 patients with a probable arterial pathology, scintigraphy had a high probability. The result was indeterminate in the other 2 patients. In 5 of 11 patients with negative arteriography and 14 of 18 patients with probable absence of renovascular pathology, we found a low probability of functional renal artery stenosis. Six revascularization procedures were performed and were predictive of a beneficial effect in 5 patients. Time of peak activity was an effective predictor in each case. CONCLUSION: In hypertensive patients with renal failure, captopril renal scintigraphy can detect hemodynamic dysfunction downstream from a renal artery stenosis and can predict the beneficial effect of revascularization in some cases.  (+info)

Captopril is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors. It works by blocking the action of a chemical in the body called angiotensin II, which causes blood vessels to narrow and release hormones that can increase blood pressure. By blocking the action of angiotensin II, captopril helps relax and widen blood vessels, which lowers blood pressure and improves blood flow.

Captopril is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), congestive heart failure, and to improve survival after a heart attack. It may also be used to protect the kidneys from damage due to diabetes or high blood pressure. The medication comes in the form of tablets that are taken by mouth, usually two to three times per day.

Common side effects of captopril include cough, dizziness, headache, and skin rash. More serious side effects may include allergic reactions, kidney problems, and changes in blood cell counts. It is important for patients taking captopril to follow their doctor's instructions carefully and report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are a class of medications that are commonly used to treat various cardiovascular conditions, such as hypertension (high blood pressure), heart failure, and diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage in people with diabetes).

ACE inhibitors work by blocking the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme, an enzyme that converts the hormone angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor, meaning it narrows blood vessels and increases blood pressure. By inhibiting the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, ACE inhibitors cause blood vessels to relax and widen, which lowers blood pressure and reduces the workload on the heart.

Some examples of ACE inhibitors include captopril, enalapril, lisinopril, ramipril, and fosinopril. These medications are generally well-tolerated, but they can cause side effects such as cough, dizziness, headache, and elevated potassium levels in the blood. It is important for patients to follow their healthcare provider's instructions carefully when taking ACE inhibitors and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

Proline is an organic compound that is classified as a non-essential amino acid, meaning it can be produced by the human body and does not need to be obtained through the diet. It is encoded in the genetic code as the codon CCU, CCC, CCA, or CCG. Proline is a cyclic amino acid, containing an unusual secondary amine group, which forms a ring structure with its carboxyl group.

In proteins, proline acts as a structural helix breaker, disrupting the alpha-helix structure and leading to the formation of turns and bends in the protein chain. This property is important for the proper folding and function of many proteins. Proline also plays a role in the stability of collagen, a major structural protein found in connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, and skin.

In addition to its role in protein structure, proline has been implicated in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, apoptosis, and oxidative stress response. It is also a precursor for the synthesis of other biologically important compounds such as hydroxyproline, which is found in collagen and elastin, and glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain.

Radioisotope renography is a type of nuclear medicine test used to evaluate the function and anatomy of the kidneys. It involves the intravenous administration of a small amount of radioactive material, called a radiopharmaceutical or radioisotope, which is taken up by the kidneys and emits gamma rays that can be detected by a special camera.

The most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for renography is technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (Tc-99m MAG3). The patient is positioned under the gamma camera, and images are taken at various intervals after the injection of the radioisotope.

The test provides information about the blood flow to the kidneys, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which measures how well the kidneys filter waste products from the blood, and the drainage of urine from the kidneys into the bladder. Renography can help diagnose conditions such as renal artery stenosis, hydronephrosis, and kidney obstruction.

It is important to note that while radioisotope renography involves exposure to a small amount of radiation, the benefits of the test in terms of diagnostic accuracy and patient management often outweigh the risks associated with the radiation exposure.

Renin is a medically recognized term and it is defined as:

"A protein (enzyme) that is produced and released by specialized cells (juxtaglomerular cells) in the kidney. Renin is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which helps regulate blood pressure and fluid balance in the body.

When the kidney detects a decrease in blood pressure or a reduction in sodium levels, it releases renin into the bloodstream. Renin then acts on a protein called angiotensinogen, converting it to angiotensin I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) subsequently converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II, which is a potent vasoconstrictor that narrows blood vessels and increases blood pressure.

Additionally, angiotensin II stimulates the adrenal glands to release aldosterone, a hormone that promotes sodium reabsorption in the kidneys and increases water retention, further raising blood pressure.

Therefore, renin plays a critical role in maintaining proper blood pressure and electrolyte balance in the body."

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

Renovascular hypertension is a type of secondary hypertension (high blood pressure) that is caused by renal artery stenosis or narrowing. This condition reduces blood flow to the kidneys, leading to the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which causes an increase in peripheral vascular resistance and blood volume, resulting in hypertension.

Renovascular hypertension is often seen in people with atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia, which are the most common causes of renal artery stenosis. Other conditions that can lead to renovascular hypertension include vasculitis, blood clots, and compression of the renal artery by nearby structures.

Diagnosis of renovascular hypertension typically involves imaging studies such as duplex ultrasound, CT angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography to visualize the renal arteries and assess for stenosis. Treatment may involve medications to control blood pressure, lifestyle modifications, and procedures such as angioplasty and stenting to open up the narrowed renal artery. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow to the kidney.

The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) is a complex hormonal system that regulates blood pressure, fluid and electrolyte balance, and vascular resistance. It plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of hypertension, heart failure, and kidney diseases.

Here's a brief overview of how it works:

1. Renin is an enzyme that is released by the juxtaglomerular cells in the kidneys in response to decreased blood pressure or reduced salt delivery to the distal tubules.
2. Renin acts on a protein called angiotensinogen, which is produced by the liver, converting it into angiotensin I.
3. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), found in the lungs and other tissues, then converts angiotensin I into angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor that narrows blood vessels and increases blood pressure.
4. Angiotensin II also stimulates the release of aldosterone from the adrenal glands, which promotes sodium and water reabsorption in the kidneys, further increasing blood volume and blood pressure.
5. Additionally, angiotensin II has direct effects on the heart, promoting hypertrophy and remodeling, which can contribute to heart failure.
6. The RAS can be modulated by various medications, such as ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and aldosterone antagonists, which are commonly used to treat hypertension, heart failure, and kidney diseases.

Angiotensin I is a decapeptide (a peptide consisting of ten amino acids) that is generated by the action of an enzyme called renin on a protein called angiotensinogen. Renin cleaves angiotensinogen to produce angiotensin I, which is then converted to angiotensin II by the action of an enzyme called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE).

Angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor, meaning it causes blood vessels to narrow and blood pressure to increase. It also stimulates the release of aldosterone from the adrenal glands, which leads to increased sodium and water reabsorption in the kidneys, further increasing blood volume and blood pressure.

