Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Non-invasive, endoscopic imaging by use of VIDEO CAPSULE ENDOSCOPES to perform examination of the gastrointestinal tract, especially the small bowel.
The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.
The thin noncellular outer covering of the CRYSTALLINE LENS composed mainly of COLLAGEN TYPE IV and GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS. It is secreted by the embryonic anterior and posterior epithelium. The embryonic posterior epithelium later disappears.
A pill sized videocamera encased in a capsule. It is designed to be swallowed and subsequently traverse the gastrointestinal tract while transmitting diagnostic images along the way.
WHITE MATTER pathway, flanked by nuclear masses, consisting of both afferent and efferent fibers projecting between the WHITE MATTER and the BRAINSTEM. It consists of three distinct parts: an anterior limb, posterior limb, and genu.
An extracellular layer outside the cell wall of a fungus composed of polysaccharides. It may serve a protective role amongst others.
A double-walled epithelial capsule that is the bulbous closed proximal end of the kidney tubular system. It surrounds the cluster of convoluted capillaries of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and is continuous with the convoluted PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE.
In vivo method of screening investigative anticancer drugs and biologic response modifiers for individual cancer patients. Fresh tumor tissue is implanted under the kidney capsule of immunocompetent mice or rats; gross and histological assessments follow several days after tumor treatment in situ.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Clouding or loss of transparency of the posterior lens capsule, usually following CATARACT extraction.
The posterior aspect of the casing that surrounds the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
'Lens diseases' is a broad term referring to various pathological conditions affecting the lens of the eye, including cataracts, subluxation, and dislocation, which can lead to visual impairment or blindness if not managed promptly.
The making of a continuous circular tear in the anterior capsule during cataract surgery in order to allow expression or phacoemulsification of the nucleus of the lens. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
The anterior aspect of the casing that surrounds the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS.
Instruments for the visual examination of the interior of the gastrointestinal tract.
Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long, often branched chains of repeating monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic bonds, which serve as energy storage molecules (e.g., glycogen), structural components (e.g., cellulose), and molecular recognition sites in various biological systems.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the gastrointestinal tract.
Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.
Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.
A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Tablets coated with material that delays release of the medication until after they leave the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.
Surgical procedure to relax the JOINT CAPSULE tissues in a joint that has a reduced range of motion due to CONTRACTURE or TISSUE ADHESIONS or joint deformities.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Chronic inflammation and granuloma formation around irritating foreign bodies.
Artificial implanted lenses.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Devices implanted to control intraocular pressure by allowing aqueous fluid to drain from the anterior chamber. (Hoffman, Pocket Glossary of Ophthalmologic Terminology, 1989)
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of UDPglucose to UDPglucuronate in the presence of NAD+. EC 1.1.1.22.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
A peptide that is a homopolymer of glutamic acid.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.
Insertion of an artificial lens to replace the natural CRYSTALLINE LENS after CATARACT EXTRACTION or to supplement the natural lens which is left in place.
Passage of food (sometimes in the form of a test meal) through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function.
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
The transference of pancreatic islets within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Pathological development in the JEJUNUM region of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Endoscopy of the small intestines accomplished while advancing the endoscope into the intestines from the stomach by alternating the inflation of two balloons, one on an innertube of the endoscope and the other on an overtube.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A necessary enzyme in the metabolism of galactose. It reversibly catalyzes the conversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose. NAD+ is an essential component for enzymatic activity. EC 5.1.3.2.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
Acquired degenerative dilation or expansion (ectasia) of normal BLOOD VESSELS, often associated with aging. They are isolated, tortuous, thin-walled vessels and sources of bleeding. They occur most often in mucosal capillaries of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT leading to GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE and ANEMIA.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.
Polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers which are used as sheets, moulding, extrusion powders, surface coating resins, emulsion polymers, fibers, inks, and films (From International Labor Organization, 1983). This material is also used in tooth implants, bone cements, and hard corneal contact lenses.
Acrylic resins, also known as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), are a type of synthetic resin formed from polymerized methyl methacrylate monomers, used in various medical applications such as dental restorations, orthopedic implants, and ophthalmic lenses due to their biocompatibility, durability, and transparency.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally found in the flora of the mouth and respiratory tract of animals and birds. It causes shipping fever (see PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC); HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA; and intestinal disease in animals. In humans, disease usually arises from a wound infection following a bite or scratch from domesticated animals.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Transplantation of tissue typical of one area to a different recipient site. The tissue may be autologous, heterologous, or homologous.
Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.

Cephalosporin and aminoglycoside concentrations in peritoneal capsular fluid in rabbits. (1/735)

To study the penetration of antibiotics into peritoneal tissue fluid, a subcutaneous tissue capsule model was modified by implanting multiple, perforated spherical capsules in the peritoneal cavity of rabbits. Capsules became vascularized, encased in connective tissue, and filled with fluid having a mean protein concentration of 3.6 g/100 ml. Capsular fluid was obtained by percutaneous needle aspiration and assayed for antibiotic by the disk plate bioassay technique. Cephalosporins were administered intramuscularly at a dose of 30 mg/kg. Mean peak concentrations of cephaloridine and cefazolin were significantly higher than cephalothin and cephapirin in capsular fluids, but the percent penetration (ratio of capsular mean peak to serum mean peak) ranged from 8.7 to 16.9% and was not significantly different among the cephalosporins. At 24 h the capsular concentration of cefazolin was significantly greater than for the other cephalosporins (P < 0.001). Lower rabbit serum protein binding observed at high in vivo concentrations may have enabled cefazolin to penetrate capsular fluid, but in vitro protein binding studies did not confirm a decrease in serum protein binding at high concentrations within the clinical range. Kanamycin and amikacin showed comparable capsular fluid peak concentrations as did gentamicin and tobramycin. The percent penetration ranged from 15.2 to 34.5% for the aminoglycosides. The only statistical difference was that amikacin penetration was significantly higher than that for tobramycin. Mean capsular concentrations of amikacin, cefazolin, and cephaloridine compared most favorably with the minimum inhibitory concentration of gram-negative bacilli at the dosages used in this study.  (+info)

A cortisol suppression dose-response comparison of budesonide in controlled ileal release capsules with prednisolone. (2/735)

AIM: To assess the systemic effect of oral budesonide, given as Entocort controlled ileal release capsules, over a dose range of 3-15 mg/day, compared with that of a moderate dose (20 mg/day) of prednisolone. METHODS: Twenty four healthy subjects were given 3, 9 or 15 mg budesonide or 20 mg prednisolone once daily, or 4.5 mg budesonide b.d., or placebo for 5 days in a randomized, double-blind crossover study. The area under the curve (AUC) of plasma cortisol concentration and the amount of cortisol excreted in the urine were monitored. RESULTS: Both plasma and urine cortisol suppression showed a dose-response for the daily doses of budesonide. Prednisolone, 20 mg, suppressed plasma cortisol (AUC) statistically significantly more than 15 mg budesonide (P = 0.014), and 3 mg budesonide statistically significantly more than placebo (P = 0.010). No difference in AUC was detected between 9 mg and 4.5 mg budesonide b.d. Similar results for budesonide vs. placebo were obtained from urine cortisol excretion data. However, prednisolone affected urine cortisol less than it affected plasma cortisol. CONCLUSION: After 5 days of administration, budesonide controlled ileal release capsules, in both clinical (9 mg/day) and high doses (15 mg/day), affected plasma cortisol less than a moderate (20 mg/day) dose of prednisolone.  (+info)

Breast milk immune factors in Bangladeshi women supplemented postpartum with retinol or beta-carotene. (3/735)

BACKGROUND: Vitamin A supplementation of mothers postpartum may improve infant health, not only by increasing vitamin A delivery to the infant through breast milk but also by increasing delivery of milk immune factors. Our hypothesis was that postpartum supplementation with vitamin A increases milk concentrations of certain soluble immune factors. DESIGN: In a double-blind trial conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh, women at 1-3 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to receive until 9 mo postpartum 1) a single dose of 60 mg retinol as retinyl palmitate followed by daily placebos (n = 69), 2) daily doses of 7.6 mg beta-carotene (n = 72), or 3) daily placebos (n = 71). Milk samples collected at baseline and 3 mo postpartum were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin, lysozyme, and interleukin 8; by HPLC for total retinol; and by atomic absorption spectroscopy for sodium and potassium. RESULTS: After mammary epithelial permeability (defined as an elevated Na:K) and baseline immune factor concentrations were controlled for, there were no significant treatment effects on immune factors at 3 mo. Increased mammary permeability was common (25% of women at baseline and 12% at 3 mo) and was associated with higher concentrations of milk immune factors. Low body vitamin A stores at baseline, as assessed by the modified-relative-dose-response test, were associated with a higher Na:K, but neither retinol nor beta-carotene supplementation affected the prevalence of increased mammary permeability. CONCLUSIONS: Postpartum vitamin A supplementation does not increase milk concentrations of immune factors. The causes of increased mammary epithelial permeability in this population require further study.  (+info)

Continuous delivery of human and mouse erythropoietin in mice by genetically engineered polymer encapsulated myoblasts. (4/735)

The transplantation of polymer encapsulated myoblasts genetically engineered to secrete erythropoietin (Epo) may obviate the need for repeated parenteral administration of recombinant Epo as a treatment for chronic renal failure, cancer or AIDS-associated anemia. To explore this possibility, the human and mouse Epo cDNAs under the control of the housekeeping mouse PGK-1 promoter were transfected into mouse C2C12 myoblasts, which can be terminally differentiated upon exposure to low serum-containing media. Pools releasing 150 IU human Epo per 10(6) cells per day and 390 IU mouse Epo per 10(6) cells per day were selected. Polyether-sulfone (PES) capsules loaded with approximately 200,000 transfected myoblasts from these pools were implanted on the dorsal flank of DBA/2J, C3H and C57BL/6 mice. With human Epo secreting capsules, only a transient increase in the hematocrit occurred in DBA/2J mice, whereas no significant response was detected in C3H or C57BL/6 mice. On the contrary, all mice implanted with capsules releasing mouse Epo increased their hematocrit over 85% as early as 7 days after implantation and sustained these levels for at least 80 days. All retrieved implants released Epo and contained well preserved myoblasts. Moreover most capsules were surrounded by a neovascularization. Mice transplanted with nonencapsulated C2C12 cells releasing mouse Epo showed only a transitory elevation of their hematocrit reflecting the poor engraftment of injected myoblasts. These results indicate that polymer encapsulation of genetically engineered myoblasts is a promising approach for the long-term delivery of bioactive molecules, allowing the resolution of the shortcomings of free myoblast transfer.  (+info)

Targeted chemotherapy by intratumour injection of encapsulated cells engineered to produce CYP2B1, an ifosfamide activating cytochrome P450. (5/735)

The prognosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma is poor and current treatment ineffective. A novel treatment strategy is described here using a mouse model system for pancreatic cancer. Cells that have been genetically modified to express the cytochrome P450 2B1 enzyme are encapsulated in cellulose sulphate and implanted into pre-established tumours derived from human pancreatic cells. Cytochrome P450 2B1 converts the chemotherapeutic agent ifosfamide to toxic metabolites. Administration of ifosfamide to tumour-bearing mice that were recipients of implanted encapsulated cells results in partial or even complete tumour ablation. These results suggest that in situ chemotherapy with genetically modified cells in an immunoprotected environment may prove useful for application in man.  (+info)

Comparison of antiplatelet activity of microencapsulated aspirin 162.5 Mg (Caspac XL), with enteric coated aspirin 75 mg and 150 mg in patients with atherosclerosis. (6/735)

AIMS: A new formulation, low dose microencapsulated aspirin, permits slow absorption of aspirin and presystemic acetylation of platelet cyclo-oxygenase within the portal circulation, potentially avoiding deleterious effects on gastric and systemic prostaglandin synthesis. The objective of this study was to determine whether the administration of microencapsulated aspirin was as effective as enteric coated (EC) aspirin as an inhibitor of platelet function in patients with atherosclerosis. METHODS: One hundred and four patients were enrolled and randomised after a run in period of at least 14 days on aspirin EC 75 mg (day 0), to receive either microencapsulated aspirin 162.5 mg (n=34), aspirin EC 150 mg (n=36) or continue on aspirin EC 75 mg (n=34) for 28 days. Serum thromboxane B2 and collagen-induced platelet aggregation and release of 5-hydroxytryptamine (EC50 values) were measured on days 0 and 28. Aggregation/release EC50s were then repeated in the presence of a large dose of aspirin added in vitro to determine the EC50 at the maximum level of platelet inhibition. RESULTS: Median thromboxane B2 levels were low after 14 days run-in therapy with aspirin EC 75 mg, but significant further reductions were seen on day 28 in patients randomised to microencapsulated aspirin 162.5 mg (P=0.0368) and aspirin EC 150 mg (P=0.0004) compared with those remaining on aspirin EC 75 mg. Median EC50 s on day 28 showed small but significant increases from baseline (day 0) in aggregation in patients randomised to microencapsulated aspirin 162.5 mg (0.62-0.85, P=0.0482) and in both aggregation and release in patients randomised to aspirin EC 150 mg (0.95-1.20, P=0.0002, 8.4-11.7, P<0. 0001, respectively) signifying enhanced antiplatelet activity. No changes were seen in patients continuing on aspirin EC 75 mg. Results following addition of high dose aspirin in vitro suggest that mechanisms other than thromboxane synthesis may be operative in the long term effects of microencapsulated aspirin 162.5 mg and aspirin EC 150 mg over aspirin EC 75 mg. CONCLUSIONS: The results show good inhibition of thromboxane B2 synthesis and subsequent platelet activity by all preparations of aspirin, although both microencapsulated aspirin 162.5 mg and aspirin EC 150 mg are slightly more effective than aspirin EC 75 mg. A randomised trial is now required to determine whether microencapsulated aspirin is associated with fewer gastric side-effects.  (+info)

Improvement of mouse beta-thalassemia upon erythropoietin delivery by encapsulated myoblasts. (7/735)

The goal of the present study was to analyze if sustained delivery of elevated doses of recombinant erythropoietin (Epo), by genetically modified and immunoprotected allogenic cells, was able to correct the chronic anemia, characteristic of a spontaneous mouse model of beta-thalassemia (Hbb thal 1). Mouse C2C12 myoblast cells were transfected with a plasmid containing the mouse Epo cDNA and a mutated dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) gene for gene amplification upon administration of increasing doses of methotrexate. In order to immunoprotect the transplanted cells, the stably modified cells were loaded into polyethersulfone microporus hollow fibers which were implanted subcutaneously into Hbb thal 1 mice. An increase in hematocrit starting 2 weeks after implantation was associated with elevated blood levels of Epo and an improved red blood cell phenotype. The latter indicated an improvement of cell morphology and membrane defects, in particular a reduced amount of free alpha hemoglobin chain, the hallmark of globin chain imbalance in beta-thalassemia. A reduction of reticulocyte count contrasting with the increase in hematocrit was also observed suggesting an improved erythrocyte survival. We conclude that the phenotype can be durably improved in some beta-thalassemic mice upon in vivo delivery of recombinant Epo by polymer encapsulated cells. Sustained elevated delivery of recombinant Epo holds promise for the treatment of beta-thalassemia-associated chronic anemia.  (+info)

Stabilized plasmid-lipid particles: construction and characterization. (8/735)

A detergent dialysis procedure is described which allows encapsulation of plasmid DNA within a lipid envelope, where the resulting particle is stabilized in aqueous media by the presence of a poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG) coating. These 'stabilized plasmid-lipid particles' (SPLP) exhibit an average size of 70 nm in diameter, contain one plasmid per particle and fully protect the encapsulated plasmid from digestion by serum nucleases and E. coli DNase I. Encapsulation is a sensitive function of cationic lipid content, with maximum entrapment observed at dioleoyldimethylammonium chloride (DODAC) contents of 5 to 10 mol%. The formulation process results in plasmid-trapping efficiencies of up to 70% and permits inclusion of 'fusigenic' lipids such as dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE). The in vitro transfection capabilities of SPLP are demonstrated to be strongly dependent on the length of the acyl chain contained in the ceramide group used to anchor the PEG polymer to the surface of the SPLP. Shorter acyl chain lengths result in a PEG coating which can dissociate from the SPLP surface, transforming the SPLP from a stable particle to a transfection-competent entity. It is suggested that SPLP may have utility as systemic gene delivery systems for gene therapy protocols.  (+info)

A capsule is a type of solid pharmaceutical dosage form in which the drug is enclosed in a small shell or container, usually composed of gelatin or other suitable material. The shell serves to protect the drug from degradation, improve its stability and shelf life, and facilitate swallowing by making it easier to consume. Capsules come in various sizes and colors and can contain one or more drugs in powder, liquid, or solid form. They are typically administered orally but can also be used for other routes of administration, such as rectal or vaginal.

