Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most individual species are restricted to their natural hosts. They possess a characteristic six-pointed starlike shape whose surfaces have cup-shaped (chalice) indentions. Transmission is by contaminated food, water, fomites, and occasionally aerosolization of secretions. Genera include LAGOVIRUS; NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES; SAPPORO-LIKE VIRUSES; and VESIVIRUS.
A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, infecting a variety of vertebrates including humans. Parvoviruses are responsible for a number of important diseases but also can be non-pathogenic in certain hosts. The type species is MINUTE VIRUS OF MICE.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.
A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.
A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A species of the genus PARVOVIRUS and a host range variant of FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS. It causes a highly infectious fulminating ENTERITIS in dogs producing high mortality. It is distinct from CANINE MINUTE VIRUS, a species in the genus BOCAVIRUS. This virus can also infect cats and mink.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.
A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.
Intracellular step that follows VIRUS INTERNALIZATION during which the viral nucleic acid and CAPSID are separated.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. They cause vesicular lesions and upper respiratory tract infections. FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS is the type species.
Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE comprising small iridescent insect viruses. The infected larvae and purified virus pellets exhibit a blue to purple iridescence.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
A species in the genus LAGOVIRUS which causes hemorrhagic disease, including hemorrhagic septicemia, in rabbits.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
The type species of ERYTHROVIRUS and the etiological agent of ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM, a disease most commonly seen in school-age children.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
A genus of the family CIRCOVIRIDAE that infects SWINE; PSITTACINES; and non-psittacine BIRDS. Species include Beak and feather disease virus causing a fatal disease in psittacine birds, and Porcine circovirus causing postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs (PORCINE POSTWEANING MULTISYSTEMIC WASTING SYNDROME).
The type species of PARVOVIRUS prevalent in mouse colonies and found as a contaminant of many transplanted tumors or leukemias.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A 17-KDa cytoplasmic PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE involved in immunoregulation. It is a member of the cyclophilin family of proteins that binds to CYCLOSPORINE.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.
A species of ORTHOREOVIRUS infecting mammals (other than baboons). There are four serotypes. In humans they are generally benign but may sometimes cause upper respiratory tract illness or enteritis in infants and children. MAMMALIAN ORTHOREOVIRUS 3 is a very pathogenic virus in laboratory rodents.
Semi-synthetic complex derived from nucleic-acid free viral particles. They are essentially reconstituted viral coats, where the infectious nucleocapsid is replaced by a compound of choice. Virosomes retain their fusogenic activity and thus deliver the incorporated compound (antigens, drugs, genes) inside the target cell. They can be used for vaccines (VACCINES, VIROSOME), drug delivery, or gene transfer.
A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is thought to be through contaminated feed or water. Vaccines have been used with varying degrees of success.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
DNA virus infections refer to diseases caused by viruses that incorporate double-stranded or single-stranded DNA as their genetic material, replicating within host cell nucleus or cytoplasm, and including various families such as Herpesviridae, Adenoviridae, Papillomaviridae, and Parvoviridae.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of PARVOVIRUS that causes a disease in mink, mainly those homozygous for the recessive Aleutian gene which determines a desirable coat color.
Protein precursors, also known as proproteins or prohormones, are inactive forms of proteins that undergo post-translational modification, such as cleavage, to produce the active functional protein or peptide hormone.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A genus of RNA fungi viruses in the family TOTIVIRIDAE. Some of the viruses contain additional satellite RNA or defective RNA. Transmission occurs during cell division, sporogenesis and cell fusion. The type species is Saccharomyces cerevisiae virus L-A.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
A species of replication-competent oncogene-containing virus in the genus ALPHARETROVIRUS. It is the original source of the src oncogene (V-SRC GENES) and causes sarcoma in chickens.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
A genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family ASTROVIRIDAE. They cause GASTROENTERITIS and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. The type species is Human astrovirus.
A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Enterovirus Infections are acute viral illnesses caused by various Enterovirus serotypes, primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, manifesting as a wide range of clinical symptoms, from asymptomatic or mild self-limiting fever to severe and potentially life-threatening conditions, such as meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and neonatal sepsis-like illness, depending on the age, immune status, and serotype of the infected individual.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
A species of PARVOVIRUS infecting cats with a highly contagious enteric disease. Host range variants include mink enteritis virus, canine parvovirus (PARVOVIRUS, CANINE), and raccoon parvovirus. After infecting their new hosts, many of these viruses have further evolved and are now considered distinct species.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
A slow progressive disease of mink caused by the ALEUTIAN MINK DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by poor reproduction, weight loss, autoimmunity, hypergammaglobulinemia, increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, and death from renal failure. The disease occurs in all color types, but mink which are homozygous recessive for the Aleutian gene for light coat color are particularly susceptible.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE containing highly flexuous filaments. Some members are important pathogens of crop plants. Natural vectors include APHIDS, whiteflies, and mealybugs. The type species is Beet yellows virus.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
A species of the Chenopodium genus which is the source of edible seed called quinoa. It contains makisterone A and other STEROIDS, some having ECDYSTEROID activity on insects.
A genus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE associated with worldwide sporadic outbreaks of GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The first recorded outbreak was in human infants in Sapporo, Japan in 1977. The genus is comprised of a single species, Sapporo virus, containing multiple strains.
A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
Virus diseases caused by the CIRCOVIRIDAE.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and severe viral disease in cloven-hoofed animals, characterized by fever, formation of vesicles and erosions in the mouth, on the tongue, lips, teats, and feet, causing significant economic losses in agriculture and livestock farming.
A species of PARVOVIRUS causing reproductive failure in pigs.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A genus of PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily DENSOVIRINAE, comprising helper-independent viruses containing only two species. Junonia coenia densovirus is the type species.
A mitosporic fungal genus including both saprophytes and plant parasites.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.
A genus of plant viruses that infects both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Its organisms are persistently transmitted by aphids, and weeds may provide reservoirs of infection.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, isolated from rodents and lagomorphs and occasionally causing febrile illness in man.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A species of BETARETROVIRUS isolated from mammary carcinoma in rhesus monkeys. It appears to have evolved from a recombination between a murine B oncovirus and a primate C oncovirus related to the baboon endogenous virus. Several serologically distinct strains exist. MPMV induces SIMIAN AIDS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
RNA virus infections refer to diseases caused by viruses that have RNA as their genetic material, which includes a wide range of pathogens affecting humans, animals, and plants, manifesting in various clinical symptoms and potentially leading to significant morbidity and mortality.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).
The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.
Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
A species of the genus POTYVIRUS that affects many species of Prunus. It is transmitted by aphids and by infected rootstocks.
Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.
Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.
A family of bisegmented, double-stranded RNA viruses causing infection in fish, mollusks, fowl, and Drosophila. There are three genera: AQUABIRNAVIRUS; AVIBIRNAVIRUS; and ENTOMOBIRNAVIRUS. Horizontal and vertical transmission occurs for all viruses.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE infecting a wide range of arthropods and vertebrates including humans. It comprises at least 21 serological subgroups. Transmission is by vectors such as midges, mosquitoes, sandflies, and ticks.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.

CAR-dependent and CAR-independent pathways of adenovirus vector-mediated gene transfer and expression in human fibroblasts. (1/4982)

Primary fibroblasts are not efficiently transduced by subgroup C adenovirus (Ad) vectors because they express low levels of the high-affinity Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). In the present study, we have used primary human dermal fibroblasts as a model to explore strategies by which Ad vectors can be designed to enter cells deficient in CAR. Using an Ad vector expressing the human CAR cDNA (AdCAR) at high multiplicity of infection, primary fibroblasts were converted from being CAR deficient to CAR sufficient. Efficiency of subsequent gene transfer by standard Ad5-based vectors and Ad5-based vectors with alterations in penton and fiber was evaluated. Marked enhancement of binding and transgene expression by standard Ad5 vectors was achieved in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Expression by AdDeltaRGDbetagal, an Ad5-based vector lacking the arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) alphaV integrin recognition site from its penton base, was achieved in CAR-sufficient, but not CAR-deficient, cells. Fiber-altered Ad5-based vectors, including (a) AdF(pK7)betagal (bearing seven lysines on the end of fiber) (b) AdF(RGD)betagal (bearing a high-affinity RGD sequence on the end of fiber), and (c) AdF9sK betagal (bearing a short fiber and Ad9 knob), demonstrated enhanced gene transfer in CAR-deficient fibroblasts, with no further enhancement in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Together, these observations demonstrate that CAR deficiency on Ad targets can be circumvented either by supplying CAR or by modifying the Ad fiber to bind to other cell-surface receptors.  (+info)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus type 11 recombinant virus-like particles interacts with heparin and cell-surface glycosaminoglycans on human keratinocytes. (2/4982)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11, a 55-kDa polypeptide, forms particulate structures resembling native virus with an average particle diameter of 50-60 nm when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show in this report that these virus-like particles (VLPs) interact with heparin and with cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) resembling heparin on keratinocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells. The binding of VLPs to heparin is shown to exhibit an affinity comparable to that of other identified heparin-binding proteins. Immobilized heparin chromatography and surface plasmon resonance were used to show that this interaction can be specifically inhibited by free heparin and dextran sulfate and that the effectiveness of the inhibitor is related to its molecular weight and charge density. Sequence comparison of nine human L1 types revealed a conserved region of the carboxyl terminus containing clustered basic amino acids that bear resemblance to proposed heparin-binding motifs in unrelated proteins. Specific enzymatic cleavage of this region eliminated binding to both immobilized heparin and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Removal of heparan sulfate GAGs on keratinocytes by treatment with heparinase or heparitinase resulted in an 80-90% reduction of VLP binding, whereas treatment of cells with laminin, a substrate for alpha6 integrin receptors, provided minimal inhibition. Cells treated with chlorate or substituted beta-D-xylosides, resulting in undersulfation or secretion of GAG chains, also showed a reduced affinity for VLPs. Similarly, binding of VLPs to a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant deficient in GAG synthesis was shown to be only 10% that observed for wild type cells. This report establishes for the first time that the carboxyl-terminal portion of HPV L1 interacts with heparin, and that this region appears to be crucial for interaction with the cell surface.  (+info)

Biophysical characterization of a designed TMV coat protein mutant, R46G, that elicits a moderate hypersensitivity response in Nicotiana sylvestris. (3/4982)

The hypersensitivity resistance response directed by the N' gene in Nicotiana sylvestris is elicited by the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) coat protein R46G, but not by the U1 wild-type TMV coat protein. In this study, the structural and hydrodynamic properties of R46G and wild-type coat proteins were compared for variations that may explain N' gene elicitation. Circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals no significant secondary or tertiary structural differences between the elicitor and nonelicitor coat proteins. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies, however, do show different concentration dependencies of the weight average sedimentation coefficients at 4 degrees C. Viral reconstitution kinetics at 20 degrees C were used to determine viral assembly rates and as an initial assay of the rate of 20S formation, the obligate species for viral reconstitution. These kinetic results reveal a decreased lag time for reconstitution performed with R46G that initially lack the 20S aggregate. However, experiments performed with 20S initially present reveal no detectable differences indicating that the mechanism of viral assembly is similar for the two coat protein species. Therefore, an increased rate of 20S formation from R46G subunits may explain the differences in the viral reconstitution lag times. The inferred increase in the rate of 20S formation is verified by direct measurement of the 20S boundary as a function of time at 20 degrees C using velocity sedimentation analysis. These results are consistent with the interpretation that there may be an altered size distribution and/or lifetime of the small coat protein aggregates in elicitors that allows N. sylvestris to recognize the invading virus.  (+info)

Time-resolved fluorescence investigation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein: influence of the binding of nucleic acids. (4/4982)

Depending on the HIV-1 isolate, MN or BH10, the nucleocapsid protein, NCp7, corresponds to a 55- or 71-amino acid length product, respectively. The MN NCp7 contains a single Trp residue at position 37 in the distal zinc finger motif, and the BH10 NCp7 contains an additional Trp, at position 61 in the C-terminal chain. The time-resolved intensity decay parameters of the zinc-saturated BH10 NCp7 were determined and compared to those of single-Trp-containing derivatives. The fluorescence decay of BH10 NCp7 could be clearly represented as a linear combination (with respect to both lifetimes and fractional intensities) of the individual emitting Trp residues. This suggested the absence of interactions between the two Trp residues, a feature that was confirmed by molecular modeling and fluorescence energy transfer studies. In the presence of tRNAPhe, taken as a RNA model, the same conclusions hold true despite the large fluorescence decrease induced by the binding of tRNAPhe. Indeed, the fluorescence of Trp37 appears almost fully quenched, in keeping with a stacking of this residue with the bases of tRNAPhe. Despite the multiple binding sites in tRNAPhe, the large prevalence of ultrashort lifetimes, associated with the stacking of Trp37, suggests that this stacking constitutes a major feature in the binding process of NCp7 to nucleic acids. In contrast, Trp61 only stacked to a small extent with tRNAPhe. The behavior of this residue in the tRNAPhe-NCp7 complexes appeared to be rather heterogeneous, suggesting that it does not constitute a major determinant in the binding process. Finally, our data suggested that the binding of NCp7 proteins from the two HIV-1 strains to nonspecific nucleic acid sequences was largely similar.  (+info)

Identification of additional genes that influence baculovirus late gene expression. (5/4982)

We were unable to confirm transient late gene expression using constructs of 18 genes that had been reported to support Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) late gene expression when transfected into Spodoptera frugiperda cells [Lu, A., and Miller, L. K. (1995). J. Virol. 69, 975-982]. Three genes (orf66, orf68, and orf41) were included, all or in part, in the constructs used in that study, but they had not been independently tested. Therefore we investigated these and neighboring orfs for their influence on late gene expression. We found that orf41 was required for late gene expression and that sequences within orf45 appeared to be required for the expression of orf41. Although orf66 and orf68 did not appear to affect late gene expression, orf69 stimulated expression. orf69 was found to have high homology to recent entries in GenBank from a variety of organisms. In addition, it was found that orf121, which was shown to be involved in early gene expression, and the viral homolog of pcna did not influence late gene expression.  (+info)

A new picornavirus isolated from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). (6/4982)

A previously unknown picornavirus was isolated from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). Electron microscopy images and sequence data of the prototype isolate, named Ljungan virus, showed that it is a picornavirus. The amino acid sequences of predicted Ljungan virus capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 were closely related to the human pathogen echovirus 22 (approximately 70% similarity). A partial 5' noncoding region sequence of Ljungan virus showed the highest degree of relatedness to cardioviruses. Two additional isolates were serologically and molecularly related to the prototype.  (+info)

Direct evidence that the proton motive force inhibits membrane translocation of positively charged residues within membrane proteins. (7/4982)

The M13 phage procoat protein requires both its signal sequence and its membrane anchor sequence in the mature part of the protein for membrane insertion. Translocation of its short acidic periplasmic loop is stimulated by the proton motive force (pmf) and does not require the Sec components. We now find that the pmf becomes increasingly important for the translocation of negatively charged residues within procoat when the hydrophobicity of the signal or membrane anchor is incrementally reduced. In contrast, we find that the pmf inhibits translocation of the periplasmic loop when it contains one or two positively charged residues. This inhibitory effect of the pmf is stronger when the hydrophobicity of the inserting procoat protein is compromised. No pmf effect is observed for translocation of an uncharged periplasmic loop even when the hydrophobicity is reduced. We also show that the Delta Psi component of the pmf is necessary and sufficient for insertion of representative constructs and that the translocation effects of charged residues are primarily due to the DeltaPsi component of the pmf and not the pH component.  (+info)

Interactions of heterologous DNA with polyomavirus major structural protein, VP1. (8/4982)

'Empty' polyomavirus pseudocapsids, self-assembled from the major structural protein VP1, bind DNA non-specifically and can deliver it into the nuclei of mammalian cells for expression [Forstova et al. (1995) Hum. Gene Ther. 6, 297-3061. Formation of suitable VP1-DNA complexes appears to be the limiting step in this route of gene delivery. Here, the character of VP1-DNA interactions has been studied in detail. Electron microscopy revealed that VP1 pseudocapsids can create in vitro at least two types of interactions with double-stranded DNA: (i) highly stable complexes, requiring free DNA ends, where the DNA is partially encapsidated; and, (ii) weaker interactions of pseudocapsids with internal parts of the DNA chain.  (+info)

Capsid proteins are the structural proteins that make up the capsid, which is the protective shell of a virus. The capsid encloses the viral genome and helps to protect it from degradation and detection by the host's immune system. Capsid proteins are typically arranged in a symmetrical pattern and can self-assemble into the capsid structure when exposed to the viral genome.

The specific arrangement and composition of capsid proteins vary between different types of viruses, and they play important roles in the virus's life cycle, including recognition and binding to host cells, entry into the cell, and release of the viral genome into the host cytoplasm. Capsid proteins can also serve as targets for antiviral therapies and vaccines.

A capsid is the protein shell that encloses and protects the genetic material of a virus. It is composed of multiple copies of one or more proteins that are arranged in a specific structure, which can vary in shape and symmetry depending on the type of virus. The capsid plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including protecting the viral genome from host cell defenses, mediating attachment to and entry into host cells, and assisting with the assembly of new virus particles during replication.

Virus assembly, also known as virion assembly, is the final stage in the virus life cycle where individual viral components come together to form a complete viral particle or virion. This process typically involves the self-assembly of viral capsid proteins around the viral genome (DNA or RNA) and, in enveloped viruses, the acquisition of a lipid bilayer membrane containing viral glycoproteins. The specific mechanisms and regulation of virus assembly vary among different viral families, but it is often directed by interactions between viral structural proteins and genomic nucleic acid.

A virion is the complete, infectious form of a virus outside its host cell. It consists of the viral genome (DNA or RNA) enclosed within a protein coat called the capsid, which is often surrounded by a lipid membrane called the envelope. The envelope may contain viral proteins and glycoproteins that aid in attachment to and entry into host cells during infection. The term "virion" emphasizes the infectious nature of the virus particle, as opposed to non-infectious components like individual capsid proteins or naked viral genome.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) is a type of electron microscopy where the sample is studied at cryogenic temperatures, typically liquid nitrogen temperatures. This technique is used to investigate the structure and shape of biological molecules and complexes, viruses, and other nanoscale particles.

In Cryo-EM, the sample is rapidly frozen to preserve its natural structure and then imaged using a beam of electrons. The images are collected at different angles and then computationally combined to generate a 3D reconstruction of the sample. This technique allows researchers to visualize biological structures in their native environment with near-atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their function and behavior.

Cryo-EM has become an increasingly popular tool in structural biology due to its ability to image large and complex structures that are difficult or impossible to crystallize for X-ray crystallography. It has been used to determine the structures of many important biological molecules, including membrane proteins, ribosomes, viruses, and protein complexes involved in various cellular processes.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Viral structural proteins are the protein components that make up the viral particle or capsid, providing structure and stability to the virus. These proteins are encoded by the viral genome and are involved in the assembly of new virus particles during the replication cycle. They can be classified into different types based on their location and function, such as capsid proteins, matrix proteins, and envelope proteins. Capsid proteins form the protein shell that encapsulates the viral genome, while matrix proteins are located between the capsid and the envelope, and envelope proteins are embedded in the lipid bilayer membrane that surrounds some viruses.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Norovirus is a highly contagious virus that often causes vomiting and diarrhea. It is a common cause of gastroenteritis, which is an inflammation of the stomach and intestines. This infection is often referred to as the "stomach flu," although it is not related to the influenza virus.

Norovirus spreads easily from person to person, through contaminated food or water, or by touching contaminated surfaces. Symptoms usually develop 12 to 48 hours after exposure and include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain, fever, and headache.

The Norwalk virus is named after Norwalk, Ohio, where an outbreak of the illness occurred in 1968. It was first identified during an investigation into an outbreak of gastroenteritis among school children. The virus was later renamed norovirus in 2002 to reflect its broader range of hosts and clinical manifestations.

It's important to note that while Norwalk virus is a common cause of viral gastroenteritis, there are many other viruses, bacteria, and parasites that can also cause similar symptoms. If you suspect you have norovirus or any other foodborne illness, it's important to seek medical attention and avoid preparing food for others until your symptoms have resolved.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Caliciviridae is a family of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that primarily infect animals, including humans. In humans, Caliciviridae causes gastroenteritis, commonly known as stomach flu, and is responsible for a significant portion of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The name "Caliciviridae" comes from the Latin word "calyx," meaning "cup," which refers to the cup-shaped depressions on the surface of some members of this virus family.

