Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Norwalk virus: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Caliciviridae: A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most individual species are restricted to their natural hosts. They possess a characteristic six-pointed starlike shape whose surfaces have cup-shaped (chalice) indentions. Transmission is by contaminated food, water, fomites, and occasionally aerosolization of secretions. Genera include LAGOVIRUS; NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES; SAPPORO-LIKE VIRUSES; and VESIVIRUS.Calicivirus, Feline: A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Reoviridae: A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.Parvovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, infecting a variety of vertebrates including humans. Parvoviruses are responsible for a number of important diseases but also can be non-pathogenic in certain hosts. The type species is MINUTE VIRUS OF MICE.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Polyomavirus: A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.Caliciviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.Parvoviridae: A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.Norovirus: A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Parvovirus, Canine: A species of the genus PARVOVIRUS and a host range variant of FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS. It causes a highly infectious fulminating ENTERITIS in dogs producing high mortality. It is distinct from CANINE MINUTE VIRUS, a species in the genus BOCAVIRUS. This virus can also infect cats and mink.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Nodaviridae: A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.Picornaviridae: A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.Virus Uncoating: Intracellular step that follows VIRUS INTERNALIZATION during which the viral nucleic acid and CAPSID are separated.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Aphthovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. They cause vesicular lesions and upper respiratory tract infections. FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS is the type species.Parvoviridae Infections: Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Iridovirus: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE comprising small iridescent insect viruses. The infected larvae and purified virus pellets exhibit a blue to purple iridescence.Bromovirus: A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Enterovirus B, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Rabbit: A species in the genus LAGOVIRUS which causes hemorrhagic disease, including hemorrhagic septicemia, in rabbits.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Parvovirus B19, Human: The type species of ERYTHROVIRUS and the etiological agent of ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM, a disease most commonly seen in school-age children.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Circovirus: A genus of the family CIRCOVIRIDAE that infects SWINE; PSITTACINES; and non-psittacine BIRDS. Species include Beak and feather disease virus causing a fatal disease in psittacine birds, and Porcine circovirus causing postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs (PORCINE POSTWEANING MULTISYSTEMIC WASTING SYNDROME).Minute virus of mice: The type species of PARVOVIRUS prevalent in mouse colonies and found as a contaminant of many transplanted tumors or leukemias.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cyclophilin A: A 17-KDa cytoplasmic PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE involved in immunoregulation. It is a member of the cyclophilin family of proteins that binds to CYCLOSPORINE.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Insect Viruses: Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Enterovirus A, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.Orthoreovirus, Mammalian: A species of ORTHOREOVIRUS infecting mammals (other than baboons). There are four serotypes. In humans they are generally benign but may sometimes cause upper respiratory tract illness or enteritis in infants and children. MAMMALIAN ORTHOREOVIRUS 3 is a very pathogenic virus in laboratory rodents.Virosomes: Semi-synthetic complex derived from nucleic-acid free viral particles. They are essentially reconstituted viral coats, where the infectious nucleocapsid is replaced by a compound of choice. Virosomes retain their fusogenic activity and thus deliver the incorporated compound (antigens, drugs, genes) inside the target cell. They can be used for vaccines (VACCINES, VIROSOME), drug delivery, or gene transfer.Infectious bursal disease virus: A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is thought to be through contaminated feed or water. Vaccines have been used with varying degrees of success.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.DNA Virus InfectionsNucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Aleutian Mink Disease Virus: A species of PARVOVIRUS that causes a disease in mink, mainly those homozygous for the recessive Aleutian gene which determines a desirable coat color.Protein PrecursorsDNA Packaging: The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Ranavirus: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Totivirus: A genus of RNA fungi viruses in the family TOTIVIRIDAE. Some of the viruses contain additional satellite RNA or defective RNA. Transmission occurs during cell division, sporogenesis and cell fusion. The type species is Saccharomyces cerevisiae virus L-A.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Bacteriophage T4: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.Rous sarcoma virus: A species of replication-competent oncogene-containing virus in the genus ALPHARETROVIRUS. It is the original source of the src oncogene (V-SRC GENES) and causes sarcoma in chickens.Enterovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Mamastrovirus: A genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family ASTROVIRIDAE. They cause GASTROENTERITIS and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. The type species is Human astrovirus.Comovirus: A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.Virus Release: Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Hepatovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Virus Attachment: The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.Enterovirus InfectionsRhinovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Feline panleukopenia virus: A species of PARVOVIRUS infecting cats with a highly contagious enteric disease. Host range variants include mink enteritis virus, canine parvovirus (PARVOVIRUS, CANINE), and raccoon parvovirus. After infecting their new hosts, many of these viruses have further evolved and are now considered distinct species.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Aleutian Mink Disease: A slow progressive disease of mink caused by the ALEUTIAN MINK DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by poor reproduction, weight loss, autoimmunity, hypergammaglobulinemia, increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, and death from renal failure. The disease occurs in all color types, but mink which are homozygous recessive for the Aleutian gene for light coat color are particularly susceptible.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Levivirus: A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.Closterovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE containing highly flexuous filaments. Some members are important pathogens of crop plants. Natural vectors include APHIDS, whiteflies, and mealybugs. The type species is Beet yellows virus.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Chenopodium quinoa: A species of the Chenopodium genus which is the source of edible seed called quinoa. It contains makisterone A and other STEROIDS, some having ECDYSTEROID activity on insects.Sapovirus: A genus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE associated with worldwide sporadic outbreaks of GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The first recorded outbreak was in human infants in Sapporo, Japan in 1977. The genus is comprised of a single species, Sapporo virus, containing multiple strains.Bovine papillomavirus 1: A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Iridoviridae: A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Bacteriophage P2: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.Circoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CIRCOVIRIDAE.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Foot-and-Mouth DiseaseParvovirus, Porcine: A species of PARVOVIRUS causing reproductive failure in pigs.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Densovirus: A genus of PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily DENSOVIRINAE, comprising helper-independent viruses containing only two species. Junonia coenia densovirus is the type species.Helminthosporium: A mitosporic fungal genus including both saprophytes and plant parasites.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Polyomavirus Infections: Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.HIV Core Protein p24: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.Luteovirus: A genus of plant viruses that infects both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Its organisms are persistently transmitted by aphids, and weeds may provide reservoirs of infection.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Human papillomavirus 16: A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Mengovirus: A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, isolated from rodents and lagomorphs and occasionally causing febrile illness in man.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mason-Pfizer monkey virus: A species of BETARETROVIRUS isolated from mammary carcinoma in rhesus monkeys. It appears to have evolved from a recombination between a murine B oncovirus and a primate C oncovirus related to the baboon endogenous virus. Several serologically distinct strains exist. MPMV induces SIMIAN AIDS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.RNA Virus InfectionsTransfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Hepatitis A Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).Negative Staining: The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Bacteriophage PRD1: Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.Mutant Proteins: Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.Nuclear Localization Signals: Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Plum Pox Virus: A species of the genus POTYVIRUS that affects many species of Prunus. It is transmitted by aphids and by infected rootstocks.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Reoviridae Infections: Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.Birnaviridae: A family of bisegmented, double-stranded RNA viruses causing infection in fish, mollusks, fowl, and Drosophila. There are three genera: AQUABIRNAVIRUS; AVIBIRNAVIRUS; and ENTOMOBIRNAVIRUS. Horizontal and vertical transmission occurs for all viruses.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Myoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Alphavirus: A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.Mice, Inbred BALB CEpitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Orbivirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE infecting a wide range of arthropods and vertebrates including humans. It comprises at least 21 serological subgroups. Transmission is by vectors such as midges, mosquitoes, sandflies, and ticks.

CAR-dependent and CAR-independent pathways of adenovirus vector-mediated gene transfer and expression in human fibroblasts. (1/4982)

Primary fibroblasts are not efficiently transduced by subgroup C adenovirus (Ad) vectors because they express low levels of the high-affinity Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). In the present study, we have used primary human dermal fibroblasts as a model to explore strategies by which Ad vectors can be designed to enter cells deficient in CAR. Using an Ad vector expressing the human CAR cDNA (AdCAR) at high multiplicity of infection, primary fibroblasts were converted from being CAR deficient to CAR sufficient. Efficiency of subsequent gene transfer by standard Ad5-based vectors and Ad5-based vectors with alterations in penton and fiber was evaluated. Marked enhancement of binding and transgene expression by standard Ad5 vectors was achieved in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Expression by AdDeltaRGDbetagal, an Ad5-based vector lacking the arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) alphaV integrin recognition site from its penton base, was achieved in CAR-sufficient, but not CAR-deficient, cells. Fiber-altered Ad5-based vectors, including (a) AdF(pK7)betagal (bearing seven lysines on the end of fiber) (b) AdF(RGD)betagal (bearing a high-affinity RGD sequence on the end of fiber), and (c) AdF9sK betagal (bearing a short fiber and Ad9 knob), demonstrated enhanced gene transfer in CAR-deficient fibroblasts, with no further enhancement in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Together, these observations demonstrate that CAR deficiency on Ad targets can be circumvented either by supplying CAR or by modifying the Ad fiber to bind to other cell-surface receptors.  (+info)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus type 11 recombinant virus-like particles interacts with heparin and cell-surface glycosaminoglycans on human keratinocytes. (2/4982)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11, a 55-kDa polypeptide, forms particulate structures resembling native virus with an average particle diameter of 50-60 nm when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show in this report that these virus-like particles (VLPs) interact with heparin and with cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) resembling heparin on keratinocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells. The binding of VLPs to heparin is shown to exhibit an affinity comparable to that of other identified heparin-binding proteins. Immobilized heparin chromatography and surface plasmon resonance were used to show that this interaction can be specifically inhibited by free heparin and dextran sulfate and that the effectiveness of the inhibitor is related to its molecular weight and charge density. Sequence comparison of nine human L1 types revealed a conserved region of the carboxyl terminus containing clustered basic amino acids that bear resemblance to proposed heparin-binding motifs in unrelated proteins. Specific enzymatic cleavage of this region eliminated binding to both immobilized heparin and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Removal of heparan sulfate GAGs on keratinocytes by treatment with heparinase or heparitinase resulted in an 80-90% reduction of VLP binding, whereas treatment of cells with laminin, a substrate for alpha6 integrin receptors, provided minimal inhibition. Cells treated with chlorate or substituted beta-D-xylosides, resulting in undersulfation or secretion of GAG chains, also showed a reduced affinity for VLPs. Similarly, binding of VLPs to a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant deficient in GAG synthesis was shown to be only 10% that observed for wild type cells. This report establishes for the first time that the carboxyl-terminal portion of HPV L1 interacts with heparin, and that this region appears to be crucial for interaction with the cell surface.  (+info)

Biophysical characterization of a designed TMV coat protein mutant, R46G, that elicits a moderate hypersensitivity response in Nicotiana sylvestris. (3/4982)