Bacterial capsules are slimy, gel-like layers that surround many types of bacteria. They are made up of polysaccharides, proteins, or lipopolysaccharides and are synthesized by the bacterial cell. These capsules play a crucial role in the virulence and pathogenicity of bacteria as they help the bacteria to evade the host's immune system and promote their survival and colonization within the host. The presence of a capsule can also contribute to the bacteria's resistance to desiccation, phagocytosis, and antibiotics.

The chemical composition and structure of bacterial capsules vary among different species of bacteria, which is one factor that contributes to their serological specificity and allows for their identification and classification using methods such as the Quellung reaction or immunofluorescence microscopy.

Capsule endoscopy is a medical procedure that uses a small, pill-sized camera to capture images of the digestive tract. The capsule is swallowed and transmits images wirelessly as it moves through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, allowing doctors to examine the lining of the small intestine, which can be difficult to reach with traditional endoscopes.

The procedure is commonly used to diagnose and monitor conditions such as Crohn's disease, celiac disease, obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, and tumors in the small intestine. The images captured by the capsule are transmitted to a recorder worn by the patient, and then reviewed and analyzed by a healthcare professional.

Capsule endoscopy is generally considered safe and non-invasive, with few risks or side effects. However, it may not be suitable for everyone, including patients with swallowing difficulties, pacemakers, or certain gastrointestinal obstructions. It's important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine if capsule endoscopy is the right diagnostic tool for a particular condition.

A joint capsule is the fibrous sac that encloses a synovial joint, which is a type of joint characterized by the presence of a cavity filled with synovial fluid. The joint capsule provides stability and strength to the joint, while also allowing for a range of motion. It consists of two layers: an outer fibrous layer and an inner synovial membrane. The fibrous layer is made up of dense connective tissue that helps to stabilize the joint, while the synovial membrane produces synovial fluid, which lubricates the joint and reduces friction during movement.

The crystalline lens of the eye is covered by a transparent, elastic capsule known as the lens capsule. This capsule is made up of collagen and forms the continuous outer layer of the lens. It is highly resistant to both physical and chemical insults, which allows it to protect the lens fibers within. The lens capsule is important for maintaining the shape and transparency of the lens, which are essential for proper focusing of light onto the retina.

A capsule endoscope is a type of medical device used for minimally invasive examination of the digestive tract. It is a small, pill-sized capsule that contains a miniaturized camera, light source, and transmitter. The patient swallows the capsule, which then travels through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract while transmitting images to an external receiver worn by the patient.

The capsule endoscope typically captures approximately 50,000 to 60,000 color images during its journey through the digestive tract, providing detailed visualization of the mucosal lining of the small intestine, which can be difficult to reach with traditional endoscopes. The examination is called capsule endoscopy or wireless capsule enteroscopy.

Capsule endoscopes are mainly used for diagnosing various gastrointestinal conditions such as obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), small bowel tumors, and celiac disease. The procedure is generally safe, non-invasive, and well-tolerated by patients, with minimal discomfort or preparation required compared to traditional endoscopies. However, it may not be suitable for all patients, particularly those with swallowing difficulties, known or suspected gastrointestinal obstructions, or certain implanted electronic devices that could interfere with the capsule's signal transmission.

The internal capsule is a critical structure in the brain that consists of a bundle of white matter fibers (nerve tracts) located deep within the cerebral hemispheres. It serves as a major pathway for the transmission of motor, sensory, and cognitive information between different regions of the brain. The internal capsule is divided into several segments, including the anterior limb, genu, posterior limb, and retrolentiform and sublentiform parts.

The fibers within the internal capsule can be categorized into three groups: corticopontine fibers, corticospinal and corticobulbar fibers, and thalamocortical fibers. Corticopontine fibers originate from the cerebral cortex and terminate in the pons. Corticospinal and corticobulbar fibers are responsible for motor functions, with corticospinal fibers controlling movements of the trunk and limbs, while corticobulbar fibers control movements of the face and head. Thalamocortical fibers carry sensory information from the thalamus to the cerebral cortex.

Damage to the internal capsule can result in various neurological deficits, depending on the specific location and extent of the injury. These may include motor impairments, sensory loss, cognitive dysfunction, or a combination of these symptoms.

A fungal capsule refers to a structure that surrounds and protects the fungal cell, primarily found in encapsulated fungi. It is composed of polysaccharides and glycoproteins, and its formation is influenced by environmental factors such as pH, temperature, and nutrient availability. The capsule plays a crucial role in the virulence and pathogenicity of fungi, facilitating adherence to host tissues, evasion of the immune system, and biofilm formation.

Medically important encapsulated fungi include Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii, which can cause severe infections such as meningitis and pneumonia, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. The capsule is a key virulence factor for these organisms, making it an important target for diagnostic tests and antifungal therapies.

The Bowman capsule is the initial component of the nephron, which is the functional unit of the kidney. It is a structural and functional part of the renal corpuscle, along with the glomerulus. The Bowman capsule surrounds the glomerulus and serves as a site for filtration, helping to separate small molecules from blood cells and large proteins in the process known as urine formation.

The Bowman capsule is composed of a single layer of epithelial cells called podocytes, which have foot-like processes that interdigitate with each other and form filtration slits. These slits are covered by a thin diaphragm, allowing for the passage of small molecules while retaining larger ones. The space within the Bowman capsule is called the urinary space or Bowman's space, where the filtrate from the blood collects before moving into the tubular system for further processing and eventual excretion as urine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Subrenal Capsule Assay" is not a widely recognized or established term in medicine or physiology. It appears that this term may be specific to certain research or experimental contexts.

In general, a capsule assay is a type of experimental setup where cells or tissues are encapsulated within a semi-permeable membrane, allowing for the study of cellular behavior and interactions with the external environment while being protected from immune system attack.

The term "subrenal" suggests that it may have something to do with the kidney, specifically below the renal capsule, which is the outermost layer of the kidney. However, without more context or information about the specific research or experimental procedure, it's difficult to provide a precise medical definition for this term.

If you could provide more context or details about where you encountered this term, I may be able to give a more accurate and helpful explanation.

Bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that consist of long chains of sugar molecules (monosaccharides) linked together by glycosidic bonds. They are produced and used by bacteria for various purposes such as:

1. Structural components: Bacterial polysaccharides, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity of bacterial cells. Peptidoglycan is a major component of the bacterial cell wall, while LPS forms the outer layer of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria.
2. Nutrient storage: Some bacteria synthesize and store polysaccharides as an energy reserve, similar to how plants store starch. These polysaccharides can be broken down and utilized by the bacterium when needed.
3. Virulence factors: Bacterial polysaccharides can also function as virulence factors, contributing to the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. For example, certain bacteria produce capsular polysaccharides (CPS) that surround and protect the bacterial cells from host immune defenses, allowing them to evade phagocytosis and persist within the host.
4. Adhesins: Some polysaccharides act as adhesins, facilitating the attachment of bacteria to surfaces or host cells. This is important for biofilm formation, which helps bacteria resist environmental stresses and antibiotic treatments.
5. Antigenic properties: Bacterial polysaccharides can be highly antigenic, eliciting an immune response in the host. The antigenicity of these molecules can vary between different bacterial species or even strains within a species, making them useful as targets for vaccines and diagnostic tests.

In summary, bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that serve various functions in bacteria, including structural support, nutrient storage, virulence factor production, adhesion, and antigenicity.

Capsule opacification, also known as posterior capsular opacification (PCO) or "after-cataract," is a condition that can occur after cataract surgery. During cataract surgery, the cloudy natural lens of the eye is removed and replaced with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL). However, over time, the remaining capsule that holds the IOL in place can become cloudy, leading to blurry or distorted vision. This clouding of the capsule is called capsule opacification. It is not a true reformation of the cataract but a separate condition that can occur after cataract surgery.

Capsule opacification can be treated with a simple laser procedure called YAG capsulotomy, which creates an opening in the cloudy capsule to restore clear vision. This procedure is typically quick, painless, and performed on an outpatient basis.

The posterior capsule of the lens is a thin, transparent layer of tissue that lies behind the lens cortex in the eye. It surrounds and helps to maintain the shape of the lens, which is necessary for focusing light onto the retina. The posterior capsule is one of the five layers that make up the adult human lens, along with the anterior capsule, lens epithelium, lens cortex, and lens nucleus.

Damage or opacification of the posterior capsule can result in a clouding of vision known as a posterior capsular opacity (PCO) or "secondary cataract." This is a common complication following cataract surgery, where the cloudy lens has been removed but the posterior capsule remains. In such cases, a laser procedure called a YAG capsulotomy may be performed to create an opening in the posterior capsule and restore clear vision.

'Cryptococcus neoformans' is a species of encapsulated, budding yeast that is an important cause of fungal infections in humans and animals. The capsule surrounding the cell wall is composed of polysaccharides and is a key virulence factor, allowing the organism to evade host immune responses. C. neoformans is found worldwide in soil, particularly in association with bird droppings, and can be inhaled, leading to pulmonary infection. In people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, hematological malignancies, or organ transplants, C. neoformans can disseminate from the lungs to other sites, most commonly the central nervous system (CNS), causing meningitis. The infection can also affect other organs, including the skin, bones, and eyes.

The diagnosis of cryptococcosis typically involves microscopic examination and culture of clinical specimens, such as sputum, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), followed by biochemical and molecular identification of the organism. Treatment usually consists of a combination of antifungal medications, such as amphotericin B and fluconazole, along with management of any underlying immunodeficiency. The prognosis of cryptococcosis depends on various factors, including the patient's immune status, the extent and severity of infection, and the timeliness and adequacy of treatment.

Lens diseases refer to conditions that affect the lens of the eye, which is a transparent structure located behind the iris and pupil. The main function of the lens is to focus light onto the retina, enabling clear vision. Here are some examples of lens diseases:

1. Cataract: A cataract is a clouding of the lens that affects vision. It is a common age-related condition, but can also be caused by injury, disease, or medication.
2. Presbyopia: This is not strictly a "disease," but rather an age-related change in the lens that causes difficulty focusing on close objects. It typically becomes noticeable in people over the age of 40.
3. Lens dislocation: This occurs when the lens slips out of its normal position, usually due to trauma or a genetic disorder. It can cause vision problems and may require surgical intervention.
4. Lens opacity: This refers to any clouding or opacification of the lens that is not severe enough to be considered a cataract. It can cause visual symptoms such as glare or blurred vision.
5. Anterior subcapsular cataract: This is a type of cataract that forms in the front part of the lens, often as a result of injury or inflammation. It can cause significant visual impairment.
6. Posterior subcapsular cataract: This is another type of cataract that forms at the back of the lens, often as a result of diabetes or certain medications. It can also cause significant visual impairment.

Overall, lens diseases can have a significant impact on vision and quality of life, and may require medical intervention to manage or treat.

Capsulorhexis is a surgical procedure that is commonly performed during cataract surgery. It involves creating a circular opening in the front part of the lens capsule, which is a clear membrane that surrounds and holds the lens in place inside the eye. This opening allows the cloudy lens material (cataract) to be removed and replaced with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL).

The procedure is typically performed using a specialized instrument called a cystotome or a femtosecond laser, which creates a small tear in the capsule that can be carefully enlarged to the desired size. The capsulorhexis is crucial for the successful removal of the cataract and the proper placement of the IOL. If the capsulorhexis is not performed correctly, it can lead to complications such as posterior capsular opacification (PCO), which is a thickening and clouding of the back part of the lens capsule that can cause visual symptoms similar to those of a cataract.

The crystalline lens is a biconvex transparent structure in the eye that helps to refract (bend) light rays and focus them onto the retina. It is located behind the iris and pupil and is suspended by small fibers called zonules that connect it to the ciliary body. The lens can change its shape to accommodate and focus on objects at different distances, a process known as accommodation. With age, the lens may become cloudy or opaque, leading to cataracts.

The anterior capsule of the lens is a thin, transparent membrane that forms the front part of the capsule surrounding the crystalline lens in the eye. It is an important structure in cataract surgery where it is removed to gain access to and remove the cloudy lens material. The posterior capsule, which is located behind the lens, may also become opacified following cataract surgery, causing a secondary type of cataract known as a "posterior capsular opacity."

An endoscope is a medical device used for visualizing the internal surfaces of hollow organs or cavities in the body. Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes are specifically designed to examine the digestive tract, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), and rectum.

There are several types of GI endoscopes, including:

1. Gastroscope: Used for examining the stomach and upper part of the small intestine (duodenum).
2. Colonoscope: Used for examining the large intestine (colon) and rectum.
3. Sigmoidoscope: A shorter version of a colonoscope, used for examining the lower part of the large intestine (sigmoid colon) and rectum.
4. Duodenoscope: Used for examining and treating conditions in the pancreas and bile ducts.
5. Enteroscope: A longer endoscope used to examine the small intestine, which is more challenging to reach due to its length and location.

GI endoscopes typically consist of a long, flexible tube with a light source, camera, and channels for instruments to be passed through. The images captured by the camera are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the medical professional to inspect the internal surfaces of the digestive tract and perform various procedures, such as taking biopsies or removing polyps.

Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long chains of monosaccharide units (simple sugars) bonded together by glycosidic linkages. They can be classified based on the type of monosaccharides and the nature of the bonds that connect them.

Polysaccharides have various functions in living organisms. For example, starch and glycogen serve as energy storage molecules in plants and animals, respectively. Cellulose provides structural support in plants, while chitin is a key component of fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons.

Some polysaccharides also have important roles in the human body, such as being part of the extracellular matrix (e.g., hyaluronic acid) or acting as blood group antigens (e.g., ABO blood group substances).

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Chinese herbal drugs, also known as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), refer to a system of medicine that has been practiced in China for thousands of years. It is based on the belief that the body's vital energy, called Qi, must be balanced and flowing freely for good health. TCM uses various techniques such as herbal therapy, acupuncture, dietary therapy, and exercise to restore balance and promote healing.