There are five genera within Caliciviridae that infect humans: Norovirus, Sapovirus, Lagovirus, Vesivirus, and Nebovirus. Among these, Norovirus is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans, accounting for approximately 90% of all cases.

Caliciviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses that range from 27 to 40 nanometers in diameter. They have a simple structure, consisting of a single protein shell (capsid) that encloses the RNA genome. The capsid proteins of Caliciviridae are organized into two major domains: the shell domain and the protruding domain. The protruding domain contains binding sites for host cell receptors and is responsible for eliciting an immune response in the host.

Caliciviruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through various routes, including fecal-oral transmission, ingestion of contaminated food or water, and direct contact with infected individuals or surfaces. They are resistant to many common disinfectants and can survive for extended periods on environmental surfaces, making them difficult to eliminate from healthcare settings and other high-touch areas.

In addition to their medical importance, Caliciviridae also has significance in veterinary medicine, as several members of this family infect animals such as cats, dogs, pigs, and rabbits, causing a range of clinical symptoms from gastroenteritis to respiratory illnesses.

Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the family Caliciviridae. It is a common pathogen in cats and can cause a variety of clinical signs, including upper respiratory disease, oral ulcers, pneumonia, and limping syndrome. FCV is highly contagious and can be spread through direct contact with infected cats or contaminated objects.

FCV infection typically causes mild to moderate symptoms, such as sneezing, nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and ulcers in the mouth. However, some strains of the virus can cause more severe disease, including virulent systemic disease (VSD), which is characterized by severe pneumonia, jaundice, and multi-organ failure. VSD is a rare but often fatal complication of FCV infection.

There are several vaccines available to protect cats against FCV infection. However, because there are many different strains of the virus, vaccination may not prevent infection altogether, but it can reduce the severity of clinical signs and the risk of complications. It is important to note that some vaccinated cats can still become infected with FCV and shed the virus, so it is still possible for them to transmit the virus to other cats.

In addition to vaccination, good hygiene practices, such as regular cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and cages, can help prevent the spread of FCV in multi-cat environments. It is also important to isolate sick cats from healthy ones to reduce the risk of transmission.

"Spodoptera" is not a medical term, but a genus name in the insect family Noctuidae. It includes several species of moths commonly known as armyworms or cutworms due to their habit of consuming leaves and roots of various plants, causing significant damage to crops.

Some well-known species in this genus are Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm), Spodoptera litura (tobacco cutworm), and Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm). These pests can be a concern for medical entomology when they transmit pathogens or cause allergic reactions. For instance, their frass (feces) and shed skins may trigger asthma symptoms in susceptible individuals. However, the insects themselves are not typically considered medical issues unless they directly affect human health.

Poliovirus is a human enterovirus, specifically a type of picornavirus, that is the causative agent of poliomyelitis (polio). It is a small, non-enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus. There are three serotypes of Poliovirus (types 1, 2 and 3) which can cause different degrees of severity in the disease. The virus primarily spreads through the fecal-oral route and infects the gastrointestinal tract, from where it can invade the nervous system and cause paralysis.

The Poliovirus has an icosahedral symmetry, with a diameter of about 30 nanometers. It contains a single stranded RNA genome which is encapsidated in a protein shell called capsid. The capsid is made up of 60 units of four different proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4).

Poliovirus has been eradicated from most countries of the world through widespread vaccination with inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) or oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). However, it still remains endemic in a few countries and is considered a major public health concern.

Baculoviridae is a family of large, double-stranded DNA viruses that infect arthropods, particularly insects. The virions (virus particles) are enclosed in a rod-shaped or occlusion body called a polyhedron, which provides protection and stability in the environment. Baculoviruses have a wide host range within the order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), Hymenoptera (sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants), and Diptera (flies). They are important pathogens in agriculture and forestry, causing significant damage to insect pests.

The Baculoviridae family is divided into four genera: Alphabaculovirus, Betabaculovirus, Gammabaculovirus, and Deltabaculovirus. The two most well-studied and economically important genera are Alphabaculovirus (nuclear polyhedrosis viruses or NPVs) and Betabaculovirus (granulosis viruses or GVs).

Baculoviruses have a biphasic replication cycle, consisting of a budded phase and an occluded phase. During the budded phase, the virus infects host cells and produces enveloped virions that can spread to other cells within the insect. In the occluded phase, large numbers of non-enveloped virions are produced and encapsidated in a protein matrix called a polyhedron. These polyhedra accumulate in the infected insect's tissues, providing protection from environmental degradation and facilitating transmission to new hosts through oral ingestion or other means.

Baculoviruses have been extensively studied as models for understanding viral replication, gene expression, and host-pathogen interactions. They also have potential applications in biotechnology and pest control, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy vectors, and environmentally friendly insecticides.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

A dependovirus, also known as a dependent adenovirus or satellite adenovirus, is a type of virus that requires the presence of another virus, specifically an adenovirus, to replicate. Dependoviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with a double-stranded DNA genome. They cannot complete their replication cycle without the help of an adenovirus, which provides necessary functions for the dependovirus to replicate.

Dependoviruses are clinically significant because they can cause disease in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. In some cases, dependoviruses may also affect the severity and outcome of adenovirus infections. However, it is important to note that not all adenovirus infections are associated with dependovirus co-infections.

RNA viruses are a type of virus that contain ribonucleic acid (RNA) as their genetic material, as opposed to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). RNA viruses replicate by using an enzyme called RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to transcribe and replicate their RNA genome.

There are several different groups of RNA viruses, including:

1. Negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that is complementary to the mRNA and must undergo transcription to produce mRNA before translation can occur. Examples include influenza virus, measles virus, and rabies virus.
2. Positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that can serve as mRNA and can be directly translated into protein after entry into the host cell. Examples include poliovirus, rhinoviruses, and coronaviruses.
3. Double-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome consisting of double-stranded RNA and use a complex replication strategy involving both transcription and reverse transcription. Examples include rotaviruses and reoviruses.

RNA viruses are known to cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from the common cold to more severe illnesses such as hepatitis C, polio, and COVID-19. Due to their high mutation rates and ability to adapt quickly to new environments, RNA viruses can be difficult to control and treat with antiviral drugs or vaccines.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

Reoviridae is a family of double-stranded RNA viruses that are non-enveloped and have a segmented genome. The name "Reoviridae" is derived from Respiratory Enteric Orphan virus, as these viruses were initially discovered in respiratory and enteric (gastrointestinal) samples but did not appear to cause any specific diseases.

The family Reoviridae includes several important human pathogens such as rotaviruses, which are a major cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide, and orthoreoviruses, which can cause respiratory and systemic infections in humans. Additionally, many Reoviridae viruses infect animals, including birds, mammals, fish, and insects, and can cause a variety of diseases.

Reoviridae virions are typically composed of multiple protein layers that encase the genomic RNA segments. The family is divided into two subfamilies, Sedoreovirinae and Spinareovirinae, based on structural features and genome organization. Reoviruses have a complex replication cycle that involves multiple steps, including attachment to host cells, uncoating of the viral particle, transcription of the genomic RNA, translation of viral proteins, packaging of new virions, and release from infected cells.

Parvovirus is a type of virus that is known to cause diseases in various animals, including dogs and humans. The most common strain that infects humans is called Parvovirus B19. This particular strain is responsible for the illness known as Fifth disease, which primarily affects young children and causes symptoms such as fever, rash, and joint pain.

Parvovirus B19 spreads through respiratory droplets, such as when an infected person coughs or sneezes. It can also be transmitted through blood or contaminated objects. Once the virus enters the body, it typically targets and infects rapidly dividing cells, particularly those found in the bone marrow and the fetal heart.

In dogs, a different strain of parvovirus called Canine Parvovirus (CPV) is responsible for a highly contagious and often fatal gastrointestinal illness. CPV primarily affects puppies between 6 weeks and 6 months old, but older dogs can also be infected if they haven't been vaccinated.

It is essential to maintain good hygiene practices and ensure proper vaccination to prevent parvovirus infections in both humans and animals.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

Polyomavirus is a type of double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the family Polyomaviridae. These viruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with an icosahedral symmetry. They have a relatively simple structure and contain a circular genome.

Polyomaviruses are known to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and birds. In humans, polyomaviruses can cause asymptomatic infections or lead to the development of various diseases, depending on the age and immune status of the host.

There are several types of human polyomaviruses, including:

* JC virus (JCV) and BK virus (BKV), which can cause severe disease in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients. JCV is associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a rare but often fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, while BKV can cause nephropathy and hemorrhagic cystitis.
* Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), which is associated with Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare but aggressive form of skin cancer.
* Trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSV), which is associated with trichodysplasia spinulosa, a rare skin disorder that affects immunocompromised individuals.

Polyomaviruses are typically transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected bodily fluids. Once inside the host, they can establish latency in various tissues and organs, where they may remain dormant for long periods of time before reactivating under certain conditions, such as immunosuppression.

Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and avoiding close contact with infected individuals. There are currently no vaccines available to prevent polyomavirus infections, although research is ongoing to develop effective vaccines against some of the more pathogenic human polyomaviruses.

Caliciviridae is a family of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that includes several important pathogens causing gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. The most well-known human calicivirus is norovirus, which is the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide.

Calicivirus infections typically cause symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, and fever. The infection is usually self-limiting and lasts for a few days, but in some cases, it can lead to dehydration, especially in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems.

Norovirus is highly contagious and can spread through close contact with an infected person, consumption of contaminated food or water, or touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the mouth. Prevention measures include frequent handwashing, proper food handling and preparation, and cleaning and disinfection of contaminated surfaces.

There is no specific treatment for calicivirus infections, and antibiotics are not effective against viral infections. Treatment is generally supportive and includes hydration to replace lost fluids and electrolytes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary for intravenous fluid replacement and monitoring.

Parvoviridae is a family of small, non-enveloped viruses that infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and birds. These viruses have a single-stranded DNA genome and replicate in the nucleus of infected cells. They are resistant to heat, acid, and organic solvents, making them difficult to inactivate.

The family Parvoviridae is divided into two subfamilies: Parvovirinae and Densovirinae. Parvovirinae infect vertebrates, while Densovirinae infect invertebrates. The subfamily Parvovirinae includes several genera that infect various hosts, such as humans, dogs, cats, and primates.

Parvovirus B19 is a well-known member of this family that causes a variety of clinical manifestations in humans, including fifth disease (slapped cheek syndrome), arthralgia, and occasionally more severe diseases in immunocompromised individuals or those with certain hematological disorders.

In animals, parvoviruses can cause serious diseases such as canine parvovirus infection in dogs and feline panleukopenia in cats, which can be fatal if left untreated.

Norovirus is a highly contagious virus that causes gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the stomach and intestines. It is often referred to as the "stomach flu" or "winter vomiting bug." Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. It can spread easily through contaminated food or water, contact with an infected person, or touching contaminated surfaces. Norovirus outbreaks are common in closed settings such as hospitals, nursing homes, schools, and cruise ships. The virus is hardy and can survive for weeks on surfaces, making it difficult to eliminate. It is also resistant to many disinfectants. There is no specific treatment for norovirus infection other than managing symptoms and staying hydrated. Vaccines are under development but not yet available.

Sindbis virus is an alphavirus that belongs to the Togaviridae family. It's named after the location where it was first isolated, in Sindbis, Egypt, in 1952. This virus is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes and can infect a wide range of animals, including birds and humans. In humans, Sindbis virus infection often causes a mild flu-like illness characterized by fever, rash, and joint pain. However, some people may develop more severe symptoms, such as neurological disorders, although this is relatively rare. There is no specific treatment for Sindbis virus infection, and management typically involves supportive care to alleviate symptoms.

Canine Parvovirus (CPV) is a small, non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the family Parvoviridae and genus Parvovirus. It is highly contagious and can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in dogs, particularly in puppies between 6 weeks and 6 months old.

The virus primarily attacks rapidly dividing cells in the body, such as those found in the intestinal lining, leading to symptoms like vomiting, diarrhea (often bloody), lethargy, loss of appetite, and fever. CPV can also cause damage to the bone marrow, which can result in a decrease in white blood cell counts and make the dog more susceptible to secondary infections.

Canine parvovirus is highly resistant to environmental factors and can survive for long periods of time on surfaces, making it easy to transmit from one dog to another through direct contact with infected dogs or their feces. Fortunately, there are effective vaccines available to prevent CPV infection in dogs.

An open reading frame (ORF) is a continuous stretch of DNA or RNA sequence that has the potential to be translated into a protein. It begins with a start codon (usually "ATG" in DNA, which corresponds to "AUG" in RNA) and ends with a stop codon ("TAA", "TAG", or "TGA" in DNA; "UAA", "UAG", or "UGA" in RNA). The sequence between these two points is called a coding sequence (CDS), which, when transcribed into mRNA and translated into amino acids, forms a polypeptide chain.

In eukaryotic cells, ORFs can be located in either protein-coding genes or non-coding regions of the genome. In prokaryotic cells, multiple ORFs may be present on a single strand of DNA, often organized into operons that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that not all ORFs necessarily represent functional proteins; some may be pseudogenes or result from errors in genome annotation. Therefore, additional experimental evidence is typically required to confirm the expression and functionality of a given ORF.

Nodaviridae is a family of small, non-enveloped viruses with icosahedral symmetry. The genome consists of two positive-sense, single-stranded RNA segments: RNA1 (3.1 kb) encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and RNA2 (1.4 kb) encodes the capsid protein. A subgenomic RNA3 is also produced from RNA1 during replication, which encodes a non-structural protein involved in viral replication. Nodaviruses infect insects and fish and can cause diseases such as encephalopathy and retinopathy in fish. They are transmitted horizontally through the fecal-oral route and vertically through the egg. Nodaviridae is a member of the order Picornavirales.

Picornaviridae is a family of small, single-stranded RNA viruses that are non-enveloped and have an icosahedral symmetry. The name "picornavirus" is derived from "pico," meaning small, and "RNA." These viruses are responsible for a variety of human and animal diseases, including the common cold, poliomyelitis, hepatitis A, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, and myocarditis. The genome of picornaviruses is around 7.5 to 8.5 kilobases in length and encodes a single polyprotein that is processed into structural and nonstructural proteins by viral proteases. Picornaviridae includes several important genera, such as Enterovirus, Rhinovirus, Hepatovirus, Cardiovirus, Aphthovirus, and Erbovirus.

Virus uncoating is a stage in the viral replication cycle, following virus entry and penetration into the host cell. It refers to the process by which the viral genome is released from the protective protein shell (capsid) of the virion after it has entered the host cell. This allows the viral genome to gain access to the host cell's machinery and manipulate it for viral replication. The uncoating process can be induced by various factors, such as low pH, presence of certain enzymes, or exposure to reactive oxygen species, depending on the specific type of virus.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Rotavirus is a genus of double-stranded RNA virus in the Reoviridae family, which is a leading cause of severe diarrhea and gastroenteritis in young children and infants worldwide. The virus infects and damages the cells lining the small intestine, resulting in symptoms such as vomiting, watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.

Rotavirus is highly contagious and can be spread through contact with infected individuals or contaminated surfaces, food, or water. The virus is typically transmitted via the fecal-oral route, meaning that it enters the body through the mouth after coming into contact with contaminated hands, objects, or food.

Rotavirus infections are often self-limiting and resolve within a few days to a week, but severe cases can lead to dehydration, hospitalization, and even death, particularly in developing countries where access to medical care and rehydration therapy may be limited. Fortunately, there are effective vaccines available that can prevent rotavirus infection and reduce the severity of symptoms in those who do become infected.

Oncogene proteins, viral, are cancer-causing proteins that are encoded by the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of certain viruses. These viral oncogenes can be acquired through infection with retroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV), and certain types of papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses.

When these viruses infect host cells, they can integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome, leading to the expression of viral oncogenes. These oncogenes may then cause uncontrolled cell growth and division, ultimately resulting in the formation of tumors or cancers. The process by which viruses contribute to cancer development is complex and involves multiple steps, including the alteration of signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

Examples of viral oncogenes include the v-src gene found in the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV), which causes chicken sarcoma, and the E6 and E7 genes found in human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which are associated with cervical cancer and other anogenital cancers. Understanding viral oncogenes and their mechanisms of action is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat virus-associated cancers.

Neutralization tests are a type of laboratory assay used in microbiology and immunology to measure the ability of a substance, such as an antibody or antitoxin, to neutralize the activity of a toxin or infectious agent. In these tests, the substance to be tested is mixed with a known quantity of the toxin or infectious agent, and the mixture is then incubated under controlled conditions. After incubation, the mixture is tested for residual toxicity or infectivity using a variety of methods, such as cell culture assays, animal models, or biochemical assays.

The neutralization titer is then calculated based on the highest dilution of the test substance that completely neutralizes the toxin or infectious agent. Neutralization tests are commonly used in the diagnosis and evaluation of immune responses to vaccines, as well as in the detection and quantification of toxins and other harmful substances.

Examples of neutralization tests include the serum neutralization test for measles antibodies, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for dengue virus antibodies, and the cytotoxicity neutralization assay for botulinum neurotoxins.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

Aphthovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Picornaviridae, order Picornavirales. This genus includes several species of viruses that are primarily associated with causing oral and foot lesions in cloven-hoofed animals, such as cattle, sheep, and pigs. The most well-known member of this genus is foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which causes a highly contagious and economically significant disease in livestock. Other species in the Aphthovirus genus include equine rhinitis A virus, bovine rhinitis virus, and porcine teschovirus. These viruses are typically transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their secretions and excretions, and they can cause a range of clinical signs including fever, loss of appetite, lameness, and lesions in the mouth and feet. There are currently no vaccines available for all serotypes of FMDV, and control measures typically involve quarantine, slaughter of infected animals, and strict biosecurity practices to prevent spread of the virus.

Parvoviridae infections refer to diseases caused by viruses belonging to the Parvoviridae family. These viruses are known to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and insects. The most well-known member of this family is the human parvovirus B19, which is responsible for a variety of clinical manifestations such as:

1. Erythema infectiosum (Fifth disease): A common childhood exanthem characterized by a "slapped cheek" rash and a lace-like rash on the extremities.
2. Transient aplastic crisis: A sudden and temporary halt in red blood cell production, which can lead to severe anemia in individuals with underlying hematologic disorders.
3. Hydrops fetalis: Intrauterine death due to severe anemia caused by parvovirus B19 infection in pregnant women, leading to heart failure and widespread fluid accumulation in the fetus.

Parvoviruses are small, non-enveloped viruses with a single-stranded DNA genome. They primarily infect and replicate within actively dividing cells, making them particularly harmful to rapidly proliferating tissues such as bone marrow and fetal tissues. In addition to parvovirus B19, other Parvoviridae family members can cause significant diseases in animals, including cats, dogs, and livestock.

'Cercopithecus aethiops' is the scientific name for the monkey species more commonly known as the green monkey. It belongs to the family Cercopithecidae and is native to western Africa. The green monkey is omnivorous, with a diet that includes fruits, nuts, seeds, insects, and small vertebrates. They are known for their distinctive greenish-brown fur and long tail. Green monkeys are also important animal models in biomedical research due to their susceptibility to certain diseases, such as SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus), which is closely related to HIV.

An epitope is a specific region on the surface of an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that is recognized by an antibody, B-cell receptor, or T-cell receptor. It is also commonly referred to as an antigenic determinant. Epitopes are typically composed of linear amino acid sequences or conformational structures made up of discontinuous amino acids in the antigen. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between self and non-self molecules, leading to the targeted destruction of foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. Understanding epitopes is essential for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Iridovirus is a type of double-stranded DNA virus that infects a wide range of hosts, including insects, fish, amphibians, and reptiles. The name "iridovirus" comes from the iridescent appearance often seen on the infected host's skin or scales. These viruses can cause serious diseases in their hosts, leading to significant mortality, especially in farmed species. Iridoviruses are transmitted horizontally through various routes such as direct contact with infected individuals, ingestion of contaminated food or water, and vertical transmission from parent to offspring. The virions (virus particles) are icosahedral in shape and measure between 120-300 nanometers in diameter. Iridoviruses have a broad host range but typically cause cytopathic effects in the infected cells, leading to tissue damage and organ failure in the host.

Bromovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Bromoviridae, order Picornavirales. These viruses have single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes and are transmitted by insects, primarily aphids. They infect a wide range of plants, causing various symptoms such as mosaic patterns on leaves, stunting, and reduced yield. The genus Bromovirus includes several important plant pathogens, including Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Broad bean mottle virus (BBMV), and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV).