The hypersensitivity resistance response directed by the N' gene in Nicotiana sylvestris is elicited by the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) coat protein R46G, but not by the U1 wild-type TMV coat protein. In this study, the structural and hydrodynamic properties of R46G and wild-type coat proteins were compared for variations that may explain N' gene elicitation. Circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals no significant secondary or tertiary structural differences between the elicitor and nonelicitor coat proteins. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies, however, do show different concentration dependencies of the weight average sedimentation coefficients at 4 degrees C. Viral reconstitution kinetics at 20 degrees C were used to determine viral assembly rates and as an initial assay of the rate of 20S formation, the obligate species for viral reconstitution. These kinetic results reveal a decreased lag time for reconstitution performed with R46G that initially lack the 20S aggregate. However, experiments performed with 20S initially present reveal no detectable differences indicating that the mechanism of viral assembly is similar for the two coat protein species. Therefore, an increased rate of 20S formation from R46G subunits may explain the differences in the viral reconstitution lag times. The inferred increase in the rate of 20S formation is verified by direct measurement of the 20S boundary as a function of time at 20 degrees C using velocity sedimentation analysis. These results are consistent with the interpretation that there may be an altered size distribution and/or lifetime of the small coat protein aggregates in elicitors that allows N. sylvestris to recognize the invading virus.  (+info)

Time-resolved fluorescence investigation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein: influence of the binding of nucleic acids. (4/4982)

Depending on the HIV-1 isolate, MN or BH10, the nucleocapsid protein, NCp7, corresponds to a 55- or 71-amino acid length product, respectively. The MN NCp7 contains a single Trp residue at position 37 in the distal zinc finger motif, and the BH10 NCp7 contains an additional Trp, at position 61 in the C-terminal chain. The time-resolved intensity decay parameters of the zinc-saturated BH10 NCp7 were determined and compared to those of single-Trp-containing derivatives. The fluorescence decay of BH10 NCp7 could be clearly represented as a linear combination (with respect to both lifetimes and fractional intensities) of the individual emitting Trp residues. This suggested the absence of interactions between the two Trp residues, a feature that was confirmed by molecular modeling and fluorescence energy transfer studies. In the presence of tRNAPhe, taken as a RNA model, the same conclusions hold true despite the large fluorescence decrease induced by the binding of tRNAPhe. Indeed, the fluorescence of Trp37 appears almost fully quenched, in keeping with a stacking of this residue with the bases of tRNAPhe. Despite the multiple binding sites in tRNAPhe, the large prevalence of ultrashort lifetimes, associated with the stacking of Trp37, suggests that this stacking constitutes a major feature in the binding process of NCp7 to nucleic acids. In contrast, Trp61 only stacked to a small extent with tRNAPhe. The behavior of this residue in the tRNAPhe-NCp7 complexes appeared to be rather heterogeneous, suggesting that it does not constitute a major determinant in the binding process. Finally, our data suggested that the binding of NCp7 proteins from the two HIV-1 strains to nonspecific nucleic acid sequences was largely similar.  (+info)

Identification of additional genes that influence baculovirus late gene expression. (5/4982)

We were unable to confirm transient late gene expression using constructs of 18 genes that had been reported to support Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) late gene expression when transfected into Spodoptera frugiperda cells [Lu, A., and Miller, L. K. (1995). J. Virol. 69, 975-982]. Three genes (orf66, orf68, and orf41) were included, all or in part, in the constructs used in that study, but they had not been independently tested. Therefore we investigated these and neighboring orfs for their influence on late gene expression. We found that orf41 was required for late gene expression and that sequences within orf45 appeared to be required for the expression of orf41. Although orf66 and orf68 did not appear to affect late gene expression, orf69 stimulated expression. orf69 was found to have high homology to recent entries in GenBank from a variety of organisms. In addition, it was found that orf121, which was shown to be involved in early gene expression, and the viral homolog of pcna did not influence late gene expression.  (+info)

A new picornavirus isolated from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). (6/4982)

A previously unknown picornavirus was isolated from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). Electron microscopy images and sequence data of the prototype isolate, named Ljungan virus, showed that it is a picornavirus. The amino acid sequences of predicted Ljungan virus capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 were closely related to the human pathogen echovirus 22 (approximately 70% similarity). A partial 5' noncoding region sequence of Ljungan virus showed the highest degree of relatedness to cardioviruses. Two additional isolates were serologically and molecularly related to the prototype.  (+info)

Direct evidence that the proton motive force inhibits membrane translocation of positively charged residues within membrane proteins. (7/4982)

The M13 phage procoat protein requires both its signal sequence and its membrane anchor sequence in the mature part of the protein for membrane insertion. Translocation of its short acidic periplasmic loop is stimulated by the proton motive force (pmf) and does not require the Sec components. We now find that the pmf becomes increasingly important for the translocation of negatively charged residues within procoat when the hydrophobicity of the signal or membrane anchor is incrementally reduced. In contrast, we find that the pmf inhibits translocation of the periplasmic loop when it contains one or two positively charged residues. This inhibitory effect of the pmf is stronger when the hydrophobicity of the inserting procoat protein is compromised. No pmf effect is observed for translocation of an uncharged periplasmic loop even when the hydrophobicity is reduced. We also show that the Delta Psi component of the pmf is necessary and sufficient for insertion of representative constructs and that the translocation effects of charged residues are primarily due to the DeltaPsi component of the pmf and not the pH component.  (+info)

Interactions of heterologous DNA with polyomavirus major structural protein, VP1. (8/4982)

'Empty' polyomavirus pseudocapsids, self-assembled from the major structural protein VP1, bind DNA non-specifically and can deliver it into the nuclei of mammalian cells for expression [Forstova et al. (1995) Hum. Gene Ther. 6, 297-3061. Formation of suitable VP1-DNA complexes appears to be the limiting step in this route of gene delivery. Here, the character of VP1-DNA interactions has been studied in detail. Electron microscopy revealed that VP1 pseudocapsids can create in vitro at least two types of interactions with double-stranded DNA: (i) highly stable complexes, requiring free DNA ends, where the DNA is partially encapsidated; and, (ii) weaker interactions of pseudocapsids with internal parts of the DNA chain.  (+info)