Chinese herbal drugs are usually prescribed in the form of teas, powders, pills, or tinctures and may contain one or a combination of herbs. The herbs used in Chinese medicine are typically derived from plants, minerals, or animal products. Some commonly used Chinese herbs include ginseng, astragalus, licorice root, and cinnamon bark.

It is important to note that the use of Chinese herbal drugs should be under the guidance of a qualified practitioner, as some herbs can interact with prescription medications or have side effects. Additionally, the quality and safety of Chinese herbal products can vary widely depending on the source and manufacturing process.

Gastrointestinal endoscopy is a medical procedure that allows direct visualization of the inner lining of the digestive tract, which includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), and sometimes the upper part of the small intestine (duodenum). This procedure is performed using an endoscope, a long, thin, flexible tube with a light and camera at its tip. The endoscope is inserted through the mouth for upper endoscopy or through the rectum for lower endoscopy (colonoscopy), and the images captured by the camera are transmitted to a monitor for the physician to view.

Gastrointestinal endoscopy can help diagnose various conditions, such as inflammation, ulcers, tumors, polyps, or bleeding in the digestive tract. It can also be used for therapeutic purposes, such as removing polyps, taking tissue samples (biopsies), treating bleeding, and performing other interventions to manage certain digestive diseases.

There are different types of gastrointestinal endoscopy procedures, including:

1. Upper Endoscopy (Esophagogastroduodenoscopy or EGD): This procedure examines the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.
2. Colonoscopy: This procedure examines the colon and rectum.
3. Sigmoidoscopy: A limited examination of the lower part of the colon (sigmoid colon) using a shorter endoscope.
4. Enteroscopy: An examination of the small intestine, which can be performed using various techniques, such as push enteroscopy, single-balloon enteroscopy, or double-balloon enteroscopy.
5. Capsule Endoscopy: A procedure that involves swallowing a small capsule containing a camera, which captures images of the digestive tract as it passes through.

Gastrointestinal endoscopy is generally considered safe when performed by experienced medical professionals. However, like any medical procedure, there are potential risks and complications, such as bleeding, infection, perforation, or adverse reactions to sedatives used during the procedure. Patients should discuss these risks with their healthcare provider before undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy.

Intestinal diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the function or structure of the small intestine, large intestine (colon), or both. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, bloating, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. They can be caused by infections, inflammation, genetic disorders, or other factors. Some examples of intestinal diseases include inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), celiac disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and intestinal infections. The specific medical definition may vary depending on the context and the specific condition being referred to.

Gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage is a term used to describe any bleeding that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum. The bleeding can range from mild to severe and can produce symptoms such as vomiting blood, passing black or tarry stools, or having low blood pressure.

GI hemorrhage can be classified as either upper or lower, depending on the location of the bleed. Upper GI hemorrhage refers to bleeding that occurs above the ligament of Treitz, which is a point in the small intestine where it becomes narrower and turns a corner. Common causes of upper GI hemorrhage include gastritis, ulcers, esophageal varices, and Mallory-Weiss tears.

Lower GI hemorrhage refers to bleeding that occurs below the ligament of Treitz. Common causes of lower GI hemorrhage include diverticulosis, colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and vascular abnormalities such as angiodysplasia.

The diagnosis of GI hemorrhage is often made based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as endoscopy, CT scan, or radionuclide scanning. Treatment depends on the severity and cause of the bleeding and may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

A contracture, in a medical context, refers to the abnormal shortening and hardening of muscles, tendons, or other tissue, which can result in limited mobility and deformity of joints. This condition can occur due to various reasons such as injury, prolonged immobilization, scarring, neurological disorders, or genetic conditions.

Contractures can cause significant impairment in daily activities and quality of life, making it difficult for individuals to perform routine tasks like dressing, bathing, or walking. Treatment options may include physical therapy, splinting, casting, medications, surgery, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the contracture.

Phacoemulsification is a surgical procedure used in cataract removal. It involves using an ultrasonic device to emulsify (break up) the cloudy lens (cataract) into small pieces, which are then aspirated or sucked out through a small incision. This procedure allows for smaller incisions and faster recovery times compared to traditional cataract surgery methods. After the cataract is removed, an artificial intraocular lens (IOL) is typically implanted to replace the natural lens and restore vision.

The small intestine is the portion of the gastrointestinal tract that extends from the pylorus of the stomach to the beginning of the large intestine (cecum). It plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food. The small intestine is divided into three parts: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

1. Duodenum: This is the shortest and widest part of the small intestine, approximately 10 inches long. It receives chyme (partially digested food) from the stomach and begins the process of further digestion with the help of various enzymes and bile from the liver and pancreas.
2. Jejunum: The jejunum is the middle section, which measures about 8 feet in length. It has a large surface area due to the presence of circular folds (plicae circulares), finger-like projections called villi, and microvilli on the surface of the absorptive cells (enterocytes). These structures increase the intestinal surface area for efficient absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, and water.
3. Ileum: The ileum is the longest and final section of the small intestine, spanning about 12 feet. It continues the absorption process, mainly of vitamin B12, bile salts, and any remaining nutrients. At the end of the ileum, there is a valve called the ileocecal valve that prevents backflow of contents from the large intestine into the small intestine.

The primary function of the small intestine is to absorb the majority of nutrients, electrolytes, and water from ingested food. The mucosal lining of the small intestine contains numerous goblet cells that secrete mucus, which protects the epithelial surface and facilitates the movement of chyme through peristalsis. Additionally, the small intestine hosts a diverse community of microbiota, which contributes to various physiological functions, including digestion, immunity, and protection against pathogens.

Enteric-coated tablets are a pharmaceutical formulation in which a tablet is coated with a polymeric material that is resistant to stomach acid. This coating allows the tablet to pass through the stomach intact and dissolve in the small intestine, where the pH is more neutral.

The enteric coating serves two main purposes:

1. It protects the active ingredient(s) from degradation by stomach acid, which can be particularly important for drugs that are unstable in acidic environments or that irritate the stomach lining.
2. It controls the release of the drug into the body, ensuring that it is absorbed in the small intestine rather than the stomach. This can help to improve the bioavailability of the drug and reduce side effects.

Enteric-coated tablets are commonly used for drugs that treat conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract, such as ulcers or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). They may also be used for drugs that have a narrow therapeutic index, meaning that the difference between an effective dose and a toxic dose is small. By controlling the release of these drugs into the body, enteric coating can help to ensure that they are absorbed at a consistent rate and reduce the risk of adverse effects.

A cataract is a clouding of the natural lens in the eye that affects vision. This clouding can cause vision to become blurry, faded, or dim, making it difficult to see clearly. Cataracts are a common age-related condition, but they can also be caused by injury, disease, or medication use. In most cases, cataracts develop gradually over time and can be treated with surgery to remove the cloudy lens and replace it with an artificial one.

Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by the yeast-like fungus Cryptococcus neoformans or Cryptococcus gattii. It can affect people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, organ transplants, or long-term steroid use. The infection typically starts in the lungs and can spread to other parts of the body, including the brain (meningitis), causing various symptoms like cough, fever, chest pain, headache, confusion, and vision problems. Treatment usually involves antifungal medications, and the prognosis depends on the patient's immune status and the severity of the infection.

A joint capsule release, also known as a capsular release or joint mobilization, is a surgical procedure that aims to increase the range of motion and reduce pain in a stiff joint. The joint capsule is a fibrous sac that encloses the joint cavity, providing stability and lubrication. In some cases, this capsule can become thickened and contracted, restricting movement and causing discomfort.

During a joint capsule release, the surgeon makes an incision in the joint capsule to release the tight, restricted tissue. This procedure is often performed on joints such as the shoulder, hip, or knee, where stiffness can significantly impact function and quality of life. The goal of the procedure is to improve mobility, alleviate pain, and enhance the overall functioning of the joint. It's important to note that this is a specialized surgical technique, and the specific indications, benefits, and risks should be discussed with a qualified medical professional.

I couldn't find a medical definition specifically for "delayed-action preparations." However, in the context of pharmacology, it may refer to medications or treatments that have a delayed onset of action. These are designed to release the active drug slowly over an extended period, which can help to maintain a consistent level of the medication in the body and reduce the frequency of dosing.

Examples of delayed-action preparations include:

1. Extended-release (ER) or controlled-release (CR) formulations: These are designed to release the drug slowly over several hours, reducing the need for frequent dosing. Examples include extended-release tablets and capsules.
2. Transdermal patches: These deliver medication through the skin and can provide a steady rate of drug delivery over several days. Examples include nicotine patches for smoking cessation or fentanyl patches for pain management.
3. Injectable depots: These are long-acting injectable formulations that slowly release the drug into the body over weeks to months. An example is the use of long-acting antipsychotic injections for the treatment of schizophrenia.
4. Implantable devices: These are small, biocompatible devices placed under the skin or within a body cavity that release a steady dose of medication over an extended period. Examples include hormonal implants for birth control or drug-eluting stents used in cardiovascular procedures.

Delayed-action preparations can improve patient compliance and quality of life by reducing dosing frequency, minimizing side effects, and maintaining consistent therapeutic levels.

Cataract extraction is a surgical procedure that involves removing the cloudy lens (cataract) from the eye. This procedure is typically performed to restore vision impairment caused by cataracts and improve overall quality of life. There are two primary methods for cataract extraction:

1. Phacoemulsification: This is the most common method used today. It involves making a small incision in the front part of the eye (cornea), inserting an ultrasonic probe to break up the cloudy lens into tiny pieces, and then removing those pieces with suction. After removing the cataract, an artificial intraocular lens (IOL) is inserted to replace the natural lens and help focus light onto the retina.

2. Extracapsular Cataract Extraction: In this method, a larger incision is made on the side of the cornea, allowing the surgeon to remove the cloudy lens in one piece without breaking it up. The back part of the lens capsule is left intact to support the IOL. This technique is less common and typically reserved for more advanced cataracts or when phacoemulsification cannot be performed.

Recovery from cataract extraction usually involves using eye drops to prevent infection and inflammation, as well as protecting the eye with a shield or glasses during sleep for a few weeks after surgery. Most people experience improved vision within a few days to a week following the procedure.

In the context of medical terminology, tablets refer to pharmaceutical dosage forms that contain various active ingredients. They are often manufactured in a solid, compressed form and can be administered orally. Tablets may come in different shapes, sizes, colors, and flavors, depending on their intended use and the manufacturer's specifications.

Some tablets are designed to disintegrate or dissolve quickly in the mouth, making them easier to swallow, while others are formulated to release their active ingredients slowly over time, allowing for extended drug delivery. These types of tablets are known as sustained-release or controlled-release tablets.

Tablets may contain a single active ingredient or a combination of several ingredients, depending on the intended therapeutic effect. They are typically manufactured using a variety of excipients, such as binders, fillers, and disintegrants, which help to hold the tablet together and ensure that it breaks down properly when ingested.

Overall, tablets are a convenient and widely used dosage form for administering medications, offering patients an easy-to-use and often palatable option for receiving their prescribed treatments.

A foreign-body reaction is an immune response that occurs when a non-native substance, or "foreign body," is introduced into the human body. This can include things like splinters, surgical implants, or even injected medications. The immune system recognizes these substances as foreign and mounts a response to try to eliminate them.

The initial response to a foreign body is often an acute inflammatory reaction, characterized by the release of chemical mediators that cause vasodilation, increased blood flow, and the migration of white blood cells to the site. This can result in symptoms such as redness, swelling, warmth, and pain.

If the foreign body is not eliminated, a chronic inflammatory response may develop, which can lead to the formation of granulation tissue, fibrosis, and encapsulation of the foreign body. In some cases, this reaction can cause significant tissue damage or impede proper healing.

It's worth noting that not all foreign bodies necessarily elicit a strong immune response. The nature and size of the foreign body, as well as its location in the body, can all influence the severity of the reaction.

Intraocular lenses (IOLs) are artificial lens implants that are placed inside the eye during ophthalmic surgery, such as cataract removal. These lenses are designed to replace the natural lens of the eye that has become clouded or damaged, thereby restoring vision impairment caused by cataracts or other conditions.

There are several types of intraocular lenses available, including monofocal, multifocal, toric, and accommodative lenses. Monofocal IOLs provide clear vision at a single fixed distance, while multifocal IOLs offer clear vision at multiple distances. Toric IOLs are designed to correct astigmatism, and accommodative IOLs can change shape and position within the eye to allow for a range of vision.

The selection of the appropriate type of intraocular lens depends on various factors, including the patient's individual visual needs, lifestyle, and ocular health. The implantation procedure is typically performed on an outpatient basis and involves minimal discomfort or recovery time. Overall, intraocular lenses have become a safe and effective treatment option for patients with vision impairment due to cataracts or other eye conditions.

Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as the pneumococcus, is a gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic bacterium frequently found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy individuals. It is a leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and can also cause other infectious diseases such as otitis media (ear infection), sinusitis, meningitis, and bacteremia (bloodstream infection). The bacteria are encapsulated, and there are over 90 serotypes based on variations in the capsular polysaccharide. Some serotypes are more virulent or invasive than others, and the polysaccharide composition is crucial for vaccine development. S. pneumoniae infection can be treated with antibiotics, but the emergence of drug-resistant strains has become a significant global health concern.

A Molteno implant refers to a type of glaucoma drainage device used in ophthalmology to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with uncontrolled glaucoma. The device consists of a small plastic plate with a silicone tube that is implanted into the eye during a surgical procedure.

The tube creates a passage for the aqueous humor, the fluid inside the eye, to flow out of the eye and into a reservoir created by the plate, which is positioned under the conjunctiva (the clear membrane covering the white part of the eye). The fluid is then absorbed by the body, reducing the IOP within the eye.

The Molteno implant is typically used in cases where other glaucoma treatments have failed, and it provides a long-term solution for managing IOP and preventing further damage to the optic nerve and visual field. It is named after Anthony Molteno, who developed the device in the 1960s.

Uridine Diphosphate (UDP) Glucose Dehydrogenase is an enzyme that plays a role in carbohydrate metabolism. Its systematic name is UDP-glucose:NAD+ oxidoreductase, and it catalyzes the following chemical reaction:

UDP-glucose + NAD+ -> UDP-glucuronate + NADH + H+

This enzyme helps convert UDP-glucose into UDP-glucuronate, which is a crucial component in the biosynthesis of various substances in the body, such as glycosaminoglycans and other glyconjugates. The reaction also results in the reduction of NAD+ to NADH, which is an essential coenzyme in numerous metabolic processes.

UDP-glucose dehydrogenase is widely distributed in various tissues, including the liver, kidney, and intestine. Deficiencies or mutations in this enzyme can lead to several metabolic disorders, such as glucosuria and hypermethioninemia.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Pharmaceutical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the design, synthesis, and development of chemical entities used as medications. It involves the study of drugs' physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as their interactions with living organisms. This field also encompasses understanding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of drugs in the body, which are critical factors in drug design and development. Pharmaceutical chemists often work closely with biologists, medical professionals, and engineers to develop new medications and improve existing ones.

Polyglutamic acid (PGA) is not a medical term per se, but it is a term used in biochemistry and cosmetics. Medically, it may be mentioned in the context of certain medical conditions or treatments. Here's a definition:

Polyglutamic acid is a polymer of glutamic acid, a type of amino acid. It is a natural substance found in various foods such as natto, a traditional Japanese fermented soybean dish. In the human body, it is produced by certain bacteria during fermentation processes.