Angiotensin I itself has little biological activity, but it is an important precursor to angiotensin II, which plays a key role in regulating blood pressure and fluid balance in the body.

Technetium Tc 99m Mertiatide is a radiopharmaceutical used in nuclear medicine imaging procedures. It is a technetium-labeled compound, where the radioisotope technetium-99m (^99m^Tc) is bound to mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3). The resulting complex is known as ^99m^Tc-MAG3 or Technetium Tc 99m Mertiatide.

This radiopharmaceutical is primarily used for renal function assessment, including evaluation of kidney blood flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and detection of renal obstructions or other abnormalities. After intravenous administration, Technetium Tc 99m Mertiatide is rapidly excreted by the kidneys, allowing for visualization and quantification of renal function through gamma camera imaging.

It's important to note that the use of radiopharmaceuticals should be performed under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as they involve the administration of radioactive materials for diagnostic purposes.

Angiotensin II is a potent vasoactive peptide hormone that plays a critical role in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which is a crucial regulator of blood pressure and fluid balance in the body. It is formed from angiotensin I through the action of an enzyme called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE).

Angiotensin II has several physiological effects on various organs, including:

1. Vasoconstriction: Angiotensin II causes contraction of vascular smooth muscle, leading to an increase in peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure.
2. Aldosterone release: Angiotensin II stimulates the adrenal glands to release aldosterone, a hormone that promotes sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys, thereby increasing water retention and blood volume.
3. Sympathetic nervous system activation: Angiotensin II activates the sympathetic nervous system, leading to increased heart rate and contractility, further contributing to an increase in blood pressure.
4. Thirst regulation: Angiotensin II stimulates the hypothalamus to increase thirst, promoting water intake and helping to maintain intravascular volume.
5. Cell growth and fibrosis: Angiotensin II has been implicated in various pathological processes, such as cell growth, proliferation, and fibrosis, which can contribute to the development of cardiovascular and renal diseases.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are two classes of medications commonly used in clinical practice to target the RAAS by blocking the formation or action of angiotensin II, respectively. These drugs have been shown to be effective in managing hypertension, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease.

Peptidyl-dipeptidase A is more commonly known as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). It is a key enzyme in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which regulates blood pressure and fluid balance.

ACE is a membrane-bound enzyme found primarily in the lungs, but also in other tissues such as the heart, kidneys, and blood vessels. It plays a crucial role in converting the inactive decapeptide angiotensin I into the potent vasoconstrictor octapeptide angiotensin II, which constricts blood vessels and increases blood pressure.

ACE also degrades the peptide bradykinin, which is involved in the regulation of blood flow and vascular permeability. By breaking down bradykinin, ACE helps to counteract its vasodilatory effects, thereby maintaining blood pressure homeostasis.

Inhibitors of ACE are widely used as medications for the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, and diabetic kidney disease, among other conditions. These drugs work by blocking the action of ACE, leading to decreased levels of angiotensin II and increased levels of bradykinin, which results in vasodilation, reduced blood pressure, and improved cardiovascular function.

Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate is a radioactive pharmaceutical preparation used as a radiopharmaceutical agent in medical imaging. It is a salt of technetium-99m, a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99, which emits gamma rays and has a half-life of 6 hours.

Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate is used in various diagnostic procedures, including renal imaging, brain scans, lung perfusion studies, and bone scans. It is distributed throughout the body after intravenous injection and is excreted primarily by the kidneys, making it useful for evaluating renal function and detecting abnormalities in the urinary tract.

The compound itself is a colorless, sterile, pyrogen-free solution that is typically supplied in a lead shielded container to protect against radiation exposure. It should be used promptly after preparation and handled with care to minimize radiation exposure to healthcare workers and patients.

Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic drug, which means it helps the body get rid of extra salt and water by increasing the amount of urine that is produced. The medical definition of Hydrochlorothiazide is:

A thiazide diuretic drug used to treat hypertension and edema associated with heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and kidney disorders. It works by inhibiting the reabsorption of sodium and chloride ions in the distal convoluted tubule of the nephron, which increases water excretion and decreases blood volume and pressure. Hydrochlorothiazide may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents. It is also used to treat conditions such as diabetes insipidus, renal tubular acidosis, and hypercalcemia.

The usual starting dose of hydrochlorothiazide for adults is 25 mg to 50 mg once a day, which may be increased gradually depending on the patient's response. The maximum recommended daily dose is 100 mg. Common side effects of hydrochlorothiazide include increased urination, headache, dizziness, and muscle cramps.

Iodohippuric acid is not typically defined in medical textbooks, but it is a radiocontrast agent used in imaging studies. Here's the definition from a chemistry perspective:

Iodohippuric acid, also known as iodine-131 hippuran or Hippuran, is an organic compound with the formula C6H5IO2 + . It is a derivative of hippuric acid, where one hydrogen atom has been replaced by radioactive iodine-131.

In medical imaging, it is used as a radiocontrast agent for renal function studies, such as renography, to assess the functioning and anatomy of the kidneys. The compound is excreted primarily by the kidneys, so its clearance rate can be used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is a measure of kidney function.

Therefore, while not a medical definition per se, iodohippuric acid is an essential compound in nuclear medicine for evaluating renal function.

Hypertension is a medical term used to describe abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries, often defined as consistently having systolic blood pressure (the top number in a blood pressure reading) over 130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) over 80 mmHg. It is also commonly referred to as high blood pressure.

Hypertension can be classified into two types: primary or essential hypertension, which has no identifiable cause and accounts for about 95% of cases, and secondary hypertension, which is caused by underlying medical conditions such as kidney disease, hormonal disorders, or use of certain medications.

If left untreated, hypertension can lead to serious health complications such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, it is important for individuals with hypertension to manage their condition through lifestyle modifications (such as healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management) and medication if necessary, under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Saralasin is a synthetic analog of the natural hormone angiotensin II, which is used in research and medicine. It acts as an antagonist of the angiotensin II receptor, blocking its effects. Saralasin is primarily used in research to study the role of the renin-angiotensin system in various physiological processes. In clinical medicine, it has been used in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions such as hypertension and pheochromocytoma, although its use is not widespread due to the availability of more effective and selective drugs.

Enalapril is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. It works by blocking the action of a hormone in the body called angiotensin II, which causes blood vessels to narrow and tighten. By blocking this hormone, Enalapril helps relax and widen blood vessels, making it easier for the heart to pump blood and reducing the workload on the heart.

Enalapril is commonly used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension), congestive heart failure, and to improve survival after a heart attack. It may also be used to treat other conditions as determined by your doctor.

The medication comes in the form of tablets or capsules that are taken orally, usually once or twice a day with or without food. The dosage will depend on various factors such as the patient's age, weight, and medical condition. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking Enalapril.