Rubella virus is the sole member of the genus Rubivirus, within the family Togaviridae. It is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that causes the disease rubella (German measles) in humans. The virus is typically transmitted through respiratory droplets and has an incubation period of 12-23 days.

Rubella virus infection during pregnancy, particularly during the first trimester, can lead to serious birth defects known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in the developing fetus. The symptoms of CRS may include hearing impairment, eye abnormalities, heart defects, and developmental delays.

The virus was eradicated from the Americas in 2015 due to widespread vaccination programs. However, it still circulates in other parts of the world, and travelers can bring the virus back to regions where it has been eliminated. Therefore, maintaining high vaccination rates is crucial for preventing the spread of rubella and protecting vulnerable populations from CRS.

Enterovirus B, Human (HEVB) is a type of enterovirus that infects humans. Enteroviruses are small viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family and are named after the Greek word "pico" meaning small. They are further classified into several species, including Human Enterovirus B (HEV-B).

HEVB includes several serotypes, such as Coxsackievirus A9, A16, and B types, and Echoviruses. These viruses are typically transmitted through the fecal-oral route or respiratory droplets and can cause a range of illnesses, from mild symptoms like fever, rash, and sore throat to more severe diseases such as meningitis, myocarditis, and paralysis.

HEVB infections are common worldwide, and people of all ages can be affected. However, young children and individuals with weakened immune systems are at higher risk for severe illness. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with sick individuals. There is no specific treatment for HEVB infections, and most cases resolve on their own within a few days to a week. However, hospitalization may be necessary for severe cases.

Hemorrhagic disease virus (RDV) in rabbits refers to a highly virulent calicivirus that causes a severe and often fatal disease in rabbits. The disease is characterized by acute onset of fever, loss of appetite, lethargy, and various hemorrhagic symptoms such as bleeding from the nose, mouth, and rectum. In severe cases, it can lead to internal organs' necrosis and death within 12-36 hours after the onset of clinical signs.

There are two main strains of RDV: the European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV) and the rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV). Both viruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected rabbits, their feces or urine, or contaminated objects. The virus can also be spread through insects such as flies and mosquitoes.

Preventive measures include vaccination, strict biosecurity protocols, and limiting exposure to wild rabbits and insects. There is no specific treatment for RDV infection, and antibiotics are generally not effective against the virus. Supportive care, such as fluid therapy and symptomatic treatment, may be provided to help alleviate clinical signs and improve the rabbit's chances of survival.

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

Parvovirus B19, Human is a single-stranded DNA virus that primarily infects humans. It belongs to the Parvoviridae family and Erbovirus genus. This virus is the causative agent of erythema infectiosum, also known as fifth disease, a mild, self-limiting illness characterized by a facial rash and occasionally joint pain or inflammation.

Parvovirus B19 has a strong tropism for erythroid progenitor cells in the bone marrow, where it replicates and causes temporary suppression of red blood cell production (aplastic crisis) in individuals with underlying hemolytic disorders such as sickle cell disease or spherocytosis.

Additionally, Parvovirus B19 can cause more severe complications in immunocompromised individuals, pregnant women, and fetuses. Infection during pregnancy may lead to hydrops fetalis, anemia, or even fetal death, particularly in the first and second trimesters. Transmission of the virus occurs primarily through respiratory droplets and occasionally via blood transfusions or vertical transmission from mother to fetus.

Vero cells are a line of cultured kidney epithelial cells that were isolated from an African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) in the 1960s. They are named after the location where they were initially developed, the Vervet Research Institute in Japan.

Vero cells have the ability to divide indefinitely under certain laboratory conditions and are often used in scientific research, including virology, as a host cell for viruses to replicate. This allows researchers to study the characteristics of various viruses, such as their growth patterns and interactions with host cells. Vero cells are also used in the production of some vaccines, including those for rabies, polio, and Japanese encephalitis.

It is important to note that while Vero cells have been widely used in research and vaccine production, they can still have variations between different cell lines due to factors like passage number or culture conditions. Therefore, it's essential to specify the exact source and condition of Vero cells when reporting experimental results.

Medical Definition of "Herpesvirus 1, Human" (also known as Human Herpesvirus 1 or HHV-1):

Herpesvirus 1, Human is a type of herpesvirus that primarily causes infection in humans. It is also commonly referred to as human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1) or oral herpes. This virus is highly contagious and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected saliva, skin, or mucous membranes.

After initial infection, the virus typically remains dormant in the body's nerve cells and may reactivate later, causing recurrent symptoms. The most common manifestation of HHV-1 infection is oral herpes, characterized by cold sores or fever blisters around the mouth and lips. In some cases, HHV-1 can also cause other conditions such as encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) and keratitis (inflammation of the eye's cornea).

There is no cure for HHV-1 infection, but antiviral medications can help manage symptoms and reduce the severity and frequency of recurrent outbreaks.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Papillomaviridae is a family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses that primarily infect the epithelial cells of mammals, birds, and reptiles. The name "papillomavirus" comes from the Latin word "papilla," which means nipple or small projection, reflecting the characteristic wart-like growths (papillomas) that these viruses can cause in infected host tissues.

The family Papillomaviridae includes more than 200 distinct papillomavirus types, with each type being defined by its specific DNA sequence. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which are the most well-studied members of this family, are associated with a range of diseases, from benign warts and lesions to malignant cancers such as cervical, anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers.

Papillomaviruses have a circular, double-stranded DNA genome that is approximately 8 kbp in size. The viral genome encodes several early (E) proteins involved in viral replication and oncogenesis, as well as late (L) proteins that form the viral capsid. The life cycle of papillomaviruses is tightly linked to the differentiation program of their host epithelial cells, with productive infection occurring primarily in the differentiated layers of the epithelium.

In summary, Papillomaviridae is a family of DNA viruses that infect epithelial cells and can cause a variety of benign and malignant diseases. Human papillomaviruses are a significant public health concern due to their association with several cancer types.

Circoviruses are a type of small, non-enveloped viruses that belong to the family Circoviridae. They have a single-stranded, circular DNA genome and can infect a wide range of hosts, including birds, pigs, and some mammals. Circoviruses are associated with various diseases in animals, such as porcine circovirus-associated disease (PCVAD) in pigs and beak and feather disease in birds. However, there is currently no evidence to suggest that circoviruses infect or cause disease in humans.

The Minute Virus of Mice (MVM) is a small, single-stranded DNA parvovirus that primarily infects laboratory mice. It was so named because of its extremely small size and the minimal cytopathic effect it causes in infected cells. MVM is not known to cause disease in humans or other animals. However, it has been used as a model system for studying parvovirus biology and pathogenesis due to its ability to efficiently infect and replicate in many types of mammalian cells. There are three strains of MVM (MVMp, MVMi, and MVMc) that vary in their host range and tissue tropism.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

Cyclophilin A is a type of intracellular protein that belongs to the immunophilin family. It has peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity, which means it helps in folding and assembling other proteins by catalyzing the cis-trans isomerization of proline residues.

Cyclophilin A is widely distributed in various tissues and cells, including immune cells such as T lymphocytes. It plays a crucial role in the immune system by binding to and activating the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine A, which is used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs.

In addition to its role in protein folding and immunosuppression, Cyclophilin A has been implicated in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, gene expression, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). It also plays a role in viral replication, particularly of HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Insect viruses, also known as entomoviruses, are viruses that specifically infect and replicate in insect hosts. These viruses can be found in various insect species, including those of medical and agricultural importance. Insect viruses can cause diseases in insect populations, leading to significant impacts on their growth, development, and survival. Some insect viruses have been studied as potential biological control agents for managing pest insects that affect crops or transmit diseases. Examples of insect viruses include Baculoviridae, Reoviridae, and Picornaviridae families.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Panicum" is not a medical term. It is the name of a genus of plants, including many types of grasses, commonly known as panicgrass or switchgrass. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Enterovirus A, Human is a type of enterovirus that infects humans. Enteroviruses are small, single-stranded RNA viruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family. There are over 100 different types of enteroviruses, and they are divided into several species, including Enterovirus A, B, C, D, and Rhinovirus.

Enterovirus A includes several important human pathogens, such as polioviruses (which have been largely eradicated thanks to vaccination efforts), coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and enterovirus 71. These viruses are typically transmitted through the fecal-oral route or respiratory droplets and can cause a range of illnesses, from mild symptoms like fever, rash, and sore throat to more severe diseases such as meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and paralysis.

Poliovirus, which is the most well-known member of Enterovirus A, was responsible for causing poliomyelitis, a highly infectious disease that can lead to irreversible paralysis. However, due to widespread vaccination programs, wild poliovirus transmission has been eliminated in many parts of the world, and only a few countries still report cases of polio caused by vaccine-derived viruses.

Coxsackieviruses and echoviruses can cause various symptoms, including fever, rash, mouth sores, muscle aches, and respiratory illnesses. In some cases, they can also lead to more severe diseases such as meningitis or myocarditis. Enterovirus 71 is a significant pathogen that can cause hand, foot, and mouth disease, which is a common childhood illness characterized by fever, sore throat, and rash on the hands, feet, and mouth. In rare cases, enterovirus 71 can also lead to severe neurological complications such as encephalitis and polio-like paralysis.

Prevention measures for enterovirus A infections include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and practicing safe food handling. Vaccination is available for poliovirus and can help prevent the spread of vaccine-derived viruses. No vaccines are currently available for other enterovirus A infections, but research is ongoing to develop effective vaccines against these viruses.

Orthoreovirus, mammalian, refers to a genus of viruses in the family Reoviridae that primarily infect mammals. These non-enveloped viruses have a segmented double-stranded RNA genome and an icosahedral symmetry. They are typically associated with asymptomatic or mild respiratory or enteric infections in various mammalian hosts, including humans. However, they can sometimes cause more severe diseases in immunocompromised individuals. The genus includes three species: Mammalian orthoreovirus (MRV), Nelson Bay orthoreovirus (NBORV), and Baboon orthoreovirus (BRV).

Virosomes are artificially created structures that consist of viral envelopes, which have been stripped of their genetic material, combined with liposomes. They maintain the ability to fuse with cell membranes and can be used as delivery systems for vaccines or drugs, as they can carry foreign proteins or nucleic acids into cells. This makes them useful in the development of novel vaccine strategies and targeted therapy.

Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) is a highly contagious avian virus that primarily affects the bursa of Fabricius in young chickens, leading to an immunosuppressive disease known as Gumboro disease. The bursa of Fabricius is a vital organ for the development and maturation of B cells, which are crucial for the immune system's response to infections.

IBDV is a non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Birnaviridae family. It has two serotypes, with serotype 1 being responsible for the majority of outbreaks and being highly pathogenic, while serotype 2 is less virulent and causes mild or asymptomatic infections.

The virus targets and destroys the B cells in the bursa, leading to a weakened immune system that makes the affected chickens more susceptible to secondary bacterial and viral infections. The disease can cause significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to high mortality rates, decreased feed conversion efficiency, and reduced egg production.

Vaccination is an effective prevention strategy against IBDV, with both live and inactivated vaccines available for use in chickens. Good biosecurity measures, such as strict sanitation practices and limiting the movement of birds and people between farms, can also help prevent the spread of the virus.

Mosaic viruses are a group of plant viruses that can cause mottled or mosaic patterns of discoloration on leaves, which is why they're named as such. These viruses infect a wide range of plants, including important crops like tobacco, tomatoes, and cucumbers. The infection can lead to various symptoms such as stunted growth, leaf deformation, reduced yield, or even plant death.

Mosaic viruses are typically spread by insects, such as aphids, that feed on the sap of infected plants and then transmit the virus to healthy plants. They can also be spread through contaminated seeds, tools, or contact with infected plant material. Once inside a plant, these viruses hijack the plant's cellular machinery to replicate themselves, causing damage to the host plant in the process.

It is important to note that mosaic viruses are not related to human or animal health; they only affect plants.

Gene expression regulation, viral, refers to the processes that control the production of viral gene products, such as proteins and nucleic acids, during the viral life cycle. This can involve both viral and host cell factors that regulate transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational modifications of viral genes.

Viral gene expression regulation is critical for the virus to replicate and produce progeny virions. Different types of viruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to regulate their gene expression, including the use of promoters, enhancers, transcription factors, RNA silencing, and epigenetic modifications. Understanding these regulatory processes can provide insights into viral pathogenesis and help in the development of antiviral therapies.

DNA virus infections refer to diseases or conditions caused by the invasion and replication of DNA viruses in a host organism. DNA viruses are a type of virus that uses DNA as their genetic material. They can cause a variety of diseases, ranging from relatively mild illnesses to severe or life-threatening conditions.

Some examples of DNA viruses include herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and adenoviruses. These viruses can cause a range of diseases, including cold sores, genital herpes, chickenpox, shingles, cervical cancer, liver cancer, and respiratory infections.

DNA virus infections typically occur when the virus enters the body through a break in the skin or mucous membranes, such as those found in the eyes, nose, mouth, or genitals. Once inside the body, the virus infects cells and uses their machinery to replicate itself, often causing damage to the host cells in the process.

The symptoms of DNA virus infections can vary widely depending on the specific virus and the severity of the infection. Treatment may include antiviral medications, which can help to reduce the severity and duration of symptoms, as well as prevent the spread of the virus to others. In some cases, vaccines may be available to prevent DNA virus infections.

A nucleocapsid is a protein structure that encloses the genetic material (nucleic acid) of certain viruses. It is composed of proteins encoded by the virus itself, which are synthesized inside the host cell and then assemble around the viral genome to form a stable complex.

The nucleocapsid plays an important role in the viral life cycle. It protects the viral genome from degradation by host enzymes and helps to facilitate the packaging of the genome into new virus particles during assembly. Additionally, the nucleocapsid can also play a role in the regulation of viral gene expression and replication.

In some viruses, such as coronaviruses, the nucleocapsid is encased within an envelope derived from the host cell membrane, while in others, it exists as a naked capsid. The structure and composition of the nucleocapsid can vary significantly between different virus families.

Virus receptors are specific molecules (commonly proteins) on the surface of host cells that viruses bind to in order to enter and infect those cells. This interaction between the virus and its receptor is a critical step in the infection process. Different types of viruses have different receptor requirements, and identifying these receptors can provide important insights into the biology of the virus and potential targets for antiviral therapies.

Protein conformation refers to the specific three-dimensional shape that a protein molecule assumes due to the spatial arrangement of its constituent amino acid residues and their associated chemical groups. This complex structure is determined by several factors, including covalent bonds (disulfide bridges), hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and ionic bonds, which help stabilize the protein's unique conformation.

Protein conformations can be broadly classified into two categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The primary structure represents the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The secondary structure arises from local interactions between adjacent amino acid residues, leading to the formation of recurring motifs such as α-helices and β-sheets. Tertiary structure refers to the overall three-dimensional folding pattern of a single polypeptide chain, while quaternary structure describes the spatial arrangement of multiple folded polypeptide chains (subunits) that interact to form a functional protein complex.

Understanding protein conformation is crucial for elucidating protein function, as the specific three-dimensional shape of a protein directly influences its ability to interact with other molecules, such as ligands, nucleic acids, or other proteins. Any alterations in protein conformation due to genetic mutations, environmental factors, or chemical modifications can lead to loss of function, misfolding, aggregation, and disease states like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

HeLa cells are a type of immortalized cell line used in scientific research. They are derived from a cancer that developed in the cervical tissue of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman, in 1951. After her death, cells taken from her tumor were found to be capable of continuous division and growth in a laboratory setting, making them an invaluable resource for medical research.

HeLa cells have been used in a wide range of scientific studies, including research on cancer, viruses, genetics, and drug development. They were the first human cell line to be successfully cloned and are able to grow rapidly in culture, doubling their population every 20-24 hours. This has made them an essential tool for many areas of biomedical research.

It is important to note that while HeLa cells have been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs, the story of their origin raises ethical questions about informed consent and the use of human tissue in research.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Aleutian Mink Disease Virus (AMDV) is a small, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the family Parvoviridae and genus Amdoparvovirus. This virus primarily infects minks, causing a chronic wasting disease known as Aleutian Disease. The name of the virus comes from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska where the disease was first identified in mink farms during the 1940s.

The virus is highly host-specific and does not typically infect humans or other animals, except for some cases in wild and farmed foxes, raccoons, and dogs. The infection in these animals may lead to similar symptoms as observed in minks, such as weight loss, anemia, and immune suppression.

AMDV has a strong affinity for infecting cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, leading to chronic inflammation and immune complex deposition in various organs, including the kidneys, spleen, and liver. The infection can result in a spectrum of clinical signs, from subclinical to severe and fatal disease, depending on factors such as the age, genetics, and immune status of the host.

Diagnosis of AMDV infection is usually accomplished through serological tests, such as ELISA or hemagglutination inhibition assays, which detect antibodies against the virus in infected animals. Additionally, molecular techniques like PCR can be used to directly amplify and detect viral DNA in clinical samples.

There are no specific treatments for AMDV infection, and control measures primarily focus on preventing the spread of the virus through biosecurity practices, such as maintaining strict sanitation, quarantine procedures, and vaccination programs for susceptible animals.

Protein precursors, also known as proproteins or prohormones, are inactive forms of proteins that undergo post-translational modification to become active. These modifications typically include cleavage of the precursor protein by specific enzymes, resulting in the release of the active protein. This process allows for the regulation and control of protein activity within the body. Protein precursors can be found in various biological processes, including the endocrine system where they serve as inactive hormones that can be converted into their active forms when needed.

DNA packaging refers to the way in which DNA molecules are compacted and organized within the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. In order to fit into the nucleus, which is only a small fraction of the size of the cell, the long DNA molecule must be tightly packed. This is accomplished through a process called "supercoiling," in which the DNA double helix twists and coils upon itself, as well as through its association with histone proteins.

Histones are small, positively charged proteins that bind to the negatively charged DNA molecule, forming structures known as nucleosomes. The DNA wraps around the outside of the histone octamer (a complex made up of eight histone proteins) in a repeating pattern, creating a "bead on a string" structure. These nucleosomes are then coiled and compacted further to form higher-order structures, ultimately resulting in the highly condensed chromatin that is found within the cell nucleus.

Proper DNA packaging is essential for the regulation of gene expression, as well as for the protection and maintenance of genetic information. Abnormalities in DNA packaging have been linked to a variety of diseases, including cancer.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Ranavirus is a genus of double-stranded DNA viruses that infect amphibians, reptiles, and fish. It belongs to the family Iridoviridae and subfamily Ranavirinae. This virus can cause a disease known as ranaviral disease, which is characterized by hemorrhagic lesions, liver necrosis, and high mortality in infected animals. The virus can be transmitted through water, direct contact with infected animals, or consumption of infected prey. It is a significant concern for wildlife conservation and aquaculture.

An amino acid substitution is a type of mutation in which one amino acid in a protein is replaced by another. This occurs when there is a change in the DNA sequence that codes for a particular amino acid in a protein. The genetic code is redundant, meaning that most amino acids are encoded by more than one codon (a sequence of three nucleotides). As a result, a single base pair change in the DNA sequence may not necessarily lead to an amino acid substitution. However, if a change does occur, it can have a variety of effects on the protein's structure and function, depending on the nature of the substituted amino acids. Some substitutions may be harmless, while others may alter the protein's activity or stability, leading to disease.

Epitope mapping is a technique used in immunology to identify the specific portion or regions (called epitopes) on an antigen that are recognized and bind to antibodies or T-cell receptors. This process helps to understand the molecular basis of immune responses against various pathogens, allergens, or transplanted tissues.

Epitope mapping can be performed using different methods such as:

1. Peptide scanning: In this method, a series of overlapping peptides spanning the entire length of the antigen are synthesized and tested for their ability to bind to antibodies or T-cell receptors. The peptide that shows binding is considered to contain the epitope.
2. Site-directed mutagenesis: In this approach, specific amino acids within the antigen are altered, and the modified antigens are tested for their ability to bind to antibodies or T-cell receptors. This helps in identifying the critical residues within the epitope.
3. X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy: These techniques provide detailed information about the three-dimensional structure of antigen-antibody complexes, allowing for accurate identification of epitopes at an atomic level.

The results from epitope mapping can be useful in various applications, including vaccine design, diagnostic test development, and understanding the basis of autoimmune diseases.

Simian Virus 40 (SV40) is a polyomavirus that is found in both monkeys and humans. It is a DNA virus that has been extensively studied in laboratory settings due to its ability to transform cells and cause tumors in animals. In fact, SV40 was discovered as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccines that were prepared using rhesus monkey kidney cells in the 1950s and 1960s.