PGA has been studied for its potential medical applications due to its unique properties, including its ability to retain moisture and form gels. It has been explored as a wound dressing material, drug delivery vehicle, and anti-aging cosmetic ingredient. However, it is not a widely used or recognized medical treatment at this time.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

'Bacillus anthracis' is the scientific name for the bacterium that causes anthrax, a serious and potentially fatal infectious disease. This gram-positive, spore-forming rod-shaped bacterium can be found in soil and commonly affects animals such as sheep, goats, and cattle. Anthrax can manifest in several forms, including cutaneous (skin), gastrointestinal, and inhalation anthrax, depending on the route of infection.

The spores of Bacillus anthracis are highly resistant to environmental conditions and can survive for years, making them a potential agent for bioterrorism or biowarfare. When inhaled, ingested, or introduced through breaks in the skin, these spores can germinate into vegetative bacteria that produce potent exotoxins responsible for anthrax symptoms and complications.

It is essential to distinguish Bacillus anthracis from other Bacillus species due to its public health significance and potential use as a biological weapon. Proper identification, prevention strategies, and medical countermeasures are crucial in mitigating the risks associated with this bacterium.

Intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is a surgical procedure that involves placing a small artificial lens inside the eye to replace the natural lens that has been removed. This procedure is typically performed during cataract surgery, where the cloudy natural lens is removed and replaced with an IOL to restore clear vision.

During the procedure, a small incision is made in the eye, and the cloudy lens is broken up and removed using ultrasound waves or laser energy. Then, the folded IOL is inserted through the same incision and positioned in the correct place inside the eye. Once in place, the IOL unfolds and is secured into position.

There are several types of IOLs available, including monofocal, multifocal, toric, and accommodating lenses. Monofocal lenses provide clear vision at one distance, while multifocal lenses offer clear vision at multiple distances. Toric lenses correct astigmatism, and accommodating lenses can change shape to focus on objects at different distances.

Overall, intraocular lens implantation is a safe and effective procedure that can help restore clear vision in patients with cataracts or other eye conditions that require the removal of the natural lens.

Gastrointestinal transit refers to the movement of food, digestive secretions, and waste products through the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus. This process involves several muscles and nerves that work together to propel the contents through the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum.

The transit time can vary depending on factors such as the type and amount of food consumed, hydration levels, and overall health. Abnormalities in gastrointestinal transit can lead to various conditions, including constipation, diarrhea, and malabsorption. Therefore, maintaining normal gastrointestinal transit is essential for proper digestion, nutrient absorption, and overall health.

Drug compounding is the process of combining, mixing, or altering ingredients to create a customized medication to meet the specific needs of an individual patient. This can be done for a variety of reasons, such as when a patient has an allergy to a certain ingredient in a mass-produced medication, or when a patient requires a different dosage or formulation than what is available commercially.

Compounding requires specialized training and equipment, and compounding pharmacists must follow strict guidelines to ensure the safety and efficacy of the medications they produce. Compounded medications are not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), but the FDA does regulate the ingredients used in compounding and has oversight over the practices of compounding pharmacies.

It's important to note that while compounding can provide benefits for some patients, it also carries risks, such as the potential for contamination or incorrect dosing. Patients should only receive compounded medications from reputable pharmacies that follow proper compounding standards and procedures.

Islets of Langerhans transplantation is a surgical procedure that involves the transplantation of isolated islets from a deceased donor's pancreas into another person with type 1 diabetes. The islets of Langerhans are clusters of cells within the pancreas that produce hormones, including insulin, which regulates blood sugar levels.

In type 1 diabetes, the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys these insulin-producing cells, leading to high blood sugar levels. Islet transplantation aims to replace the damaged islets with healthy ones from a donor, allowing the recipient's body to produce and regulate its own insulin again.

The procedure involves extracting the islets from the donor pancreas and infusing them into the recipient's liver through a small incision in the abdomen. Once inside the liver, the islets can sense glucose levels in the bloodstream and release insulin as needed to maintain normal blood sugar levels.

Islet transplantation has shown promising results in improving blood sugar control and reducing the risk of severe hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) in people with type 1 diabetes. However, it requires long-term immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted islets, which can have side effects and increase the risk of infections.

Silicone elastomers are a type of synthetic rubber made from silicone, which is a polymer composed primarily of silicon-oxygen bonds. They are known for their durability, flexibility, and resistance to heat, cold, and moisture. Silicone elastomers can be manufactured in various forms, including liquids, gels, and solids, and they are used in a wide range of medical applications such as:

1. Breast implants: Silicone elastomer shells filled with silicone gel are commonly used for breast augmentation and reconstruction.
2. Contact lenses: Some contact lenses are made from silicone elastomers due to their high oxygen permeability, which allows for better eye health.
3. Catheters: Silicone elastomer catheters are flexible and resistant to kinking, making them suitable for long-term use in various medical procedures.
4. Implantable drug delivery systems: Silicone elastomers can be used as a matrix for controlled release of drugs, allowing for sustained and targeted medication administration.
5. Medical adhesives: Silicone elastomer adhesives are biocompatible and can be used to attach medical devices to the skin or other tissues.
6. Sealants and coatings: Silicone elastomers can be used as sealants and coatings in medical devices to prevent leakage, improve durability, and reduce infection risk.

It is important to note that while silicone elastomers are generally considered safe for medical use, there have been concerns about the potential health risks associated with breast implants, such as capsular contracture, breast pain, and immune system reactions. However, these risks vary depending on the individual's health status and the specific type of silicone elastomer used.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

'Cryptococcus' is a genus of encapsulated, budding yeast that are found in the environment, particularly in soil and bird droppings. The most common species that causes infection in humans is Cryptococcus neoformans, followed by Cryptococcus gattii.

Infection with Cryptococcus can occur when a person inhales the microscopic yeast cells, which can then lead to lung infections (pneumonia) or disseminated disease, particularly in people with weakened immune systems. The most common form of disseminated cryptococcal infection is meningitis, an inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

Cryptococcal infections can be serious and even life-threatening, especially in individuals with HIV/AIDS or other conditions that weaken the immune system. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, such as amphotericin B and fluconazole.

Biological availability is a term used in pharmacology and toxicology that refers to the degree and rate at which a drug or other substance is absorbed into the bloodstream and becomes available at the site of action in the body. It is a measure of the amount of the substance that reaches the systemic circulation unchanged, after administration by any route (such as oral, intravenous, etc.).

The biological availability (F) of a drug can be calculated using the area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma concentration-time profile after extravascular and intravenous dosing, according to the following formula:

F = (AUCex/AUCiv) x (Doseiv/Doseex)

where AUCex is the AUC after extravascular dosing, AUCiv is the AUC after intravenous dosing, Doseiv is the intravenous dose, and Doseex is the extravascular dose.

Biological availability is an important consideration in drug development and therapy, as it can affect the drug's efficacy, safety, and dosage regimen. Drugs with low biological availability may require higher doses to achieve the desired therapeutic effect, while drugs with high biological availability may have a more rapid onset of action and require lower doses to avoid toxicity.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Neisseria meningitidis is a Gram-negative, aerobic, bean-shaped diplococcus bacterium. It is one of the leading causes of bacterial meningitis and sepsis (known as meningococcal disease) worldwide. The bacteria can be found in the back of the nose and throat of approximately 10-25% of the general population, particularly in children, teenagers, and young adults, without causing any symptoms or illness. However, when the bacterium invades the bloodstream and spreads to the brain or spinal cord, it can lead to life-threatening infections such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord) and septicemia (blood poisoning).

Neisseria meningitidis is classified into 12 serogroups based on the chemical structure of their capsular polysaccharides. The six major serogroups that cause most meningococcal disease worldwide are A, B, C, W, X, and Y. Vaccines are available to protect against some or all of these serogroups.

Meningococcal disease can progress rapidly, leading to severe symptoms such as high fever, headache, stiff neck, confusion, nausea, vomiting, and a rash consisting of purple or red spots. Immediate medical attention is required if someone experiences these symptoms, as meningococcal disease can cause permanent disabilities or death within hours if left untreated.

Glycosyltransferases are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the synthesis of glycoconjugates, which are complex carbohydrate structures found on the surface of cells and in various biological fluids. These enzymes catalyze the transfer of a sugar moiety from an activated donor molecule to an acceptor molecule, resulting in the formation of a glycosidic bond.

The donor molecule is typically a nucleotide sugar, such as UDP-glucose or CMP-sialic acid, which provides the energy required for the transfer reaction. The acceptor molecule can be a wide range of substrates, including proteins, lipids, and other carbohydrates.

Glycosyltransferases are highly specific in their activity, with each enzyme recognizing a particular donor and acceptor pair. This specificity allows for the precise regulation of glycan structures, which have been shown to play important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and adhesion.

Defects in glycosyltransferase function can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, such as congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG), which are characterized by abnormal glycan structures and a wide range of clinical manifestations, including developmental delay, neurological impairment, and multi-organ dysfunction.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Silicones are not a medical term, but they are commonly used in the medical field, particularly in medical devices and healthcare products. Silicones are synthetic polymers made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms. They can exist in various forms such as oils, gels, rubbers, and resins.

In the medical context, silicones are often used for their unique properties, including:

1. Biocompatibility - Silicones have a low risk of causing an adverse reaction when they come into contact with living tissue.
2. Inertness - They do not react chemically with other substances, making them suitable for use in medical devices that need to remain stable over time.
3. Temperature resistance - Silicones can maintain their flexibility and elasticity even under extreme temperature conditions.
4. Gas permeability - Some silicone materials allow gases like oxygen and water vapor to pass through, which is useful in applications where maintaining a moist environment is essential.
5. Durability - Silicones have excellent resistance to aging, weathering, and environmental factors, ensuring long-lasting performance.

Examples of medical applications for silicones include:

1. Breast implants
2. Contact lenses
3. Catheters
4. Artificial joints and tendons
5. Bandages and wound dressings
6. Drug delivery systems
7. Medical adhesives
8. Infant care products (nipples, pacifiers)

Jejunal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the jejunum, which is the middle section of the small intestine. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. Some examples of jejunal diseases include:

1. Jejunal inflammation or infection (jejunitis)
2. Crohn's disease, which can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract including the jejunum
3. Intestinal lymphoma, a type of cancer that can develop in the small intestine
4. Celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder that causes damage to the small intestine when gluten is consumed
5. Intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), which can occur due to various reasons including structural abnormalities or motility disorders of the jejunum
6. Meckel's diverticulum, a congenital condition where a small pouch protrudes from the wall of the intestine, usually located in the ileum but can also affect the jejunum
7. Intestinal strictures or obstructions caused by scarring, adhesions, or tumors
8. Radiation enteritis, damage to the small intestine caused by radiation therapy for cancer treatment.

The diagnosis and management of jejunal diseases depend on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medications, dietary modifications, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.

Double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) is a medical procedure used to examine the small intestine, which is difficult to reach with traditional endoscopes due to its length and twists and turns. DBE uses a specialized endoscope with two inflatable balloons on its tip. The endoscope is inserted through the mouth or the rectum and advanced slowly into the small intestine while alternately inflating and deflating the balloons to help move the endoscope forward and provide better visualization of the intestinal lining.

DBE can be used for diagnostic purposes, such as evaluating obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, Crohn's disease, tumors, or polyps in the small intestine. It can also be used for therapeutic interventions, such as removing polyps, taking biopsies, or placing feeding tubes.

The procedure is usually done under sedation and takes several hours to complete. While it is considered a safe procedure, potential risks include perforation of the intestinal wall, bleeding, and adverse reactions to the anesthesia.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Phagocytosis is the process by which certain cells in the body, known as phagocytes, engulf and destroy foreign particles, bacteria, or dead cells. This mechanism plays a crucial role in the immune system's response to infection and inflammation. Phagocytes, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, have receptors on their surface that recognize and bind to specific molecules (known as antigens) on the target particles or microorganisms.

Once attached, the phagocyte extends pseudopodia (cell extensions) around the particle, forming a vesicle called a phagosome that completely encloses it. The phagosome then fuses with a lysosome, an intracellular organelle containing digestive enzymes and other chemicals. This fusion results in the formation of a phagolysosome, where the engulfed particle is broken down by the action of these enzymes, neutralizing its harmful effects and allowing for the removal of cellular debris or pathogens.

Phagocytosis not only serves as a crucial defense mechanism against infections but also contributes to tissue homeostasis by removing dead cells and debris.

Virulence factors are characteristics or components of a microorganism, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, that contribute to its ability to cause damage or disease in a host organism. These factors can include various structures, enzymes, or toxins that allow the pathogen to evade the host's immune system, attach to and invade host tissues, obtain nutrients from the host, or damage host cells directly.

Examples of virulence factors in bacteria include:

1. Endotoxins: lipopolysaccharides found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that can trigger a strong immune response and inflammation.
2. Exotoxins: proteins secreted by some bacteria that have toxic effects on host cells, such as botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum or diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
3. Adhesins: structures that help the bacterium attach to host tissues, such as fimbriae or pili in Escherichia coli.
4. Capsules: thick layers of polysaccharides or proteins that surround some bacteria and protect them from the host's immune system, like those found in Streptococcus pneumoniae or Klebsiella pneumoniae.
5. Invasins: proteins that enable bacteria to invade and enter host cells, such as internalins in Listeria monocytogenes.
6. Enzymes: proteins that help bacteria obtain nutrients from the host by breaking down various molecules, like hemolysins that lyse red blood cells to release iron or hyaluronidases that degrade connective tissue.

Understanding virulence factors is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by these microorganisms.

Hexuronic acids are a type of uronic acid that contains six carbon atoms and is commonly found in various biological tissues and polysaccharides, such as pectins, heparin, and certain glycoproteins. The most common hexuronic acids are glucuronic acid and iduronic acid, which are formed from the oxidation of the corresponding hexoses, glucose and galactose, respectively. Hexuronic acids play important roles in various biological processes, including the detoxification and excretion of xenobiotics, the formation of proteoglycans, and the regulation of cell growth and differentiation.

A dosage form refers to the physical or pharmaceutical preparation of a drug that determines how it is administered and taken by the patient. The dosage form influences the rate and extent of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the body, which ultimately affects the drug's therapeutic effectiveness and safety profile.

There are various types of dosage forms available, including:

1. Solid dosage forms: These include tablets, capsules, caplets, and powders that are intended to be swallowed or chewed. They may contain a single active ingredient or multiple ingredients in a fixed-dose combination.
2. Liquid dosage forms: These include solutions, suspensions, emulsions, and syrups that are intended to be taken orally or administered parenterally (e.g., intravenously, intramuscularly, subcutaneously).
3. Semi-solid dosage forms: These include creams, ointments, gels, pastes, and suppositories that are intended to be applied topically or administered rectally.
4. Inhalation dosage forms: These include metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs), and nebulizers that are used to deliver drugs directly to the lungs.
5. Transdermal dosage forms: These include patches, films, and sprays that are applied to the skin to deliver drugs through the skin into the systemic circulation.
6. Implantable dosage forms: These include surgically implanted devices or pellets that release drugs slowly over an extended period.