Like all medications, Enalapril can cause side effects, including dry cough, dizziness, headache, fatigue, and nausea. More serious side effects may include allergic reactions, kidney problems, and low blood pressure. If you experience any concerning symptoms while taking Enalapril, it is important to contact your healthcare provider right away.

Isosorbide is a type of sugar alcohol (a sugary-tasting substance that is not actually sugar) used as a low-calorie sweetener and sugar substitute in various food and pharmaceutical products. It is also used as an active ingredient in some medications for treating chest pain (angina) and heart failure.

Medically, isosorbide can exist in two forms: isosorbide dinitrate and isosorbide mononitrate. These are both vasodilators, meaning they relax and widen blood vessels, improving blood flow and reducing the workload on the heart. Isosorbide dinitrate is often used to prevent angina attacks, while isosorbide mononitrate is used for both prevention and treatment of angina.

It's important to note that overuse of sugar alcohols like isosorbide can lead to digestive issues such as bloating, diarrhea, and gas due to their incomplete absorption in the gut.

Antihypertensive agents are a class of medications used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). They work by reducing the force and rate of heart contractions, dilating blood vessels, or altering neurohormonal activation to lower blood pressure. Examples include diuretics, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, ARBs, calcium channel blockers, and direct vasodilators. These medications may be used alone or in combination to achieve optimal blood pressure control.

Kinins are a group of endogenous inflammatory mediators that are involved in the body's response to injury or infection. They are derived from the decapeptide bradykinin and its related peptides, which are formed by the enzymatic cleavage of precursor proteins called kininogens.

Kinins exert their effects through the activation of specific G protein-coupled receptors, known as B1 and B2 receptors. These receptors are widely distributed throughout the body, including in the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and nervous systems.

Activation of kinin receptors leads to a range of physiological responses, including vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, pain, and smooth muscle contraction. Kinins are also known to interact with other inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, to amplify the inflammatory response.

In addition to their role in inflammation, kinins have been implicated in a number of pathological conditions, including hypertension, asthma, arthritis, and pain. As such, kinin-targeted therapies are being explored as potential treatments for these and other diseases.

Bradykinin is a naturally occurring peptide in the human body, consisting of nine amino acids. It is a potent vasodilator and increases the permeability of blood vessels, causing a local inflammatory response. Bradykinin is formed from the breakdown of certain proteins, such as kininogen, by enzymes called kininases or proteases, including kallikrein. It plays a role in several physiological processes, including pain transmission, blood pressure regulation, and the immune response. In some pathological conditions, such as hereditary angioedema, bradykinin levels can increase excessively, leading to symptoms like swelling, redness, and pain.

SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) are an inbred strain of rats that were originally developed through selective breeding for high blood pressure. They are widely used as a model to study hypertension and related cardiovascular diseases, as well as neurological disorders such as stroke and dementia.

Inbred strains of animals are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or offspring) for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at all genetic loci. This means that the animals within an inbred strain are essentially genetically identical to one another, which makes them useful for studying the effects of specific genes or environmental factors on disease processes.

SHR rats develop high blood pressure spontaneously, without any experimental manipulation, and show many features of human hypertension, such as increased vascular resistance, left ventricular hypertrophy, and renal dysfunction. They also exhibit a number of behavioral abnormalities, including hyperactivity, impulsivity, and cognitive deficits, which make them useful for studying the neurological consequences of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

Overall, inbred SHR rats are an important tool in biomedical research, providing a valuable model for understanding the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to hypertension and related disorders.

Hydralazine is an antihypertensive medication, which means it is used to treat high blood pressure. It works by relaxing and widening the blood vessels, making it easier for the heart to pump blood through the body. This can help reduce the workload on the heart and lower blood pressure. Hydralazine is available in oral tablet form and is typically prescribed to be taken several times a day.

Hydralazine belongs to a class of medications called vasodilators, which work by relaxing the muscle in the walls of the blood vessels, causing them to widen. This increases the amount of blood that can flow through the blood vessels and reduces the pressure within them. Hydralazine is often used in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure.

It's important to note that hydralazine should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can cause side effects such as headache, dizziness, and rapid heartbeat. It may also interact with certain other medications, so it is important to inform your doctor of all medications you are taking before starting hydralazine.

Renal artery obstruction is a medical condition that refers to the blockage or restriction of blood flow in the renal artery, which is the main vessel that supplies oxygenated and nutrient-rich blood to the kidneys. This obstruction can be caused by various factors, such as blood clots, atherosclerosis (the buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the artery walls), emboli (tiny particles or air bubbles that travel through the bloodstream and lodge in smaller vessels), or compressive masses like tumors.

The obstruction can lead to reduced kidney function, hypertension, and even kidney failure in severe cases. Symptoms may include high blood pressure, proteinuria (the presence of protein in the urine), hematuria (blood in the urine), and a decrease in kidney function as measured by serum creatinine levels. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies like Doppler ultrasound, CT angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography to visualize the renal artery and assess the extent of the obstruction. Treatment options may include medications to control blood pressure and reduce kidney damage, as well as invasive procedures like angioplasty and stenting or surgical intervention to remove the obstruction and restore normal blood flow to the kidneys.

Losartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) medication that is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), but can also be used to manage chronic heart failure and protect against kidney damage in patients with type 2 diabetes. It works by blocking the action of angiotensin II, a hormone that causes blood vessels to narrow and blood pressure to rise. By blocking this hormone's effects, losartan helps relax and widen blood vessels, making it easier for the heart to pump blood and reducing the workload on the cardiovascular system.

The medical definition of losartan is: "A synthetic angiotensin II receptor antagonist used in the treatment of hypertension, chronic heart failure, and diabetic nephropathy. It selectively blocks the binding of angiotensin II to the AT1 receptor, leading to vasodilation, decreased aldosterone secretion, and increased renin activity."

Isosorbide dinitrate is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called nitrates. It is primarily used in the prevention and treatment of angina pectoris, which is chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart muscle.

The medical definition of Isosorbide dinitrate is:

A soluble nitrate ester used in the prevention and treatment of anginal attacks. It acts by dilating coronary and peripheral arteries and veins, thereby reducing cardiac workload and increasing oxygen delivery to the heart muscle. Its therapeutic effects are attributed to its conversion to nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator, in the body. Isosorbide dinitrate is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and oral solutions, and is typically taken 2-3 times daily for optimal effect.

Bradykinin receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that binds to and is activated by the peptide hormone bradykinin. There are two main types of bradykinin receptors, B1 and B2, which are distinguished by their pharmacological properties, distribution, and function.

Bradykinin Receptor B1 (B1R) is upregulated during tissue injury and inflammation, and it mediates pain, hyperalgesia, and vasodilation. The activation of B1R also promotes the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, contributing to the development of chronic inflammation.