Capsid protein, 5-R(P*UP*UP*AP*AP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*U)-3, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, 5-R(P*UP*UP*AP*AP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*U)-3, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, 5-R(P*UP*UP*AP*AP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*U)-3, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, 5-R(P*UP*UP*AP*AP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*U)-3, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, 5-R(P*UP*UP*AP*AP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*U)-3, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, 5-R(P*UP*UP*AP*AP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*U)-3, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, 5-R(P*UP*UP*AP*AP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*U)-3, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, 5-R(P*UP*UP*AP*AP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*U)-3, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, 5-R(P*UP*UP*AP*AP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*UP*AP*UP*UP*UP*UP*U)-3, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, Capsid protein, ...
Herpesvirus capsid protein. Molecular model of the major capsid protein VP5 from herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). This virus infects epithelial cells around the mouth, causing fluid-filled blisters known as cold sores. There is no known cure for herpes infection and the virus remains in the body for life. - Stock Image F006/9435
Assembly of recombinant capsid proteins into virus-like particles (VLPs) still represents an interesting challenge in virus-based nanotechnologies. The structure of VLPs has gained importance for the development and design of new adjuvants and antigen carriers. The potential of Tobacco etch virus capsid protein (TEV CP) as adjuvant has not been evaluated to date. Two constructs for TEV CP expression in Escherichia coli were generated: a wild-type version (TEV-CP) and a C-terminal hexahistidine (His)-tagged version (His-TEV-CP). Although both versions were expressed in the soluble fraction of E. coli lysates, only His-TEV-CP self-assembled into micrometric flexuous filamentous VLPs. In addition, the His-tag enabled high yields and facilitated purification of TEV VLPs. These TEV VLPs elicited broader IgG2-specific antibody response against a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) protein when compared to the potent IgG1 response induced by the protein alone. His-TEV CP was
The high prevalence of pre-existing anti-Ad5 immunity in human populations may substantially limit the immunogenicity and clinical utility of rAd5 vector-based vaccines for HIV-1 and other pathogens. Our studies demonstrate ,90% Ad5 seroprevalence in sub-Saharan Africa with median NAb titers ,10-fold higher than those found in the United States. These data suggest that rAd5 vectors should be engineered to evade dominant Ad5-specific NAbs before their use as vaccine vectors in the developing world. To determine the principal targets of Ad5-specific NAbs, we exploited the lack of detectable serologic cross-reactivity between Ad5 and Ad35 (8). Virus neutralization studies using capsid chimeric rAd5/rAd35 vectors and serum samples from both humans and mice demonstrated that Ad5-specific NAbs were directed primarily against the Ad5 hexon protein. Fiber-specific NAbs were detected at low frequencies in vitro but were substantially less efficient than hexon-specific NAbs at blunting rAd5 vaccine ...
Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are small DNA, non-enveloped, double-stranded and closed circular viruses. There are more than 150 HPV identified types. Genital HPV types are categorized according to their epidemiologic association with cervical cancer to high and low risk types. The high risk type HPV 16 is the most common in the world. we aimed to design a universal peptide based vaccine against HPV type 16 virus using Immunoinformatics Approach through prediction of highly conserved T and B-cell epitopes from the most abundant and highly immunogenic protein (L1 major capsid protein) derived from HPV type 16 strains all over the world. All sequences of the L1 major capsid protein were retrieved from NCBI database. Potentially continuous B and T cell epitopes were predicted using tools from immune epitope data base analysis resource (IEDB-AR). The Allergenicity of predicted epitopes was analyzed by AllerTOP Tool and the coverage was determined throughout the worlds. The B cell epitope 243KSEV246 ...
Samuel Campos, PhD, studies early events of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection. HPVs are small, non-enveloped DNA viruses that cause a variety of lesions ranging from benign waters to cervical cancers. Although over 100 types of HPVs have been identified, HPV16 is the most prevalent, and is alone responsible for more than 50% of cervical cancers in women worldwide. Dr. Campos and his lab study the mechanisms of HPV virus transmission at a cellular level, in hopes to discover new approaches for the prevention and treatment of HPV.HPV16 virions consist of an ~8kb circular dsDNA genome packaged into a ~60 nm protein capsid. The genome is condensed with cellular histones and exists in a chromatin-like state. The capsid is comprised of 72 pentamers of the major capsid protein L1 and up to 72 molecules of the minor capsid protein L2, localized along the inner capsid surface, within the central cavities beneath the L1 pentamers. Mature HPV16 virions exist in an oxidized state, with adjacent L1 ...
The utility of recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) vector-based vaccines for HIV-1 and other pathogens will likely be limited by the high prevalence of pre-existing Ad5-specific neutralizing Abs (NAbs) in human populations. However, the immunodominant targets of Ad5-specific NAbs in humans remain poorly characterized. In this study, we assess the titers and primary determinants of Ad5-specific NAbs in individuals from both the United States and the developing world. Importantly, median Ad5-specific NAb titers were ,10-fold higher in sub-Saharan Africa compared with the United States. Moreover, hexon-specific NAb titers were 4- to 10-fold higher than fiber-specific NAb titers in these cohorts by virus neutralization assays using capsid chimeric viruses. We next performed adoptive transfer studies in mice to evaluate the functional capacity of hexon- and fiber-specific NAbs to suppress the immunogenicity of a prototype rAd5-Env vaccine. Hexon-specific NAbs were remarkably efficient at ...
The mature HIV-1 conical core formation proceeds through highly regulated protease cleavage of the Gag precursor, which ultimately leads to substantial rearrangements of the capsid (CAp24) molecule involving both inter- and intra-molecular contacts of the CAp24 molecules. In this aspect, Asp51 which is located in the N-terminal domain of HIV-1 CAp24 plays an important role by forming a salt-bridge with the free imino terminus Pro1 following proteolytic cleavage and liberation of the CAp24 protein from the Pr55Gag precursor. Thus, previous substitution mutation of Asp51 to alanine (D51A) has shown to be lethal and that this invariable residue was found essential for tube formation in vitro, virus replication and virus capsid formation. We extended the above investigation by introducing three different D51 substitution mutations (D51N, D51E, and D51Q) into both prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems and studied their effects on in vitro capsid assembly and virus infectivity. Two substitution
Nevertheless, up to now, this passive immune technique has not been carried out as a therapy for RVA-linked diarrhea. Although Ab muscles can have higher
We have presented several lines of evidence that the papillomavirus minor capsid protein mediates the endosomal escape of the viral genome. A C-terminal 23-amino-acid peptide from the L2 protein was identified that is essential for transit of the viral DNA across the endosomal membrane during papillomavirus infection. This peptide is also highly cytotoxic to bacteria, fungi, and mammalian cells after exogenous application due to membrane depolarization and permeabilization and induces the integration of GFP fusion proteins and full-length L2 protein into cellular membranes when expressed in mammalian cells, eventually resulting in cell death. Since the full-length L2 protein but not C-terminally mutated L2 nor L1 protein integrated into cellular membranes, an artificial effect of the observations with peptides and fusion proteins can be excluded. These critical functions render this peptide sequence indispensable for PV infection. The activity of this peptide is highest at modestly acidic pH, ...
Singararn SW, Garmann RF, Knobler CM, Gelbart WM, Ben-Shaul A. Role of RNA Branchedness in the Competition for Viral Capsid Proteins. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B. 2015;119 :13991-14002.
Shop Subgenomic capsid protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Subgenomic capsid protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
It is becoming increasingly clear that mammalian cells can express a variety of factors that limit retroviral replication. One class of these factors blocks replication at a stage post-entry but prior to nuclear import and integration of the viral genome. Members of this family arc known as restriction factors. The best characterised member is the mouse gene hvl which determines susceptibility to infection by MLV. I-vl has two alleles known as Fvl" and Fv/ whose restriction characteristics determine the host range of different MLV strains. It has become apparent that the phenomenon of restriction is not limited to MLV and murine cells. HIV-1, as well as MLV is restricted at a post-entry step in a number of primate species including rhesus macaques. African green monkeys and owl monkeys. The Thm5 gene in these species is the main determinant of both HIV-1 and MLV restriction. Viral determinants of this restriction map to the virus capsid protein, however despite strong genetic ev idence, no ...
This section of the Laboratory of Cellular Oncologys website gives detailed technical information about the production and manipulation of human papillomavirus (HPV) and polyomavirus (PyV) based gene delivery vectors. Such vectors are also known as pseudoviruses. They are generated by co-expressing the two viral capsid proteins (L1 and L2 (HPVs) or VP1 and VP2/3 (PyVs)) using codon-modified expression constructs. The two capsid proteins are necessary and sufficient for intracellular packaging of reporter plasmids within mammalian 293TT cells. The resulting high-titer pseudovirus stocks can deliver packaged reporter plasmids to a wide variety of cell types in vitro and in vivo ...
Beginning in 2012, our understanding of human papillomavirus (HPV) subcellular trafficking has undergone a drastic paradigm shift. Work from multiple laboratories has revealed that HPV has evolved a unique means to deliver its viral genome (vDNA) to the cell nucleus, relying on a myriad of host cell proteins and processes. The major breakthrough finding from these recent endeavors was the realization of L2-dependent utilization of cellular sorting factors for the retrograde transport of vDNA away from degradative endo/lysosomal compartments to the Golgi, prior to mitosis-dependent nuclear accumulation of L2/vDNA. An overview of current models of HPV entry, subcellular trafficking, and the role of L2 during initial infection is provided below, highlighting unresolved questions and gaps in knowledge.
1E6O: Mutual Conformational Adaptations in Antigen and Antibody Upon Complex Formation between an Fab and HIV-1 Capsid Protein P24
1E6J: Mutual Conformational Adaptations in Antigen and Antibody Upon Complex Formation between an Fab and HIV-1 Capsid Protein P24
Side-chain details from regions in subunit B shown with map and model.Comparable regions from the other two capsid subunits are shown in Supplementary Fig. 5.
The Effect of Limited Proteolysis on the Amino Acid Composition of Five Potyviruses and on the Serological Reaction and Peptide Map of the Tobacco Etch Virus Capsid Protein. Ernest Hiebert, J. H. Tremaine, and W. P. Ronald. Pages 411-416. VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. ...
Summary Direct evidence linking the capsid protein to specific dsRNA segments from the three killer strains of Ustilago maydis virus (P1, P4, P6) is presented. The capsid proteins of the three strains cross-react immunologically, have similar mol. wt. and similar peptide maps after limited proteolysis. The capsid proteins from P1 and P4 were translated from their respective H2 dsRNA segments, whereas the capsid protein for P6 was translated from H1 dsRNA. These in vitro translation products were each precipitated by the antiserum to capsid proteins of all three strains, had similar mol. wt. and similar peptide maps. All in vitro translation products competed effectively with native capsid proteins of all of the three strains in immunocompetition assays. These results suggest that the three strains code for a similar capsid protein, and that the information for capsid protein resides in the H2 segment of strain P1 and P4, and in the H1 segment of strain P6.
... after access, yet sponsor elements involved in this procedure remain mainly mystery. MELK dictates ideal capsid disassembly through phosphorylation of Ser-149 in the multimerized HIV-1 primary, which prospects to effective virus-like Clonidine hydrochloride supplier cDNA activity in focus on cells. The phosphorylation-mimetic capsid mutation of Ser-149 triggered extravagant capsid disassembly and too-early finalization of invert transcription, and impeded nuclear admittance of HIV-1 cDNA, recommending the importance of well-ordered capsid disassembly in the early levels of virus-like duplication. This breakthrough discovery shall facilitate understanding of the useful hyperlink among pathogen uncoating, invert transcription and nuclear admittance, and is certainly anticipated to lead to developing a story technique for Helps therapy. Launch During the training course of individual immunodeficiency pathogen type 1 (HIV-1) ...