SV40 is not typically associated with human disease, but there has been some concern that exposure to the virus through contaminated vaccines or other means could increase the risk of certain types of cancer, such as mesothelioma and brain tumors. However, most studies have failed to find a consistent link between SV40 infection and cancer in humans.

The medical community generally agrees that SV40 is not a significant public health threat, but researchers continue to study the virus to better understand its biology and potential impact on human health.

Totiviruses are non-enveloped, icosahedral, double-stranded RNA viruses that belong to the family Totiviridae. They primarily infect fungi and protozoa, but some have been found to infect invertebrates as well. The genome of totiviruses is approximately 4.6-5.3 kb in size and contains two open reading frames (ORFs). The first ORF encodes the major capsid protein, while the second ORF encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Totiviruses are known to establish persistent infections in their hosts and can be both vertically and horizontally transmitted. They have been studied for their potential use as biocontrol agents against fungal pathogens.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Bacteriophage T4, also known as T4 phage, is a type of virus that infects and replicates within the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli). It is one of the most well-studied bacteriophages and has been used as a model organism in molecular biology research for many decades.

T4 phage has a complex structure, with an icosahedral head that contains its genetic material (DNA) and a tail that attaches to the host cell and injects the DNA inside. The T4 phage genome is around 169 kilobases in length and encodes approximately 289 proteins.

Once inside the host cell, the T4 phage DNA takes over the bacterial machinery to produce new viral particles. The host cell eventually lyses (bursts), releasing hundreds of new phages into the environment. T4 phage is a lytic phage, meaning that it only replicates through the lytic cycle and does not integrate its genome into the host's chromosome.

T4 phage has been used in various applications, including bacterial typing, phage therapy, and genetic engineering. Its study has contributed significantly to our understanding of molecular biology, genetics, and virology.

Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) is an avian retrovirus that was first discovered by Peyton Rous in 1910. It is the cause of a type of cancer called avian sarcoma, which affects birds, particularly chickens. The virus is transmitted through the spread of infected cells or cell-free filtrates and can induce tumors at the site of infection.

RSV contains an RNA genome that is reverse transcribed into DNA upon entry into the host cell. This DNA then integrates into the host's chromosomal DNA, leading to a persistent infection. The virus encodes several oncogenes, including src, which play a crucial role in the transformation of infected cells and the development of cancer.

RSV has been extensively studied as a model system for retroviral-induced tumorigenesis and has contributed significantly to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development.

An enterovirus is a type of virus that primarily infects the gastrointestinal tract. There are over 100 different types of enteroviruses, including polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses such as EV-D68 and EV-A71. These viruses are typically spread through close contact with an infected person, or by consuming food or water contaminated with the virus.

While many people infected with enteroviruses may not experience any symptoms, some may develop mild to severe illnesses such as hand, foot and mouth disease, herpangina, meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and paralysis (in case of poliovirus). Infection can occur in people of all ages, but young children are more susceptible to infection and severe illness.

Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently with soap and water, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and not sharing food or drinks with someone who is ill. There are also vaccines available to prevent poliovirus infection.

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an infectious agent that causes Bluetongue disease, a non-contagious viral disease affecting sheep and other ruminants. It is a member of the Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family. The virus is transmitted by biting midges of the Culicoides species and can infect various animals such as sheep, cattle, goats, and wild ruminants.

The virus has a double-stranded RNA genome and consists of ten segments that encode seven structural and four non-structural proteins. The clinical signs of Bluetongue disease in sheep include fever, salivation, swelling of the head and neck, nasal discharge, and respiratory distress, which can be severe or fatal. In contrast, cattle usually show milder symptoms or are asymptomatic, although they can serve as reservoirs for the virus.

Bluetongue virus is an important veterinary pathogen that has a significant economic impact on the global sheep industry. The disease is prevalent in many parts of the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions, but has also spread to temperate areas due to climate change and the movement of infected animals. Prevention and control measures include vaccination, insect control, and restricting the movement of infected animals.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus that belongs to the family Hepeviridae and genus Orthohepevirus. It primarily infects the liver, causing acute hepatitis in humans. The virus is transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated water or food sources. Ingestion of raw or undercooked pork or deer meat can also lead to HEV infection.

HEV infection typically results in self-limiting acute hepatitis, characterized by symptoms such as jaundice, fatigue, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, and dark urine. In some cases, particularly among pregnant women and individuals with weakened immune systems, HEV infection can lead to severe complications, including fulminant hepatic failure and death.

There are four main genotypes of HEV that infect humans: genotype 1 and 2 are primarily found in developing countries and are transmitted through contaminated water; genotype 3 and 4 are found worldwide and can be transmitted through both zoonotic and human-to-human routes.

Prevention measures include improving sanitation, access to clean water, and food safety practices. Currently, there is no specific antiviral treatment for HEV infection, but supportive care can help manage symptoms. A vaccine against HEV is available in China and has shown efficacy in preventing the disease.

Mamastrovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Astroviridae, which infect mammals. These non-enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses are responsible for gastroenteritis in various mammalian species, including humans. The name "mamastrovirus" is derived from "mammal astrovirus."

Human mastastroviruses (HAstV) are further divided into eight major serotypes (HAstV-1 to HAstV-8), with additional genotypes and variants identified. Infection usually occurs through the fecal-oral route, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and fever. While mastastrovirus infections are often self-limiting, they can cause severe dehydration and other complications, particularly in young children, immunocompromised individuals, and the elderly.

Research into mamastroviruses continues to advance our understanding of their epidemiology, pathogenesis, and potential therapeutic targets for treating astrovirus-induced gastroenteritis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Comovirus" is not a term commonly used in medical terminology. Comoviruses are actually a genus of viruses that belong to the family Secoviridae and order Picornavirales. These viruses typically infect plants and can cause various diseases in them. They are not known to infect humans or animals.

If you have any concerns about a specific medical term or condition, I would be happy to help if I can. Please provide me with more details so I can better assist you.

'Virus release' in a medical context typically refers to the point at which a virus that has infected a host cell causes that cell to rupture or disintegrate, releasing new viruses into the surrounding tissue or bodily fluids. This is a key step in the replication cycle of many viruses and can lead to the spread of infection throughout the body.

The process of virus release often follows a phase of viral replication inside the host cell, where the virus uses the cell's machinery to produce multiple copies of its genetic material and proteins. Once enough new viruses have been produced, they can cause the host cell membrane to break down, allowing the viruses to exit and infect other cells.

It is important to note that not all viruses follow this pattern of replication, and some may use alternative mechanisms such as budding or exocytosis to release new viruses from infected cells.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

Hepatovirus is a genus of viruses in the Picornaviridae family, and it's most notably represented by the Human Hepatitis A Virus (HAV). These viruses are non-enveloped, with a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome. They primarily infect hepatocytes, causing liver inflammation and disease, such as hepatitis. Transmission of hepatoviruses typically occurs through the fecal-oral route, often via contaminated food or water. The virus causes an acute infection that does not usually become chronic, and recovery is usually complete within a few weeks. Immunity after infection is solid and lifelong.

"Gene products, GAG" refer to the proteins that are produced by the GAG (Group-specific Antigen) gene found in retroviruses, such as HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). These proteins play a crucial role in the structure and function of the viral particle or virion.

The GAG gene encodes for a polyprotein that is cleaved by a protease into several individual proteins, including matrix (MA), capsid (CA), and nucleocapsid (NC) proteins. These proteins are involved in the formation of the viral core, which encloses the viral RNA genome and associated enzymes required for replication.

The MA protein is responsible for binding to the host cell membrane during viral entry, while the CA protein forms the capsid shell that surrounds the viral RNA and NC protein. The NC protein binds to the viral RNA and helps to package it into the virion during assembly. Overall, GAG gene products are essential for the life cycle of retroviruses and are important targets for antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected individuals.

The cell nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in the eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus). It contains most of the cell's genetic material, organized as DNA molecules in complex with proteins, RNA molecules, and histones to form chromosomes.

The primary function of the cell nucleus is to regulate and control the activities of the cell, including growth, metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction. It also plays a crucial role in the process of mitosis (cell division) by separating and protecting the genetic material during this process. The nuclear membrane, or nuclear envelope, surrounding the nucleus is composed of two lipid bilayers with numerous pores that allow for the selective transport of molecules between the nucleoplasm (nucleus interior) and the cytoplasm (cell exterior).

The cell nucleus is a vital structure in eukaryotic cells, and its dysfunction can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

A viral attachment, in the context of virology, refers to the initial step in the infection process of a host cell by a virus. This involves the binding or adsorption of the viral particle to specific receptors on the surface of the host cell. The viral attachment proteins, often located on the viral envelope or capsid, recognize and interact with these receptors, leading to a close association between the virus and the host cell. This interaction is highly specific, as different viruses may target various cell types based on their unique receptor-binding preferences. Following attachment, the virus can enter the host cell and initiate the replication cycle, ultimately leading to the production of new viral particles and potential disease manifestations.

Enterovirus infections are viral illnesses caused by enteroviruses, which are a type of picornavirus. These viruses commonly infect the gastrointestinal tract and can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the specific type of enterovirus and the age and overall health of the infected individual.

There are over 100 different types of enteroviruses, including polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses such as EV-D68 and EV-A71. Some enterovirus infections may be asymptomatic or cause only mild symptoms, while others can lead to more severe illnesses.

Common symptoms of enterovirus infections include fever, sore throat, runny nose, cough, muscle aches, and skin rashes. In some cases, enteroviruses can cause more serious complications such as meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), and paralysis.

Enterovirus infections are typically spread through close contact with an infected person, such as through respiratory droplets or fecal-oral transmission. They can also be spread through contaminated surfaces or objects. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with sick individuals.

There are no specific antiviral treatments for enterovirus infections, and most cases resolve on their own within a few days to a week. However, severe cases may require hospitalization and supportive care, such as fluids and medication to manage symptoms. Prevention efforts include vaccination against poliovirus and surveillance for emerging enteroviruses.

Rhinovirus is a type of virus that belongs to the Picornaviridae family. It's one of the most common causes of the common cold in humans, responsible for around 10-40% of all adult cases and up to 80% of cases in children. The virus replicates in the upper respiratory tract, leading to symptoms such as nasal congestion, sneezing, sore throat, and cough.

Rhinovirus infections are typically mild and self-limiting, but they can be more severe or even life-threatening in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or who are undergoing cancer treatment. There is no vaccine available to prevent rhinovirus infections, and treatment is generally supportive, focusing on relieving symptoms rather than targeting the virus itself.

The virus can be transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with contaminated surfaces, and it's highly contagious. It can survive on surfaces for several hours, making hand hygiene and environmental disinfection important measures to prevent its spread.

"Satellite viruses" are a type of viruses that require the presence of another virus, known as a "helper virus," to complete their replication cycle. They lack certain genes that are essential for replication and therefore depend on the helper virus to provide these functions. Satellite viruses can either be satellite RNA or satellite DNA viruses, and they can affect plants, animals, and bacteria.

Satellite viruses can influence the severity of the disease caused by the helper virus, either increasing or decreasing it. They can also interfere with the replication of the helper virus and affect its transmission. The relationship between satellite viruses and their helper viruses is complex and can vary depending on the specific viruses involved.

It's important to note that the term "satellite virus" is not used consistently in the scientific literature, and some researchers may use it to refer to other types of dependent or defective viruses. Therefore, it's always a good idea to consult the original research when interpreting the use of this term.

Virus internalization, also known as viral entry, is the process by which a virus enters a host cell to infect it and replicate its genetic material. This process typically involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The viral envelope proteins bind to specific receptors on the surface of the host cell.
2. Entry: The virus then enters the host cell through endocytosis or membrane fusion, depending on the type of virus.
3. Uncoating: Once inside the host cell, the viral capsid is removed, releasing the viral genome into the cytoplasm.
4. Replication: The viral genome then uses the host cell's machinery to replicate itself and produce new viral particles.

It's important to note that the specific mechanisms of virus internalization can vary widely between different types of viruses, and are an active area of research in virology and infectious disease.

Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) is a highly contagious and deadly viral disease that primarily affects domestic cats, as well as other members of the Felidae family. It is also known as feline parvovirus or feline distemper. The virus attacks the rapidly dividing cells in the body, including those found in the intestines, bone marrow, and fetus.

The primary mode of transmission of FPV is through direct contact with infected cats or their feces. The virus can also be spread indirectly through contaminated objects such as clothing, food bowls, and litter boxes. FPV is resistant to many disinfectants and can survive in the environment for long periods, making it a challenging disease to control.

The symptoms of FPV include severe vomiting, diarrhea (often containing blood), loss of appetite, high fever, lethargy, and sudden death. The virus can also cause abortion in pregnant cats. Diagnosis is typically made based on clinical signs and laboratory tests that detect the presence of the virus in feces or other bodily fluids.

Treatment for FPV is primarily supportive, as there are no antiviral medications available to treat the disease. Treatment may include fluid therapy, nutritional support, antibiotics to prevent secondary bacterial infections, and medication to control vomiting and diarrhea. The prognosis for cats with FPV is guarded, and many die despite aggressive treatment.

Prevention of FPV is through vaccination, which is recommended for all cats. Kittens should receive their first FPV vaccine at 6-8 weeks of age, followed by boosters every 3-4 weeks until they are 16-20 weeks old. Adult cats should be vaccinated annually or as recommended by a veterinarian. It is also important to practice good hygiene and sanitation to prevent the spread of FPV in multi-cat households or shelters.

I apologize for any confusion, but "insects" are not a medical term. Insects are small air-breathing arthropods that have a segmented body with six legs and usually have wings. They make up the largest group of animals on Earth, with over a million described species.

If you're looking for information about a specific medical condition or topic, please provide more details so I can offer a relevant response.

HIV-1 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1) is a species of the retrovirus genus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is primarily transmitted through sexual contact, exposure to infected blood or blood products, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV-1 infects vital cells in the human immune system, such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells, leading to a decline in their numbers and weakening of the immune response over time. This results in the individual becoming susceptible to various opportunistic infections and cancers that ultimately cause death if left untreated. HIV-1 is the most prevalent form of HIV worldwide and has been identified as the causative agent of the global AIDS pandemic.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a type of microscopy in which an electron beam is transmitted through a ultra-thin specimen, interacting with it as it passes through. An image is formed from the interaction of the electrons with the specimen; the image is then magnified and visualized on a fluorescent screen or recorded on an electronic detector (or photographic film in older models).

TEM can provide high-resolution, high-magnification images that can reveal the internal structure of specimens including cells, viruses, and even molecules. It is widely used in biological and materials science research to investigate the ultrastructure of cells, tissues and materials. In medicine, TEM is used for diagnostic purposes in fields such as virology and bacteriology.

It's important to note that preparing a sample for TEM is a complex process, requiring specialized techniques to create thin (50-100 nm) specimens. These include cutting ultrathin sections of embedded samples using an ultramicrotome, staining with heavy metal salts, and positive staining or negative staining methods.

Aleutian Mink Disease (AMD) is a viral disease that primarily affects minks, particularly those of the Aleutian subspecies. The disease is caused by the parvovirus known as the Aleutian mink disease virus (ADMV).

The virus targets and infects the immune system's white blood cells, leading to a hyperactive immune response. This results in the production of excessive amounts of antibodies, a condition known as "autoimmune disease." The continued stimulation of the immune system can lead to damage and failure of various organs, including the liver and kidneys.

Clinical signs of AMD can vary widely but often include weight loss, anemia, jaundice, and neurological symptoms such as uncoordinated movements and tremors. The disease can be spread through direct contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, as well as through contaminated equipment or surfaces.

It's worth noting that while the Aleutian Mink Disease primarily affects minks, there have been reports of related parvoviruses infecting other animal species, including humans. However, these viruses are not considered to be a significant public health concern at this time.

DNA viruses are a type of virus that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) as their genetic material. These viruses replicate by using the host cell's machinery to synthesize new viral components, which are then assembled into new viruses and released from the host cell.

DNA viruses can be further classified based on the structure of their genomes and the way they replicate. For example, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses have a genome made up of two strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses have a genome made up of a single strand of DNA.

Examples of DNA viruses include herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, human papillomavirus, and adenoviruses. Some DNA viruses are associated with specific diseases, such as cancer (e.g., human papillomavirus) or neurological disorders (e.g., herpes simplex virus).

It's important to note that while DNA viruses contain DNA as their genetic material, RNA viruses contain RNA (ribonucleic acid) as their genetic material. Both DNA and RNA viruses can cause a wide range of diseases in humans, animals, and plants.

The JC (John Cunningham) virus, also known as human polyomavirus 2 (HPyV-2), is a type of double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the Polyomaviridae family. It is named after the initials of the patient in whom it was first identified.

JC virus is a ubiquitous virus, meaning that it is commonly found in the general population worldwide. Most people get infected with JC virus during childhood and do not experience any symptoms. After the initial infection, the virus remains dormant in the kidneys and other organs of the body.

However, in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or who have undergone organ transplantation, JC virus can reactivate and cause a serious brain infection called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML is a rare but often fatal disease that affects the white matter of the brain, causing cognitive decline, weakness, and paralysis.

There is currently no cure for PML, and treatment is focused on managing the underlying immune deficiency and controlling the symptoms of the disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Levivirus" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is actually a type of small, icosahedral, single-stranded RNA virus that infects bacteria. They are also known as "Leviviridae" and are studied in the field of virology, not typically in medical practice. If you have any questions about bacteriophages or other types of viruses that might be more medically relevant, I'd be happy to help with those!

A closterovirus is a type of virus that primarily infects plants. These viruses are characterized by their long, flexuous (flexible) filamentous particles, which can be up to several thousand nanometers in length. Closteroviruses have a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and are transmitted by insect vectors, such as aphids.

Closteroviruses infect a wide range of plants, including important crops like citrus, beet, and grapevines. They can cause various symptoms in infected plants, such as stunting, leaf yellowing, and reduced yield. Some closteroviruses also have satellite RNAs or associated viruses that can affect the severity of the disease.

Examples of closteroviruses include citrus tristeza virus (CTV), beet yellows virus (BYV), and grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3). Due to their economic importance, closteroviruses have been extensively studied, and significant efforts have been made to develop control strategies for these viruses.

Bacteriophages, often simply called phages, are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria. They consist of a protein coat, called the capsid, that encases the genetic material, which can be either DNA or RNA. Bacteriophages are highly specific, meaning they only infect certain types of bacteria, and they reproduce by hijacking the bacterial cell's machinery to produce more viruses.

Once a phage infects a bacterium, it can either replicate its genetic material and create new phages (lytic cycle), or integrate its genetic material into the bacterial chromosome and replicate along with the bacterium (lysogenic cycle). In the lytic cycle, the newly formed phages are released by lysing, or breaking open, the bacterial cell.

Bacteriophages play a crucial role in shaping microbial communities and have been studied as potential alternatives to antibiotics for treating bacterial infections.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Viral core proteins are the structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or protein shell, enclosing and protecting the viral genome. These proteins play a crucial role in the assembly of the virion, assist in the infection process by helping to deliver the viral genome into the host cell, and may also have functions in regulating viral replication. The specific composition and structure of viral core proteins vary among different types of viruses.

Chenopodium quinoa is commonly known as "quinoa." It is not a true grass or cereal grain, but rather a pseudocereal that is closely related to beets and spinach. Quinoa is native to the Andean region of South America and has been cultivated and consumed for thousands of years by indigenous peoples in this region.

Quinoa is a highly nutritious food that is rich in protein, fiber, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants. It contains all nine essential amino acids, making it a complete protein source. Quinoa is also gluten-free, which makes it a popular alternative to wheat and other grains for people with celiac disease or gluten intolerance.

The seeds of the quinoa plant are typically cooked and consumed as a grain, and they have a mild, nutty flavor and a fluffy texture when cooked. Quinoa can be used in a variety of dishes, including salads, pilafs, stir-fries, and breakfast cereals. It is also commonly used as a stuffing for vegetables or meat dishes.

Quinoa has gained popularity in recent years due to its numerous health benefits and versatility in cooking. It is now widely available in grocery stores and health food stores around the world.

Sapovirus is a type of single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Caliciviridae. It is a major cause of gastroenteritis (also known as stomach flu) in humans, particularly in young children and older adults. The infection typically results in vomiting and diarrhea, which can last for several days. Sapovirus is usually spread through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated food or water. It is named after the city of Sapporo in Japan, where it was first identified in 1977.