The choice of dosage form depends on various factors, such as the drug's physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic indication, patient population, and route of administration. The goal is to optimize the drug's efficacy and safety while ensuring patient compliance and convenience.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Alginates are a type of polysaccharide derived from brown algae or produced synthetically, which have gelling and thickening properties. In medical context, they are commonly used as a component in wound dressings, dental impressions, and bowel cleansing products. The gels formed by alginates can provide a protective barrier to wounds, help maintain a moist environment, and promote healing. They can also be used to create a mold of the mouth or other body parts in dental and medical applications. In bowel cleansing, sodium alginates are often combined with sodium bicarbonate and water to form a solution that expands and stimulates bowel movements, helping to prepare the colon for procedures such as colonoscopy.

Blood bactericidal activity refers to the ability of an individual's blood to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. This is an important aspect of the body's immune system, as it helps to prevent infection and maintain overall health. The bactericidal activity of blood can be influenced by various factors, including the presence of antibodies, white blood cells (such as neutrophils), and complement proteins.

In medical terms, the term "bactericidal" specifically refers to an agent or substance that is capable of killing bacteria. Therefore, when we talk about blood bactericidal activity, we are referring to the collective ability of various components in the blood to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. This is often measured in laboratory tests as a way to assess a person's immune function and their susceptibility to infection.

It's worth noting that not all substances in the blood are bactericidal; some may simply inhibit the growth of bacteria without killing them. These substances are referred to as bacteriostatic. Both bactericidal and bacteriostatic agents play important roles in maintaining the body's defense against infection.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Anisotropy is a medical term that refers to the property of being directionally dependent, meaning that its properties or characteristics vary depending on the direction in which they are measured. In the context of medicine and biology, anisotropy can refer to various biological structures, tissues, or materials that exhibit different physical or chemical properties along different axes.

For example, certain types of collagen fibers in tendons and ligaments exhibit anisotropic behavior because they are stronger and stiffer when loaded along their long axis compared to being loaded perpendicular to it. Similarly, some brain tissues may show anisotropy due to the presence of nerve fibers that are organized in specific directions, leading to differences in electrical conductivity or diffusion properties depending on the orientation of the measurement.

Anisotropy is an important concept in various medical fields, including radiology, neurology, and materials science, as it can provide valuable information about the structure and function of biological tissues and help guide diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.

Anthrax is a serious infectious disease caused by gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. This bacterium produces spores that can survive in the environment for many years. Anthrax can be found naturally in soil and commonly affects animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats. Humans can get infected with anthrax by handling contaminated animal products or by inhaling or coming into contact with contaminated soil, water, or vegetation.

There are three main forms of anthrax infection:

1. Cutaneous anthrax: This is the most common form and occurs when the spores enter the body through a cut or abrasion on the skin. It starts as a painless bump that eventually develops into a ulcer with a black center.
2. Inhalation anthrax (also known as wool-sorter's disease): This occurs when a person inhales anthrax spores, which can lead to severe respiratory symptoms and potentially fatal illness.
3. Gastrointestinal anthrax: This form is rare and results from consuming contaminated meat. It causes nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, which may be bloody.

Anthrax can be treated with antibiotics, but early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for a successful outcome. Preventive measures include vaccination and avoiding contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products. Anthrax is also considered a potential bioterrorism agent due to its ease of dissemination and high mortality rate if left untreated.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and produce a high-resolution image. In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of a specimen, and secondary electrons are emitted from the sample due to interactions between the electrons and the atoms in the sample. These secondary electrons are then detected by a detector and used to create an image of the sample's surface topography. SEM can provide detailed images of the surface of a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and biological samples. It is commonly used in materials science, biology, and electronics for the examination and analysis of surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale.

Connective tissue is a type of biological tissue that provides support, strength, and protection to various structures in the body. It is composed of cells called fibroblasts, which produce extracellular matrix components such as collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans. These components give connective tissue its unique properties, including tensile strength, elasticity, and resistance to compression.

There are several types of connective tissue in the body, each with its own specific functions and characteristics. Some examples include:

1. Loose or Areolar Connective Tissue: This type of connective tissue is found throughout the body and provides cushioning and support to organs and other structures. It contains a large amount of ground substance, which allows for the movement and gliding of adjacent tissues.
2. Dense Connective Tissue: This type of connective tissue has a higher concentration of collagen fibers than loose connective tissue, making it stronger and less flexible. Dense connective tissue can be further divided into two categories: regular (or parallel) and irregular. Regular dense connective tissue, such as tendons and ligaments, has collagen fibers that run parallel to each other, providing great tensile strength. Irregular dense connective tissue, such as the dermis of the skin, has collagen fibers arranged in a more haphazard pattern, providing support and flexibility.
3. Adipose Tissue: This type of connective tissue is primarily composed of fat cells called adipocytes. Adipose tissue serves as an energy storage reservoir and provides insulation and cushioning to the body.
4. Cartilage: A firm, flexible type of connective tissue that contains chondrocytes within a matrix of collagen and proteoglycans. Cartilage is found in various parts of the body, including the joints, nose, ears, and trachea.
5. Bone: A specialized form of connective tissue that consists of an organic matrix (mainly collagen) and an inorganic mineral component (hydroxyapatite). Bone provides structural support to the body and serves as a reservoir for calcium and phosphate ions.
6. Blood: Although not traditionally considered connective tissue, blood does contain elements of connective tissue, such as plasma proteins and leukocytes (white blood cells). Blood transports nutrients, oxygen, hormones, and waste products throughout the body.

The basement membrane is a thin, specialized layer of extracellular matrix that provides structural support and separates epithelial cells (which line the outer surfaces of organs and blood vessels) from connective tissue. It is composed of two main layers: the basal lamina, which is produced by the epithelial cells, and the reticular lamina, which is produced by the connective tissue. The basement membrane plays important roles in cell adhesion, migration, differentiation, and survival.

The basal lamina is composed mainly of type IV collagen, laminins, nidogens, and proteoglycans, while the reticular lamina contains type III collagen, fibronectin, and other matrix proteins. The basement membrane also contains a variety of growth factors and cytokines that can influence cell behavior.

Defects in the composition or organization of the basement membrane can lead to various diseases, including kidney disease, eye disease, and skin blistering disorders.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

A cross-over study is a type of experimental design in which participants receive two or more interventions in a specific order. After a washout period, each participant receives the opposite intervention(s). The primary advantage of this design is that it controls for individual variability by allowing each participant to act as their own control.

In medical research, cross-over studies are often used to compare the efficacy or safety of two treatments. For example, a researcher might conduct a cross-over study to compare the effectiveness of two different medications for treating high blood pressure. Half of the participants would be randomly assigned to receive one medication first and then switch to the other medication after a washout period. The other half of the participants would receive the opposite order of treatments.

Cross-over studies can provide valuable insights into the relative merits of different interventions, but they also have some limitations. For example, they may not be suitable for studying conditions that are chronic or irreversible, as it may not be possible to completely reverse the effects of the first intervention before administering the second one. Additionally, carryover effects from the first intervention can confound the results if they persist into the second treatment period.

Overall, cross-over studies are a useful tool in medical research when used appropriately and with careful consideration of their limitations.

Sialic acids are a family of nine-carbon sugars that are commonly found on the outermost surface of many cell types, particularly on the glycoconjugates of mucins in various secretions and on the glycoproteins and glycolipids of cell membranes. They play important roles in a variety of biological processes, including cell recognition, immune response, and viral and bacterial infectivity. Sialic acids can exist in different forms, with N-acetylneuraminic acid being the most common one in humans.

"O antigens" are a type of antigen found on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The "O" in O antigens stands for "outer" membrane. These antigens are composed of complex carbohydrates and can vary between different strains of the same species of bacteria, which is why they are also referred to as the bacterial "O" somatic antigens.

The O antigens play a crucial role in the virulence and pathogenesis of many Gram-negative bacteria, as they help the bacteria evade the host's immune system by changing the structure of the O antigen, making it difficult for the host to mount an effective immune response against the bacterial infection.

The identification and classification of O antigens are important in epidemiology, clinical microbiology, and vaccine development, as they can be used to differentiate between different strains of bacteria and to develop vaccines that provide protection against specific bacterial infections.

Excipients are inactive substances that serve as vehicles or mediums for the active ingredients in medications. They make up the bulk of a pharmaceutical formulation and help to stabilize, preserve, and enhance the delivery of the active drug compound. Common examples of excipients include binders, fillers, coatings, disintegrants, flavors, sweeteners, and colors. While excipients are generally considered safe and inert, they can sometimes cause allergic reactions or other adverse effects in certain individuals.

Glucuronic acid is a physiological important organic acid, which is a derivative of glucose. It is formed by the oxidation of the primary alcohol group of glucose to form a carboxyl group at the sixth position. Glucuronic acid plays a crucial role in the detoxification process in the body as it conjugates with toxic substances, making them water-soluble and facilitating their excretion through urine or bile. This process is known as glucuronidation. It is also a component of various polysaccharides, such as heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, which are found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissues.

Telemetry is the automated measurement and wireless transmission of data from remote or inaccessible sources to receiving stations for monitoring and analysis. In a medical context, telemetry is often used to monitor patients' vital signs such as heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen levels, and other important physiological parameters continuously and remotely. This technology allows healthcare providers to track patients' conditions over time, detect any abnormalities or trends, and make informed decisions about their care, even when they are not physically present with the patient. Telemetry is commonly used in hospitals, clinics, and research settings to monitor patients during procedures, after surgery, or during extended stays in intensive care units.

Bacterial adhesion is the initial and crucial step in the process of bacterial colonization, where bacteria attach themselves to a surface or tissue. This process involves specific interactions between bacterial adhesins (proteins, fimbriae, or pili) and host receptors (glycoproteins, glycolipids, or extracellular matrix components). The attachment can be either reversible or irreversible, depending on the strength of interaction. Bacterial adhesion is a significant factor in initiating biofilm formation, which can lead to various infectious diseases and medical device-associated infections.

Ligaments are bands of dense, fibrous connective tissue that surround joints and provide support, stability, and limits the range of motion. They are made up primarily of collagen fibers arranged in a parallel pattern to withstand tension and stress. Ligaments attach bone to bone, and their function is to prevent excessive movement that could cause injury or dislocation.

There are two main types of ligaments: extracapsular and intracapsular. Extracapsular ligaments are located outside the joint capsule and provide stability to the joint by limiting its range of motion. Intracapsular ligaments, on the other hand, are found inside the joint capsule and help maintain the alignment of the joint surfaces.

Examples of common ligaments in the body include the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in the knee, the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in the elbow, and the coracoacromial ligament in the shoulder.

Injuries to ligaments can occur due to sudden trauma or overuse, leading to sprains, strains, or tears. These injuries can cause pain, swelling, bruising, and limited mobility, and may require medical treatment such as immobilization, physical therapy, or surgery.

A dietary supplement is a product that contains nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids, herbs or other botanicals, and is intended to be taken by mouth, to supplement the diet. Dietary supplements can include a wide range of products, such as vitamin and mineral supplements, herbal supplements, and sports nutrition products.

Dietary supplements are not intended to treat, diagnose, cure, or alleviate the effects of diseases. They are intended to be used as a way to add extra nutrients to the diet or to support specific health functions. It is important to note that dietary supplements are not subject to the same rigorous testing and regulations as drugs, so it is important to choose products carefully and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns about using them.

UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (UGE) is an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of UDP-galactose and UDP-glucose, two important nucleotide sugars involved in carbohydrate metabolism. This enzyme plays a crucial role in maintaining the balance between these two molecules, which are essential for the synthesis of various glycoconjugates, such as glycoproteins and proteoglycans. UGE is widely distributed in nature and has been identified in various organisms, including humans. In humans, deficiency or mutations in this enzyme can lead to a rare genetic disorder known as galactosemia, which is characterized by an impaired ability to metabolize the sugar galactose, resulting in several health issues.

Hyaluronic acid is a glycosaminoglycan, a type of complex carbohydrate, that is naturally found in the human body. It is most abundant in the extracellular matrix of soft connective tissues, including the skin, eyes, and joints. Hyaluronic acid is known for its remarkable capacity to retain water, which helps maintain tissue hydration, lubrication, and elasticity. Its functions include providing structural support, promoting wound healing, and regulating cell growth and differentiation. In the medical field, hyaluronic acid is often used in various forms as a therapeutic agent for conditions like osteoarthritis, dry eye syndrome, and skin rejuvenation.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Streptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive, beta-hemolytic streptococcus bacterium that causes various suppurative (pus-forming) and nonsuppurative infections in humans. It is also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS) due to its ability to produce the M protein, which confers type-specific antigenicity and allows for serological classification into more than 200 distinct Lancefield groups.

S. pyogenes is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, cellulitis, erysipelas, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, and acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. In rare cases, it can lead to invasive diseases such as necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease) and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS).

The bacterium is typically transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected skin lesions. Effective prevention strategies include good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing and avoiding sharing personal items, as well as prompt recognition and treatment of infections to prevent spread.

Angiodysplasia is a vascular disorder characterized by the dilation and abnormal formation of blood vessels, particularly in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. These abnormal blood vessels are prone to leakage or rupture, which can lead to bleeding. Angiodysplasia is most commonly found in the colon but can occur in other parts of the GI tract as well. It is more common in older adults and can cause symptoms such as anemia, fatigue, and bloody stools. The exact cause of angiodysplasia is not known, but it may be associated with chronic low-grade inflammation or increased pressure in the blood vessels. Treatment options include endoscopic therapies to stop bleeding, medications to reduce acid production in the stomach, and surgery in severe cases.

"Klebsiella pneumoniae" is a medical term that refers to a type of bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It's a gram-negative, encapsulated, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium that can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals.

"Klebsiella pneumoniae" is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause a range of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. It's a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, such as pneumonia, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and wound infections.

The bacterium is known for its ability to produce a polysaccharide capsule that makes it resistant to phagocytosis by white blood cells, allowing it to evade the host's immune system. Additionally, "Klebsiella pneumoniae" has developed resistance to many antibiotics, making infections caused by this bacterium difficult to treat and a growing public health concern.

Phytotherapy is the use of extracts of natural origin, especially plants or plant parts, for therapeutic purposes. It is also known as herbal medicine and is a traditional practice in many cultures. The active compounds in these plant extracts are believed to have various medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, or sedative effects. Practitioners of phytotherapy may use the whole plant, dried parts, or concentrated extracts to prepare teas, capsules, tinctures, or ointments for therapeutic use. It is important to note that the effectiveness and safety of phytotherapy are not always supported by scientific evidence, and it should be used with caution and preferably under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

A drug implant is a medical device that is specially designed to provide controlled release of a medication into the body over an extended period of time. Drug implants can be placed under the skin or in various body cavities, depending on the specific medical condition being treated. They are often used when other methods of administering medication, such as oral pills or injections, are not effective or practical.

Drug implants come in various forms, including rods, pellets, and small capsules. The medication is contained within the device and is released slowly over time, either through diffusion or erosion of the implant material. This allows for a steady concentration of the drug to be maintained in the body, which can help to improve treatment outcomes and reduce side effects.