Spike-forming protein that mediates virion attachment to the host epithelial cell receptors and plays a major role in cell penetration, determination of host range restriction and virulence. Rotavirus entry into the host cell probably involves multiple sequential contacts between the outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7, and the cell receptors. According to the considered strain, VP4 seems to essentially target sialic acid and/or the integrin heterodimer ITGA2/ITGB1 (By similarity).
Capsid protein VP1: Forms an icosahedral capsid of pseudo T=3 symmetry with capsid proteins VP2 and VP3. The capsid is 300 Angstroms in diameter, composed of 60 copies of each capsid protein and enclosing the viral positive strand RNA genome. Capsid protein VP1 mainly forms the vertices of the capsid. Capsid protein VP1 interacts with host cell receptor to provide virion attachment to target host cells. This attachment induces virion internalization. Tyrosine kinases are probably involved in the entry process. After binding to its receptor, the capsid undergoes conformational changes. Capsid protein VP1 N-terminus (that contains an amphipathic alpha-helix) and capsid protein VP4 are externalized. Together, they shape a pore in the host membrane through which viral genome is translocated to host cell cytoplasm. After genome has been released, the channel shrinks (By similarity).
Recently, recombinant baculoviruses have been used to show that expression of six herpes simplex virus type 1 genes results in the formation of capsid-like particles. We have applied cryoelectron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction to establish their structural authenticity to a resolution of approximately 2.7 nm. By comparing capsids assembled with and without the expression of gene UL35, we have confirmed the presence of six copies of its product, VP26 (12 kDa), around each hexon tip. However, VP26 is not present on pentons, indicating that the conformational differences between the hexon and penton states of the major capsid protein, VP5, extend to the VP26 binding site. ...
The outer shell of the adenovirus capsid comprises three major types of protein (hexon, penton base and fiber) that perform the majority of functions facilitating the early stages of adenovirus infection. respect to the delivery of foreign molecules. Adenovirus capsid tasks in early illness The adenovirus (Ad) is definitely a non-enveloped, dsDNA disease whose outer shell of the icosahedral-shaped capsid is definitely comprises three major types of proteins: hexon, penton foundation and dietary fiber (Number 1). The hexon comprises the majority of the outer shell of the Ad capsid, forming 240 homotrimers that encapsidate the majority of the disease, including the viral genome and connected proteins [1]. The dietary fiber protrudes from each of the 12 vertices of the icosahedron, while the penton foundation lies at the base of each dietary fiber. These three capsid proteins contribute to the majority of activities required for the early phases of Ad infection. Number 1 Representation of ...
Herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV-1) and bacteriophage λ capsids undergo considerable structural changes during self-assembly and DNA packaging. The initial steps of viral capsid self-assembly require weak, non-covalent interactions between the capsid subunits to ensure free energy minimization and error-free assembly. In the final stages of DNA packaging, however, the internal genome pressure dramatically increases, requiring significant capsid strength to withstand high internal genome pressures of tens of atmospheres. Our data reveal that the loosely formed capsid structure is reinforced post-assembly by the minor capsid protein UL25 in HSV-1 and gpD in bacteriophage λ. Using atomic force microscopy nano-indentation analysis, we show that the capsid becomes stiffer upon binding of UL25 and gpD due to increased structural stability. At the same time the force required to break the capsid increases by ∼70% for both herpes and phage. This demonstrates a universal and evolutionarily conserved function
We modified the capsid protein of a human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) belonging to subgenogroup C4 (HEV71-C4) to generate a mouse virulent strain, based on the genetic information derived from our previous subgenogroup B3 mouse-adapted virus. Infectious clone-derived mutant virus populations containing the capsid protein mutations VP1-Q145E and VP1-Q145G were generated by site-directed mutagenesis of an infectious clone of a subgenogroup C4 strain. Viruses expressing the VP1-Q145E were virulent in 5-day-old BALB/c mice with 100 % mortality rate observed. Skeletal muscle appears to be the primary site of replication of this virus with limb muscle showing severe myositis. Virus was also isolated from spleen, liver, heart and brain of infected mice. This study demonstrates that introducing a key mutation into the HEV71 VP1 capsid protein is able to generate a mouse virulent HEV71 strain from a different genogroup as well as providing an alternative strategy for the generation of mouse virulent HEV71.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Systemic delivery of siRNA by chimeric capsid protein. T2 - Tumor targeting and RNAi activity in vivo. AU - Choi, Kyung Mi. AU - Kim, Kwang Meyung. AU - Kwon, Ick Chan. AU - Kim, In-San. AU - Ahn, Hyung Jun. PY - 2013/1/7. Y1 - 2013/1/7. N2 - Recently, we reported that a chimeric capsid protein assembled into a macromolecular container-like structure with capsid shell and the resulting siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes efficiently suppressed RFP gene expression in the cell culture system. To extend RNAi to the in vivo applications, we here demonstrated that the siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes could have tumor-specific targeting ability in vivo as well as the increased stability of siRNA during body circulation. When systemically administered, our siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes delivered siRNA to tumor tissues and efficiently suppressed RFP gene expression in tumor-bearing mice. The enhanced longevity of siRNA in vivo could be explained by shielding effect derived from the ...
The assembly and regulation of viral capsid proteins into highly ordered macromolecular complexes is essential for viral replication. Here, we utilize crystal structures of the capsid protein from the smallest and simplest known viruses capable of autonomously replicating in animal cells, circoviruses, to establish structural and mechanistic insights into capsid morphogenesis and regulation. The beak and feather disease virus, like many circoviruses, encode only two genes: a capsid protein and a replication initiation protein. The capsid protein forms distinct macromolecular assemblies during replication and here we elucidate these structures at high resolution, showing that these complexes reverse the exposure of the N-terminal arginine rich domain responsible for DNA binding and nuclear localization. We show that assembly of these complexes is regulated by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), and provide a structural basis of capsid assembly around single-stranded DNA, highlighting novel binding ...
Cloning and expression of the gene encoding for the major capsid protein, VP-1, of the D-variant of encephalomyocarditis virus in Escherichia ...
The outer shell of the adenovirus capsid comprises three major types of protein (hexon, penton base and fiber) that perform the majority of functions facilitating the early stages of adenovirus infection. respect to the delivery of foreign molecules. Adenovirus capsid tasks in early illness The adenovirus (Ad) is definitely a non-enveloped, dsDNA disease whose outer shell of the icosahedral-shaped capsid is definitely comprises three major types of proteins: hexon, penton foundation and dietary fiber (Number 1). The hexon comprises the majority of the outer shell of the Ad capsid, forming 240 homotrimers that encapsidate the majority of the disease, including the viral genome and connected proteins [1]. The dietary fiber protrudes from each of the 12 vertices of the icosahedron, while the penton foundation lies at the base of each dietary fiber. These three capsid proteins contribute to the majority of activities required for the early phases of Ad infection. Number 1 Representation of ...
Title: HIV Capsid Pattern Sensing by the Host Cell. Abstract. The mature HIV capsid provides a range of interfaces recognizable by host factors and, during its post-entry journey from the cell periphery to the nucleus, the virus encounters a variety of them-some co-opted for optimal infectivity, others evolutionarily designed to prevent infection. A common feature of these interactions is the ability of capsid pattern sensing by the host. This feature allows a host factor to preferably bind intact capsid cores that contain the viral genome, and to avoid the numerous unassembled CA molecules present in the cell. However, high-order capsid recognition is challenging to study in vitro. Here I present various protein-engineering strategies for the production of a repertoire of soluble capsid assemblies and the use of these assemblies in the study of native capsid structure and capsid-host factor interactions. Our studies contribute to a better understanding of the diverse molecular mechanisms by ...
Vol 10: High yield production of pigeon circovirus capsid protein in the E. coli by evaluating the key parameters needed for protein expression.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
An interaction between the HSV-1 UL25 capsid protein and cellular microtubule-associated protein was found using a yeast two-hybrid screen and β-D-galactosidase activity assays. Immunofluorescence microscopy of the UL25 protein demonstrated its co-localization with cellular microtubule-associated protein in the plasma membrane. Further investigations with deletion mutants suggest that UL25 is likely to have a function in the nucleus.
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) capsids are initially assembled with an interior proteins scaffold. capsids upon DNA product packaging we show that VP24 (formulated with the protease area) is certainly quantitatively retained. To research elements managing UL26 capsid incorporation and retention we used a mutant computer virus that fails to express UL26.5 (?virus). Purified ?B capsids showed altered sucrose gradient sedimentation and lacked the dense scaffold core seen in micrographs of wild-type B capsids but contained capsid shell proteins in wild-type amounts. Despite C-terminal sequence identity between UL26 and UL26.5 ?capsids lacking UL26.5 products did not contain compensatory high levels of UL26 proteins. Therefore HSV capsids can be maintained and/or assembled on a minimal scaffold made up of only wild-type levels of UL26 proteins. In contrast to UL26.5 increased expression of UL26 did not compensate for the ?growth defect. While indirect these findings are consistent with the view ...
Abstract: Viruses self-assemble from identical capsid proteins and their genome consisting, for example, of a long single stranded (ss) RNA. For a big class of T = 3 viruses capsid proteins have long positive N-terminal tails. We explore the role played by the Coulomb interaction between the brush of positive N-terminal tails rooted at the inner surface of the capsid and the negative ss RNA molecule. We show that viruses are most stable when the total contour length of ss RNA is close to the total length of the tails. For such a structure the absolute value of the total RNA charge is approximately twice larger than the charge of the capsid. This conclusion agrees with structural data. ...
It is relatively easy to determine that the poliovirus capsid is made up of just four proteins, and that the four capsid proteins VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4 are present in equimolar amounts in the capsid. Groups of five copies of each protein are arranged at each of the 12 vertices of the icosahedral capsid see Chapters 5 and 15 . If the proteins are uniformly labeled with radioactive amino acids, more radioactivity will be in each large polypeptide chain than in each small one. A gel fractionation.... ...
Viruses are nanosized, genome-filled protein containers with remarkable thermodynamic and mechanical properties. They form by spontaneous self-assembly inside the crowded, heterogeneous cytoplasm of infected cells. Self-assembly of viruses seems to obey the principles of thermodynamically reversible self-assembly but assembled shells (capsids) strongly resist disassembly. Following assembly, some viral shells pass through a sequence of coordinated maturation steps that progressively strengthen the capsid. Viral shells have effective Youngs moduli ranging from that of polyethylene to that of plexiglas. Some of them can withstand internal osmotic pressures that are tens of atmospheres." (Roos et al. 2010:733). "Viruses do not carry out metabolic activity and rely entirely on host-cell molecular machinery for reproduction. This absence of metabolic and reproductive activity suggests that, unlike cells, the assembly of viruses could perhaps be understood on the basis of equilibrium ...
Mouse anti Adenovirus Hexon antibody, clone 7C11 reacts with human, canine, bovine, monkey and rat adenoviruses. It is very likely that it