Bovine papillomavirus 1 (BPV-1) is a species of papillomavirus that primarily infects cattle, causing benign warts or papillomas in the skin and mucous membranes. It is not known to infect humans or cause disease in humans. BPV-1 is closely related to other papillomaviruses that can cause cancer in animals, but its role in human cancer is unclear.

BPV-1 is a double-stranded DNA virus that replicates in the nucleus of infected cells. It encodes several early and late proteins that are involved in viral replication and the transformation of host cells. BPV-1 has been extensively studied as a model system for understanding the molecular mechanisms of papillomavirus infection and oncogenesis.

In addition to its role in animal health, BPV-1 has also been used as a tool in biomedical research. For example, it can be used to transform cells in culture, providing a valuable resource for studying the properties of cancer cells and testing potential therapies. However, it is important to note that BPV-1 is not known to cause human disease and should not be used in any therapeutic context involving humans.

Protein biosynthesis is the process by which cells generate new proteins. It involves two major steps: transcription and translation. Transcription is the process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA. This RNA copy, or messenger RNA (mRNA), carries the genetic information to the site of protein synthesis, the ribosome. During translation, the mRNA is read by transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules, which bring specific amino acids to the ribosome based on the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA. The ribosome then links these amino acids together in the correct order to form a polypeptide chain, which may then fold into a functional protein. Protein biosynthesis is essential for the growth and maintenance of all living organisms.

Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) is an alphavirus in the Togaviridae family, which is primarily transmitted to vertebrates through mosquito vectors. The virus was initially isolated from mosquitoes in the Semliki Forest of Uganda and has since been found in various parts of Africa and Asia. SFV infection in humans can cause a mild febrile illness characterized by fever, headache, muscle pain, and rash. However, it is more commonly known for causing severe disease in animals, particularly non-human primates and cattle, where it can lead to encephalitis or hemorrhagic fever. SFV has also been used as a model organism in laboratory studies of virus replication and pathogenesis.

Iridoviridae is a family of double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of hosts, including insects, fish, amphibians, and reptiles. The name "iridovirus" comes from the Greek word "iris," meaning rainbow, due to the characteristic iridescent coloration of infected insects' cuticles.

Iridoviruses are large, icosahedral virions with a diameter of approximately 120-300 nanometers. They have a complex internal structure, including a lipid membrane and several protein layers. The genome of iridoviruses is a circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that ranges in size from about 100 to 200 kilobases.

Iridoviruses can cause a variety of diseases in their hosts, including hemorrhagic septicemia, hepatopancreatic necrosis, and developmental abnormalities. Infection typically occurs through ingestion or injection of viral particles, and the virus replicates in the host's nuclei.

There are several genera within the family Iridoviridae, including Ranavirus, Lymphocystivirus, Megalocyivirus, and Iridovirus. Each genus has a specific host range and causes distinct clinical symptoms. For example, ranaviruses infect amphibians, reptiles, and fish, while lymphocystiviruses primarily infect teleost fish.

Iridoviruses are of interest to medical researchers because they have potential as biological control agents for pests and vectors of human diseases, such as mosquitoes and ticks. However, their use as biocontrol agents is still being studied, and there are concerns about the potential ecological impacts of releasing iridoviruses into the environment.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology technique used to introduce specific and targeted changes to a specific DNA sequence. This process involves creating a new variant of a gene or a specific region of interest within a DNA molecule by introducing a planned, deliberate change, or mutation, at a predetermined site within the DNA sequence.

The methodology typically involves the use of molecular tools such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, and/or ligases to introduce the desired mutation(s) into a plasmid or other vector containing the target DNA sequence. The resulting modified DNA molecule can then be used to transform host cells, allowing for the production of large quantities of the mutated gene or protein for further study.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a valuable tool in basic research, drug discovery, and biotechnology applications where specific changes to a DNA sequence are required to understand gene function, investigate protein structure/function relationships, or engineer novel biological properties into existing genes or proteins.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Bacteriophage P2 is a type of virus that infects and replicates within a specific bacterium, Escherichia coli (E. coli). It's a double-stranded DNA virus that was first isolated in the 1950s. Bacteriophage P2 is known for its ability to integrate its genetic material into the host bacterium's chromosome and establish lysogeny, where it can remain dormant until environmental conditions trigger its replication.

Bacteriophage P2 has been extensively studied as a model system in molecular biology due to its unique life cycle and genetic characteristics. It has contributed significantly to our understanding of various biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription regulation, and lysogeny. However, it's important to note that bacteriophage P2 is not typically used for medical purposes like treating bacterial infections.

Circoviridae is a family of small, non-enveloped viruses that infect a wide range of hosts, including animals and birds. The infection caused by circoviruses in animals and birds can result in a variety of symptoms depending on the species infected and the particular circovirus involved.

In pigs, circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the most well-known member of this family and is associated with a number of clinical conditions, collectively known as porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). These conditions include postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS), and reproductive failure.

In birds, circoviruses can cause various symptoms such as runting and stunting, feather abnormalities, and immunosuppression, leading to secondary infections. The most well-known avian circovirus is the beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), which infects psittacine birds, including parrots, causing beak deformities, feather loss, and immune suppression.

However, it's important to note that circoviruses are also found in humans, but currently, there is no evidence that human circovirus infections cause disease.

In general, circoviridae infections can be diagnosed through various laboratory tests such as PCR, sequencing, and serology. Treatment typically involves supportive care and management of secondary infections, as there are no specific antiviral therapies available for circovirus infections. Prevention strategies include good biosecurity practices, vaccination, and avoidance of contact with infected animals or their feces.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and buffalo. The virus can also infect wild animals like deer and antelope. FMD is not a direct threat to human health but may have significant economic impacts due to restrictions on trade and movement of infected animals.

The disease is characterized by fever, blister-like sores (vesicles) in the mouth, on the tongue, lips, gums, teats, and between the hooves. The vesicles can rupture, causing painful erosions that make it difficult for affected animals to eat, drink, or walk. In severe cases, FMD can lead to death, particularly among young animals.

The causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease is the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which belongs to the Picornaviridae family and Aphthovirus genus. There are seven serotypes of FMDV: O, A, C, Asia 1, and South African Territories (SAT) 1, SAT 2, and SAT 3. Infection with one serotype does not provide cross-protection against other serotypes.

Prevention and control measures for foot-and-mouth disease include vaccination, quarantine, movement restrictions, disinfection, and culling of infected animals in severe outbreaks. Rapid detection and response are crucial to prevent the spread of FMD within and between countries.

Parvovirus, Porcine (PPV) is a single-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the family Parvoviridae and genus Parvovirus. It is a small, non-enveloped virus that primarily infects the rapidly dividing cells of piglets, particularly those in the intestinal epithelium and bone marrow.

PPV infection can cause a variety of clinical signs, including diarrhea, vomiting, lethargy, and loss of appetite, which can lead to severe dehydration and death in young piglets. The virus is highly contagious and can be spread through fecal-oral transmission or by ingesting infected material.

PPV infection is also associated with reproductive failure in sows, including stillbirths, mummified fetuses, and weak newborn piglets. This condition is known as Porcine Parvovirus Syndrome (PPVS). The virus can cross the placenta and infect developing fetuses, causing damage to their cardiovascular and nervous systems.

There are currently no specific treatments for PPV infection, but vaccination programs have been developed to prevent the spread of the virus in pig herds. Good biosecurity practices, such as isolating infected animals and thoroughly cleaning and disinfecting facilities, can also help reduce the risk of transmission.

Post-translational protein processing refers to the modifications and changes that proteins undergo after their synthesis on ribosomes, which are complex molecular machines responsible for protein synthesis. These modifications occur through various biochemical processes and play a crucial role in determining the final structure, function, and stability of the protein.

The process begins with the translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) into a linear polypeptide chain, which is then subjected to several post-translational modifications. These modifications can include:

1. Proteolytic cleavage: The removal of specific segments or domains from the polypeptide chain by proteases, resulting in the formation of mature, functional protein subunits.
2. Chemical modifications: Addition or modification of chemical groups to the side chains of amino acids, such as phosphorylation (addition of a phosphate group), glycosylation (addition of sugar moieties), methylation (addition of a methyl group), acetylation (addition of an acetyl group), and ubiquitination (addition of a ubiquitin protein).
3. Disulfide bond formation: The oxidation of specific cysteine residues within the polypeptide chain, leading to the formation of disulfide bonds between them. This process helps stabilize the three-dimensional structure of proteins, particularly in extracellular environments.
4. Folding and assembly: The acquisition of a specific three-dimensional conformation by the polypeptide chain, which is essential for its function. Chaperone proteins assist in this process to ensure proper folding and prevent aggregation.
5. Protein targeting: The directed transport of proteins to their appropriate cellular locations, such as the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, or plasma membrane. This is often facilitated by specific signal sequences within the protein that are recognized and bound by transport machinery.

Collectively, these post-translational modifications contribute to the functional diversity of proteins in living organisms, allowing them to perform a wide range of cellular processes, including signaling, catalysis, regulation, and structural support.

A densovirus is a type of single-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the family Parvoviridae and the subfamily Densovirinae. These viruses are known to infect insects, including crustaceans and arthropods, and are often associated with diseases in these hosts. They have a small, icosahedral capsid and a linear, ssDNA genome that is around 5-6 kilobases in length. Densoviruses are non-enveloped viruses, meaning they do not have a lipid membrane surrounding their capsid.

It's important to note that densoviruses are not known to infect humans or other mammals, and therefore are not considered a threat to human health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Helminthosporium" is not typically used as a medical term. It is a genus of fungi that are commonly found in decaying plant material and cause various plant diseases. The misconception might arise from the fact that some fungi can cause mycoses (fungal infections) in humans, but "Helminthosporium" itself is not a medically significant fungal genus in this context. If you have any further questions or need clarification on a medical topic, please don't hesitate to ask!

Protein multimerization refers to the process where multiple protein subunits assemble together to form a complex, repetitive structure called a multimer or oligomer. This can involve the association of identical or similar protein subunits through non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, ionic bonding, and van der Waals forces. The resulting multimeric structures can have various shapes, sizes, and functions, including enzymatic activity, transport, or structural support. Protein multimerization plays a crucial role in many biological processes and is often necessary for the proper functioning of proteins within cells.

A viral plaque assay is a laboratory technique used to measure the infectivity and concentration of viruses in a sample. This method involves infecting a monolayer of cells (usually in a petri dish or multi-well plate) with a known volume of a virus-containing sample, followed by overlaying the cells with a nutrient-agar medium to restrict viral spread and enable individual plaques to form.

After an incubation period that allows for viral replication and cell death, the cells are stained, and clear areas or "plaques" become visible in the monolayer. Each plaque represents a localized region of infected and lysed cells, caused by the progeny of a single infectious virus particle. The number of plaques is then counted, and the viral titer (infectious units per milliliter or PFU/mL) is calculated based on the dilution factor and volume of the original inoculum.

Viral plaque assays are essential for determining viral titers, assessing virus-host interactions, evaluating antiviral agents, and studying viral pathogenesis.

Polyomavirus infections refer to the infectious diseases caused by polyomaviruses, a type of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses that are capable of infecting humans and animals. There are several different types of polyomaviruses that can cause infection, including JC virus (JCV), BK virus (BKV), KI virus (KIV), WU virus (WUV), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV).

Infection with these viruses typically occurs during childhood and is usually asymptomatic or associated with mild respiratory illness. However, in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients, polyomavirus infections can lead to more serious complications, including nephropathy (BKV), progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (JCV), and Merkel cell carcinoma (MCPyV).

Diagnosis of polyomavirus infections typically involves the detection of viral DNA or antigens in clinical samples, such as blood, urine, or tissue biopsies. Treatment is generally supportive and aimed at managing symptoms, although antiviral therapy may be used in some cases. Prevention strategies include good hygiene practices and avoiding close contact with individuals who are known to be infected.

Centrifugation, Density Gradient is a medical laboratory technique used to separate and purify different components of a mixture based on their size, density, and shape. This method involves the use of a centrifuge and a density gradient medium, such as sucrose or cesium chloride, to create a stable density gradient within a column or tube.

The sample is carefully layered onto the top of the gradient and then subjected to high-speed centrifugation. During centrifugation, the particles in the sample move through the gradient based on their size, density, and shape, with heavier particles migrating faster and further than lighter ones. This results in the separation of different components of the mixture into distinct bands or zones within the gradient.

This technique is commonly used to purify and concentrate various types of biological materials, such as viruses, organelles, ribosomes, and subcellular fractions, from complex mixtures. It allows for the isolation of pure and intact particles, which can then be collected and analyzed for further study or use in downstream applications.

In summary, Centrifugation, Density Gradient is a medical laboratory technique used to separate and purify different components of a mixture based on their size, density, and shape using a centrifuge and a density gradient medium.

Quaternary protein structure refers to the arrangement and interaction of multiple folded protein molecules in a multi-subunit complex. These subunits can be identical or different forms of the same protein or distinctly different proteins that associate to form a functional complex. The quaternary structure is held together by non-covalent interactions, such as hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, and van der Waals forces. Understanding quaternary structure is crucial for comprehending the function, regulation, and assembly of many protein complexes involved in various cellular processes.

A plant virus is not defined in medical terms, as viruses are typically considered within the context of living organisms and plants are not classified as such. However, I can provide a general virology definition for you:

Plant viruses are small infectious agents that consist of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein coat. They infect various plant species, causing a wide range of symptoms and diseases, which can result in significant economic losses in agriculture and horticulture. Plant viruses lack the ability to replicate outside a host cell, and they rely on the host's metabolic machinery for their reproduction. They can be transmitted through various means, such as insect vectors, seeds, or mechanical contact.

Immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) is a specialized type of electron microscopy that combines the principles of immunochemistry and electron microscopy to detect and localize specific antigens within cells or tissues at the ultrastructural level. This technique allows for the visualization and identification of specific proteins, viruses, or other antigenic structures with a high degree of resolution and specificity.

In IEM, samples are first fixed, embedded, and sectioned to prepare them for electron microscopy. The sections are then treated with specific antibodies that have been labeled with electron-dense markers, such as gold particles or ferritin. These labeled antibodies bind to the target antigens in the sample, allowing for their visualization under an electron microscope.

There are several different methods of IEM, including pre-embedding and post-embedding techniques. Pre-embedding involves labeling the antigens before embedding the sample in resin, while post-embedding involves labeling the antigens after embedding. Post-embedding techniques are generally more commonly used because they allow for better preservation of ultrastructure and higher resolution.

IEM is a valuable tool in many areas of research, including virology, bacteriology, immunology, and cell biology. It can be used to study the structure and function of viruses, bacteria, and other microorganisms, as well as the distribution and localization of specific proteins and antigens within cells and tissues.

HIV Core Protein p24 is a structural protein that forms the cone-shaped core of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is one of the earliest and most abundant viral proteins produced during the replication cycle of HIV. The p24 antigen is often used as a marker for HIV infection in diagnostic tests, as its levels in the blood tend to correlate with the amount of virus present.

The core protein p24 plays a critical role in the assembly and infectivity of the virus. It helps to package the viral RNA and enzymes into the virion, and is also involved in the fusion of the viral and host cell membranes during infection. The p24 protein is produced by cleavage of a larger precursor protein called Gag, which is encoded by the HIV genome.

In addition to its role in the viral life cycle, p24 has also been the target of HIV vaccine development efforts, as antibodies against this protein can neutralize the virus and prevent infection. However, developing an effective HIV vaccine has proven to be a significant challenge due to the virus's ability to mutate and evade the immune system.

Luteovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Tombusviridae, order Picornavirales. They are small, isometric (icosahedral), single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that primarily infect plants. Luteoviruses are transmitted by aphids in a persistent but non-propagative manner, meaning the virus does not replicate within the insect vector.

These viruses cause various diseases in important agricultural crops, such as barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and beet western yellows virus (BWYV). Luteovirus infections can lead to symptoms like yellowing, stunting, and reduced yield, which significantly impact crop production and quality. Due to their economic importance, luteoviruses have been extensively studied to understand their transmission, epidemiology, and molecular biology for the development of effective control strategies.

Adenoviridae is a family of viruses that includes many species that can cause various types of illnesses in humans and animals. These viruses are non-enveloped, meaning they do not have a lipid membrane, and have an icosahedral symmetry with a diameter of approximately 70-90 nanometers.

The genome of Adenoviridae is composed of double-stranded DNA, which contains linear chromosomes ranging from 26 to 45 kilobases in length. The family is divided into five genera: Mastadenovirus, Aviadenovirus, Atadenovirus, Siadenovirus, and Ichtadenovirus.

Human adenoviruses are classified under the genus Mastadenovirus and can cause a wide range of illnesses, including respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, and upper respiratory tract infections. Some serotypes have also been associated with more severe diseases such as hemorrhagic cystitis, hepatitis, and meningoencephalitis.

Adenoviruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through respiratory droplets, fecal-oral route, or by contact with contaminated surfaces. They can also be spread through contaminated water sources. Infections caused by adenoviruses are usually self-limiting, but severe cases may require hospitalization and supportive care.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

X-ray crystallography is a technique used in structural biology to determine the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice. In this method, a beam of X-rays is directed at a crystal and diffracts, or spreads out, into a pattern of spots called reflections. The intensity and angle of each reflection are measured and used to create an electron density map, which reveals the position and type of atoms in the crystal. This information can be used to determine the molecular structure of a compound, including its shape, size, and chemical bonds. X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for understanding the structure and function of biological macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids.

Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) is a specific type of human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a DNA virus that infects the skin and mucous membranes, and there are over 200 types of HPV. Some types of HPV can cause warts, while others are associated with an increased risk of certain cancers.

HPV16 is one of the high-risk types of HPV and is strongly associated with several types of cancer, including cervical, anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal (throat) cancers. HPV16 is responsible for about 50% of all cervical cancers and is the most common high-risk type of HPV found in these cancers.

HPV16 is typically transmitted through sexual contact, and most people who are sexually active will acquire at least one type of HPV at some point in their lives. While HPV infections are often harmless and clear up on their own without causing any symptoms or health problems, high-risk types like HPV16 can lead to cancer if left untreated.

Fortunately, there are vaccines available that protect against HPV16 and other high-risk types of HPV. These vaccines have been shown to be highly effective in preventing HPV-related cancers and precancerous lesions. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends routine HPV vaccination for both boys and girls starting at age 11 or 12, although the vaccine can be given as early as age 9. Catch-up vaccinations are also recommended for older individuals who have not yet been vaccinated.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Genetic recombination is the process by which genetic material is exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA during meiosis, resulting in new combinations of genes on each chromosome. This exchange occurs during crossover, where segments of DNA are swapped between non-sister homologous chromatids, creating genetic diversity among the offspring. It is a crucial mechanism for generating genetic variability and facilitating evolutionary change within populations. Additionally, recombination also plays an essential role in DNA repair processes through mechanisms such as homologous recombinational repair (HRR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ).

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Viral nonstructural proteins (NS) are viral proteins that are not part of the virion structure. They play various roles in the viral life cycle, such as replication of the viral genome, transcription, translation regulation, and modulation of the host cell environment to favor virus replication. These proteins are often produced in large quantities during infection and can manipulate or disrupt various cellular pathways to benefit the virus. They may also be involved in evasion of the host's immune response. The specific functions of viral nonstructural proteins vary depending on the type of virus.

Mengovirus is a type of picornavirus, specifically a coxsackievirus A21, that is often used as a research reference material due to its ability to cause widespread cytopathic effects in cell cultures. It is named after the location where it was first isolated, the Mengo Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. This virus is not typically associated with human disease, but it has been used in laboratory studies of viral pathogenesis and host immune responses.

Secondary protein structure refers to the local spatial arrangement of amino acid chains in a protein, typically described as regular repeating patterns held together by hydrogen bonds. The two most common types of secondary structures are the alpha-helix (α-helix) and the beta-pleated sheet (β-sheet). In an α-helix, the polypeptide chain twists around itself in a helical shape, with each backbone atom forming a hydrogen bond with the fourth amino acid residue along the chain. This forms a rigid rod-like structure that is resistant to bending or twisting forces. In β-sheets, adjacent segments of the polypeptide chain run parallel or antiparallel to each other and are connected by hydrogen bonds, forming a pleated sheet-like arrangement. These secondary structures provide the foundation for the formation of tertiary and quaternary protein structures, which determine the overall three-dimensional shape and function of the protein.