Some common examples of drug implants include:

1. Hormonal implants: These are small rods that are inserted under the skin of the upper arm and release hormones such as progestin or estrogen over a period of several years. They are often used for birth control or to treat conditions such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids.
2. Intraocular implants: These are small devices that are placed in the eye during surgery to release medication directly into the eye. They are often used to treat conditions such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy.
3. Bone cement implants: These are specially formulated cements that contain antibiotics and are used to fill bone defects or joint spaces during surgery. The antibiotics are released slowly over time, helping to prevent infection.
4. Implantable pumps: These are small devices that are placed under the skin and deliver medication directly into a specific body cavity, such as the spinal cord or the peritoneal cavity. They are often used to treat chronic pain or cancer.

Overall, drug implants offer several advantages over other methods of administering medication, including improved compliance, reduced side effects, and more consistent drug levels in the body. However, they may also have some disadvantages, such as the need for surgical placement and the potential for infection or other complications. As with any medical treatment, it is important to discuss the risks and benefits of drug implants with a healthcare provider.

N-Acetylneuraminic Acid (Neu5Ac) is an organic compound that belongs to the family of sialic acids. It is a common terminal sugar found on many glycoproteins and glycolipids on the surface of animal cells. Neu5Ac plays crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and intercellular interactions. It is also involved in the protection against pathogens by serving as a barrier to prevent their attachment to host cells. Additionally, Neu5Ac has been implicated in several disease conditions, such as cancer and inflammation, due to its altered expression and metabolism.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Gelatin is not strictly a medical term, but it is often used in medical contexts. Medically, gelatin is recognized as a protein-rich substance that is derived from collagen, which is found in the skin, bones, and connective tissue of animals. It is commonly used in the production of various medical and pharmaceutical products such as capsules, wound dressings, and drug delivery systems due to its biocompatibility and ability to form gels.

In a broader sense, gelatin is a translucent, colorless, flavorless food ingredient that is derived from collagen through a process called hydrolysis. It is widely used in the food industry as a gelling agent, thickener, stabilizer, and texturizer in various foods such as candies, desserts, marshmallows, and yogurts.

It's worth noting that while gelatin has many uses, it may not be suitable for vegetarians or those with dietary restrictions since it is derived from animal products.

Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is a type of synthetic resin that is widely used in the medical field due to its biocompatibility and versatility. It is a transparent, rigid, and lightweight material that can be easily molded into different shapes and forms. Here are some of the medical definitions of PMMA:

1. A biocompatible acrylic resin used in various medical applications such as bone cement, intraocular lenses, dental restorations, and drug delivery systems.
2. A type of synthetic material that is used as a bone cement to fix prosthetic joint replacements and vertebroplasty for the treatment of spinal fractures.
3. A transparent and shatter-resistant material used in the manufacture of medical devices such as intravenous (IV) fluid bags, dialyzer housings, and oxygenators.
4. A drug delivery system that can be used to administer drugs locally or systemically, such as intraocular sustained-release drug implants for the treatment of chronic eye diseases.
5. A component of dental restorations such as fillings, crowns, and bridges due to its excellent mechanical properties and esthetic qualities.

Overall, PMMA is a versatile and valuable material in the medical field, with numerous applications that take advantage of its unique properties.

Acrylic resins are a type of synthetic polymer made from methacrylate monomers. They are widely used in various industrial, commercial, and medical applications due to their unique properties such as transparency, durability, resistance to breakage, and ease of coloring or molding. In the medical field, acrylic resins are often used to make dental restorations like false teeth and fillings, medical devices like intraocular lenses, and surgical instruments. They can also be found in orthopedic implants, bone cement, and other medical-grade plastics. Acrylic resins are biocompatible, meaning they do not typically cause adverse reactions when in contact with living tissue. However, they may release small amounts of potentially toxic chemicals over time, so their long-term safety in certain applications is still a subject of ongoing research.

Epithelial cells are types of cells that cover the outer surfaces of the body, line the inner surfaces of organs and glands, and form the lining of blood vessels and body cavities. They provide a protective barrier against the external environment, regulate the movement of materials between the internal and external environments, and are involved in the sense of touch, temperature, and pain. Epithelial cells can be squamous (flat and thin), cuboidal (square-shaped and of equal height), or columnar (tall and narrow) in shape and are classified based on their location and function.

Methylcellulose is a semisynthetic, inert, viscous, and tasteless white powder that is soluble in cold water but not in hot water. It is derived from cellulose through the process of methylation. In medical contexts, it is commonly used as a bulk-forming laxative to treat constipation, as well as a lubricant in ophthalmic solutions and a suspending agent in pharmaceuticals.

When mixed with water, methylcellulose forms a gel-like substance that can increase stool volume and promote bowel movements. It is generally considered safe for most individuals, but like any medication or supplement, it should be used under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

Myelinated nerve fibers are neuronal processes that are surrounded by a myelin sheath, a fatty insulating substance that is produced by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. This myelin sheath helps to increase the speed of electrical impulse transmission, also known as action potentials, along the nerve fiber. The myelin sheath has gaps called nodes of Ranvier where the electrical impulses can jump from one node to the next, which also contributes to the rapid conduction of signals. Myelinated nerve fibers are typically found in the peripheral nerves and the optic nerve, but not in the central nervous system (CNS) tracts that are located within the brain and spinal cord.

"Pasteurella multocida" is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus bacterium that is part of the normal flora in the respiratory tract of many animals, including birds, dogs, and cats. It can cause a variety of infections in humans, such as respiratory infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and bloodstream infections, particularly in individuals who have close contact with animals or animal bites or scratches. The bacterium is named after Louis Pasteur, who developed a vaccine against it in the late 19th century.

A cell wall is a rigid layer found surrounding the plasma membrane of plant cells, fungi, and many types of bacteria. It provides structural support and protection to the cell, maintains cell shape, and acts as a barrier against external factors such as chemicals and mechanical stress. The composition of the cell wall varies among different species; for example, in plants, it is primarily made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin, while in bacteria, it is composed of peptidoglycan.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

The temporal bone is a paired bone that is located on each side of the skull, forming part of the lateral and inferior walls of the cranial cavity. It is one of the most complex bones in the human body and has several important structures associated with it. The main functions of the temporal bone include protecting the middle and inner ear, providing attachment for various muscles of the head and neck, and forming part of the base of the skull.

The temporal bone is divided into several parts, including the squamous part, the petrous part, the tympanic part, and the styloid process. The squamous part forms the lateral portion of the temporal bone and articulates with the parietal bone. The petrous part is the most medial and superior portion of the temporal bone and contains the inner ear and the semicircular canals. The tympanic part forms the lower and anterior portions of the temporal bone and includes the external auditory meatus or ear canal. The styloid process is a long, slender projection that extends downward from the inferior aspect of the temporal bone and serves as an attachment site for various muscles and ligaments.

The temporal bone plays a crucial role in hearing and balance, as it contains the structures of the middle and inner ear, including the oval window, round window, cochlea, vestibule, and semicircular canals. The stapes bone, one of the three bones in the middle ear, is entirely encased within the petrous portion of the temporal bone. Additionally, the temporal bone contains important structures for facial expression and sensation, including the facial nerve, which exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen, a small opening in the temporal bone.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is a type of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that allows for the measurement and visualization of water diffusion in biological tissues, particularly in the brain. DTI provides information about the microstructural organization and integrity of nerve fibers within the brain by measuring the directionality of water diffusion in the brain's white matter tracts.

In DTI, a tensor is used to describe the three-dimensional diffusion properties of water molecules in each voxel (three-dimensional pixel) of an MRI image. The tensor provides information about the magnitude and direction of water diffusion, which can be used to calculate various diffusion metrics such as fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD). These metrics provide insights into the structural properties of nerve fibers, including their orientation, density, and integrity.

DTI has numerous clinical applications, such as in the diagnosis and monitoring of neurological disorders like multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, and neurodegenerative diseases. It can also be used for presurgical planning to identify critical white matter tracts that need to be preserved during surgery.

Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of the body's internal structures, particularly the brain and nervous system. In diffusion MRI, the movement of water molecules in biological tissues is measured and analyzed to generate contrast in the images based on the microstructural properties of the tissue.

Diffusion MRI is unique because it allows for the measurement of water diffusion in various directions, which can reveal important information about the organization and integrity of nerve fibers in the brain. This technique has been widely used in research and clinical settings to study a variety of neurological conditions, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, multiple sclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.

In summary, diffusion MRI is a specialized type of MRI that measures the movement of water molecules in biological tissues to generate detailed images of the body's internal structures, particularly the brain and nervous system. It provides valuable information about the microstructural properties of tissues and has important applications in both research and clinical settings.

In the context of medical terminology, "powders" do not have a specific technical definition. However, in a general sense, powders refer to dry, finely ground or pulverized solid substances that can be dispersed in air or liquid mediums. In medicine, powders may include various forms of medications, such as crushed tablets or capsules, which are intended to be taken orally, mixed with liquids, or applied topically. Additionally, certain medical treatments and therapies may involve the use of medicated powders for various purposes, such as drying agents, abrasives, or delivery systems for active ingredients.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hydrodynamics" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Hydrodynamics is a branch of physics that deals with the motion of fluids and the forces acting on them. It is commonly used in fields such as engineering, particularly in the design of fluid-handling systems, and in the study of phenomena like water waves and blood flow in certain scientific contexts.

If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body, and it is a major component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. Collagen provides structure and strength to these tissues and helps them to withstand stretching and tension. It is made up of long chains of amino acids, primarily glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline, which are arranged in a triple helix structure. There are at least 16 different types of collagen found in the body, each with slightly different structures and functions. Collagen is important for maintaining the integrity and health of tissues throughout the body, and it has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in various medical conditions.

Heterotopic transplantation is a type of organ or tissue transplant where the graft is placed in a different location from where it normally resides while still maintaining its original site. This is often done to supplement the function of the existing organ rather than replacing it. A common example of heterotopic transplantation is a heart transplant, where the donor's heart is placed in a new location in the recipient's body, while the recipient's own heart remains in place but is typically nonfunctional. This allows for the possibility of returning the function of the recipient's heart if the transplanted organ fails.

In heterotopic kidney transplantation, the donor kidney is placed in a different location, usually in the lower abdomen, while the recipient's own kidneys are left in place. This approach can be beneficial for recipients with poor renal function or other medical conditions that make traditional kidney transplantation too risky.

Heterotopic transplantation is also used in liver transplantation, where a portion of the donor liver is placed in a different location, typically in the recipient's abdomen, while the recipient's own liver remains in place. This approach can be useful for recipients with acute liver failure or other conditions that make traditional liver transplantation too risky.

One advantage of heterotopic transplantation is that it allows for the possibility of returning the function of the recipient's organ if the transplanted organ fails, as well as reducing the risk of rejection and improving overall outcomes for the recipient. However, this approach also has some disadvantages, such as increased complexity of the surgical procedure, potential for complications related to the placement of the graft, and the need for ongoing immunosuppression therapy to prevent rejection.

Cathartics are a type of medication that stimulates bowel movements and evacuates the intestinal tract. They are often used to treat constipation or to prepare the bowel for certain medical procedures, such as colonoscopies. Common cathartic medications include laxatives, enemas, and suppositories.

Cathartics work by increasing the muscle contractions of the intestines, which helps to move stool through the digestive tract more quickly. They may also increase the amount of water in the stool, making it softer and easier to pass. Some cathartics, such as bulk-forming laxatives, work by absorbing water and swelling in the intestines, which helps to bulk up the stool and stimulate a bowel movement.

While cathartics can be effective at relieving constipation, they should be used with caution. Overuse of cathartics can lead to dependence on them for bowel movements, as well as electrolyte imbalances and other complications. It is important to follow the instructions carefully when using cathartic medications and to speak with a healthcare provider if constipation persists or worsens.

Insertional mutagenesis is a process of introducing new genetic material into an organism's genome at a specific location, which can result in a change or disruption of the function of the gene at that site. This technique is often used in molecular biology research to study gene function and regulation. The introduction of the foreign DNA is typically accomplished through the use of mobile genetic elements, such as transposons or viruses, which are capable of inserting themselves into the genome.

The insertion of the new genetic material can lead to a loss or gain of function in the affected gene, resulting in a mutation. This type of mutagenesis is called "insertional" because the mutation is caused by the insertion of foreign DNA into the genome. The effects of insertional mutagenesis can range from subtle changes in gene expression to the complete inactivation of a gene.

This technique has been widely used in genetic research, including the study of developmental biology, cancer, and genetic diseases. It is also used in the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural and industrial applications.

In the context of medical definitions, "suspensions" typically refers to a preparation in which solid particles are suspended in a liquid medium. This is commonly used for medications that are administered orally, where the solid particles disperse upon shaking and settle back down when left undisturbed. The solid particles can be made up of various substances such as drugs, nutrients, or other active ingredients, while the liquid medium is often water, oil, or alcohol-based.

It's important to note that "suspensions" in a medical context should not be confused with the term as it relates to pharmacology or physiology, where it may refer to the temporary stopping of a bodily function or the removal of something from a solution through settling or filtration.