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Replication deficient adenoviruses type 5 (Ad5) are widely used vectors for cancer gene therapy. The retargeting of Ad5 is achieved by incorporation of a targeting motifs into the adenovirus capsid proteins, mostly in the HI-loop of fiber or hexon hypervariable region 5 (HVR5). Increased expression of αv integrins has been frequently shown in tumor cells as compared to normal cells. The targeting motif within Ad5 that retargets its transduction to cells expressing αv integrins is RGD. One of the strategies of tumor gene therapy is inhibition of angiogenesis. Endothelial cells in angiogenesis express aminopeptidase N (APN) which binds targeting motifs containing NGR. It is known that different amino acid environment and/or cysteine residues flanking targeting peptides RGD and NGR influence the affinity and specificy of binding to corresponding receptors. The aim of this work was to investigate the existance of disulfide bond/s in two replication deficient Ad5 vectors: (i) Ad5HCRGDC containing ...
DCV capsid polyprotein兔多克隆抗体(ab92954)可与重组片段样本反应并经WB, ELISA实验严格验证并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
This give the virus specificity, meaning that it will only be able to infect a certain host range. Once the viral genome is injected into the cell, then for a DNA phage, bacterial cells RNAP begins transcribing RNAs from certain promoters. The first class of viral genes is intermediate-early genes. Following translation of these genes, the early viral genes are transcribed. These genes encode proteins which get virus ready for DNA replication.. After DNA replication, usually into hundreds of copies, the late viral RNAs are made and translated into proteins. These act as structural components, either for capsid formation or cleaving and packaging of DNA into capsid, or to form the receptor on the capsid surface.. Nucleocapsid:. ...
ID R4K521_CLOPA Unreviewed; 191 AA. AC R4K521; DT 24-JUL-2013, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 24-JUL-2013, sequence version 1. DT 20-DEC-2017, entry version 19. DE SubName: Full=Phage minor structural protein GP20 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1}; GN ORFNames=Clopa_0576 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1}; OS Clostridium pasteurianum BC1. OC Bacteria; Firmicutes; Clostridia; Clostridiales; Clostridiaceae; OC Clostridium. OX NCBI_TaxID=86416 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=BC1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523}; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute; RA Lucas S., Han J., Lapidus A., Cheng J.-F., Goodwin L., Pitluck S., RA Peters L., Mikhailova N., Teshima H., Detter J.C., Han C., Tapia R., RA Land M., Hauser L., Kyrpides N., Ivanova N., Pagani I., Dunn J., RA Taghavi S., Francis A., van der Lelie D., Woyke ...
Wang M., Quinn C.M., Perilla J.R., Zhang H., Shirra Jr. R., Hou G., Byeon I.J., Suiter C.L., Ablan S., Urano E., Nitz T.J., Aiken C., Freed E.O., Zhang P., Schulten K., Gronenborn A.M., Polenova T. (2017) Modulation of protein dynamics during HIV capsid maturation. Nat Commun, in press. ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Adenovirus Hexon Antibody (3G0) [DyLight 488]. Validated: ELISA, ICC/IF. Tested Reactivity: Virus. 100% Guaranteed.
Rabbit polyclonal DCV capsid polyprotein antibody validated for WB, ELISA, ICC. Referenced in 1 publication and 1 independent review. Immunogen corresponding…
An important part of a virus is its protein shell, called the viral capsid, that protects the viral genome. While the viral capsids of viruses in the family of Papovaviridae are usually spherical, their protein building blocks are known to assemble also as tubular structures [Kiselev, N.A., Klug, A., 1969. J. Mol. Biol. 40, 155]. In Twarock [2004. J. Theor. Biol. 226, 477] Viral Tiling Theory has been introduced for the structural description of the protein stoichiometry of the spherical capsids in this family. This approach is extended here to the tubular case and is used to classify the surface lattices of tubular structures in the family of Papovaviridae. The predictions of the theory are compared with the experimental results in Kiselev and Klug [1969. J. Mol. Biol. 40, 155]. ...
Descriptions of various icosahedral virus capsid structures in terms of their complete capsids, along with detailed structural and computational analysis
Descriptions of various icosahedral virus capsid structures in terms of their complete capsids, along with detailed structural and computational analysis
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 2xde. Crystal structure of the complex of PF-3450074 with an engineered HIV capsid N terminal domain
BioAssay record AID 755008 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiviral activity against HIV1 NL4.3 infected in human C8166 cells assessed as inhibition of viral replication after 3 days by luciferase assay in presence of viral p24 capsid protein.
Viruses have a protein shell called a capsid that protects the genetic material that viruses use to reproduce, and to infect host cells. In some viruses the capsid appears to be completely self-assembled. Some researchers believe that understanding capsid self-assembly could present new ways to fight disease by disrupting virus reproduction.. ...
Alignment of the ORF2 gene sequences (702/705/708 bp) encoding the capsid protein in the 19 isolates, using the ClustalW program within the DNA Star 6.0 softwar
MS2 COAT PROTEIN, MS2 COAT PROTEIN, MS2 COAT PROTEIN, 5-R(*AP*CP*AP*UP*CP*GP*CP*GP*AP*UP *UP*AP*CP*GP*GP*AP*UP*GP*U)-3, 5-R(*AP*CP*AP*UP*CP*GP*CP*GP*AP*UP *UP*AP*CP*GP*GP*AP*UP*GP*U)-3 ...
Im really fed up that my periods have gone AWOL, followed by bleeds lasting for 20 days. My dr says this is not a problem as long as Im not lookin
A Hampstead woman is suing Exeter Hospital and other agencies, claiming she became infected with hepatitis C through contact with her husband after he contracted the virus from
The exterior of bacteriophage T4 capsid is coated with two outer capsid proteins, Hoc (highly antigenic outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 40 kDa) and Soc (small outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 9 kDa), at symmetrical positions on the icosahedron (160 copies of Hoc and 960 copies of Soc per capsid particle). Both these proteins are nonessential for phage infectivity and viability and assemble onto the capsid surface after completion of capsid assembly. We developed a phage display system which allowed in-frame fusions of foreign DNA at a unique cloning site in the 5 end of hoc or soc. A DNA fragment corresponding to the 36-amino-acid PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis was cloned into the display vectors to generate fusions at the N terminus of Hoc or Soc. The PorA-Hoc and PorA-Soc fusion proteins retained the ability to bind to the capsid surface, and the bound peptide was displayed in an accessible form as shown by its reactivity with specific monoclonal antibodies in an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Herpes simplex virus capsids are transported in neuronal axons without an envelope containing the viral glycoproteins. AU - Snyder, Aleksandra. AU - Wisner, Todd W.. AU - Johnson, David. PY - 2006/11. Y1 - 2006/11. N2 - Electron micrographic studies of neuronal axons have produced contradictory conclusions on how alpha-herpesviruses are transported from neuron cell bodies to axon termini. Some reports have described unenveloped capsids transported on axonal microtubules with separate transport of viral glycoproteins within membrane vesicles. Others have observed enveloped virions in proximal and distal axons. We characterized transport of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in human and rat neurons by staining permeabilized neurons with capsid- and glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Deconvolution microscopy was used to view 200-nm sections of axons. HSV glycoproteins were very rarely associated with capsids (3 to 5%) and vice versa. Instances of glycoprotein/capsid overlap frequently ...
Read "Remarkable variability of apple mosaic virus capsid protein gene after nucleotide position 141, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Goh LY, Hobson-Peters J, Prow NA, Gardner J, Bielefeldt-Ohmann H, Suhrbier A, Hall RA. (2015) Monoclonal antibodies specific for the capsid protein of chikungunya virus suitable for multiple applications. J Gen Virol. 96:507-12. Goh LY, Hobson-Peters J, Prow NA, Baker K, Piyasena TB, Taylor CT, Rana A, Hastie ML, Gorman JJ, Hall RA. (2015) The Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Contains Linear B Cell Epitopes in the N- and C-Terminal Regions that are Dependent on an Intact C-Terminus for Antibody Recognition. Viruses. 8;7:2943-64.. Taylor A, Liu X, Zaid A, Goh LY, Hobson-Peters J, Hall RA, Merits A, Mahalingam S. (2017) Mutation of the N-Terminal Region of Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein: Implications for Vaccine Design. mBio. 21;8(1).. For technical enquiries, please email [email protected] THIS MATERIAL IS FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY AND CANNOT BE USED FOR CLINICAL OR DIAGNOSTIC PURPOSES. To discuss opportunities relating to commercial use of these materials, please contact UniQuest Pty Ltd. to ...
GenWay provides the Zika Virus Capsid Protein for various research applications. The Zika virus is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus. The Zika Virus Capsid Protein is offered along with other various Zika virus products.
Purchase Recombinant Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid polyhedrosis virus Major capsid protein(P39). It is produced in Yeast. High purity. Good price.
A late protein is a viral protein that is formed after replication of the virus. One example is VP4 from simian virus 40 (SV40). In Human papillomavirus, two late proteins are involved in capsid formation: a major (L1) and a minor (L2) protein, in the approximate proportion 95:5%. L1 forms a pentameric assembly unit of the viral shell in a manner that closely resembles VP1 from polyomaviruses. Intermolecular disulphide bonding holds the L1 capsid proteins together. L1 capsid proteins can bind via its nuclear localisation signal (NLS) to karyopherins Kapbeta(2) and Kapbeta(3) and inhibit the Kapbeta(2) and Kapbeta(3) nuclear import pathways during the productive phase of the viral life cycle. Surface loops on L1 pentamers contain sites of sequence variation between HPV types. L2 minor capsid proteins enter the nucleus twice during infection: in the initial phase after virion disassembly, and in the productive phase when it assembles into replicated virions along with L1 major capsid proteins. L2 ...
Mature human adenovirus particles contain four minor capsid proteins, in addition to the three major capsid proteins (penton base, hexon and fiber) and several proteins associated with the genomic core of the virion. Of the minor capsid proteins, VI plays several crucial roles in the infection cycle of the virus, ... read more including hexon nuclear targeting during assembly, activation of the adenovirus proteinase (AVP) during maturation and endosome escape following cell entry. VI is translated as a precursor (pVI) that is cleaved at both N- and C-termini by AVP. Whereas the role of the C-terminal fragment of pVI, pVIc, is well established as an important co-factor of AVP, the role of the N-terminal fragment, pVIn, is currently elusive. In fact, the fate of pVIn following proteolytic cleavage is completely unknown. Here, we use a combination of proteomics-based peptide identification, native mass spectrometry and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry to show that pVIn is associated ...
Adeno-associated virus capsid, molecular model. The capsid is a protein shell that encloses the virus genetic information. Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are the smallest known viruses to infect humans. This is serotype 6 of the virus. AAVs do not cause diseases, and only provoke a mild immune response. Because they incorporate their genetic material into a specific location within the hosts genome, they have potential as a vector for gene therapy. - Stock Image C014/2836
Adenoviral vectors have great potential for use in gene therapy and genetic immunization. The targeting of Ad vectors to the relevant tissue and cell types in vivo could greatly improve their safety and performance by lowering the effective dosage required for therapeutic levels of gene expression. Redirection of Ad vector tropism will require physical modifications of the adenoviral capsid but direct genetic modification of the Ad capsid has so far been limited to small peptides. A novel system for the attachment of targeting ligands to the Ad capsid, based on the extremely strong avidin-biotin interaction, is described herein. The genetic insertion of a biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) into the fiber, protein IX, or hexon components of the Ad capsid has resulted in vectors that are metabolically biotinylated upon production in host cells. Avidin-dependent redirection of transduction through a variety of biotinylated ligands is greatly dependent on the nature of the biotinylated capsid protein. ...
Evolution and Phylogenetic Analysis of Full-Length VP3 Genes of Eastern Mediterranean Bluetongue Virus Isolates. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Scientists from the University of New South Wales (#UNSW, UK) found that the special protein capsid envelope created by HIV at the time of entry into the human body uses a specific host cell molecule, inositol-hexakisphosphate, as a shield from immunity. The latter gives the capsid stability and allows unhindered to carry the genetic material of the virus to the nucleus of the cell. According to experts, this discovery can be the first step to changing the strategy of #HIV treatment. A new goal for antiviral therapy, scientists suggest to make the capsid itself.