Bradykinin Receptor B2 (B2R) is constitutively expressed in various tissues, including the vascular endothelium, smooth muscle, and nervous system. It mediates many of the physiological effects of bradykinin, such as vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, and pain sensation. B2R also plays a role in the regulation of blood pressure, fluid balance, and tissue repair.

Both B1R and B2R are involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including inflammatory disorders, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic pain conditions. Therefore, targeting these receptors with specific drugs has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for treating various medical conditions.

Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland. It plays a key role in regulating sodium and potassium balance and maintaining blood pressure through its effects on the kidneys. Aldosterone promotes the reabsorption of sodium ions and the excretion of potassium ions in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephrons in the kidneys. This increases the osmotic pressure in the blood, which in turn leads to water retention and an increase in blood volume and blood pressure.

Aldosterone is released from the adrenal gland in response to a variety of stimuli, including angiotensin II (a peptide hormone produced as part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), potassium ions, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. The production of aldosterone is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism involving sodium levels in the blood. High sodium levels inhibit the release of aldosterone, while low sodium levels stimulate its release.

In addition to its role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and blood pressure, aldosterone has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including hypertension, heart failure, and primary hyperaldosteronism (a condition characterized by excessive production of aldosterone).

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

Tetrazoles are a class of heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds that contain a five-membered ring with four nitrogen atoms and one carbon atom. They have the chemical formula of C2H2N4. Tetrazoles are stable under normal conditions, but can decompose explosively when heated or subjected to strong shock.

In the context of medicinal chemistry, tetrazoles are sometimes used as bioisosteres for carboxylic acids, as they can mimic some of their chemical and biological properties. This has led to the development of several drugs that contain tetrazole rings, such as the antiviral drug tenofovir and the anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib.

However, it's important to note that 'tetrazoles' is not a medical term per se, but rather a chemical term that can be used in the context of medicinal chemistry or pharmacology.

Angiotensin receptor antagonists (ARAs), also known as angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), are a class of medications used to treat hypertension, heart failure, and protect against kidney damage in patients with diabetes. They work by blocking the action of angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor and hormone that increases blood pressure and promotes tissue fibrosis. By blocking the binding of angiotensin II to its receptors, ARAs cause relaxation of blood vessels, decreased sodium and water retention, and reduced cardiac remodeling, ultimately leading to improved cardiovascular function and reduced risk of organ damage. Examples of ARAs include losartan, valsartan, irbesartan, and candesartan.

Enalaprilat is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitors. It is the active metabolite of Enalapril. Enalaprilat works by blocking the action of angiotensin-converting enzyme, which helps to relax and widen blood vessels, thereby reducing blood pressure and increasing blood flow.

Enalaprilat is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), heart failure, and to improve survival after a heart attack. It is administered intravenously in a hospital setting, and its effects are usually seen within 15 minutes of administration. Common side effects of Enalaprilat include hypotension (low blood pressure), dizziness, headache, and nausea.

Renal circulation refers to the blood flow specifically dedicated to the kidneys. The main function of the kidneys is to filter waste and excess fluids from the blood, which then get excreted as urine. To perform this function efficiently, the kidneys receive a substantial amount of the body's total blood supply - about 20-25% in a resting state.

The renal circulation process begins when deoxygenated blood from the rest of the body returns to the right side of the heart and is pumped into the lungs for oxygenation. Oxygen-rich blood then leaves the left side of the heart through the aorta, the largest artery in the body.

A portion of this oxygen-rich blood moves into the renal arteries, which branch directly from the aorta and supply each kidney with blood. Within the kidneys, these arteries divide further into smaller vessels called afferent arterioles, which feed into a network of tiny capillaries called the glomerulus within each nephron (the functional unit of the kidney).

The filtration process occurs in the glomeruli, where waste materials and excess fluids are separated from the blood. The resulting filtrate then moves through another set of capillaries, the peritubular capillaries, which surround the renal tubules (the part of the nephron that reabsorbs necessary substances back into the bloodstream).

The now-deoxygenated blood from the kidneys' capillary network coalesces into venules and then merges into the renal veins, which ultimately drain into the inferior vena cava and return the blood to the right side of the heart. This highly specialized circulation system allows the kidneys to efficiently filter waste while maintaining appropriate blood volume and composition.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Nobel Prize" is not a medical definition. The Nobel Prize is an international award given annually in several categories, and one of those categories is physiology or medicine. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to individuals who have made significant discoveries of outstanding importance in the fields of life sciences and medicine. It is one of the most prestigious awards in these fields.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Paclitaxel is a chemotherapeutic agent derived from the bark of the Pacific yew tree (Taxus brevifolia). It is an antimicrotubule agent that promotes the assembly and stabilization of microtubules, thereby interfering with the normal dynamic reorganization of the microtubule network that is essential for cell division.

Paclitaxel is used in the treatment of various types of cancer including ovarian, breast, lung, and pancreatic cancers. It works by inhibiting the disassembly of microtubules, which prevents the separation of chromosomes during mitosis, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Common side effects of paclitaxel include neutropenia (low white blood cell count), anemia (low red blood cell count), alopecia (hair loss), peripheral neuropathy (nerve damage causing numbness or tingling in the hands and feet), myalgias (muscle pain), arthralgias (joint pain), and hypersensitivity reactions.

Heart failure is a pathophysiological state in which the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to meet the metabolic demands of the body or do so only at the expense of elevated filling pressures. It can be caused by various cardiac disorders, including coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias. Symptoms may include shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. Heart failure is often classified based on the ejection fraction (EF), which is the percentage of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle during each contraction. A reduced EF (less than 40%) is indicative of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), while a preserved EF (greater than or equal to 50%) is indicative of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). There is also a category of heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) for those with an EF between 40-49%.

"History, 19th Century" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to the historical events, developments, and figures related to the 1800s in various fields, including politics, culture, science, and technology. However, if you are looking for medical advancements during the 19th century, here's a brief overview:

The 19th century was a period of significant progress in medicine, with numerous discoveries and innovations that shaped modern medical practices. Some notable developments include:

1. Edward Jenner's smallpox vaccine (1796): Although not strictly within the 19th century, Jenner's discovery laid the foundation for vaccination as a preventive measure against infectious diseases.
2. Germ theory of disease: The work of Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, and others established that many diseases were caused by microorganisms, leading to the development of antiseptic practices and vaccines.
3. Anesthesia: In 1842, Crawford Long first used ether as an anesthetic during surgery, followed by the introduction of chloroform in 1847 by James Simpson.
4. Antisepsis and asepsis: Joseph Lister introduced antiseptic practices in surgery, significantly reducing postoperative infections. Later, the concept of asepsis (sterilization) was developed to prevent contamination during surgical procedures.
5. Microbiology: The development of techniques for culturing and staining bacteria allowed for better understanding and identification of pathogens.
6. Physiology: Claude Bernard's work on the regulation of internal body functions, or homeostasis, contributed significantly to our understanding of human physiology.
7. Neurology: Jean-Martin Charcot made significant contributions to the study of neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease.
8. Psychiatry: Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis, a new approach to understanding mental illnesses.
9. Public health: The 19th century saw the establishment of public health organizations and initiatives aimed at improving sanitation, water quality, and vaccination programs.
10. Medical education reforms: The Flexner Report in 1910 led to significant improvements in medical education standards and practices.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "History, 20th Century" is a broad and complex topic that refers to the events, developments, and transformations that occurred throughout the world during the 1900s. It is not a medical term or concept. If you're interested in learning more about this historical period, I would recommend consulting a history textbook, reputable online resources, or speaking with a historian. They can provide detailed information about the political, social, economic, and cultural changes that took place during the 20th century.