"About Health Capsules," GoComics website. Accessed Nov. 24, 2018. Health Capsules at GoComics Health Capsules section of Bron ... Health Capsules is currently produced by Bron Smith. Health Capsules was originally produced by Dr. Michael A. Petti and ... GoComics characterizes Health Capsules this way: Health Capsules was begun as an effort to educate people about common health ... Health Capsules is read by millions in The Times of India and other newspapers across America and abroad. It is translated into ...
Officially, three prototypes of the capsule were created. The Fénix 1 had a larger diameter than the other two capsules and was ... Images related to the Fénix class rescue capsule The fifth rescuer, Patricio Sepúlveda, is in the rescue capsule and is being ... Fénix-2 capsule on display in front of La Moneda presidential palace in Santiago Fénix-2 capsule on display in Santiago in ... The capsule will be recognized by the whole world for decades to come and would be a major tourist attraction for any science ...
The second capsule is placed ten feet north of the first capsule. The capsules are filled with physical objects of that time ... Time Capsule I weighs about 800 pounds (360 kg), while Time Capsule II weighs about 400 pounds (180 kg). Time Capsule I was ... An exact duplicate of the capsule's articles resides at the Heinz History Center beside a replica capsule of Time Capsule I. ... Time Capsule I was created for the 1939 New York World's Fair and Time Capsule II was created for the 1964 New York World's ...
The National Lacrosse League (NLL) is a professional men's indoor lacrosse league in North America. It currently has 15 teams; 5 in Canada and 10 in the United States. Unlike the Canadian box lacrosse leagues which play in the summer, the NLL plays its games in the winter and spring, from December to June. Each year, the playoff teams battle for the Champion's Cup. A complete summary of NLL teams' performance is below. * Buff McCready only coached the Bandits for the first three games. * The Knighthawks had the overall top seed in the playoffs, but were unable to host the Championship game due to a scheduling conflict at the Blue Cross Arena.. "The Complete History of the NLL". National League Lacrosse. Retrieved December 5, 2017. "Arizona To Host Championship Game". NLL.com. April 30, 2007. Archived from the original on April 16, 2008. Retrieved 2007-04-30. (Wikipedia articles in need of updating from April 2017, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, National Lacrosse League teams ...
... a time capsule was buried into one of the building's structure. The capsule contains polaroid pictures of the capsule burying ... Yahoo Time Capsule, open as Yahoo.com 20th anniversary KEO Lansing Time Capsule Dates and times of opening of already opened ... The time capsule is set to be opened on November 29, 2394, on the city's 1000th anniversary. Rotary Club Time Capsule Monument ... 24 of the capsules released in Singapore were later recovered. 1990 saw the unexpected unearthing of a time capsule from the ...
Look up capsule in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Capsule may refer to: Articular capsule (joint capsule), an envelope ... a tough fibrous layer surrounding the kidney External capsule Extreme capsule Internal capsule Bacterial capsule, a layer that ... a passenger compartment Capsule (fruit), or seed capsule, a type of dry fruit like the poppy, iris or foxglove Capsule ( ... a type of artificial neural network Capsule review, short critique Space capsule, a type of crewed spacecraft Time capsule, a ...
"Capsule Wardrobe". Archived from the original on 4 January 2012. Retrieved 8 April 2012. "How to build the perfect capsule ... "Capsule Wardrobe list". sewguide.com. 24 May 2016. Trotter, Louise (1 February 2009). "How to build a capsule wardrobe". London ... "How to build a capsule wardrobe around three colours". Retrieved 8 April 2012. Vears, Amy. "The perfect capsule wardrobe: ... The use of "capsule" to mean "small and compact" was a distinctly American use of the word that surfaced in 1938 according to ...
Internal capsule Extreme capsule Powell, Meshell (13 January 2014). "What Is the External Capsule?". wiseGEEK. Conjecture ... The capsule itself appears as a thin white sheet of white matter. The external capsule is a route for cholinergic fibers from ... But the external capsule eventually joins the internal capsule around the lentiform nucleus. Superficial dissection of brain- ... External capsule External capsule Ventricles of brain and basal ganglia. Superior view. Horizontal section. Deep dissection. ...
... may refer to: In the Yu-Gi-Oh! franchise: Capsule Monster Chess or CapMon, a fictional board game that Mokuba ... whose working title was Capsule Monsters in 1990 This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Capsule ... franchise produced by 4Kids Entertainment Capsule Monsters, a power used by the titular character in Ultra Seven Pokémon Red ... Kaiba plays and forces Yugi Mutou to play twice Yu-Gi-Oh!! Capsule Monsters, a twelve-episode mini-series in the Yu-Gi-Oh!! ...
A launch capsule is a device used to propel a submarine-launched missile to the ocean surface. Upon reaching the ocean surface ... the launch capsule is jettisoned, and the missile continues its journey, propelled by its booster motor. v t e (Articles with ...
Another study assessed the efficacy of Yizhi capsule in treating senile dementia. The results showed that Yizhi capsule could ... Xu, H; Shao, N; Cui, D; Hu, Z; Bi, J; Jiang, Q; Li, N (March 2000). "A clinical study of yi zhi capsules in prevention of ... Yizhi capsule (YZC) is a type of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) developed for treating vascular dementia. A study in rats ... Moreover, Yizhi capsule improved cerebral blood flow, brain electrical activity monitoring (BEAM) and hemorheological indexes ...
... uses a small vitamin-sized wireless camera to capture images of a patient's digestive tract. The capsule is ... Capsule endoscopy is considered to be a very safe method for gastrointestinal tract examination. The capsule is usually ... A transmitted radio-frequency signal emitted by some capsules can be used to accurately estimate the location of the capsule ... The rate of capsule retention varies by the indication for the procedure, with the highest rate seen with known Crohn's disease ...
About Capsules SpaceX Building Reusable Crew Capsule Gemini 11 Space Capsule Archived 2014-10-04 at the Wayback Machine ( ... The Dragon capsule was designed to be reusable. In fact, SpaceX has flown the same Dragon capsule to the International Space ... The program used a small capsule attached to a booster rocket to achieve orbit. The development of the Mercury capsule began in ... The United States launched a total of two crewed suborbital Mercury capsules and four crewed orbital capsules, with the longest ...
... the capsule appears as a clear halo around the bacterium as the ink can't penetrate the capsule.: 87 Maneval's capsule stain: ... When viewed, bacterial capsules appear as a bright halo around the cell on a dark background. The capsule is considered a ... Capsules also help cells adhere to surfaces. As a group where the capsule is present they are known as polysaccharide ... A capsule-specific antibody may be required for phagocytosis to occur. Capsules also contain water which protects the bacteria ...
A capsule (from Latin capsula, "small box or chest"), or stadium of revolution, is a basic three-dimensional geometric shape ... A capsule is the three-dimensional shape obtained by revolving the two-dimensional stadium around the line of symmetry that ... The volume V {\displaystyle V} of a capsule is calculated by adding the volume of a ball of radius r {\displaystyle r} (that ... A capsule can be equivalently described as the Minkowski sum of a ball of radius r {\displaystyle r} with a line segment of ...
A capsule review or mini review is a form of appraisal, usually associated with journalism, that offers a relatively short ... Leonard Maltin's Movie Guide is a well-known publication that includes thousands of capsule movie reviews by prolific film ... "The Short Summary and Capsule Review". Critical Reading and Writing. Longman. 1983. Page 375 et seq. Google Books The Word, ... writer Leonard Maltin, including the world's shortest capsule review according to the Guinness Book of World Records, a 2 out ...
In 2013, Capsule released Capsule for Mobile on the App Store and Play Store. In 2018, Capsule released a Teams plan. The ... Capsule was released in 2009 originally under the name Javelin, before being renamed to Capsule in 2010. In 2011, Capsule ... "Capsule - Apps on Google Play". play.google.com. Retrieved 2018-06-11. "Capsule Adds Teams Plan to Its CRM". Retrieved 2019-05- ... Capsule is a customer relationship management (CRM) software-as-a-service web application and mobile app developed by Zestia, a ...
... (/təˈnoʊn/), also known as the Tenon capsule, fascial sheath of the eyeball (Latin: vagina bulbi) or the fascia ... The capsule is perforated behind by the ciliary vessels and nerves and fuses with the sheath of the optic nerve and with the ... Tenon's capsule is perforated by the tendons of the ocular muscles and is reflected backward on each as a tubular sheath. The ... Tenon's capsule may be affected by a disease called idiopathic orbital inflammation, a condition of unknown etiology that is ...
... IV and Cold Capsule V were extended release oral capsules (pill) used to control cold symptoms. Both products ... but Cold Capsule IV contained 12 mg chlorpheniramine maleate while Cold Capsule V had 8 mg . They was manufactured by Graham DM ... Both Cold Capsule products are now Discontinued. http://drugpatentwatch.com/p/tradename/COLD+CAPSULE+IV, "Profile for Tradename ... COLD CAPSULE IV", DrugPatentWatch.com https://www.fda.gov/cder/drug/infopage/ppa/advisory.htm Food and Drug Administration ...
... may refer to: Fibrous capsule of Glisson Fibrous membrane of articular capsule This disambiguation page lists ... articles associated with the title Fibrous capsule. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point ...
... Internal capsule External capsule Jones, Jeremy. "Extreme capsule , Radiology Reference Article ... The extreme capsule is separated from the external capsule by the claustrum, and the extreme capsule separates the claustrum ... the extreme capsule is the outermost from the external capsule and the inner internal capsule. It is most easily visible in a ... The extreme capsule (Latin: capsula extrema) is a series of nerve tracts between the claustrum and the insular cortex. It is ...
Sharing within a capsule is limited to everyone within the capsule only. With Capsule your every connection is defined by the " ... It's really easy to send your party photos straight to the capsule for everyone in the capsule to see". Capsule operates as a ... "Capsule Wants To Be Your One Stop Shop For (Private) Events". "Try Free Group Texting And Events With Capsule". Johnson, Kelly ... All members of the capsule are allowed to view the photos shared by a member of the capsule. It also has a mode that allows ...
... (or the Bowman capsule, capsula glomeruli, or glomerular capsule) is a cup-like sac at the beginning of the ... Fluids from blood in the glomerulus are collected in the Bowman's capsule. Outside the capsule, there are two "poles": The ... Inside the capsule, the layers are as follows, from outside to inside:[citation needed] Parietal layer-A single layer of simple ... However, thorough microscopical anatomy of kidney including the nephronic capsule was first described by a Ukrainian surgeon ...
This article will use the term capsule toy. Capsule toy is the generic term for miniature toys dispensed by capsule vending ... A capsule toy (カプセルトイ, kapuseru toi) is a type of small vending machine where a user inserts a coin and turns the rotating ... Capsule vending machines themselves were invented in the United States. It began with small vending machines for spherical gum ... These prices are based on the value of the goods contained within the capsules sold by the machine. Besides, some models use ...
"Karappo Capsule" (からっぽカプセル, lit. Empty Capsule) is Japanese voice actress and singer Maaya Uchida's 3rd single, released on ...
Capsule (カプセル, Kapuseru, stylized as CAPSULE since autumn 2013 and previously as capsule) is a Japanese electronica band ... "capsuleニューアルバム&ヤスタカ制作サントラ3月リリース". Natalie.mu. Retrieved October 4, 2020. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Capsule (band ... "On 23 October, 2013, the new album "CAPS LOCK" will be released!". Capsule-official.com (in Japanese). "Capsule - Wave Runner ... Capsule's first new song in six years, Hikari no Disco, was teased in April 2021 and was released on June 3, 2021. On the 25th ...
Polar capsules are structures found in the valves of Myxosporean parasites, which contain the polar filament. The polar capsule ... The mouth of the capsule is covered with a cap-like structure. This structure may function as a stopper, its digestion in the ... Firstly, that the hydrostatic pressure in the polar capsule pushes the filament out, rather like the cnidocyst of jellyfish. ...
Articular capsule of the humerus Articular capsule of the knee joint Atlanto-axial joint Capsule of atlantooccipital ... In anatomy, a joint capsule or articular capsule is an envelope surrounding a synovial joint. Each joint capsule has two parts ... Each capsule consists of two layers or membranes: an outer (fibrous membrane, fibrous stratum) composed of avascular white ... The fibrous membrane of the joint capsule is attached to the whole circumference of the articular end of each bone entering ...
External capsule Extreme capsule Schmahmann, Jeremy D.; Schmahmann, Jeremy; Pandya, Deepak (2009-02-11). Fiber Pathways of the ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Internal capsule. Stained brain slice images which include the "internal capsule" at the ... thalamic pontine fibers The posterior limb of internal capsule (or occipital part) is the portion of the internal capsule ... The internal capsule consists of three parts and is V-shaped when cut horizontally, in a transverse plane. the bend in the V is ...
The adipose capsule is sometimes included in the structure of the renal capsule. It provides some protection from trauma and ... The renal capsule surrounds the functional tissue of the kidney, and is itself surrounded by a fatty adipose capsule, fascia, ... Sometimes the adipose capsule of the kidney also known as the perirenal fat, is regarded as a part of the renal capsule. Renal ... renal medulla renal cortex renal capsule adipose capsule of kidney (or perirenal fat, or perinephric fat) renal fascia ...
"About Health Capsules," GoComics website. Accessed Nov. 24, 2018. Health Capsules at GoComics Health Capsules section of Bron ... Health Capsules is currently produced by Bron Smith. Health Capsules was originally produced by Dr. Michael A. Petti and ... GoComics characterizes Health Capsules this way: Health Capsules was begun as an effort to educate people about common health ... Health Capsules is read by millions in The Times of India and other newspapers across America and abroad. It is translated into ...
As a dietary supplement, take 2 capsules once per day. Can be taken with food or on an empty stomach or as recommended by your ... Save 20% on 4+ capsules, extracts, powders or syrups! Use code BULK20 at checkout ... Save 25% on 12 capsules, extracts, powders or syrups! Use code BULK25 at checkout ...
Two competition winners stayed overnight in the capsule for one night only. ... However, there was no toilet in the capsule. If the people needed to use the facilities they had to radio to the ground to be ... However, there was no toilet in the capsule. If the people needed to use the facilities they had to radio to the ground to be ... Two people slept overnight on the London Eye in a competition which saw one of the capsules transformed into a bedroom.. The ...
Flucytosine Capsules USP, an antifungal agent, is available as 250 mg and 500 mg capsules for oral administration. Each capsule ... Flucytosine Capsules USP, 250 mg are size 2 hard gelatin capsule with blue opaque cap and grey opaque body imprinted with "NL ... Flucytosine Capsules USP, 500 mg are size 0 hard gelatin capsule with grey opaque cap and white opaque body imprinted "NL 770" ... Cartons of 30 Capsules (6 capsules each blister pack x 5), NDC 0904-6834-07 ...
Where a bunk capsule is provided with an upper sleep capsule (top capsule cabin), UL 962 requires a means be in place to ... Sleep capsules. New requirements in UL 962 include guidance for what the Standard refers to as bunk capsule cabins, or sleeping ... These are generally larger than a sleep capsule and are designed for use as a private room installed within a larger space ... UL 962 for Prefabricated Privacy Booths and Sleep Capsules. UL 962, the Standard for Household and Commercial Furnishings, ...
Shop Herbal Lung Formula Herbal Supplement Capsules and read reviews at Walgreens. View the latest deals on Botanic Choice All ... Take 1 capsule daily, with a meal, as a dietary supplement, or as directed by a physician. © 2012 Indiana Botanic Gardens, Inc. ...
Global Enteric Capsules Industry, Covid-19 Impact Global Enteric Capsules Market - Ken Research - published on openPR.com ... Global Capsule Hotel Market 2017 - Capsule Value Kanda, Nadeshiko Hotel Shibuya, … The report studies Capsule Hotel in Global ... Global Enteric Capsules Market, Global Enteric Capsules Industry, Covid-19 Impact Global Enteric Capsules Market - Ken Research ... Capsule Market report provides detailed analysis of companies namely Shanxi GS Capsule, CapsCanada, Suheung Capsule and Others ...
Capsules eliminate that challenge by bypassing your teeth and delivering the ingredients exactly where they need to go. ... Unlike other ACV capsules that may only contain acetic acid without the mother, this formula contains many Synergistic ... A single bottle of Enzymedicas ACV capsules is produced from 10 real, wild-picked apples that are pressed and fermented. We ... ACV capsules dont have a bad taste, and are small and simple to swallow. ...
Shop Target for a wide assortment of Target Beauty Capsule. Choose from Same Day Delivery, Drive Up or Order Pickup. Free ... Black-Owned or Founded Beauty Beauty Sample Box Gift Set - Target Beauty Capsule - 7ct ...