Read "Structural characterization of Tobacco etch virus coat protein mutants, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Bacterial microcompartments (BMC) are proteinaceous organelles that structurally resemble viral capsids, but encapsulate enzymes that perform various specialized biochemical reactions in the cell cytoplasm. The BMC are constructed from two major shell proteins, BMC-H and BMC-P, which form the facets and vertices of the icosahedral assembly, and are functionally equivalent to the major and minor capsid proteins of viruses, respectively. This equivalence notwithstanding, neither of the BMC proteins displays structural similarity to known capsid proteins, rendering the origins of the BMC enigmatic. Here, using structural and sequence comparisons, we show that both BMC-H and BMC-P, most likely, were exapted from bona fide cellular proteins, namely, PII signaling protein and OB-fold domain-containing protein, respectively. This finding is in line with the hypothesis that many major viral structural proteins have been recruited from cellular proteomes. This article was reviewed by Igor Zhulin, Jeremy Selengut
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne agent that causes severe arthritic disease in humans and is considered a serious health threat in areas where competent mosquito vectors are prevalent. CHIKV has recently been responsible for several millions of cases of disease, involving over 40 countries. The recent re-emergence of CHIKV and its potential threat to human health has stimulated interest in better understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of the virus, and requirement for improved treatment, prevention and control measures. In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP) of CHIKV. Using N- and C-terminally truncated recombinant forms of the CHIKV CP, two putative binding regions, between residues 1-35 and 140-210, were identified. Competitive binding also revealed that five of the CP-specific mAbs recognized a series of overlapping epitopes in the latter domain. We also identified a
Phage display is a method to discover peptide ligands while minimizing and optimizing the structure and function of proteins (Hallahan, 2003). The phage is used as a scaffold to display recombinant libraries of peptides and provides a means to recover and amplify the peptides that bind to putative receptor molecules in vivo. In vivo selection simultaneously provides positive and subtractive screens because organs and tissues such as tumors are spatially separated. Phage DNA can then be sequenced to determine the amino acid sequence of peptides on the capsid that have been recovered from tumors. The T7 phage display system exploits the T7 capsid protein as a scaffold to display peptides on the capsid protein unique to the 10B protein on the surface of the phage. Gene 10 encoding the capsid protein is cloned with a series of multiple cloning sites at the C-terminus of the 10B protein. The natural translational frame shift site within the capsid gene has been removed so that only a single form of ...
Shop Outer capsid glycoprotein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Outer capsid glycoprotein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Despite a high current standard of care in antiretroviral therapy for HIV, multidrug-resistant strains continue to emerge, underscoring the need for additional novel mechanism inhibitors that will offer expanded therapeutic options in the clinic. We report a new class of small molecule antiretroviral compounds that directly target HIV-1 capsid (CA) via a novel mechanism of action. The compounds exhibit potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 laboratory strains, clinical isolates, and HIV-2, and inhibit both early and late events in the viral replication cycle. We present mechanistic studies indicating that these early and late activities result from the compound affecting viral uncoating and assembly, respectively. We show that amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal domain of HIV-1 CA are sufficient to confer resistance to this class of compounds, identifying CA as the target in infected cells. A high-resolution co-crystal structure of the compound bound to HIV-1 CA reveals a novel binding ...
Despite a high current standard of care in antiretroviral therapy for HIV, multidrug-resistant strains continue to emerge, underscoring the need for additional novel mechanism inhibitors that will offer expanded therapeutic options in the clinic. We report a new class of small molecule antiretroviral compounds that directly target HIV-1 capsid (CA) via a novel mechanism of action. The compounds exhibit potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 laboratory strains, clinical isolates, and HIV-2, and inhibit both early and late events in the viral replication cycle. We present mechanistic studies indicating that these early and late activities result from the compound affecting viral uncoating and assembly, respectively. We show that amino acid substitutions in the N-terminal domain of HIV-1 CA are sufficient to confer resistance to this class of compounds, identifying CA as the target in infected cells. A high-resolution co-crystal structure of the compound bound to HIV-1 CA reveals a novel binding ...
Our main goal was to produce a library of Adeno-associated viruses that infect cells with different specificities and efficiencies, due to differing capsid composition, and select from this library the best AAVs that are highly specific. Since it is not the case that viruses that work well in vitro will work as good in vivo, we had the aim of testing our candidates in mice as well. To achieve this, the capsid genes from AAV serotypes 1,2,5,6,8 and 9 were shuffled between each other in a primerless PCR reaction that relies on the close homology between the different cap genes. Those capsid genes were first digested with DNase I, then pooled together and allowed to anneal to each other. A second PCR was done then to amplify the shuffled cap gene fragments that were generated in the first PCR while introducing AscI and PacI restriction sites, which are used to clone the cap genes into a helper vector. AAVs that were then produced in HEK293 cells, which were transfected with the cap-gene-ITR ...
ViroBytes is a modified BioBytes procedure for "rational shuffling" of capsid genes from natural isolates of Adeno-Associated Virus. Main motivation for the new protocol is unsatisfactory incorporation of certain serotypes (and especially certain parts of AAV capsid regions eg. from AAV5) using conventional shuffling strategies (Grimm et al., 2008). Application of magnetic beads for controlled assembly and the principle of BioByte formation and annealing persists. Sticky overhangs are used for selective combination of the bytes but different method is used for the production of individual ViroBytes. AAV serotypes 1,2,5,6,8 and 9 were selected as suitable candidates for fragmentation due to their exceptional individual properties. The analysis of Cap gene sequences revealed multiple homology regions which were then used for rational fragment formation. Total number of fragments per Cap gene is eight in our case and all fragments have similar length around ~250bp to assure similar behaviour in the ...
The capsid protein (CA) of the mature human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contains an N-terminal beta-hairpin that is essential for formation of the capsid core particle. CA is generated by proteolytic cleavage of the Gag precursor polyprotein during viral maturation. We have determined the NMR structure of a 283-residue N-terminal fragment of immature HIV-1 Gag (Gag(283)), which includes the intact matrix (MA) and N-terminal capsid (CA(N)) domains. The beta-hairpin is unfolded in Gag(283), consistent with the proposal that hairpin formation occurs subsequent to proteolytic cleavage of Gag, triggering capsid assembly. Comparison of the immature and mature CA(N) structures reveals that beta-hairpin formation induces a approximately 2 A displacement of helix 6 and a concomitant displacement of the cyclophylin-A (CypA)-binding loop, suggesting a possible allosteric mechanism for CypA-mediated destabilization of the capsid particle during infectivity. Structure of the N-terminal 283-residue fragment ...
What Additional Protective Layer Of Protein Surrounds Some Viruses - The capsid and envelope play many roles in viral contamination, inclusive of virus attachment to cells, entry into cells, release of the capsid contents into the cells, and packaging of newly fashioned viral debris. The capsid and envelope are also answerable for transfer of the viral genetic material from one mobile to another. these systems also decide the stableness traits of the virus particle, which includes resistance to chemical or bodily inactivation.. The primary role of capsid is to bundle the viral genome. There are strategies related to this feature: the recruitment of the viral RNA all through assembly and the discharge of the genome at some stage in infection. even though particle assembly takes vicinity on endoplasmic reticulum membranes, capsid localizes in nucleoli and lipid droplets.. Because the capsid is outermost, most agents of inactivation must act on the capsid before they can reach the viral RNA, and in ...
Rotavirus-Synopses The major antigenic properties of rotaviruses-group, subgroup, and serotype-are determined by the viral capsid proteins. Rotavirus has seven major groups (A-G); most human strains belong to group A, although groups B and C have occasionally been associated with human illness. The product of the 6th gene of group A rotaviruses encodes VP6, the most…
Species: Adeno-associated virus (vector). The AAV1/SERCA2a vector is a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector. It is a pseudotype of AAV serotype 1(AAV1) and is denoted as rAAV1/2. As such, the capsid proteins are from wt AAV1 and the AAV DNA (two 148 base inverted terminal repeats) is from wtAAV2. ...
When human immundeficiency virus (HIV) infects a human cell, it releases into the interior of the cell its capsid (made of about 1,300 identical so-called CA proteins), a closed, stable container that protects the viral genetic material (see also June 2013 highlight Elusive HIV-1 Capsid and August 2015 highlight Anatomy of a Dormant Killer). Once in the cell ― while avoiding detection by cellular proteins ― the capsid deceives the cell and directs the cell machinery to transport it to the nucleus. The human-cell protein Cyclophilin A (CypA) is thereby exploited to act against the cells well being and to assist the HIV infection by getting the capsid to access the cell nucleus; this results in a delicate choreography accomplished by escaping anti-viral proteins in the cell and deceiving transport proteins at the nucleus, all of which contain a CypA domain that interacts directly with the capsid. Despite the availability of the crystal structure of the complex of CypA and CA proteins ...
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the most common sexually transmitted infections. Persistent infection with HPV can lead to anogenital cancers including head and neck cancers. Three prophylactic vaccines have been approved to prevent against some types of HPV infection. However, the vaccines are HPV-type specific and protect mostly against the HPV types included in the vaccines. To offer broader protection against more HPV types, studies in the field are developing candidate vaccines targeting a conserved minor capsid protein, L2. Nevertheless, reagents for developing and assessing L2 vaccines are limited. For example, antibodies to assess the antigenicity of some L2 epitopes are not available commercially and multivalent platforms to develop and purify clinical grade L2 antigens are limited. In this study, I developed and characterized the immunogenicity of a recombinant Histidine-tagged HPV16 L2 (amino acid 1-130) antigen. In addition to this, I explored the development of a multivalent display
Details: Particles were selected from scanned micrograph images, first automatically by the ethan method and then by manual screening with the boxer program in EMAN. The TEM instrument contrast transfer function parameters were determined automatically using fitctf2.py and were then visually validated using the EMAN ctfit program. The datasets were then divided into two subsets (even and odd) and processed completely independently, including both initial models and refinements. For 3D reconstructions, the whole datasets were divided into even-odd halves and the initial de novo models and subsequent iterative refinements were all independently performed for each half dataset. The images were first binned 4x to obtain initial models and particle parameters assuming icosahedral symmetry. De novo initial models were built using the random model approach. Random subsets of particles were assigned random initial orientations and iteratively refined until convergence. Consistent icosahedral capsid ...
Protein crystallography provides for a unique and powerful tool to investigate whether common mechanisms exist for the infection of plant and mammalian cells by pathogens. The interaction between potyvirus capsid proteins and plant chaperones of the Hsp40 family has been identified as crucial in project C2 for the mechanism of potyvirus replication in plants. In phase I of CRC-796, we concentrated on the elucidation of the molecular determinants of this protein-protein interaction and succeeded in determining the first crystal structure of a plant Hsp40 protein, namely the 2.5 Å crystal structure of the substrate-binding domain of NtCPIP1. Guided by this structure and computational modelling (project A2), a substrate-binding specificity pattern was deduced for NtCPIP1, and four putative NtCPIP1 interaction sites were located within the sequence of the potyviral capsid protein of potato virus Y. Upon synthesis of the corresponding peptides, one peptide was identified that binds NtCPIP1 with high ...