Ramipril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, which is a type of medication used to treat various cardiovascular conditions. It works by blocking the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, thereby causing relaxation and widening of blood vessels, decreasing blood pressure, and increasing blood flow.

Ramipril is primarily used for the treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure), heart failure, and the prevention of major cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction (heart attack) and stroke in high-risk patients. It may also be used to improve survival after a heart attack.

The medication is available in oral tablet form and is typically taken once or twice daily, depending on the prescribed dosage. Side effects of ramipril can include cough, dizziness, headache, fatigue, nausea, and taste changes. Serious side effects are rare but may include kidney problems, hyperkalemia (high potassium levels), and angioedema (swelling of the face, lips, tongue, or throat).

It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking ramipril and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly. Regular monitoring of blood pressure, kidney function, and potassium levels may be necessary during treatment with this medication.

Chemical water pollutants refer to harmful chemicals or substances that contaminate bodies of water, making them unsafe for human use and harmful to aquatic life. These pollutants can come from various sources, including industrial and agricultural runoff, sewage and wastewater, oil spills, and improper disposal of hazardous materials.

Examples of chemical water pollutants include heavy metals (such as lead, mercury, and cadmium), pesticides and herbicides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and petroleum products. These chemicals can have toxic effects on aquatic organisms, disrupt ecosystems, and pose risks to human health through exposure or consumption.

Regulations and standards are in place to monitor and limit the levels of chemical pollutants in water sources, with the aim of protecting public health and the environment.

Lisinopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, which is a type of medication used to treat various cardiovascular conditions. It works by blocking the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, resulting in relaxation and widening of blood vessels, decreased blood pressure, and increased blood flow.

Lisinopril is primarily used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), congestive heart failure, and to improve survival after a heart attack. It may also be used to protect the kidneys from damage due to diabetes or high blood pressure. Additionally, it has been shown to reduce proteinuria (excess protein in urine) in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

Common side effects of Lisinopril include dizziness, headache, fatigue, and cough. More serious side effects may include angioedema (rapid swelling of the face, lips, tongue, or throat), hyperkalemia (elevated potassium levels), and impaired kidney function.

It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking Lisinopril and to report any unusual symptoms promptly. Regular monitoring of blood pressure, kidney function, and electrolyte levels may be necessary during treatment with this medication.

Carbanilides are a class of chemical compounds that contain a carbonyl group (-CO-) linked to an amide group (-NH-CO-). In the context of medical definitions, carbanilides are used in pharmaceuticals as therapeutic agents. One example is phenylcarbinol (phenylpropylamine carbanilate), which has been used as a cough suppressant and antihistamine. Another example is propanil, an herbicide that contains a carbanilide moiety.

Carbanilides have also been studied for their potential antimicrobial properties, including activity against bacteria, fungi, and parasites. However, it's important to note that specific medical uses and safety profiles of individual carbanilide compounds may vary, and should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