Russian capsule docks at space station. By JERUSALEM POST STAFF. MARCH 28, 2009 16:22 * ... A Soyuz capsule carrying a Russian cosmonaut, an American astronaut and US billionaire tourist Charles Simonyi have docked at ... The crews of the capsule and the station will spend around three hours checking seals before opening the air locks and meeting ... Russian cosmonaut Gennady Padalka manually guided the capsule to a stop ahead of schedule Saturday two days after blasting off ...
The rules are simple : grab all the blue capsules and avoid the red ones. You (pepere.org members only) can create and share ... Capsules is a web 2.0 puzzle game. All of the levels are designed by collaborative work of pepere.org members. You can play and ...
Bloating Relief capsules should be taken with food or after a meal. The capsule should be swallowed whole with a large glass of ... Do not chew or bite the capsules. The capsules must not dissolve in the mouth. • Keep out of reach of children • Not suitable ... Bloating Relief capsules should not be taken at the same time with another drug Consult instructions for use before using. ... Duration of use: Do not use Bloating Relief capsules for longer than 30 days during a single treatment period. Treatment can be ...
10 Capsules Capsule (Itraconazole) drug information. Find its price or cost, dose, when to use, how to use, side effects, ... AFO , Candiloss (100mg) , Candistat , Canditral , Canditral (100mg) , CARITRA 100 CAPSULE , CARITRA 200 CAPSULE , Citroz , ...
These capsules will shrink when you dip them in boiling water, hold them over the steam of a tea kettle, or blow on them with a ... Gold Yellow PVC Foil Capsules give your wine bottles a clean, professional look. ... Gold PVC Foil Capsules give your wine bottles a clean, professional look. These capsules will shrink when you dip them in ... Gold PVC Shrink Capsules - 62 ct. Work as expected, and with controlled heat application for shrinking the end result is very ...
How to mix Tamiflu with sweetened liquids for children who cannot swallow capsules - CDC ... Holding one capsule over the bowl, carefully pull the capsule open and pour the complete contents of the capsule into the bowl. ... If my child cant swallow capsules, how do I open oseltamivir capsules and mix the medicine?. Pour a small amount (about a ... Carefully open the oseltamivir capsule and pour out all of the powder inside the capsule and mix it into the liquid. The exact ...
Video capsule endoscopy provides an alternative triage tool for acute GI bleeding that could reduce personnel exposure to SARS- ... Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) offers an alternative triage tool for acute GI bleeding that may reduce personnel exposure to ... Cite this: Video Capsule Endoscopy May Reduce Exposure to COVID - Medscape - Oct 30, 2020. ...
Soyuz capsule leak could strand 3 astronauts on space station, raising safety concern, expert says. News By Tereza Pultarova ... So why not send up a crew dragon capsule with some spare NASA space suits?. Seems pretty obvious to me.. Or send up a crew ... Space.com seems to not have published this yet, but a 0.8mm hole was found in the Soyuz capsule and is believed to be caused by ... Except that one of the Russians would need to leave on the Dragon capsule and one of the Americans would need to stay on the ...
Discover the anatomical structure and function of the humeroulnar joints articular capsule. Learn about its attachment points ... The fibrous layer of the articular capsule of the humeroulnar joint forms the external layer of the articular capsule of the ... The articular capsule of the humeroulnar joint ensures that the joint is sealed, thus, keeping the lubricating synovial fluid ... Distally, it extends to the superolateral margins of the olecranon and extends as the radioulnar capsule, attaching deep to the ...
Capsule/Oblong and has been identified as Zarontin 250 mg. It is supplied by Parke-Davis. ... PD 237 Pill - orange capsule/oblong, 8mm Generic Name: ethosuximide. Pill with imprint PD 237 is Orange, Capsule/Oblong and has ... Capsule/Oblong. Availability. Prescription only. Drug Class. Succinimide anticonvulsants Pregnancy Category. N - Not classified ...
Scientists said the capsule will go home much heavier than it arrived, after the ISS offloads equipment from several ... The U.S. space agency said a hatch between Dragon and the ISSs Harmony module would be opened Monday as the capsule commenced ... The original plan had been for Dragon to attach to the space station on Saturday, but the capsule ran into troubles with its ... SpaceX engineers found that only one of the spacecrafts four thruster pods, which help maneuver the capsule in orbit, was ...
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Plush Blind Boxes Gashapon Capsules Candy & Snacks Collectible Figures Travel Books Squishies Puzzles & Games Pets ... Home › Gashapon Capsules Gashapon Capsules. Sort by. Recommended. Newest. Alphabetically, A-Z. Price, Low to High. Price, High ...
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... sold per capsule) and other Antibiotics from top brands at 1800PetMeds and save. Free shipping on orders over $49! ... Antirobe capsules are used in the treatment of serious infections such as soft tissue infections, dental infections, and bone ... Antirobe capsules are used in the treatment of serious infections such as soft tissue infections, dental infections, and bone ... Antirobe is a prescription medication available as 25 mg, 75 mg, and 150 mg capsules and 25 mg/ml drops as Antirobe Aquadrops. ...
... the Tool Capsule Bundle ensures youll be ready for anything. Combine the Canyon Tool Capsule, FIX 3-in-1 Minitool, FIX Slim ... Tool Capsule Bundle From mid-ride repairs to quick maintenance tasks at home, the Tool Capsule Bundle ensures youll be ready ... Combine the Canyon Tool Capsule, FIX 3-in-1 Minitool, FIX Slim Tyre Levers and FIX Tube Repair kit to save extra and keep you ...
The Orion capsule was perched on top and, less than two hours into the flight, busted out of Earths orbit toward the moon. ... The capsule is headed for a wide orbit around the moon and then a return to Earth with a Pacific splashdown in about three ... The capsule is headed for a wide orbit around the moon and then a return to Earth with a Pacific splashdown in about three ... The Orion capsule was perched on top and, less than two hours into the flight, busted out of Earths orbit toward the moon. ...
Elevate your spring capsule wardrobe with this bestselling blazer. It comes in 17 chic colors & trendy patterns, and it has an ... Build Your Dream Spring Capsule Wardrobe From Home With Amazons Try Before You Buy. Amazon Primes Try Before You Buy allows ... we rounded up some gorgeous picks that are perfect for building your spring capsule wardrobe, featuring timeless pieces that ...
Shop for Paradise Herbs Olive Leaf Vegetarian Capsules 250 mg (60 ct) at Ralphs. Find quality health products to add to your ... Paradise Herbs Olive Leaf Vegetarian Capsules 250 mg. 3(. 2. )View All Reviews ... Olive Leaf Extract , Capsule ( Vegetable Material ). Allergen Info. Free from Does Not Contain Declaration Obligatory Allergens ...
  • Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) offers an alternative triage tool for acute GI bleeding that may reduce personnel exposure to SARS-CoV-2, based on a cohort study with historical controls. (medscape.com)
  • Artificial intelligence (AI) is predicted to have profound effects on the future of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) technology. (lu.se)
  • Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is a powerful diagnostic tool that has proven especially useful in imaging the small intestine. (medscape.com)
  • Much of the small bowel is not accessible with traditional endoscopy or even push endoscopy (which allows imaging up to 80-120 cm beyond the ligament of Treitz) but can be visualized with the capsule endoscope (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • Capsule endoscopy is superior to radiographic techniques in the detection of mucosal disease and angiodysplasia. (medscape.com)
  • As surgeons gain experience with VCE technology, the list of indications for capsule endoscopy continues to grow. (medscape.com)
  • Capsule endoscopy may detect superficial lesions that barium studies miss. (medscape.com)
  • Capsule endoscopy has been favorably compared with push endoscopy in patients with obscure GI bleeding. (medscape.com)
  • [ 17 ] In this study, capsule endoscopy was found to be more sensitive, in that enteroscopy detected no cases that capsule endoscopy had missed. (medscape.com)
  • Normal results on capsule endoscopy are reassuring: 95.5% of patients with negative study results have no pathology on follow-up evaluation. (medscape.com)
  • Neu et al found capsule endoscopy to be superior to standard tests for lesion detection and equivalent for guiding treatment decisions and enhancing outcome. (medscape.com)
  • Both capsule endoscopy (CE) and angiography have been recommended as first investigation for patients with acute overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). (medscape.com)
  • The availability of small-bowel capsule endoscopy (CE), which enables direct and complete visualization of small-bowel mucosa, has revolutionized the approach to OGIB. (medscape.com)
  • Video capsule endoscopy (wireless video endoscopy) is a procedure in which the person swallows a battery-powered capsule. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Video capsule endoscopy is especially useful for finding hidden bleeding in the digestive tract and problems on the inner surface of the small intestine, which is an area that is difficult to evaluate with an endoscope. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Do not take Bloating Relief capsules if you are hypersensitive or allergic to any of the ingredients. (hollandandbarrett.com)
  • Other Ingredients: Gelatin capsule, silica 6x, calcium sulfate 3x, potassium chloride 3x and potassium sulfate 3x. (vitacost.com)
  • With the new liquid capsules, the difference is clear: The only ingredients are Charlotte's Web™ full-spectrum hemp extract and organic extra virgin olive oil. (massagewarehouse.com)
  • A secure band prevents leaks and the capsule is made to reduce oxidation and naturally maintain the integrity of its high-quality ingredients. (massagewarehouse.com)
  • Other Ingredients: Rice concentrate and 100% vegetarian capsules. (pureformulas.com)
  • The empty gelatin capsule shells contain D&C Yellow No. 10, gelatin, sodium lauryl sulfate and titanium dioxide. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the 25 mg and 50 mg empty gelatin capsule shells contain FD&C Yellow 6, the 75 mg and 100 mg empty gelatin capsule shells contain FD&C Green 3 and the 10 mg empty gelatin capsule shells contain FD&C Red 3. (nih.gov)
  • Designed to support those with demanding lifestyles, our liquid capsules offer easy, consistent servings of Charlotte's Web that run as hard as you do to provide even more support for everyday stresses, help in achieving a sense of calm, recovery from exercise-induced inflammation, and healthy sleep cycles. (massagewarehouse.com)
  • Carefully open the oseltamivir capsule and pour out all of the powder inside the capsule and mix it into the liquid. (cdc.gov)
  • The exact amount of liquid used doesn't matter, as long as the powder inside the capsule is mixed in well. (cdc.gov)
  • If your child's provider prescribes oseltamivir capsules for your child and your child cannot swallow capsules, the prescribed capsules may be opened, mixed with a thick sweetened liquid, and given that way. (cdc.gov)
  • A thick, sweetened liquid that masks the flavor of the medicine, such as regular or sugar-free chocolate syrup, can be mixed with the contents of the oseltamivir capsule. (cdc.gov)
  • Each comic ends with the caption "Health Capsules is not intended to be diagnostic in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bloating Relief capsules should not be taken at the same time with another drug Consult instructions for use before using. (hollandandbarrett.com)
  • Apple has updated its Time Capsule line - which combines storage with a Wi-fi base station - with higher storage capacities of 2TB or 3TB of built-in storage. (mactech.com)
  • The revamped Time Capsules cost the same as before, despite their beefed up capabilities. (mactech.com)
  • Just set Time Capsule as the designated backup drive for Time Machine, and that's it. (mactech.com)
  • If you have multiple Mac computers in your house, Time Capsule can back up and store files for each Mac running Mac OS X Leopard or later on your wireless network. (mactech.com)
  • Time Capsule is also an AirPort Extreme Base Station with 802.11n technology. (mactech.com)
  • On July 18, 2008, an exciting discovery was made in the Thunder Bay City Hall during renovations: a time capsule. (thunderbay.ca)
  • This time capsule was found behind a placard in the entrance of City Hall. (thunderbay.ca)
  • It contained artifacts, pictures and documents from 1903 that had been deposited in a time capsule during the reconstruction after the fire. (thunderbay.ca)
  • A second time capsule was also discovered in the base of a podium that had been built for the occasion of the 1939 royal visit of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. (thunderbay.ca)
  • The official opening of both time capsules occurred on July 22, 2008 at the City Hall by Mayor Lynn Peterson, with many city staff, members of the public, and local media in attendance. (thunderbay.ca)
  • All items were returned to a new time capsule that was placed in City Hall after the renovations. (thunderbay.ca)
  • Items from the current era were added to the time capsule, and it was sealed once again. (thunderbay.ca)
  • The Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society ran a contest for the public's opinion on what the new additions should be to the time capsule. (thunderbay.ca)
  • The time capsule was reinstalled in City Hall, which officially reopened on November 3, 2009. (thunderbay.ca)
  • The City of Thunder Bay also created a time capsule in 1995 on the 25th anniversary of amalgamation. (thunderbay.ca)
  • This time capsule is housed at the Archives and will be opened during the City's 50th anniversary celebrations in 2020. (thunderbay.ca)
  • The earliest document included in the time capsule is this informative pamphlet from 1874, " Mining on the North Shore" by Peter McKellar, who was a geologist and mining pioneer in Fort William. (thunderbay.ca)
  • Published in Montreal on September 1st, 1899, The Canadian Trade Review Finance and Insurance Record is one of several items in the time capsule that is over 100 years old. (thunderbay.ca)
  • One of the oldest documents in the Time Capsule, this 1901 Financial Report discusses in detail the spending by the Town on the Board of Health, utilities, construction and maintenance of the Town, and the public and high school boards. (thunderbay.ca)
  • These stamps and coins were sealed in the first time capsule in 1903. (thunderbay.ca)
  • The coffin and its contents constitute a unique time capsule from 1679 with a well-preserved body, textiles and plant materials. (lu.se)
  • The recommended dose for adults and children aged 12 years and older is 1 capsule 3 times a day for 2-4 weeks. (hollandandbarrett.com)
  • Amoxicillin trihydrate equivalent to 500mg Amoxycillin per capsule. (medicines.org.uk)
  • The Capsules rock out to a crowd of thousands in their new video for "Across the Sky. (undertheradarmag.com)
  • Kvasir-Capsule consists of 117 videos which can be used to extract a total of 4,741,504 image. (lu.se)
  • Ranging in price from $70 to $150 and rather surprisingly hasn't instantly sold out yet, the fairly affordable Converse capsule is both a great entry point anyone looking to dip their toe into the Telfar waters or a perfect and easy addition to any stan's undoubtedly growing collection. (papermag.com)
  • New requirements in UL 962 include guidance for what the Standard refers to as bunk capsule cabins, or sleeping capsules, which are generally intended for short-term napping, not for long stays. (ul.com)
  • The tablets, capsules, and suspension are usually taken with or without food two to five times a day for 5 to 10 days, starting as soon as possible after your symptoms begin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Checkout the full capsule collection below and head over to Converse to shop the capsule while you still can. (papermag.com)
  • During the renovation, items from the capsule were placed on display in a cabinet in the Victoriaville Mall, while the rest of the collection remained in the Archives until the renovations were complete. (thunderbay.ca)
  • Holding one capsule over the bowl, carefully pull the capsule open and pour the complete contents of the capsule into the bowl. (cdc.gov)
  • Among the requirements for these products are upper-bunk capsule cabin loading, torsional strength, resistance to separation, handrail/guardrail, ceiling support and stability tests. (ul.com)
  • it may also provide functional information as the capsule moves passively through the small intestine. (medscape.com)
  • Health Capsules," Cartoon Success Secrets: A Tribute to 30 Years of Cartoonist Profiles (Andrews McMeel Publishing, 2004), pp. 52-53. (wikipedia.org)
  • If my child can't swallow capsules, how do I open oseltamivir capsules and mix the medicine? (cdc.gov)
  • [ 8 ] In 2001, VCE was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in patients in the United States, and by 2003, the capsule endoscope had already been used in more than 4000 patients. (medscape.com)
  • Where a bunk capsule is provided with an upper sleep capsule (top capsule cabin), UL 962 requires a means be in place to prevent a sleeping occupant from rolling or sliding out of bed. (ul.com)
  • This comes in the form of what the Standard describes as an elevated means that must be no less than 5 inches above the top surface of the mattress to help ensure that sleeping occupants remain safely in the upper capsule. (ul.com)
  • Duration of use: Do not use Bloating Relief capsules for longer than 30 days during a single treatment period. (hollandandbarrett.com)
  • The capsule should be swallowed whole with a large glass of water (200 ml). (hollandandbarrett.com)
  • We present Kvasir-Capsule, a large VCE dataset collected from examinations at a Norwegian Hospital. (lu.se)
  • The Kvasir-Capsule dataset can play a valuable role in developing better algorithms in order to reach true potential of VCE technology. (lu.se)
  • Health Capsules is read by millions in The Times of India and other newspapers across America and abroad. (wikipedia.org)