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ViroTag® EV71 utilizes a fluorescently-labeled, high-affinity antibody which binds to a unique epitope specifically expressed on enterovirus-71 and coxsackievirus A16 particles. With the Virus Counter 3100, use this rapid, no-wash labeling procedure and take EV71 quantification to new levels of accuracy, speed and simplicity.. Product specifications: The ViroTag EV71 kit (catalog number 92317) contains all reagents and consumables necessary to analyze 200 samples using the Virus Counter 3100 instrument for manual sampling, including:. ...
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Hogue IB, Ambrosini AE, Deshmukh N, Berry MJ, Enquist LW. Alpha Herpesvirus Egress and Spread from Neurons Uses Constitutive Secretory Mechanisms and Does Not Depend on Action Potential Firing. In preparation.. Hogue IB, Card JP, Rinaman L, Staniszewska Goraczniak H, Enquist LW. Characterization of the neuroinvasive profile of a pseudorabies virus recombinant expressing the mTurquoise2 reporter in single and multiple injection experiments. J Neurosci Methods, 308:228-239, 2018.. Chen H, Bartee M, Yaron J, Liu L, Zhang L, Zheng D, Hogue I, Bullard W, Tibbets S, Lucas A. Mouse Gamma Herpesvirus MHV-68 Induces Severe Gastrointestinal (GI) Dilatation in Interferon Gamma Receptor-Deficient Mice (IFNγR−/−) That Is Blocked by Interleukin-10. Viruses, 10(10):518, 2018.. Hogue IB, Jean J, Scherer J, Enquist LW. A Functional Carboxy-Terminal Fluorescent Protein Fusion to Pseudorabies Virus Small Capsid Protein VP26. J Virology, 92(1):e01193-17, 2018.. Koyuncu OO, MacGibeny MA, Hogue IB, Enquist LW. ...
Genotypic variants of HPV16 are defined as having less than 2% differences in the major capsid protein gene with respect to the prototype genome have been ident...
Bosse JB, Hogue IB, Feric M, Thiberge SY, Sodeik B, Brangwynne CP, et al. Remodeling nuclear architecture allows efficient transport of herpesvirus capsids by diffusion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 ;112(42):E5725-33. ...
Meet one of our fave pros on the topic of hormones, aging and womens health, Dr. Sara Gottfried. Were talking about easy ways to anti-age, including a killer red sangria recipe...
What are the biggest mistakes in the mainstream treatment of hormone imbalances? Dr. Gottfried and I discuss these mistakes, post birth control syndrome, and what hormone treatment should look like.
59. Outer covering of virus made up of protein is A. capsid B. coat C. virion D. VirioidWhat do you think? . @sunleaf01 , What do you think it s...
d) The capsid and envelope enter and multiply. 86) The infection by a virus which results in the destruction of the host is called ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Structure of N-linked oligosaccharides attached to chlorovirus PBCV-1 major capsid protein reveals unusual class of complex N-glycans. AU - De Castro, Cristina. AU - Molinaro, Antonio. AU - Piacente, Francesco. AU - Gurnon, James R.. AU - Sturiale, Luisa. AU - Palmigiano, Angelo. AU - Lanzetta, Rosa. AU - Parrilli, Michelangelo. AU - Garozzo, Domenico. AU - Tonetti, Michela G.. AU - Van Etten, James L.. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - The major capsid protein Vp54 from the prototype chlorovirus Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) contains four Asnlinked glycans. The structure of the four N-linked oligosaccharides and the type of substitution at each glycosylation site was determined by chemical, spectroscopic, and spectrometric analyses. Vp54 glycosylation is unusual in many ways, including: (i) unlike most viruses, PBCV-1 encodes most, if not all, of the machinery to glycosylate its major capsid protein; (ii) the glycans are attached to the protein by a β-glucose ...
Page contains details about doxorubicin-conjugated tobacco mosaic virus capsid protein mutant assemblies . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Both proteins are associated with cell membranes.[4] p41 (capsid protein)[edit]. The viral capsid protein CP, or p41, is a ... a capsid protein (called CP or p41), and two additional proteins, the RNA silencing suppressor p19 and movement protein p22.[4] ... TBSV is an unenveloped icosahedral virus with a T=3 viral capsid composed of 180 subunits of a single capsid protein. Its ... The p22 protein is a movement protein that is required for the virus to spread from cell to cell. P22 is an RNA-binding protein ...
... called the capsid, which is then surrounded by an amorphous protein layer called the tegument, and finally enclosed in a lipid ... ORF36 - vPK - viral protein kinase with multiple roles in replication cycle ORF37 - SOX - dual function protein - DNase ... a G protein-coupled receptor, interferon regulatory factor and Flice inhibitory protein (FLIP), as well as DNA synthesis ... ORF45 - tegument protein, interacts with p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSKs) to modulate the ERK/RSK MAPK signaling pathway ...
The capsid contains three proteins; capsid protein VP1 is the primary component and self-assembles into a 360-unit outer capsid ... MPyV capsid protein VP1 binds to sialic acids of gangliosides GD1a and GT1b on the cell surface. The functions of VP2 and VP3 ... Capsid proteins, produced in the cytoplasm of the host cell, enter the nucleus as assembled capsomers consisting of pentameric ... The three genes in the late region express the three capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3. Between the early and late regions is a ...
There capsid consists of 5 or more proteins: gp8 (the major capsid protein); gp6, gp7 and gp8 (minor capsid proteins); and gp3 ... The activity of gp2 is regulated by two other viral proteins: gp5 (single strand binding protein) and gp10. New viral genomes ... the number of major capsid protein subunits per virion). This process involves both gp1 and gp11. Assembly is completed by the ... The viral protein gp2 plays an essential role in viral DNA replication. It binds to the origin of replication, and cleaves the ...
There are five or more proteins in the capid: gp8 (the major capsid protein); gp6, gp7 and gp8 (minor capsid proteins); and gp3 ... The activity of gp2 is regulated by two other viral proteins: gp5 (single strand binding protein) and gp1# New viral genomes ... The capsid has a helical symmetry and is generally has a length of 85-280 nm or 760-1950 nm and a width of 10-16 nm or 6-8 nm ... This is mediated by one of the viral proteins (gp3) binding to the host receptor. The conversion from single-stranded to double ...
The three serotypes of poliovirus, PV1, PV2, and PV3, each have a slightly different capsid protein. Capsid proteins define ... smaller amounts of 3Dpol are produced than those of capsid proteins, VP1-4.[20][21] These individual viral proteins are:[3][22] ... Poliovirus is composed of an RNA genome and a protein capsid. The genome is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome that is ... 2BC, 2B, 2C (an ATPase)[23], 3AB, 3A, 3B proteins which comprise the protein complex needed for virus replication. ...
Five proteins from (UL) form the viral capsid; UL6, UL18, UL35, UL38 and the major capsid protein UL19. Entry of HSV into a ... the capsid ejects its DNA contents via the capsid portal. The capsid portal is formed by twelve copies of portal protein, UL6, ... The late proteins form the capsid and the receptors on the surface of the virus. Packaging of the viral particles - including ... These genes encode a variety of proteins involved in forming the capsid, tegument and envelope of the virus, as well as ...
The genome encodes 3 structural proteins (Capsid, prM, and Envelope) and 8 non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A ... the genome encodes 3 structural proteins (Capsid, prM, and Envelope) and 8 non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A ... The capsid protein is enveloped. The genomic arrangement is a linear (+)ssRNA. Its genomic segmentation is Monopartite (Flint ... Entebbe Bat Virus is an enveloped virus, which means that it has to bind its envelope proteins to a cell surface protein on the ...
Proteins associated with nucleic acid are known as nucleoproteins, and the association of viral capsid proteins with viral ... with a capsid diameter of 400 nm. Protein filaments measuring 100 nm project from the surface. The capsid appears hexagonal ... consists of nucleic acid surrounded by a protective coat of protein called a capsid. These are formed from identical protein ... The capsid is made from proteins encoded by the viral genome and its shape serves as the basis for morphological distinction.[ ...
The capsid is non-enveloped, and composed of 60 copies of up to six types of capsid proteins (called VP1 through to VP6) which ... ORF1 encodes a nonstructural protein (NS1) that is involved in viral genome replication. ORF2 encodes the two capsid proteins- ... also required for the read through of an internal polyadenylation site that is essential for expression of the capsid proteins ... All bocaparvoviruses encode a novel protein called NP1 that is not present in parvoviruses from other genera. In Canine minute ...
The capsid is covered by fusion and hemagglutinin proteins. Inside the capsid exists the negative-sense RNA genome, which is ... The genome encodes for eight different proteins: N, C, P, V, M, F, H, and L. The L protein, also called large protein, is ... Additionally, the Feline morbillivirus F protein is known to have a single cleavage site that splits the protein into separate ... While the virus uses its own enzyme to make a copy of its genome, it hijacks host ribosomes to translate its RNA into protein. ...
The three serotypes of poliovirus, PV1, PV2, and PV3, each have a slightly different capsid protein. Capsid proteins define ... smaller amounts of 3Dpol are produced than those of capsid proteins, VP1-4. These individual viral proteins are: 3Dpol, an RNA ... Poliovirus is composed of an RNA genome and a protein capsid. The genome is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome that is ... VP0, which is further cleaved into VP2 and VP4, VP1 and VP3, proteins of the viral capsid After translation, transcription and ...
The capsid itself is elongated and exhibits helical symmetry. The core itself is helical. There are two major capsid proteins ( ... homologous major capsid proteins. Due to these shared properties viruses from the two families are classified into an order ... The capsid varies considerably in length - 410-1950 nanometers (nm) - and is 24-38 nm in diameter. The envelope has a monolayer ... MCP1 and MCP2). The basic MCP1 protein forms a core around which the genomic dsDNA is wrapped, whereas MCP2 interacts with the ...
There are three serotypes of poliovirus, PV1, PV2, and PV3; each with a slightly different capsid protein. Capsid proteins ... proteins involved in protein degradation, complement proteins, and proapoptotis proteins have been implicated. ... which is subsequently processed by virus-encoded proteases into the structural capsid proteins and the nonstructural proteins, ...
The unique, single protein, trumpet-shaped capsomeres of Gyrovirus are arranged into 12 pentomers yielding a capsid 60 units in ... VP1 is the 51kd capsid protein; in addition to its structural function, it also contains motifs for rolling circle replication ... These proteins share 38.8%, 40.3%, and 32.2% amino acid identities between their homologs in the CAV. Two species have been ... VP3, also called apoptin, is a 13kd protein that has been shown to independently induce apoptosis in chicken cells. Apoptin is ...
The "late region" contains genes encoding the viral capsid proteins.) In MTag-containing polyomaviruses, the early region ... but has a number of protein-protein interaction sites that mediate interactions with proteins in the host cell. Particularly in ... The result of this genetic encoding is three proteins that share a common N-terminal sequence, forming a protein domain called ... MTag preferentially performs other protein-protein interactions that compete with the Hsc70 interaction. MTag plays a role in ...
Proteins associated with nucleic acid are known as nucleoproteins, and the association of viral capsid proteins with viral ... consists of nucleic acid surrounded by a protective coat of protein called a capsid. These are formed from identical protein ... The capsid is made from proteins encoded by the viral genome and its shape serves as the basis for morphological distinction. ... Virally coded protein subunits will self-assemble to form a capsid, in general requiring the presence of the virus genome. ...
The "late region" contains genes encoding the viral capsid proteins.) The early region typically contains at least two genes ... The STag protein is expressed from a gene that overlaps the large tumor antigen (LTag) such that the two proteins share an N- ... STag is known to interact with host cell proteins, most notably protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and may activate the expression ... has homology to DnaJ proteins, and functions as a molecular chaperone. The C-terminal portion of the STag protein is distinct ...
In common with other picornaviruses, the capsid of BEV is composed of 60 copies of each of four structural proteins, VP1, VP2, ... "Conformational changes during proteolytic processing of a picornavirus capsid proteins". Arch. Virol. 145 (7): 1473-9. PMID ... The capsid is not enveloped and roughly spherical with an outer radius of 159 Ångströms and an inner radius of 107 Å. The outer ... Å in diameter which runs almost to the inner surface of the capsid. A hydrophobic pocket contained within VP1 contains a ...
The "late region" contains genes encoding the viral capsid proteins.) The early region typically contains at least two genes ... The ATPase domain also contains regions responsible for protein-protein interactions with host cell proteins, most notably ... without affecting these protein-protein interaction sites. LTag is a large protein whose domains can be detected and annotated ... Polyomavirus LTag proteins contain four well-conserved, globular protein domains: from N- to C-terminus, these are the J domain ...