... has a short half-life of 2-3 hours and a duration of action of 12-24 hours. Captopril challenge test Captopril ... Captopril was patented in 1976 and approved for medical use in 1980. Captopril has an L-proline group which allows for it to be ... Captopril stereoisomers were also reported to inhibit some metallo-β-lactamases. Adverse effects of captopril include cough due ... profile of captopril is similar to other ACE inhibitors, with cough being the most common ADR. However, captopril is also ...
The captopril suppression test (CST) is a non-invasive medical test that measures plasma levels of aldosterone. Aldosterone ... CST results are used to assist in the diagnososis of primary aldosteronism (Conn Syndrome). Captopril challenge test - used to ... diagnose renal artery stenosis Agharazii M, Douville P, Grose JH, Lebel M (June 2001). "Captopril suppression versus salt ... production is suppressed by captopril through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. ...
The captopril challenge test (CCT) is a non-invasive medical test that measures the change in renin plasma-levels in response ... An abnormal captopril test is indicative of the presence of renovascular disease.[citation needed] CCT in adults is known to ... Captopril suppression test - used to diagnose primary aldosteronism Gauthier B, Trachtman H, Frank R, Pillari G. Inadequacy of ... The captopril test for identifying renovascular disease in hypertensive patients. Am J Med. 1986 Apr;80(4):633-44. PMID 3515933 ...
Captopril is an analog to proline and completely inhibits angiotensin converting enzymes (ACE) and as a result decreases ... "Captopril". pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-11-19. Bazemore, Andrew; Smucker, Douglas R. (2002-12-01). " ... Beta blockers such as Atenolol or ACE inhibitors like Captopril, can cause certain lymphadenopathies for some individuals. ...
ACE inhibitors: captopril, enalapril. Other drugs: digoxin, ranitidine, lenalidomide, methyldopa, interleukin 2, dobutamine, ...
The first example of this was in the early 1970s, when Captopril was found to be an inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzymes ... Smith, Charles G.; Vane, John R. (May 2003). "The Discovery of Captopril". The FASEB Journal. 17 (8): 788-789. doi:10.1096/fj. ...
Captopril reached the American market in 1982. Captopril gained much commercial success for Squibb. It was also one of the ... After his Captopril discovery, he was promoted to vice president of Basic Research. In the next ten years, Ondetti assumed more ... Ondetti had discovered Captopril, an ACE inhibitor with much better activity than previous compounds. Ondetti published his ... In 1960 he moved to The Squibb Institute for Medical Research in New Jersey where he researched and developed Captopril in 1975 ...
The medication metabolizes to captopril and desacetylalacepril. "Alacepril". IBM Micromedex. 24 August 2010. Retrieved 23 June ...
These include the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril. Captopril is based on the peptidic bradykinin potentiating ... was a lead in the development of the antihypertensive agents cilazapril and captopril. Also, echistatin, a disintegrin from the ...
Captopril, the first ACE inhibitor, is a functional and structural analog of a peptide derived from the venom of the jararaca, ... Lisinopril is a synthetic peptide derivative of captopril. Scientists at Merck created lisinopril by systematically altering ... designed by scientists at Merck to overcome the rash and bad taste caused by captopril.: 12-13 Enalapril is actually a prodrug ... the discovery and rise of captopril" Li JJ (2013). "History of Drug Discovery". In Li JJ, Corey EJ (eds.). Drug Discovery: ...
Captopril is an example of an ACE inhibitor. ACE cleaves a number of other peptides, and in this capacity is an important ... Odaka C, Mizuochi T (September 2000). "Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril prevents activation-induced apoptosis ...
"Effects of captopril on ischemic events after myocardial infarction. Results of the Survival and Ventricular Enlargement trial ...
In 1977 captopril, an orally active agent, was described; this led to the development of a number of other ACE inhibitors. More ...
... has a slower onset of action than Captopril but a greater duration of action. However, unlike Captopril, Enalapril ... captopril, but it had adverse effects such as a metallic taste (which, as it turned out, was due to the sulfhydryl group). ... Captopril. Duration of effect is dose-related; at recommended doses, antihypertensive and haemodynamic effects have been shown ... partly to overcome these limitations of captopril. The sulfhydryl moiety was replaced by a carboxylate moiety, but additional ...
"Structural Basis of Metallo-β-Lactamase Inhibition by Captopril Stereoisomers". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 60 (1): ...
The main differences lie with captopril, the first ACE inhibitor. Captopril has a shorter duration of action and an increased ... Their discoveries led to the development of captopril, the first orally-active ACE inhibitor, in 1975. Captopril was approved ... Captopril, enalapril, lisinopril and perindopril are known to be removable by hemodialysis. The ACE inhibitors are ... Sebastian, C. S.; Bernardin, A. S. (1990-04-01). "Comparison of enalapril and captopril in the management of self-induced water ...
Captopril was the first antihypertension drug developed by Ondetti and Cushman. Many ACE inhibitors have been developed since ... Cushman, D.W.; M.A. Ondetti (April 1991). "History of the design of captopril and related inhibitors of angiotensin converting ...
This led to the development of captopril, the first ACE inhibitor. When the adverse effects of captopril became apparent new ... The most common adverse effects of Captopril, skin rash and loss of taste, are the same as caused by mercapto-containing ... So the D-3-mercapto-2-methylpropanoyl-L-proline or Captopril was the most potent inhibitor. Later, the researchers compared a ... "History of the design of captopril and related inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme", Hypertension, 17 (4): 589-592, doi ...
The case of captopril (developed from a Brazilian tribe's arrowhead poison). One common misunderstanding is that pharmaceutical ...
However, lisinopril is dosed once a day, whereas captopril may be dosed 2-3 times a day. Assuming that there are no ... For instance, ACE inhibitors are used in the management of hypertension.[medical citation needed] Both captopril and lisinopril ... contraindications or potential for drug interactions, using lisinopril instead of captopril may be an appropriate way to limit ...
1994). "Captopril renal scintigraphy in patients with hypertension and chronic renal failure". J. Nucl. Med. 35 (2): 251-4. ... Kahn D, Ben-Haim S, Bushnell DL, Madsen MT, Kirchner PT (1994). "Captopril-enhanced 99Tcm-MAG3 renal scintigraphy in subjects ... The use of the test to identify reduced kidney function after test doses of captopril (an angiotensin-converting enzyme ... Roccatello D, Picciotto G (1997). "Captopril-enhanced scintigraphy using the method of the expected renogram: improved ...
Recommended medications for hypertensive urgencies include: captopril, labetalol, amlodipine, felodipine, isradipine, and ...
Drugs ( e.g. gold salts, penicillin, captopril): gold salts can cause a more or less important loss of proteins in urine as a ... Penicillin is nephrotoxic in people with kidney failure and captopril can aggravate proteinuria. Membranous nephropathy (MN) ...
Both sublingual nifedipine and sublingual captopril can substantially lower the BP within 10 to 30 minutes in many patients. A ... 1991). "Comparison of sublingual captopril and nifedipine in the immediate treatment of hypertensive emergencies. A randomized ...
Short-acting ACE inhibitors (typically captopril) are used because they can be rapidly uptitrated. An elevated serum creatinine ...
The captopril became available to the public in 1982 once the FDA viewed it. An issue that occurred was that the drug caused ... Cushman says captopril's significance from a basic research point of view is that it was developed through pure chemical design ... Ondetti were not expecting as much publicity from discovering the captopril drug or the importance of the drug it was in that ... It was stated that the captopril is "an oral drug that significantly reduces hypertension in more than eighty percent of users ...
... effect of captopril". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 24 (3): 583-91. doi:10.1016/0735-1097(94)90001-9. PMID ...
Drugs containing sulfhydryl groups, including penicillamine and captopril, may react with zinc and cause deficiency. ...
Captopril and atenolol were equal as least effective, with an average decrease of 4.1 mm Hg. Clonidine (decrease of 6.3 mm Hg ... captopril (an ACE inhibitor), clonidine (a central α2-agonist), diltiazem (a calcium channel blocker), and prazosin (an α1- ...
Effects of losartan and captopril on mortality and morbidity after acute myocardial infarction: The OPTIMAAL randomized trial. ...