Genetic transduction is a process in molecular biology that describes the transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another by a viral vector called a bacteriophage (or phage). In this process, the phage infects one bacterium and incorporates a portion of the bacterial DNA into its own genetic material. When the phage then infects a second bacterium, it can transfer the incorporated bacterial DNA to the new host. This can result in the horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of traits such as antibiotic resistance or virulence factors between bacteria.

There are two main types of transduction: generalized and specialized. In generalized transduction, any portion of the bacterial genome can be packaged into the phage particle, leading to a random assortment of genetic material being transferred. In specialized transduction, only specific genes near the site where the phage integrates into the bacterial chromosome are consistently transferred.

It's important to note that genetic transduction is not to be confused with transformation or conjugation, which are other mechanisms of HGT in bacteria.

A tumor virus infection is a condition in which a person's cells become cancerous or transformed due to the integration and disruption of normal cellular functions by a viral pathogen. These viruses are also known as oncoviruses, and they can cause tumors or cancer by altering the host cell's genetic material, promoting uncontrolled cell growth and division, evading immune surveillance, and inhibiting apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Examples of tumor viruses include:

1. DNA tumor viruses: These are double-stranded DNA viruses that can cause cancer in humans. Examples include human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).
2. RNA tumor viruses: Also known as retroviruses, these single-stranded RNA viruses can cause cancer in humans. Examples include human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Tumor virus infections are responsible for approximately 15-20% of all cancer cases worldwide, making them a significant public health concern. Prevention strategies, such as vaccination against HPV and HBV, have been shown to reduce the incidence of associated cancers.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "replicon" is not a term that has a widely accepted or specific medical definition. It is a term that is used in the field of molecular biology, where it refers to a segment of DNA that contains an origin of replication. The origin of replication is the site on the DNA molecule where the process of DNA replication is initiated. This concept is important in the fields of genetics and virology, but it is not a term that is commonly used in clinical medicine.

If you have any questions related to the medical field, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

The Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV) is a type of retrovirus, specifically a betaretrovirus, that naturally infects certain species of primates. It was first discovered in 1966 and has been studied extensively due to its ability to cause immunodeficiency in its host, similar to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

MPMV is not a significant threat to humans as it does not infect human cells efficiently. However, it has been used as a model system for studying retroviral replication and pathogenesis, which has contributed significantly to our understanding of HIV and other related viruses.

It's worth noting that MPMV should not be confused with SIV (Simian Immunodeficiency Virus), another primate virus that is more closely related to HIV and can infect humans under certain circumstances, causing a disease known as AIDS.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Virus-like particles (VLPs) are nanostructures that mimic the organization and conformation of authentic viruses but lack the genetic material required for replication. VLPs can be produced from one or more viral proteins, which can be derived from various expression systems including bacteria, yeast, insect, or mammalian cells.

VLP-based vaccines are a type of vaccine that uses these virus-like particles to induce an immune response in the body. These vaccines can be designed to target specific viruses or other pathogens and have been shown to be safe and effective in inducing both humoral and cellular immunity.

VLPs resemble authentic viruses in their structure, size, and antigenic properties, making them highly immunogenic. They can be designed to present specific epitopes or antigens from a pathogen, which can stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies and activate T-cells that recognize and attack the pathogen.

VLP vaccines have been developed for several viruses, including human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). They offer several advantages over traditional vaccines, such as a strong immune response, safety, and stability.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Adenoviruses, Human: A group of viruses that commonly cause respiratory illnesses, such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and croup, in humans. They can also cause conjunctivitis (pink eye), cystitis (bladder infection), and gastroenteritis (stomach and intestinal infection).

Human adenoviruses are non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses that belong to the family Adenoviridae. There are more than 50 different types of human adenoviruses, which can be classified into seven species (A-G). Different types of adenoviruses tend to cause specific illnesses, such as respiratory or gastrointestinal infections.

Human adenoviruses are highly contagious and can spread through close personal contact, respiratory droplets, or contaminated surfaces. They can also be transmitted through contaminated water sources. Some people may become carriers of the virus and experience no symptoms but still spread the virus to others.

Most human adenovirus infections are mild and resolve on their own within a few days to a week. However, some types of adenoviruses can cause severe illness, particularly in people with weakened immune systems, such as infants, young children, older adults, and individuals with HIV/AIDS or organ transplants.

There are no specific antiviral treatments for human adenovirus infections, but supportive care, such as hydration, rest, and fever reduction, can help manage symptoms. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and not sharing personal items like towels or utensils.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Moths" are not a medical term, but rather they are a group of insects closely related to butterflies. They belong to the order Lepidoptera and are characterized by their scales covering their wings and body. If you have any questions about moths or if you meant to ask something else, please let me know!

Synthetic vaccines are artificially produced, designed to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against specific diseases. Unlike traditional vaccines that are derived from weakened or killed pathogens, synthetic vaccines are created using synthetic components, such as synthesized viral proteins, DNA, or RNA. These components mimic the disease-causing agent and trigger an immune response without causing the actual disease. The use of synthetic vaccines offers advantages in terms of safety, consistency, and scalability in production, making them valuable tools for preventing infectious diseases.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

RNA virus infections refer to diseases or conditions caused by the invasion and replication of RNA (Ribonucleic acid) viruses in host cells. These viruses use RNA as their genetic material, which is different from DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) viruses. Upon entering a host cell, the RNA virus releases its genetic material, which then uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components and replicate. This process can lead to various outcomes, depending on the specific virus and the host's immune response:

1. Asymptomatic infection: Some RNA virus infections may not cause any noticeable symptoms and may only be discovered through diagnostic testing.
2. Acute infection: Many RNA viruses cause acute infections, characterized by the rapid onset of symptoms that typically last for a short period (days to weeks). Examples include the common cold (caused by rhinoviruses), influenza (caused by orthomyxoviruses), and some gastrointestinal infections (caused by noroviruses or rotaviruses).
3. Chronic infection: A few RNA viruses can establish chronic infections, where the virus persists in the host for an extended period, sometimes leading to long-term health complications. Examples include HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), HCV (Hepatitis C Virus), and HTLV-1 (Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1).
4. Latent infection: Some RNA viruses, like herpesviruses, can establish latency in the host, where they remain dormant for extended periods but can reactivate under certain conditions, causing recurrent symptoms or diseases.
5. Oncogenic potential: Certain RNA viruses have oncogenic properties and can contribute to the development of cancer. For example, retroviruses like HTLV-1 can cause leukemia and lymphoma by integrating their genetic material into the host cell's DNA and altering gene expression.

Treatment for RNA virus infections varies depending on the specific virus and the severity of the infection. Antiviral medications, immunotherapy, and supportive care are common treatment strategies. Vaccines are also available to prevent some RNA virus infections, such as measles, mumps, rubella, influenza, and hepatitis A and B.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems there might be a slight misunderstanding in your question. RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is typically single-stranded. Unlike DNA, which is double-stranded and forms a double helix, RNA usually exists as a single strand of nucleotides.

There are exceptions to this rule, such as certain types of RNA molecules that can form double-stranded structures in specific contexts. For example:

1. Double-Stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses: These viruses have genomes made entirely of RNA, which is double-stranded throughout or partially double-stranded. The dsRNA viruses include important pathogens such as rotaviruses and reoviruses.
2. Hairpin loops in RNA structures: Some single-stranded RNA molecules can fold back on themselves to form short double-stranded regions, called hairpin loops, within their overall structure. These are often found in ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules.

So, while 'double-stranded RNA' is not a standard medical definition for RNA itself, there are specific instances where RNA can form double-stranded structures as described above.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Tobacco is not a medical term, but it refers to the leaves of the plant Nicotiana tabacum that are dried and fermented before being used in a variety of ways. Medically speaking, tobacco is often referred to in the context of its health effects. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "tobacco" can also refer to any product prepared from the leaf of the tobacco plant for smoking, sucking, chewing or snuffing.

Tobacco use is a major risk factor for a number of diseases, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung disease, and various other medical conditions. The smoke produced by burning tobacco contains thousands of chemicals, many of which are toxic and can cause serious health problems. Nicotine, one of the primary active constituents in tobacco, is highly addictive and can lead to dependence.

Helper viruses, also known as "auxiliary" or "satellite" viruses, are defective viruses that depend on the assistance of a second virus, called a helper virus, to complete their replication cycle. They lack certain genes that are essential for replication, and therefore require the helper virus to provide these functions.

Helper viruses are often found in cases of dual infection, where both the helper virus and the dependent virus infect the same cell. The helper virus provides the necessary enzymes and proteins for the helper virus to replicate, package its genome into new virions, and bud off from the host cell.

One example of a helper virus is the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which can serve as a helper virus for hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection. HDV is a defective RNA virus that requires the HBV surface antigen to form an envelope around its nucleocapsid and be transmitted to other cells. In the absence of HBV, HDV cannot replicate or cause disease.

Understanding the role of helper viruses in viral infections is important for developing effective treatments and vaccines against viral diseases.

Endopeptidases are a type of enzyme that breaks down proteins by cleaving peptide bonds inside the polypeptide chain. They are also known as proteinases or endoproteinases. These enzymes work within the interior of the protein molecule, cutting it at specific points along its length, as opposed to exopeptidases, which remove individual amino acids from the ends of the protein chain.

Endopeptidases play a crucial role in various biological processes, such as digestion, blood coagulation, and programmed cell death (apoptosis). They are classified based on their catalytic mechanism and the structure of their active site. Some examples of endopeptidase families include serine proteases, cysteine proteases, aspartic proteases, and metalloproteases.

It is important to note that while endopeptidases are essential for normal physiological functions, they can also contribute to disease processes when their activity is unregulated or misdirected. For instance, excessive endopeptidase activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and inflammatory conditions.

Hepatitis A antigens refer to the proteins or molecules present on the surface of the Hepatitis A virus (HAV) that can stimulate an immune response in the body. There are two main types of HAV antigens:

1. Hepatitis A Virus Capsid Antigen (also known as HAV VP1): This is a structural protein that makes up the outer shell or capsid of the HAV particle. It contains several epitopes (regions that can be recognized by the immune system) that can induce the production of antibodies in infected individuals.
2. Hepatitis A Virus Non-structural Antigen (also known as HAV NS1): This is a non-structural protein produced during the replication of the HAV genome. It plays a crucial role in the replication and assembly of new HAV particles, but it is not present in the mature virion. However, its detection in serum or liver tissue can indicate an ongoing HAV infection.

The presence of antibodies against these antigens (anti-HAV antibodies) in a person's blood can be used to diagnose past or recent Hepatitis A infections and immunity acquired through vaccination.

Negative staining is a histological or microscopy technique used to enhance the contrast of transparent or translucent specimens, such as bacteria and viruses. This technique involves applying a thin layer of a dense, dark-staining material (such as a heavy metal salt) onto the surface of the sample. The stain does not penetrate the specimen but rather forms a thin layer around it, creating a "negative" image where the specimen appears lighter against the dark background. This method is particularly useful for visualizing the shape and structure of small or delicate biological samples that would be difficult to see using other staining techniques.

A sequence deletion in a genetic context refers to the removal or absence of one or more nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA or RNA) from a specific region in a DNA or RNA molecule. This type of mutation can lead to the loss of genetic information, potentially resulting in changes in the function or expression of a gene. If the deletion involves a critical portion of the gene, it can cause diseases, depending on the role of that gene in the body. The size of the deleted sequence can vary, ranging from a single nucleotide to a large segment of DNA.

Bacteriophage PRD1 is a type of virus that infects and replicates within certain bacteria. It is a double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the family *Caudoviricetes* and the order *Corticovirales*. The virion (the complete viral particle) of PRD1 has an icosahedral capsid (the protein shell) and a lipid bilayer membrane enclosing the genomic DNA.

PRD1 is known to infect a limited range of Gram-negative bacteria, including some strains of *Escherichia coli* and *Salmonella enterica*. The virus attaches to the bacterial cell surface and injects its genetic material into the host cell. Once inside the host, the viral DNA is replicated and used to produce new virions.

PRD1 has been extensively studied as a model system for understanding the structure and assembly of complex viruses. Its genome encodes for about 50 proteins, many of which are involved in the construction of the virion. Additionally, PRD1 has been used in various biotechnological applications, such as the development of gene delivery vectors and vaccine candidates.

A mutant protein is a protein that has undergone a genetic mutation, resulting in an altered amino acid sequence and potentially changed structure and function. These changes can occur due to various reasons such as errors during DNA replication, exposure to mutagenic substances, or inherited genetic disorders. The alterations in the protein's structure and function may have no significant effects, lead to benign phenotypic variations, or cause diseases, depending on the type and location of the mutation. Some well-known examples of diseases caused by mutant proteins include cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, and certain types of cancer.

Nuclear localization signals (NLSs) are specific short sequences of amino acids in a protein that serve as a targeting signal for nuclear import. They are recognized by import receptors, which facilitate the translocation of the protein through the nuclear pore complex and into the nucleus. NLSs typically contain one or more basic residues, such as lysine or arginine, and can be monopartite (a single stretch of basic amino acids) or bipartite (two stretches of basic amino acids separated by a spacer region). Once inside the nucleus, the protein can perform its specific function, such as regulating gene expression.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV) is a type of alphavirus that can cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in horses and humans. It is primarily transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes, although it can also be spread through contact with contaminated food or water, or by aerosolization during laboratory work or in bioterrorism attacks.

VEEV infection can cause a range of symptoms in humans, from mild flu-like illness to severe encephalitis, which may result in permanent neurological damage or death. There are several subtypes of VEEV, some of which are more virulent than others. The virus is endemic in parts of Central and South America, but outbreaks can also occur in other regions, including the United States.

VEEV is considered a potential bioterrorism agent due to its ease of transmission through aerosolization and its high virulence. There are no specific treatments for VEEV infection, although supportive care can help manage symptoms. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito bites in endemic areas, using personal protective equipment during laboratory work with the virus, and implementing strict biocontainment procedures in research settings.

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates inside the living cells of an organism. It is not considered to be a living organism itself, as it lacks the necessary components to independently maintain its own metabolic functions. Viruses are typically composed of genetic material, either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid. Some viruses also have an outer lipid membrane known as an envelope.

Viruses can infect all types of organisms, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea. They cause various diseases by invading the host cell, hijacking its machinery, and using it to produce numerous copies of themselves, which can then infect other cells. The resulting infection and the immune response it triggers can lead to a range of symptoms, depending on the virus and the host organism.

Viruses are transmitted through various means, such as respiratory droplets, bodily fluids, contaminated food or water, and vectors like insects. Prevention methods include vaccination, practicing good hygiene, using personal protective equipment, and implementing public health measures to control their spread.

Plum Pox Virus (PPV) is a member of the genus Potyvirus, which belongs to the family Potyviridae. It is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that primarily infects stone fruit trees, including plums, peaches, nectarines, apricots, and cherries. The name "plum pox" comes from the characteristic symptoms observed in infected plum trees, which include pitting, discoloration, and deformation of the fruits, giving them a rough, pockmarked appearance similar to that of a plum.

The virus is primarily transmitted through the vector insects, such as aphids, that feed on the sap of infected plants. It can also be spread through grafting, budding, or contaminated tools and equipment. The incubation period for PPV can range from several weeks to several months, depending on the host plant and environmental conditions.

Plum Pox Virus is a significant concern for fruit growers worldwide, as it can cause substantial economic losses due to reduced fruit quality and yield. Currently, there are no effective treatments or cures for PPV infections, so prevention through the use of certified virus-free planting material and strict quarantine measures is essential to control its spread.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea among children under 5 years of age. It is responsible for around 215,000 deaths among children in this age group each year.

Rotavirus infection causes inflammation of the stomach and intestines, resulting in symptoms such as vomiting, watery diarrhea, and fever. The virus is transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated hands, food, or water. It can also be spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Rotavirus infections are highly contagious and can spread rapidly in communities, particularly in settings where children are in close contact with each other, such as child care centers and schools. The infection is usually self-limiting and resolves within a few days, but severe cases can lead to dehydration and require hospitalization.

Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as handwashing with soap and water, safe disposal of feces, and rotavirus vaccination. The WHO recommends the inclusion of rotavirus vaccines in national immunization programs to reduce the burden of severe diarrhea caused by rotavirus infection.

Reoviridae infections refer to diseases caused by the Reoviridae family of viruses, which are non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA viruses. These viruses are widespread and can infect a variety of hosts, including humans, animals, and insects. The infection typically causes mild respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms in humans, such as cough, runny nose, sore throat, and diarrhea. In some cases, Reoviridae infections may also lead to more severe diseases, such as meningitis or encephalitis, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. However, it's worth noting that many Reoviridae infections are asymptomatic and do not cause any noticeable illness.

Reoviridae viruses include several genera, such as Orthoreovirus, Rotavirus, Coltivirus, and Orbivirus, among others. Some of the most well-known human pathogens in this family include Rotaviruses, which are a leading cause of severe diarrheal disease in young children worldwide, and Orthoreoviruses, which can cause respiratory illnesses.

Treatment for Reoviridae infections is generally supportive, focusing on managing symptoms such as fever, dehydration, and pain. Antiviral medications are not typically used to treat these infections. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and avoiding close contact with infected individuals, as well as vaccination against specific Reoviridae viruses, such as Rotavirus vaccines.

Birnaviridae is a family of non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA viruses that infect a wide range of animals, including birds, fish, and insects. The name Birnaviridae comes from the combination of the words "bird" and "RNA." These viruses are characterized by their icosahedral symmetry and bi-segmented genome, which is composed of two segments of double-stranded RNA.

The two genomic segments of Birnaviridae encode for several viral proteins, including the viral capsid protein and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) that is responsible for replicating the viral genome. The family Birnaviridae includes several important veterinary pathogens, such as infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), which causes a highly contagious and often fatal disease in young chickens, and aquabirnavirus, which infects various species of fish and can cause significant economic losses in the aquaculture industry.

Birnaviruses are typically transmitted through fecal-oral routes or by ingestion of contaminated food or water. They replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells and can induce a range of clinical signs, depending on the specific virus and host species. In addition to their veterinary importance, birnaviruses are also of interest to researchers studying the fundamental biology of RNA viruses and their interactions with host cells.

Gastroenteritis is not a medical condition itself, but rather a symptom-based description of inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, primarily involving the stomach and intestines. It's often referred to as "stomach flu," although it's not caused by influenza virus.

Medically, gastroenteritis is defined as an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines, usually resulting in symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. This condition can be caused by various factors, including viral (like rotavirus or norovirus), bacterial (such as Salmonella, Shigella, or Escherichia coli), or parasitic infections, food poisoning, allergies, or the use of certain medications.

Gastroenteritis is generally self-limiting and resolves within a few days with proper hydration and rest. However, severe cases may require medical attention to prevent complications like dehydration, which can be particularly dangerous for young children, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Cytoplasm is the material within a eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) that lies between the nuclear membrane and the cell membrane. It is composed of an aqueous solution called cytosol, in which various organelles such as mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vacuoles are suspended. Cytoplasm also contains a variety of dissolved nutrients, metabolites, ions, and enzymes that are involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, signaling, and transport. It is where most of the cell's metabolic activities take place, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining the structure and function of the cell.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Simplexvirus is a genus of viruses in the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. This genus contains two species: Human alphaherpesvirus 1 (also known as HSV-1 or herpes simplex virus type 1) and Human alphaherpesvirus 2 (also known as HSV-2 or herpes simplex virus type 2). These viruses are responsible for causing various medical conditions, most commonly oral and genital herpes. They are characterized by their ability to establish lifelong latency in the nervous system and reactivate periodically to cause recurrent symptoms.

Myoviridae is a family of bacteriophages, which are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria. Here is the medical definition of Myoviridae:

Myoviridae is a family of tailed bacteriophages characterized by a contractile sheath surrounding the tail structure. The members of this family have a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome, which is relatively large, ranging from 40 to over 200 kilobases in size. Myoviridae viruses typically infect Gram-negative bacteria and are known to cause lysis of the host cell upon replication. The family includes many well-known bacteriophages such as T4, T5, and λ phages, which have been extensively studied for their biological properties and potential applications in molecular biology and medicine.

It's worth noting that while Myoviridae viruses can be useful tools in scientific research, they are not used in clinical practice as therapeutic agents. However, there is ongoing research into the use of bacteriophages, including those from the family Myoviridae, for the treatment of bacterial infections that are resistant to antibiotics.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Alphaviruses are a genus of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that belong to the family Togaviridae. They are enveloped viruses and have a icosahedral symmetry with a diameter of approximately 70 nanometers. Alphaviruses are transmitted to vertebrates by mosquitoes and other arthropods, and can cause a range of diseases in humans and animals, including arthritis, encephalitis, and rash.