Assembled capsid protein alpha is cleaved into capsid protein beta and gamma. Release of infectious particles. The nodamura ... RNA2 encodes the viral capsid protein, alpha. RNA2 is approximately 1.3 kb in length. RNA1's Protein A is also responsible for ... Nodamura virus capsid contains a segmented RNA genome made up of RNA1 and RNA2. RNA1 is responsible for encoding protein A, ... The virion is made up of 180 copies of a single viral capsid protein. The virion is organized in T=3 icosahedral symmetry, ...
... major capsid protein VP1, and one or two minor components, minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3. VP1 pentamers form the closed ... Expression of the late genes results in accumulation of the viral capsid proteins in the host cell cytoplasm. Capsid components ... Chen XS, Stehle T, Harrison SC (June 1998). "Interaction of polyomavirus internal protein VP2 with the major capsid protein VP1 ... SV40 has an additional capsid protein VP4; some examples have an additional regulatory protein called agnoprotein expressed ...
These efforts include protein capsids and liposomes. However, as some important, normal tissues, such as the liver and kidneys ... "In vivo encapsulation of nucleic acids using an engineered nonviral protein capsid". Journal of the American Chemical Society. ... fibroblast specific protein 1 (FSP-1) and fibroblast activation protein (FAP). None of these factors can be used to ... In addition, CAFs produce matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) that cleave the proteins within the ECM. CAFs are also able to ...
P9 capsid protein NC, also encoded by gag. 7000-11000 Da.. *The envelope proteins SU and TM are glycosylated in at least some ... Retroviruses carry specific proteins within their capsids, which typically associate with the RNA genome. These proteins are ... P24 capsid protein CA, encoded by the viral gene gag. 24000 Da. ... Protein size 66000 Da.. *Integrase IN also encoded by the pol ... The lentiviral proteome consists of five major structural proteins and 3-4 non-structural proteins (3 in the primate ...
Geldanamycin blocks the transport of HEV239 capsid protein, but not the binding/entry of the truncated capsid protein, which ... HEV has three open reading frames (ORFs) encoding two polyproteins (O1 and O2 protein). ORF2 encodes three capsid proteins ... The lifecycle of hepatitis E virus is unknown; the capsid protein obtains viral entry by binding to a cellular receptor. ORF2 ( ... "New insights into the ORF2 capsid protein, a key player of the hepatitis E virus lifecycle". Scientific Reports. 9 (1): 6243. ...
1985). "Amino terminal myristylation of the protein kinase p60src, a retroviral transforming protein". Science. 227 (4685): 427 ... Göttlinger HG, Sodroski JG, Haseltine WA (1989). "Role of capsid precursor processing and myristoylation in morphogenesis and ... 1990). "Myristoylation of gag proteins of HIV-1 plays an important role in virus assembly". AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 6 (6 ... Tashiro A, Shoji S, Kubota Y (1990). "Antimyristoylation of the gag proteins in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells ...
The 17-kDa capsid protein (CP) of satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) contains a distinct N-terminal arginine-rich motif (N- ... The 17-kDa capsid protein (CP) of satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) contains a distinct N-terminal arginine-rich motif (N- ... Multiple Activities Associated with the Capsid Protein of Satellite Panicum Mosaic Virus Are Controlled Separately by the N- ...
Protein from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Rubella Virus Capsid (C) Protein can be used for research. ... Recombinant Rubella Virus Capsid (C) Protein. Download Datasheet See All C Products. Bring this labeled protein directly to ... Recombinant Rubella Virus Capsid (C) Protein (1-123aa), was produced in E. coli.. ... Protein Labeling (optional):. -Selection-. Biotin. Fluorophores. Others. Note: There will be extra charge for optional service! ...
박, 미 , 서, 승 , 황, 진 , 김, 동 , 박, 종 , 정, 영 , 이, 택 Production of Red-spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV) Capsid Protein ... Choi Y. R. , Kim H. J. , Lee J. Y. , Kang H. A. , Kim H. , Kim J. 2013 Chromatographically-purified capsid proteins of red- ... article{ SMGHBM_2014_v24n9_995} ,title={Production of Red-spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV) Capsid Protein Using ... Citing Production of Red-spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV) Capsid Protein Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Surface ...
Complete sequence of Great Island virus and comparison with the T2 and outer-capsid proteins of Kemerovo, Lipovnik and Tribec ... Complete sequence of Great Island virus and comparison with the T2 and outer-capsid proteins of Kemerovo, Lipovnik and Tribec ... Complete sequence of Great Island virus and comparison with the T2 and outer-capsid proteins of Kemerovo, Lipovnik and Tribec ... Complete sequence of Great Island virus and comparison with the T2 and outer-capsid proteins of Kemerovo, Lipovnik and Tribec ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Short name: Virus_capsid_a-hlx_vir Description. The capsid of spherical viruses is built from a limited number of proteins and ... The proteins forming the capsid are VP2 (internal layer, with triangulation T = 1 and an asymmetric dimer in the icosahedral ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... The viral capsid of Picornaviruses is composed of 60 icosahedral copies of four capsid proteins, VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4, ... VP4 lies on the inner surface of the protein shell formed by the major capsid proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3. The three major ...
Viral protein that forms an icosahedral capsid with a T=25 symmetry to protect the viral genome. The T=25 capsid is composed of ... European Bioinformatics InstituteProtein Information ResourceSIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. ... an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc.,/p> ,p>,a href="/manual/evidences">More…,/a>,/p> Skip Header ...
The capsid is composed of 72 pentamers linked to each other by disulfide bonds and associated with VP2 or VP3 proteins. ... Inside the endoplasmic reticulum, the protein folding machinery isomerizes VP1 interpentamer disulfide bonds, thereby ... Forms an icosahedral capsid with a T=7 symmetry and a 40 nm diameter. ... Capsid protein, Host nucleus, T=7 icosahedral capsid protein, Virion. ,p>This section describes post-translational ...
The p24 protein can be detected in patient blood as early as 2 weeks after HIV infection, further reducing the window period ... p24 is a component of the HIV particle capsid. There are approximately 2000 molecules per virus particle, or at a molecule ... Fourth-generation HIV immunoassays detect viral p24 protein in the blood (as well as patient antibodies against the virus). ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Capsid protein self-assembles to form rod-shaped virions about 18 nm in diameter with a central canal enclosing the viral ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): P03580 - Ribgrass mosaic virus (strain Hr) 1 * Q61147 - Mus musculus no ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ...
BACTERIOPHAGE GA PROTEIN CAPSID 0, 1, 2..., 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q9YIJ1 - Adeno-associated virus - 5 1 * P54654 - Dictyostelium discoideum 2 ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
HHV Capsid Portal Protein, or HSV-1 UL-6 protein, is the protein which forms a cylindrical portal in the capsid of Herpes ... The capsid portal is formed by twelve copies of portal protein arranged as a ring; the proteins contain a leucine zipper ... Multiple studies suggest an evolutionary relationship between Capsid Portal Protein and bacteriophage portal proteins. When a ... protein UL-26.5, amino acids 143 through 151. UL-6 associates with a UL-15/UL-28 protein complex during capsid assembly. The UL ...
Major capsid protein VP1 is a viral protein that is the main component of the polyomavirus capsid. VP1 monomers are generally ... The capsid contains three proteins; VP1 is the primary component and forms a 360-unit outer capsid layer composed of 72 ... "Interaction of polyomavirus internal protein VP2 with the major capsid protein VP1 and implications for participation of VP2 in ... All of the capsid proteins are expressed from the late region of the viral genome, so named because expression occurs only late ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ... Data in red indicates combined ranges of Homology Models from SBKB and the Protein Model Portal ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Capsid scaffolding protein: Acts as a scaffold protein by binding major capsid protein in the cytoplasm, inducing the nuclear ... Capsid scaffolding protein homomultimerizes and interacts with major capsid protein. Assemblin exists in a monomer-dimer ... Multimerizes in the nucleus such as major capsid protein forms the icosahedral T=16 capsid. Autocatalytic cleavage releases the ...
Minor capsid protein of human genital papillomaviruses contains subdominant, cross-neutralizing epitopes.. Roden RB1, Yutzy WH ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Capsid protein which self-assembles to form the inner icosahedral capsid with a T=2 symmetry, and consisting of 60 P3 dimers. ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
Coat Protein Regulation by CK2, CPIP, HSP70, and CHIP Is Required for Potato Virus A Replication and Coat Protein Accumulation ... Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) Assembly-Activating Protein Is Not an Essential Requirement for Capsid Assembly of AAV Serotypes 4 ... Structural Protein VP2 of African Horse Sickness Virus Is Not Essential for Virus Replication In Vitro René G. P. van Gennip, ... Increasing Type 1 Poliovirus Capsid Stability by Thermal Selection Oluwapelumi O. Adeyemi, Clare Nicol, Nicola J. Stonehouse, ...
Capsid maturation occurs via autoproteolytic cleavage of capsid protein alpha generating capsid protein beta and the membrane- ... and consisting of 60 capsid proteins trimers. The capsid encapsulates the two genomic RNAs. ... Capsid protein alpha self-assembles to form an icosahedral procapsid with a T=3 symmetry, about 30 nm in diameter, ... Capsid maturation occurs via autoproteolytic cleavage of capsid protein alpha generating capsid protein beta and the membrane- ...
... and consisting of 415 capsid proteins (PubMed:20962334). The major and minor capsid proteins are incorporated into the capsid ... Once the capsid formed, encapsidates one single copy of the viral genome. ... Assembles with the major capsid protein to form an icosahedral capsid with a T=7 symmetry, about 60 nm in diameter, ... producing a protein with a C-terminal extension compared to the major capsid protein. The major capsid protein is produced by ...
Minor capsid protein VP2 and minor capsid protein VP3 are viral proteins that are components of the polyomavirus capsid. ... Polyomavirus capsids are composed of three proteins; the major component is major capsid protein VP1, which self-assembles into ... "The VP2/VP3 Minor Capsid Protein of Simian Virus 40 Promotes the in Vitro Assembly of the Major Capsid Protein VP1 into ... The minor components are VP2 and VP3, which bind in the interior of the capsid. All three capsid proteins are expressed from ...
Ab236194 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides free ... Buy our Recombinant Major capsid protein P39 (Tagged). ... SDS-PAGE - Recombinant Major capsid protein P39 (Tagged) ( ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex Assays. By ...
... can translocate across the cell membrane and have been extensively studied for the delivery of proteins, nucleic acids, and ... We showed that the intact virion and a recombinant capsid protein (CaP) from a plant-infecting nonenveloped icosahedral RNA ... CPNT increased uptake of the green flourescent protein (GFP) into the cell when covalently fused to GFP or when present in ... can translocate across the cell membrane and have been extensively studied for the delivery of proteins, nucleic acids, and ...
  • The 17-kDa capsid protein (CP) of satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) contains a distinct N-terminal arginine-rich motif (N-ARM) which is required for SPMV virion assembly and the activity of SPMV CP to promote systemic accumulation of its cognate RNA. (apsnet.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of the T2 proteins of KEMV, LIPV, TRBV and GIV (showing 82% amino acid identity) correlated with the early classification of Great Island viruses as two distinct serocomplexes (Great Island and Kemerovo serocomplexes). (utmb.edu)
  • Members of Tombusviridae are transmitted as positive sense single-stranded non-enveloped RNA viruses, with an icosohedral capsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Pol) and T2 protein amino acid sequences indicated that the tickborne orbiviruses represent an ancestral group from which the mosquito-borne orbiviruses have evolved. (utmb.edu)
  • Sequence comparisons showed that Seg-4 of GIV encoded the outer-capsid protein responsible for cell attachment, although it was approximately half the length of its counterpart in the Culicoides or mosquito-transmitted orbiviruses. (utmb.edu)
  • Amino acid identity levels in the VP1(Pol) and T2 proteins between the two serocomplexes were 73 and 82 %, respectively, whilst those between previously characterized Orbivirus species are 53-73% and 26-83 %, respectively. (utmb.edu)
  • A second overlapping ORF (in the +2 reading frame) was identified in Seg-9 of GIV, encoding a putative dsRNA-binding protein. (utmb.edu)
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