Captopril has a short half-life of 2-3 hours and a duration of action of 12-24 hours. Captopril challenge test Captopril ... Captopril was patented in 1976 and approved for medical use in 1980. Captopril has an L-proline group which allows for it to be ... Captopril stereoisomers were also reported to inhibit some metallo-β-lactamases. Adverse effects of captopril include cough due ... profile of captopril is similar to other ACE inhibitors, with cough being the most common ADR. However, captopril is also ...
Captopril: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Do not take captopril if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. If you become pregnant while taking captopril, call your ... Captopril controls high blood pressure and heart failure but does not cure them. Continue to take captopril even if you feel ... Before taking captopril,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to captopril; other ACE inhibitors such as ...
The captopril tablets group had somewhat better blood pressure control than the placebo group, but the effects of captopril ... Captopril Tablets, USP are indicated for the treatment of hypertension.. In using Captopril Tablets, consideration should be ... If captopril tablets are being started in a patient already receiving a diuretic, captopril tablets therapy should be initiated ... Captopril tablets should generally be used in conjunction with a diuretic and digitalis. Captopril tablets therapy must be ...
Find patient medical information for captopril oral on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, ... Captopril - Uses, Side Effects, and More Common Brand(S): Capoten. Generic Name(S): captopril. ... You should not become pregnant while using captopril. Captopril may harm an unborn baby. If you become pregnant, talk to your ... How to use Captopril. Take this medication by mouth on an empty stomach (at least 1 hour before meals) as directed by your ...
Renal artery occlusion in patients with renovascular hypertension treated with captopril. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986; 292 :24 ... Renal artery occlusion in patients with renovascular hypertension treated with captopril.. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986; 292 doi ...
Fass environmental information for Captopril Actavis (captopril) from Teva (downloaded 2019-12-04). ... Risk of environmental impact of captopril cannot be excluded, since no ecotoxicity data are available. ... lisinopril and captopril from a Swedish perspective (Report Goodpoint 2019). ...
More information is available on captopril including side effects, age restrictions, food interactions, whether the medicine is ... Active ingredient: captopril. The medicines below all contain the following active ingredient(s): captopril. You can select a ...
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During an episode of AD, 25 mg of captopril sublingual is recommended. ... Captopril is a competitive inhibitor of angiotensin I-converting enzyme. ... Captopril. Captopril is a specific competitive inhibitor of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). During an episode of AD, ... Captopril alone was effective in reducing SBP in 4 of 5 the patients (80%). The mean SBPs at baseline and 30 minutes after ...
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  • Comparative environmental risk assessment using angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors enalapril, ramipril, lisinopril and captopril from a Swedish perspective (Report Goodpoint 2019). (janusinfo.se)
  • We investigated, prospectively, the effect of Cap and enalapril (En) on Zn metabolism in hypertensive patients (Pts). (tau.ac.il)
  • Existe alguma diferença entre os IECA (captopril e enalapril, especificamente) em relação à nefropatia diabética em pacientes DM-2 com microalbuminúria? (bvs.br)
  • Não foram encontrados na literatura estudos de adequado rigor metodológico tais como Ensaios Clínicos Randomizados e Revisões Sistemáticas que comparassem o uso do Captopril ao uso do Enalapril, em pacientes diabéticos portadores de microalbuminúria e cujo desfecho principal seria evitar a progressão da nefropatia diabética. (bvs.br)
  • During an episode of AD, 25mg of captopril is recommended for sublingual administration. (scireproject.com)
  • administration of a) captopril 25mg sublingually if systolic blood pressure (SBP) was at or above 150mmHg, b) 5mg of immediate-release nifedipine if SBP remained elevated 30 minutes after captopril administration. (scireproject.com)
  • Captopril 25mg is used to treat high blood pressure, heart failure, and heart problems after a heart attack. (healthplusnigeria.com)
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  • or any of the ingredients in captopril tablets. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When pregnancy is detected, discontinue captopril tablets as soon as possible. (nih.gov)
  • Captopril Tablets, USP are a specific competitive inhibitor of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), the enzyme responsible for the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. (nih.gov)
  • The mechanism of action of captopril tablets has not yet been fully elucidated. (nih.gov)
  • Captopril tablets prevent the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II by inhibition of ACE, a peptidyldipeptide carboxy hydrolase. (nih.gov)
  • ACE is identical to "bradykininase", and captopril tablets may also interfere with the degradation of the vasodepressor peptide, bradykinin. (nih.gov)
  • Increased concentrations of bradykinin or prostaglandin E 2 may also have a role in the therapeutic effect of captopril tablets. (nih.gov)
  • After oral administration of therapeutic doses of captopril tablets, rapid absorption occurs with peak blood levels at about one hour. (nih.gov)
  • most of the remainder is the disulfide dimer of captopril tablets and captopril-cysteine disulfide. (nih.gov)
  • The SeDeM Diagram Expert System has been used to study excipients, Captopril and designed formulations for their galenic characterization and to ascertain the critical points of the formula affecting product quality to obtain suitable formulations of Captopril Direct Compression SR Matrix Tablets. (ub.edu)
  • Cold pressor testing was performed in 15 normotensive subjects and 15 hypertensive patients before and 90 minutes after captopril administration. (unipv.it)
  • Captopril, sold under the brand name Capoten among others, is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used for the treatment of hypertension and some types of congestive heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Captopril was the first oral ACE inhibitor found for the treatment of hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Captopril was the culmination of efforts by Squibb's laboratories to develop an ACE inhibitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also used to treat heart failure , protect the kidneys from harm due to diabetes , and to improve survival after a heart attack .Captopril is an ACE inhibitor and works by relaxing blood vessels so that blood can flow more easily. (webmd.com)
  • Captopril is a specific competitive inhibitor of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). (scireproject.com)
  • Captopril is an ACE inhibitor and works by relaxing blood vessels so that blood can flow more easily. (healthwarehouse.com)
  • Captopril, as an ACE inhibitor, can slow down the activity of angiotensin II. (rx2go.com)
  • Midrat (Captopril) is an ACE inhibitor used to treat high blood pressure. (comprar-medicina.com)
  • Chronic consumption of the highly specific angiotension-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril was found to decrease the activity of the enzyme in the rat hypothalamus and striatum and to enhance it in the pituitary and blood serum. (msk.ru)
  • It has been shown that chronic administration of captopril (Cap), an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), is associated with renal zinc (Zn) loss which brings about a decrease in RBC Zn content. (tau.ac.il)
  • T cell function tests were performed in 6 patients with uncomplicated essential hypertension (EH) before and after treatment with captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. (biu.ac.il)
  • The Use of Captopril-Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor for Cystinuria During COVID-19 Pandemic. (cdc.gov)
  • I tried to go to the gym, but after each intensive workout, i would come down with a bad cold, my muscles were so sore it took atleast a week till they recovered, so i realised captopril and hydrochlorothiazide brand name it just wasnt for me. (servicevents.fr)
  • View of A comparison of the effects of hydrochlorothiazide and captopril on glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with hypertension. (theprofesional.com)
  • Except for postural hypotension, which occurs due to the short and fast mode of action of captopril, most of the side effects mentioned are common for all ACE inhibitors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other side effects are: Itching Headache Tachycardia Chest pain Palpitations Dysgeusia Weakness The adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile of captopril is similar to other ACE inhibitors, with cough being the most common ADR. (wikipedia.org)
  • Captopril is in a class of medications called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Do not take captopril if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. (medlineplus.gov)