Some examples of alphaviruses that can infect humans include Chikungunya virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, Sindbis virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. These viruses are usually found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, and can cause outbreaks of disease in humans and animals.

Alphaviruses have a wide host range, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and insects. They replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells and have a genome that encodes four non-structural proteins (nsP1 to nsP4) involved in viral replication, and five structural proteins (C, E3, E2, 6K, and E1) that form the virion.

Prevention and control of alphavirus infections rely on avoiding mosquito bites, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and reducing mosquito breeding sites. There are no specific antiviral treatments available for alphavirus infections, but supportive care can help manage symptoms. Vaccines are available for some alphaviruses, such as Eastern equine encephalitis virus and Western equine encephalitis virus, but not for others, such as Chikungunya virus.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

An epitope is a specific region on an antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response) that is recognized and bound by an antibody or a B-lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell that produces antibodies). Epitopes are also sometimes referred to as antigenic determinants.

B-lymphocytes, or B cells, are a type of immune cell that plays a key role in the humoral immune response. They produce and secrete antibodies, which are proteins that recognize and bind to specific epitopes on antigens. When a B cell encounters an antigen, it binds to the antigen at its surface receptor, which recognizes a specific epitope on the antigen. This binding activates the B cell, causing it to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibody that is specific for the epitope on the antigen.

The ability of an antibody or a B cell to recognize and bind to a specific epitope is determined by the structure of the variable region of the antibody or B cell receptor. The variable region is made up of several loops of amino acids, called complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), that form a binding site for the antigen. The CDRs are highly variable in sequence and length, allowing them to recognize and bind to a wide variety of different epitopes.

In summary, an epitope is a specific region on an antigen that is recognized and bound by an antibody or a B-lymphocyte. The ability of an antibody or a B cell to recognize and bind to a specific epitope is determined by the structure of the variable region of the antibody or B cell receptor.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a DNA virus that belongs to the Hepadnaviridae family and causes the infectious disease known as hepatitis B. This virus primarily targets the liver, where it can lead to inflammation and damage of the liver tissue. The infection can range from acute to chronic, with chronic hepatitis B increasing the risk of developing serious liver complications such as cirrhosis and liver cancer.

The Hepatitis B virus has a complex life cycle, involving both nuclear and cytoplasmic phases. It enters hepatocytes (liver cells) via binding to specific receptors and is taken up by endocytosis. The viral DNA is released into the nucleus, where it is converted into a covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) form, which serves as the template for viral transcription.

HBV transcribes several RNAs, including pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), which is used as a template for reverse transcription during virion assembly. The pgRNA is encapsidated into core particles along with the viral polymerase and undergoes reverse transcription to generate new viral DNA. This process occurs within the cytoplasm of the hepatocyte, resulting in the formation of immature virions containing partially double-stranded DNA.

These immature virions are then enveloped by host cell membranes containing HBV envelope proteins (known as surface antigens) to form mature virions that can be secreted from the hepatocyte and infect other cells. The virus can also integrate into the host genome, which may contribute to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic cases.

Hepatitis B is primarily transmitted through exposure to infected blood or bodily fluids containing the virus, such as through sexual contact, sharing needles, or from mother to child during childbirth. Prevention strategies include vaccination, safe sex practices, and avoiding needle-sharing behaviors. Treatment for hepatitis B typically involves antiviral medications that can help suppress viral replication and reduce the risk of liver damage.

Orbivirus is a genus of viruses in the family Sedoreoviridae, order Reovirales. They are non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA viruses with an icosahedral symmetry and a genome consisting of 10 segments. Orbiviruses infect various species of animals, including humans, causing a range of diseases such as African horse sickness, blue tongue disease, and Colorado tick fever. The virus is typically transmitted through the bite of arthropod vectors, such as ticks and mosquitoes, or through contact with infected animal secretions or contaminated food and water.

Dimerization is a process in which two molecules, usually proteins or similar structures, bind together to form a larger complex. This can occur through various mechanisms, such as the formation of disulfide bonds, hydrogen bonding, or other non-covalent interactions. Dimerization can play important roles in cell signaling, enzyme function, and the regulation of gene expression.

In the context of medical research and therapy, dimerization is often studied in relation to specific proteins that are involved in diseases such as cancer. For example, some drugs have been developed to target and inhibit the dimerization of certain proteins, with the goal of disrupting their function and slowing or stopping the progression of the disease.

Bacteriophage P22 is a specific type of virus that infects and replicates within the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. It is a double-stranded DNA virus and has an icosahedral head and a short, non-contractile tail. Bacteriophage P22 is known for its ability to undergo generalized transduction, where it can package host bacterial DNA into new phage particles, allowing the transfer of genetic material between bacteria. It is widely used in molecular biology as a tool for studying and manipulating bacterial genomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Active Transport, Cell Nucleus" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. Active transport typically refers to the energy-dependent process by which cells move molecules across their membranes against their concentration gradient. This process is facilitated by transport proteins and requires ATP as an energy source. However, this process primarily occurs in the cell membrane and not in the cell nucleus.

The cell nucleus, on the other hand, contains genetic material (DNA) and is responsible for controlling various cellular activities such as gene expression, replication, and repair. While there are transport processes that occur within the nucleus, they do not typically involve active transport in the same way that it occurs at the cell membrane.

Therefore, a medical definition of "Active Transport, Cell Nucleus" would not be applicable or informative in this context.

Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the family Picornaviridae and the genus Aphthovirus. It is the causative agent of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD), a highly contagious and severe viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and buffalo. The virus can be transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, as well as through aerosolized particles in the air. FMDV has seven distinct serotypes (O, A, C, Asia 1, and South African Territories [SAT] 1, 2, and 3), and infection with one serotype does not provide cross-protection against other serotypes. The virus primarily targets the animal's epithelial tissues, causing lesions and blisters in and around the mouth, feet, and mammary glands. FMD is not a direct threat to human health but poses significant economic consequences for the global livestock industry due to its high infectivity and morbidity rates.

Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the family Picornaviridae and the genus Cardiovirus. It is a pathogen that can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, causing encephalomyocarditis, a disease characterized by inflammation of both the brain (encephalitis) and heart (myocarditis).

EMCV infection typically occurs through the ingestion of contaminated food or water. The virus primarily targets organs with high cell turnover rates, such as the brain and heart. Infection can lead to a variety of symptoms, including fever, muscle weakness, neurological disorders, and cardiac dysfunction.

While human cases of EMCV infection are relatively rare, outbreaks have been reported in certain parts of the world, particularly in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. In addition, EMCV has been identified as a potential bioterrorism agent due to its high virulence and ability to cause severe disease in humans.

Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene and food safety habits, such as washing hands frequently, cooking meat thoroughly, and avoiding contact with potentially contaminated water sources. There is currently no specific treatment for EMCV infection, and management typically involves supportive care to address symptoms and prevent complications.

Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) is not a medical term per se, but a scientific term used in the field of molecular biology. GFP is a protein that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light, particularly blue or ultraviolet light. It was originally discovered in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria.

In medical and biological research, scientists often use recombinant DNA technology to introduce the gene for GFP into other organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals, including humans. This allows them to track the expression and localization of specific genes or proteins of interest in living cells, tissues, or even whole organisms.

The ability to visualize specific cellular structures or processes in real-time has proven invaluable for a wide range of research areas, from studying the development and function of organs and organ systems to understanding the mechanisms of diseases and the effects of therapeutic interventions.

Papillomavirus infections are a group of diseases caused by various types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs). These viruses infect the skin and mucous membranes, and can cause benign growths such as warts or papillomas, as well as malignant growths like cervical cancer.

There are more than 100 different types of HPVs, and they can be classified into low-risk and high-risk types based on their potential to cause cancer. Low-risk HPV types, such as HPV-6 and HPV-11, commonly cause benign genital warts and respiratory papillomas. High-risk HPV types, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, are associated with an increased risk of developing cancer, including cervical, anal, penile, vulvar, and oropharyngeal cancers.

HPV infections are typically transmitted through sexual contact, and most sexually active individuals will acquire at least one HPV infection during their lifetime. In many cases, the immune system is able to clear the virus without any symptoms or long-term consequences. However, persistent high-risk HPV infections can lead to the development of cancer over time.

Prevention measures for HPV infections include vaccination against high-risk HPV types, safe sex practices, and regular screening for cervical cancer in women. The HPV vaccine is recommended for both boys and girls aged 11-12 years old, and can also be given to older individuals up to age 45 who have not previously been vaccinated or who have not completed the full series of shots.

Amino acid motifs are recurring patterns or sequences of amino acids in a protein molecule. These motifs can be identified through various sequence analysis techniques and often have functional or structural significance. They can be as short as two amino acids in length, but typically contain at least three to five residues.

Some common examples of amino acid motifs include:

1. Active site motifs: These are specific sequences of amino acids that form the active site of an enzyme and participate in catalyzing chemical reactions. For example, the catalytic triad in serine proteases consists of three residues (serine, histidine, and aspartate) that work together to hydrolyze peptide bonds.
2. Signal peptide motifs: These are sequences of amino acids that target proteins for secretion or localization to specific organelles within the cell. For example, a typical signal peptide consists of a positively charged n-region, a hydrophobic h-region, and a polar c-region that directs the protein to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane for translocation.
3. Zinc finger motifs: These are structural domains that contain conserved sequences of amino acids that bind zinc ions and play important roles in DNA recognition and regulation of gene expression.
4. Transmembrane motifs: These are sequences of hydrophobic amino acids that span the lipid bilayer of cell membranes and anchor transmembrane proteins in place.
5. Phosphorylation sites: These are specific serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues that can be phosphorylated by protein kinases to regulate protein function.

Understanding amino acid motifs is important for predicting protein structure and function, as well as for identifying potential drug targets in disease-associated proteins.

A point mutation is a type of genetic mutation where a single nucleotide base (A, T, C, or G) in DNA is altered, deleted, or substituted with another nucleotide. Point mutations can have various effects on the organism, depending on the location of the mutation and whether it affects the function of any genes. Some point mutations may not have any noticeable effect, while others might lead to changes in the amino acids that make up proteins, potentially causing diseases or altering traits. Point mutations can occur spontaneously due to errors during DNA replication or be inherited from parents.

Theilovirus is not typically considered a separate virus in modern virology. Instead, it is now classified as a genotype (genotype 3) of the human parechovirus (HPeV), which belongs to the family Picornaviridae. HPeVs are small, non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses that can cause various clinical manifestations, ranging from mild respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms to severe neurological diseases in infants and young children.

Historically, Theilovirus was first identified as a separate virus in 1958 by H. Theil and K. Maassab, isolated from the feces of healthy children. It was initially classified as a member of the Enterovirus genus but was later reclassified as a distinct genus, Theilovirus, in 1999. However, subsequent genetic analysis revealed that Theilovirus is closely related to HPeVs, and it is now considered a genotype within the HPeV species.

In summary, Theilovirus is not a separate medical term or virus but rather a historical name for what is now classified as human parechovirus genotype 3 (HPeV3).

Totiviridae is a family of non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA viruses that infect fungi and protozoa. The name "Totiviridae" is derived from the Latin word "totus," meaning "complete" or "whole," which refers to the fact that these viruses have a single segment of linear, non-segmented, double-stranded RNA genome.

The genome of Totiviridae viruses is around 4.6-5.3 kilobases in length and encodes two major proteins: the capsid protein and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The capsid protein forms a icosahedral symmetry capsid that protects the genome, while the RdRp is responsible for replicating the viral genome.

Totiviridae viruses are transmitted vertically from parent to offspring and can establish persistent infections in their hosts. They are not known to cause any significant disease symptoms in their natural hosts, but they can interfere with the host's growth and development. In some cases, Totiviridae viruses have been shown to provide resistance to other viral infections in their hosts.

Overall, Totiviridae viruses are important pathogens in fungi and protozoa, and understanding their biology and interactions with their hosts can provide insights into the development of novel antiviral strategies.

Phycodnaviridae is a family of large, double-stranded DNA viruses that infect various types of algae, including both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic species. These viruses have a complex structure, with a capsid made up of multiple proteins and an outer lipid membrane. They are also known to contain various enzymes and other accessory proteins that are involved in the replication and packaging of their genomes.

Phycodnaviridae viruses are significant in marine ecosystems, where they play a role in regulating algal populations and contributing to nutrient cycling. Some members of this family have also been studied for their potential as sources of new genes and biomolecules with industrial or medical applications. However, it is important to note that these viruses can also cause harmful blooms or "red tides" in some aquatic environments, which can have negative impacts on fisheries and other marine resources.

Erythrovirus is a genus of viruses in the family *Polyomaviridae*. This genus includes several human viruses that were previously known as human mastadenoviruses. They are non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses that primarily infect erythroid cells, hence the name Erythrovirus.

The most well-known member of this genus is Human parvovirus B19 (B19V), which is a human pathogen that causes several clinical manifestations, such as Fifth disease, aplastic crisis, and hydrops fetalis. The infection with B19V is usually self-limiting in healthy individuals; however, it can cause severe complications in immunocompromised patients or those with certain hematological disorders.

Other members of the Erythrovirus genus include Primate erythrovirus 1 (PEV-1) and Primate erythrovirus 2 (PEV-2), which have been identified in non-human primates. These viruses share genetic similarities with B19V, but their clinical significance remains unclear.

In summary, Erythrovirus is a genus of viruses that primarily infect erythroid cells and include several human pathogens, such as Human parvovirus B19, which can cause various clinical manifestations in humans.

Restriction mapping is a technique used in molecular biology to identify the location and arrangement of specific restriction endonuclease recognition sites within a DNA molecule. Restriction endonucleases are enzymes that cut double-stranded DNA at specific sequences, producing fragments of various lengths. By digesting the DNA with different combinations of these enzymes and analyzing the resulting fragment sizes through techniques such as agarose gel electrophoresis, researchers can generate a restriction map - a visual representation of the locations and distances between recognition sites on the DNA molecule. This information is crucial for various applications, including cloning, genome analysis, and genetic engineering.

Haplorhini is a term used in the field of primatology and physical anthropology to refer to a parvorder of simian primates, which includes humans, apes (both great and small), and Old World monkeys. The name "Haplorhini" comes from the Greek words "haploos," meaning single or simple, and "rhinos," meaning nose.

The defining characteristic of Haplorhini is the presence of a simple, dry nose, as opposed to the wet, fleshy noses found in other primates, such as New World monkeys and strepsirrhines (which include lemurs and lorises). The nostrils of haplorhines are located close together at the tip of the snout, and they lack the rhinarium or "wet nose" that is present in other primates.

Haplorhini is further divided into two infraorders: Simiiformes (which includes apes and Old World monkeys) and Tarsioidea (which includes tarsiers). These groups are distinguished by various anatomical and behavioral differences, such as the presence or absence of a tail, the structure of the hand and foot, and the degree of sociality.

Overall, Haplorhini is a group of primates that share a number of distinctive features related to their sensory systems, locomotion, and social behavior. Understanding the evolutionary history and diversity of this group is an important area of research in anthropology, biology, and psychology.

Host-pathogen interactions refer to the complex and dynamic relationship between a living organism (the host) and a disease-causing agent (the pathogen). This interaction can involve various molecular, cellular, and physiological processes that occur between the two entities. The outcome of this interaction can determine whether the host will develop an infection or not, as well as the severity and duration of the illness.

During host-pathogen interactions, the pathogen may release virulence factors that allow it to evade the host's immune system, colonize tissues, and obtain nutrients for its survival and replication. The host, in turn, may mount an immune response to recognize and eliminate the pathogen, which can involve various mechanisms such as inflammation, phagocytosis, and the production of antimicrobial agents.

Understanding the intricacies of host-pathogen interactions is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases. This knowledge can help identify new targets for therapeutic interventions, inform vaccine design, and guide public health policies to control the spread of infectious agents.

Picornaviridae is a family of small, single-stranded RNA viruses that include several important human pathogens. Picornaviridae infections refer to the illnesses caused by these viruses.

The most well-known picornaviruses that cause human diseases are:

1. Enteroviruses: This genus includes poliovirus, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and enterovirus 71. These viruses can cause a range of illnesses, from mild symptoms like the common cold to more severe diseases such as meningitis, myocarditis, and paralysis (in the case of poliovirus).
2. Rhinoviruses: These are the most common cause of the common cold. They primarily infect the upper respiratory tract and usually cause mild symptoms like runny nose, sore throat, and cough.
3. Hepatitis A virus (HAV): This picornavirus is responsible for acute hepatitis A infection, which can cause jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, and loss of appetite.

Transmission of Picornaviridae infections typically occurs through direct contact with infected individuals or contaminated objects, respiratory droplets, or fecal-oral routes. Preventive measures include maintaining good personal hygiene, practicing safe food handling, and getting vaccinated against poliovirus and hepatitis A (if recommended). Treatment for most picornaviridae infections is generally supportive, focusing on relieving symptoms and ensuring proper hydration.

Morphogenesis is a term used in developmental biology and refers to the process by which cells give rise to tissues and organs with specific shapes, structures, and patterns during embryonic development. This process involves complex interactions between genes, cells, and the extracellular environment that result in the coordinated movement and differentiation of cells into specialized functional units.

Morphogenesis is a dynamic and highly regulated process that involves several mechanisms, including cell proliferation, death, migration, adhesion, and differentiation. These processes are controlled by genetic programs and signaling pathways that respond to environmental cues and regulate the behavior of individual cells within a developing tissue or organ.

The study of morphogenesis is important for understanding how complex biological structures form during development and how these processes can go awry in disease states such as cancer, birth defects, and degenerative disorders.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Orthoreovirus is a type of virus that belongs to the family Reoviridae. These are non-enveloped viruses with a double-stranded RNA genome. Orthoreoviruses are further classified into three main serotypes (Orthoreovirus 1-3), and they are known to infect both humans and animals, including birds and mammals.

In humans, orthoreovirus infections are usually mild or asymptomatic but can sometimes cause respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly in children. The virus is typically transmitted through respiratory droplets or the fecal-oral route. Once inside the host, the virus infects and replicates within cells of the respiratory or intestinal tract, leading to tissue damage and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Orthoreovirus infections are generally self-limiting, and treatment is typically supportive. However, there is ongoing research into the potential use of orthoreoviruses as oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy, as they have been shown to selectively infect and kill cancer cells while leaving normal cells unharmed.

A cell-free system is a biochemical environment in which biological reactions can occur outside of an intact living cell. These systems are often used to study specific cellular processes or pathways, as they allow researchers to control and manipulate the conditions in which the reactions take place. In a cell-free system, the necessary enzymes, substrates, and cofactors for a particular reaction are provided in a test tube or other container, rather than within a whole cell.

Cell-free systems can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. They can be used to study a wide range of cellular processes, such as transcription, translation, protein folding, and metabolism. For example, a cell-free system might be used to express and purify a specific protein, or to investigate the regulation of a particular metabolic pathway.

One advantage of using cell-free systems is that they can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes without the need for time-consuming and resource-intensive cell culture or genetic manipulation. Additionally, because cell-free systems are not constrained by the limitations of a whole cell, they offer greater flexibility in terms of reaction conditions and the ability to study complex or transient interactions between biological molecules.

Overall, cell-free systems are an important tool in molecular biology and biochemistry, providing researchers with a versatile and powerful means of investigating the fundamental processes that underlie life at the cellular level.

A potyvirus is a type of virus that belongs to the family Potyviridae and the genus Potyvirus. These viruses have single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes and are transmitted by various means, including mechanical transmission by insects, contact between plants, and contaminated seeds. Potyviruses are responsible for causing a number of important plant diseases, including those that affect crops such as potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, and tobacco. The virions (virus particles) of potyviruses are non-enveloped and flexuous rod-shaped, measuring about 680-900 nanometers in length. Some examples of potyviruses include Potato virus Y, Tobacco etch virus, and Peanut mottle virus.

Picobirnavirus is a genus of non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA viruses in the family *Birnaviridae* that are typically associated with gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. These viruses are characterized by their small size (picorna-like) and bi-segmented genome. They are often found in fecal samples and are transmitted through the fecal-oral route, but their exact role in disease pathogenesis is not well understood and further research is needed.