  • To help you remember to take captopril, take it around the same time(s) every day. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Take captopril exactly as directed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Continue to take captopril even if you feel well. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor will probably tell you not to take captopril, if you are also taking valsartan and sacubitril. (medlineplus.gov)
  • How to Take Captopril? (rx2go.com)
  • Captopril can make you feel dizzy especially during the first few days of your medication. (rx2go.com)
  • The medicines below all contain the following active ingredient(s): captopril. (healthdirect.gov.au)
  • Each tablet for oral administration contains 12.5 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg or 100 mg of captopril. (nih.gov)
  • A maioria dos estudos que comparou os IECA com outra classe medicamentosa utilizou o Captopril ou o Ramipril como droga representante do grupo dos IECA. (bvs.br)
  • Captopril has an L-proline group which allows for it to be more bioavailable within oral formulations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oral dosage form can allow a patient to be released more quickly from the hospital reducing costs for the hospital: captopril de 50 mg precio. (servicevents.fr)
  • Captopril is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure and heart failure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • With regard to the medications, Atorvastatin , Losartan and Captopril were administered more in patients (groups 1, 2 and 3) than the patients without hypertension and CAD. (bvsalud.org)
  • In animal studies, captopril did not alter the pressor responses to a number of other agents, including angiotensin II and norepinephrine, indicating specificity of action. (nih.gov)
  • Captopril did not affect pressor responses to cold pressor testing in normotensive subjects or hypertensive patients. (unipv.it)
  • Gengin M.T., Vernigora A.N., Nikishin N.N., Makeeva N.V. (1995) Effect of captopril and reserpine on the activity of certain neuropeptide metabolism enzymes. (msk.ru)
  • Captopril comes as a tablet to take by mouth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Captopril comes in a tablet form that you need to take orally. (rx2go.com)
  • Can Blood Pressure Meds Cause Arthritis Oder Bio Metropol Blood Pressure Medicine Amlodipine 2 5 Mg Tablet Does Less Food Lower Blood Pressure Captopril Potassium Sparing Can Blood Pressure Meds Cause Arthritis. (ytu.edu.mm)
  • Captopril 25 mg sublingual - of 287 chemicals in the umbilical cord blood of the 10 newborns, including some chemicals that have been. (servicevents.fr)
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  • Captopril is also used to treat kidney disease (nephropathy) caused by diabetes in patients with type 1 diabetes and retinopathy (eye disease). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although captopril may be used to prevent kidney problems or treat people who have kidney problems, it may also rarely cause serious kidney problems or make them worse. (webmd.com)
  • Your doctor will check your kidney function while you are taking captopril. (webmd.com)
  • Captopril can improve the overall function of the heart and slows down the progression of the disease in the blood vessels within the kidney. (rx2go.com)
  • Captopril is especially useful for people with mild to moderate kidney disease. (rx2go.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether captopril has kidney-protecting properties independent of its effect on blood pressure in diabetic nephropathy. (nih.gov)
  • Captopril was patented in 1976 and approved for medical use in 1980. (wikipedia.org)
  • Squibb filed for U.S. patent protection on the drug in February 1976, which was granted in September 1977, and captopril was approved for medical use in 1980. (wikipedia.org)
  • The malformed epub captopril and hypertension 1980 performed it sent by errors, transferred by Hitler, and filed by every national purchase competition in the maximum catalog. (windhamnewyork.com)
  • The addition of nifedipine successfully reduced blood pressure from 170/108 to 110/80 after 30 minutes in the one patient who did not respond to the administration of captopril. (scireproject.com)
  • Captopril blocks the action of the ACE converting enzyme known as angiotensin II. (rx2go.com)
  • Captopril is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). (webmd.com)
  • Renal artery occlusion in patients with renovascular hypertension treated with captopril. (bmj.com)
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  • Atorvastatin, Losartan and Captopril Lead to Upregulation of TGF-ß, and Downregulation of IL-6 in Coronary Artery Disease and Hypertension. (bvsalud.org)
  • Serum creatinine concentrations doubled in 25 patients in the captopril group, as compared with 43 patients in the placebo group (P = 0.007). (nih.gov)
  • The mean (+/- SD) rate of decline in creatinine clearance was 11 +/- 21 percent per year in the captopril group and 17 +/- 20 percent per year in the placebo group (P = 0.03). (nih.gov)
  • or = 1.5 mg per deciliter, creatinine clearance declined at a rate of 23 +/- 25 percent per year in the captopril group and at a rate of 37 +/- 25 percent per year in the placebo group (P = 0.01). (nih.gov)
  • Dry mouth and persistent dry cough will resolve after you discontinue using Captopril. (rx2go.com)
  • Get deep discounts without leaving your house when you buy discount Midrat (Captopril) directly from an international pharmacy! (comprar-medicina.com)
  • for the use of captopril in the acute management of AD in SCI. (scireproject.com)
  • This immune response, also known as agranulocytosis, can explain the adverse drug events which may be seen in captopril with the allergic response, which would be: hives, severe stomach pain, difficulty breathing, swelling of the face, lips, tongue or throat. (wikipedia.org)
  • its basal value was reduced by captopril in both normotensive subjects and hypertensive patients. (unipv.it)
  • Cold exposure caused a similar increase in isometric contraction time before and after captopril in normotensive subjects, and the increase in isometric contraction time in hypertensive patients was greater. (unipv.it)
  • Basal heart rate (before testing) did not change, despite the decrease in blood pressure and showed a smaller increase in response to cold pressor testing in normotensive subjects, suggesting that captopril might interfere with arterial baroreflexes. (unipv.it)
  • Captopril protects against deterioration in renal function in insulin-dependent diabetic nephropathy and is significantly more effective than blood-pressure control alone. (nih.gov)
  • The article evaluated the degradation of the captopril in aqueous solution after ozonation and chlorination. (scirp.org)
  • However, captopril is also commonly associated with rash and taste disturbances (metallic or loss of taste), which are attributed to the unique thiol moiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Midrat (Captopril) may be used in some patients after a heart attack. (comprar-medicina.com)
  • Two hundred seven patients received captopril, and 202 placebo. (nih.gov)
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  • Molecule of the Month: Captopril: The treatment for high blood pressure derived from snake venom. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Captopril treatment was associated with a 50 percent reduction in the risk of the combined end points of death, dialysis, and transplantation that was independent of the small disparity in blood pressure between the groups. (nih.gov)
  • Captopril, an analog of the snake venom's ACE-inhibiting peptide, was first synthesized in 1975 by three researchers at the U.S. drug company E.R. Squibb & Sons Pharmaceuticals (now Bristol-Myers Squibb): Miguel Ondetti, Bernard Rubin, and David Cushman. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of captopril was among the earliest successes of the revolutionary concept of ligand-based drug design. (wikipedia.org)
  • The methodology used was something called the RAND UCLA method, On the 15th of this month, the Food and Drug Administration made the United States the first captopril tabletki dawkowanie country to approve animal cloning for the retail food industry. (servicevents.fr)
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  • What are the possible side effects of Captopril? (rx2go.com)
  • Captopril is generally well tolerated and side effects are usually transient and mild. (rx2go.com)
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  • If you become pregnant while taking captopril, call your doctor immediately. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Captopril controls high blood pressure and heart failure but does not cure them. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This inhibition has been demonstrated in both healthy human subjects and in animals by showing that the elevation of blood pressure caused by exogenously administered angiotensin I was attenuated or abolished by captopril. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term captopril administration on the response to cold pressor testing in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. (unipv.it)