Vesivirus is a genus of non-enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses in the family Caliciviridae. These viruses are known to cause gastroenteritis in animals, particularly in primates and swine. They have been associated with mild to severe enteritis, vomiting, and diarrhea. However, they are not known to cause disease in humans. The name "vesivirus" is derived from the Latin word "vesica," meaning bladder or sac, which refers to the characteristic vesicle-like structures seen on the surface of infected cells.

'Immune sera' refers to the serum fraction of blood that contains antibodies produced in response to an antigenic stimulus, such as a vaccine or an infection. These antibodies are proteins known as immunoglobulins, which are secreted by B cells (a type of white blood cell) and can recognize and bind to specific antigens. Immune sera can be collected from an immunized individual and used as a source of passive immunity to protect against infection or disease. It is often used in research and diagnostic settings to identify or measure the presence of specific antigens or antibodies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mink" is not a medical term. It refers to a species of small, semiaquatic carnivorous mammals that are known for their sleek fur. They belong to the family Mustelidae, which also includes otters, weasels, and ferrets. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help!

COS cells are a type of cell line that are commonly used in molecular biology and genetic research. The name "COS" is an acronym for "CV-1 in Origin," as these cells were originally derived from the African green monkey kidney cell line CV-1. COS cells have been modified through genetic engineering to express high levels of a protein called SV40 large T antigen, which allows them to efficiently take up and replicate exogenous DNA.

There are several different types of COS cells that are commonly used in research, including COS-1, COS-3, and COS-7 cells. These cells are widely used for the production of recombinant proteins, as well as for studies of gene expression, protein localization, and signal transduction.

It is important to note that while COS cells have been a valuable tool in scientific research, they are not without their limitations. For example, because they are derived from monkey kidney cells, there may be differences in the way that human genes are expressed or regulated in these cells compared to human cells. Additionally, because COS cells express SV40 large T antigen, they may have altered cell cycle regulation and other phenotypic changes that could affect experimental results. Therefore, it is important to carefully consider the choice of cell line when designing experiments and interpreting results.

Mammalian Orthoreovirus 3 (Reovirus 3) is a species in the Reoviridae family, Orthoreovirus genus. It is a non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA virus with a segmented genome. This virus is known to infect various mammals, including humans, and primarily targets the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. However, it generally does not cause any noticeable symptoms or diseases in immunocompetent individuals. The virus has been studied for its potential use as an oncolytic agent in cancer therapy due to its ability to selectively infect and kill cancer cells.

Inclusion bodies, viral are typically described as intracellular inclusions that appear as a result of viral infections. These inclusion bodies consist of aggregates of virus-specific proteins, viral particles, or both, which accumulate inside the host cell's cytoplasm or nucleus during the replication cycle of certain viruses.

The presence of inclusion bodies can sometimes be observed through histological or cytological examination using various staining techniques. Different types of viruses may exhibit distinct morphologies and locations of these inclusion bodies, which can aid in the identification and diagnosis of specific viral infections. However, it is important to note that not all viral infections result in the formation of inclusion bodies, and their presence does not necessarily indicate active viral replication or infection.

Adenoviridae infections refer to diseases caused by members of the Adenoviridae family of viruses, which are non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses. These viruses can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and birds. In humans, adenovirus infections can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the specific type of virus and the age and immune status of the infected individual.

Common manifestations of adenovirus infections in humans include:

1. Respiratory illness: Adenoviruses are a common cause of respiratory tract infections, such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and croup. They can also cause conjunctivitis (pink eye) and pharyngoconjunctival fever.
2. Gastrointestinal illness: Some types of adenoviruses can cause diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, particularly in children and immunocompromised individuals.
3. Genitourinary illness: Adenoviruses have been associated with urinary tract infections, hemorrhagic cystitis, and nephritis.
4. Eye infections: Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis is a severe form of conjunctivitis caused by certain adenovirus types.
5. Central nervous system infections: Adenoviruses have been linked to meningitis, encephalitis, and other neurological disorders, although these are rare.

Transmission of adenoviruses typically occurs through respiratory droplets, contaminated surfaces, or contaminated water. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and avoiding close contact with infected individuals. There is no specific treatment for adenovirus infections, but supportive care can help alleviate symptoms. In severe cases or in immunocompromised patients, antiviral therapy may be considered.

Tombusviridae is a family of viruses in the order Picornavirales, characterized by having single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes. Members of this family typically infect plants and are transmitted by mechanical means or through contact with contaminated soil. The virions are non-enveloped and have icosahedral symmetry, with a diameter of about 30-34 nanometers. Tombusviruses are known to cause various symptoms in their host plants, including mottling, necrosis, and stunting. Some notable examples of tombusviruses include Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV).

"Cat" is a common name that refers to various species of small carnivorous mammals that belong to the family Felidae. The domestic cat, also known as Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus, is a popular pet and companion animal. It is a subspecies of the wildcat, which is found in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

Domestic cats are often kept as pets because of their companionship, playful behavior, and ability to hunt vermin. They are also valued for their ability to provide emotional support and therapy to people. Cats are obligate carnivores, which means that they require a diet that consists mainly of meat to meet their nutritional needs.

Cats are known for their agility, sharp senses, and predatory instincts. They have retractable claws, which they use for hunting and self-defense. Cats also have a keen sense of smell, hearing, and vision, which allow them to detect prey and navigate their environment.

In medical terms, cats can be hosts to various parasites and diseases that can affect humans and other animals. Some common feline diseases include rabies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and toxoplasmosis. It is important for cat owners to keep their pets healthy and up-to-date on vaccinations and preventative treatments to protect both the cats and their human companions.

Defective viruses are viruses that have lost the ability to complete a full replication cycle and produce progeny virions independently. These viruses require the assistance of a helper virus, which provides the necessary functions for replication. Defective viruses can arise due to mutations, deletions, or other genetic changes that result in the loss of essential genes. They are often non-infectious and cannot cause disease on their own, but they may interfere with the replication of the helper virus and modulate the course of infection. Defective viruses can be found in various types of viruses, including retroviruses, bacteriophages, and DNA viruses.

Viral envelope proteins are structural proteins found in the envelope that surrounds many types of viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the virus's life cycle, including attachment to host cells, fusion with the cell membrane, and entry into the host cell. They are typically made up of glycoproteins and are often responsible for eliciting an immune response in the host organism. The exact structure and function of viral envelope proteins vary between different types of viruses.

A nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) is a type of large, complex DNA virus that infects insects, particularly members of the order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). NPVs are characterized by their ability to produce multiple virions within a single polyhedral occlusion body, which provides protection for the virions in the environment and facilitates their transmission between hosts.

NPVs replicate in the nucleus of infected cells, where they induce the production of large quantities of viral proteins that ultimately lead to the lysis of the host cell. The virions are then released and can infect other cells or be transmitted to other insects. NPVs are important pathogens of many agricultural pests, and some species have been developed as biological control agents for use in integrated pest management programs.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

A codon is a sequence of three adjacent nucleotides in DNA or RNA that specifies the insertion of a particular amino acid during protein synthesis, or signals the beginning or end of translation. In DNA, these triplets are read during transcription to produce a complementary mRNA molecule, which is then translated into a polypeptide chain during translation. There are 64 possible codons in the standard genetic code, with 61 encoding for specific amino acids and three serving as stop codons that signal the termination of protein synthesis.

Canine adenoviruses are a type of virus that can infect dogs and cause two distinct diseases: Infectious Canine Hepatitis (type 1) and Canine Respiratory Disease Complex (type 2).

Canine adenovirus type 1 primarily affects the liver, causing symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, and abdominal pain. In severe cases, it can lead to liver failure and death.

Canine adenovirus type 2 mainly causes respiratory infections, including kennel cough, which is characterized by a harsh, hacking cough and nasal discharge. It can also cause pneumonia in some cases.

Both types of canine adenoviruses are highly contagious and can be spread through direct contact with infected dogs or their feces and urine. Vaccination is available to protect against both forms of the virus and is recommended for all dogs.

Beta karyopherins, also known as importin-βs or transportins, are a family of nuclear transport receptors that play a crucial role in the shuttling of proteins and RNAs between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. They recognize specific signals on their cargo, such as nuclear localization sequences (NLS) or nuclear export sequences (NES), and mediate their translocation through the nuclear pore complex (NPC).

Beta karyopherins function by binding to their cargo in the cytoplasm, forming a complex that is then recognized by the NPC. Once inside the nucleus, beta karyopherins release their cargo and return to the cytoplasm, where they can bind to new cargoes.

There are several members of the beta karyopherin family, each with distinct specificities for different types of cargoes. Some examples include importin-β1, which is involved in the transport of classical NLS-containing proteins; importin-α, which acts as an adaptor between importin-β1 and its cargo; and transportin-1, which transports RNA-binding proteins.

Dysregulation of beta karyopherin function has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and viral infections.

Gene transfer techniques, also known as gene therapy, refer to medical procedures where genetic material is introduced into an individual's cells or tissues to treat or prevent diseases. This can be achieved through various methods:

1. **Viral Vectors**: The most common method uses modified viruses, such as adenoviruses, retroviruses, or lentiviruses, to carry the therapeutic gene into the target cells. The virus infects the cell and inserts the new gene into the cell's DNA.

2. **Non-Viral Vectors**: These include methods like electroporation (using electric fields to create pores in the cell membrane), gene guns (shooting gold particles coated with DNA into cells), or liposomes (tiny fatty bubbles that can enclose DNA).

3. **Direct Injection**: In some cases, the therapeutic gene can be directly injected into a specific tissue or organ.

The goal of gene transfer techniques is to supplement or replace a faulty gene with a healthy one, thereby correcting the genetic disorder. However, these techniques are still largely experimental and have their own set of challenges, including potential immune responses, issues with accurate targeting, and risks of mutations or cancer development.

Mutagenesis is the process by which the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism is changed in a way that can alter its phenotype, or observable traits. These changes, known as mutations, can be caused by various factors such as chemicals, radiation, or viruses. Some mutations may have no effect on the organism, while others can cause harm, including diseases and cancer. Mutagenesis is a crucial area of study in genetics and molecular biology, with implications for understanding evolution, genetic disorders, and the development of new medical treatments.

Antibody specificity refers to the ability of an antibody to bind to a specific epitope or antigenic determinant on an antigen. Each antibody has a unique structure that allows it to recognize and bind to a specific region of an antigen, typically a small portion of the antigen's surface made up of amino acids or sugar residues. This highly specific binding is mediated by the variable regions of the antibody's heavy and light chains, which form a pocket that recognizes and binds to the epitope.

The specificity of an antibody is determined by its unique complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), which are loops of amino acids located in the variable domains of both the heavy and light chains. The CDRs form a binding site that recognizes and interacts with the epitope on the antigen. The precise fit between the antibody's binding site and the epitope is critical for specificity, as even small changes in the structure of either can prevent binding.

Antibody specificity is important in immune responses because it allows the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self antigens. This helps to prevent autoimmune reactions where the immune system attacks the body's own cells and tissues. Antibody specificity also plays a crucial role in diagnostic tests, such as ELISA assays, where antibodies are used to detect the presence of specific antigens in biological samples.

Microviridae is a family of small, icosahedral ssDNA viruses that infect various types of bacteria. The genome of these viruses is non-enveloped and consists of a single molecule of circular DNA. Microviridae includes several genera, such as Microvirus, Gokushovirinae, and Alphatetravirinae, which are characterized by different genome organizations and host ranges. These viruses typically have a simple structure, consisting of an icosahedral capsid that encapsidates the genetic material. They are important models for studying the fundamental principles of virus replication and evolution.

Cysteine endopeptidases are a type of enzymes that cleave peptide bonds within proteins. They are also known as cysteine proteases or cysteine proteinases. These enzymes contain a catalytic triad consisting of three amino acids: cysteine, histidine, and aspartate. The thiol group (-SH) of the cysteine residue acts as a nucleophile and attacks the carbonyl carbon of the peptide bond, leading to its cleavage.

Cysteine endopeptidases play important roles in various biological processes, including protein degradation, cell signaling, and inflammation. They are involved in many physiological and pathological conditions, such as apoptosis, immune response, and cancer. Some examples of cysteine endopeptidases include cathepsins, caspases, and calpains.

It is important to note that these enzymes require a reducing environment to maintain the reduced state of their active site cysteine residue. Therefore, they are sensitive to oxidizing agents and inhibitors that target the thiol group. Understanding the structure and function of cysteine endopeptidases is crucial for developing therapeutic strategies that target these enzymes in various diseases.

Herpesvirus 1, Suid (Suid Herpesvirus 1 or SHV-1), also known as Pseudorabies Virus (PrV), is a species of the genus Varicellovirus in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae of the family Herpesviridae. It is a double-stranded DNA virus that primarily infects members of the Suidae family, including domestic pigs and wild boars. The virus can cause a range of symptoms known as Aujeszky's disease in these animals, which may include respiratory distress, neurological issues, and reproductive failures.

SHV-1 is highly contagious and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or their secretions, as well as through aerosol transmission. Although it does not typically infect humans, there have been rare cases of human infection, usually resulting from exposure to infected pigs or their tissues. In these instances, the virus may cause mild flu-like symptoms or more severe neurological issues.

SHV-1 is an important pathogen in the swine industry and has significant economic implications due to its impact on animal health and production. Vaccination programs are widely used to control the spread of the virus and protect susceptible pig populations.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

Echovirus 9 is a type of enterovirus, which is a single-stranded RNA virus that can infect humans. The name "echovirus" stands for "enteric cytopathic human orphan virus," as these viruses were initially discovered in the intestines and were not known to cause any specific diseases. However, it is now known that some echoviruses, including echovirus 9, can cause a range of illnesses, particularly in children.

Echovirus 9 is transmitted through the fecal-oral route, usually through contaminated food or water. Once inside the body, the virus can infect various organs and tissues, including the respiratory system, central nervous system, and skin.

The symptoms of echovirus 9 infection can vary widely depending on the age and overall health of the infected person, as well as the severity of the infection. In some cases, people may not experience any symptoms at all. However, in others, the virus can cause a range of illnesses, including:

* Common cold-like symptoms, such as runny nose, sore throat, and cough
* Fever and fatigue
* Skin rashes or mouth ulcers
* Gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain
* Neurological symptoms, such as meningitis, encephalitis, or paralysis

In severe cases, echovirus 9 infection can lead to serious complications, particularly in people with weakened immune systems. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as fluids and medication to manage fever and pain. There is no specific antiviral treatment for echovirus 9 infection. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding contact with sick individuals.

Tropism, in the context of medicine and biology, refers to the growth or turning movement of an organism or its parts (like cells, roots, etc.) in response to an external stimulus such as light, gravity, touch, or chemical substances. This phenomenon is most commonly observed in plants, but it can also occur in certain types of animal cells. In a medical context, the term "tropism" is sometimes used to describe the preference of a virus or other infectious agent to attach to and invade specific types of cells in the body.

RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, also known as RNA replicase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the production of RNA from an RNA template. It plays a crucial role in the replication of certain viruses, such as positive-strand RNA viruses and retroviruses, which use RNA as their genetic material. The enzyme uses the existing RNA strand as a template to create a new complementary RNA strand, effectively replicating the viral genome. This process is essential for the propagation of these viruses within host cells and is a target for antiviral therapies.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Warts are small, rough growths on the skin or mucous membranes caused by one of several types of human papillomavirus (HPV). They can appear anywhere on the body but most often occur on the hands, fingers, and feet. Warts are benign, non-cancerous growths, but they can be unsightly, uncomfortable, or painful, depending on their location and size.

Warts are caused by HPV infecting the top layer of skin, usually through a small cut or scratch. The virus triggers an overproduction of keratin, a protein in the skin, leading to the formation of a hard, rough growth. Warts can vary in appearance depending on their location and type, but they are generally round or irregularly shaped, with a rough surface that may be flat or slightly raised. They may also contain small black dots, which are actually tiny blood vessels that have clotted.

Warts are contagious and can spread from person to person through direct skin-to-skin contact or by sharing personal items such as towels or razors. They can also be spread by touching a wart and then touching another part of the body. Warts may take several months to develop after exposure to HPV, so it may not always be clear when or how they were contracted.

There are several types of warts, including common warts, plantar warts (which occur on the soles of the feet), flat warts (which are smaller and smoother than other types of warts), and genital warts (which are sexually transmitted). While most warts are harmless and will eventually go away on their own, some may require medical treatment if they are causing discomfort or are unsightly. Treatment options for warts include topical medications, cryotherapy (freezing the wart with liquid nitrogen), and surgical removal.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but there seems to be a mistake in your question. "Leishmaniavirus" is not a term used in medical literature or recognized as a medical condition. Leishmania, however, refers to a genus of protozoan parasites that can cause a group of diseases known as leishmaniasis in humans and animals. If you have any questions about Leishmania or leishmaniasis, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV-11) is a specific type of human papillomavirus that is known to cause benign, or noncancerous, growths called papillomas or warts on the skin and mucous membranes. HPV-11 is one of several types of HPV that are classified as low-risk because they are rarely associated with cancer.

HPV-11 is primarily transmitted through sexual contact and can infect the genital area, leading to the development of genital warts. In some cases, HPV-11 infection may also cause respiratory papillomatosis, a rare condition in which benign growths develop in the airways, including the throat and lungs.

HPV-11 is preventable through vaccination with the human papillomavirus vaccine, which protects against several low-risk and high-risk types of HPV. It is important to note that while HPV-11 is not associated with cancer, other high-risk types of HPV can cause cervical, anal, and oral cancers, so vaccination is still recommended for individuals who are sexually active or plan to become sexually active.

Protein folding is the process by which a protein molecule naturally folds into its three-dimensional structure, following the synthesis of its amino acid chain. This complex process is determined by the sequence and properties of the amino acids, as well as various environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of molecular chaperones. The final folded conformation of a protein is crucial for its proper function, as it enables the formation of specific interactions between different parts of the molecule, which in turn define its biological activity. Protein misfolding can lead to various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a type of herpesvirus that can cause infection in humans. It is characterized by the enlargement of infected cells (cytomegaly) and is typically transmitted through close contact with an infected person, such as through saliva, urine, breast milk, or sexual contact.

CMV infection can also be acquired through organ transplantation, blood transfusions, or during pregnancy from mother to fetus. While many people infected with CMV experience no symptoms, it can cause serious complications in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing cancer treatment or those who have HIV/AIDS.

In newborns, congenital CMV infection can lead to hearing loss, vision problems, and developmental delays. Pregnant women who become infected with CMV for the first time during pregnancy are at higher risk of transmitting the virus to their unborn child. There is no cure for CMV, but antiviral medications can help manage symptoms and reduce the risk of complications in severe cases.

v t e (Viral structural proteins, HIV/AIDS, All stub articles, Protein stubs). ... The p24 protein can be detected in patient blood as early as 2 weeks after HIV infection, further reducing the window period ... p24 is a component of the HIV particle capsid. There are approximately 2000 molecules per virus particle, or at a molecule ... Fourth-generation HIV immunoassays detect viral p24 protein in the blood (as well as patient antibodies against the virus). ...
... , or HSV-1 UL-6 protein, is the protein which forms a cylindrical portal in the capsid of Herpes ... The capsid portal is formed by twelve copies of portal protein arranged as a ring; the proteins contain a leucine zipper ... Multiple studies suggest an evolutionary relationship between Capsid Portal Protein and bacteriophage portal proteins. When a ... protein UL-26.5, amino acids 143 through 151. UL-6 associates with a UL-15/UL-28 protein complex during capsid assembly. The UL ...
... is a viral protein that is the main component of the polyomavirus capsid. VP1 monomers are generally ... The capsid contains three proteins; VP1 is the primary component and forms a 360-unit outer capsid layer composed of 72 ... Chen XS, Stehle T, Harrison SC (June 1998). "Interaction of polyomavirus internal protein VP2 with the major capsid protein VP1 ... All of the capsid proteins are expressed from the late region of the viral genome, so named because expression occurs only late ...
Minor capsid protein VP2 and minor capsid protein VP3 are viral proteins that are components of the polyomavirus capsid. ... Polyomavirus capsids are composed of three proteins; the major component is major capsid protein VP1, which self-assembles into ... April 2006). "The VP2/VP3 minor capsid protein of simian virus 40 promotes the in vitro assembly of the major capsid protein ... The minor components are VP2 and VP3, which bind in the interior of the capsid. All three capsid proteins are expressed from ...
The proteins making up the capsid are called capsid proteins or viral coat proteins (VCP). The capsid and inner genome is ... As a result, some capsid proteins are widespread in viruses infecting distantly related organisms (e.g., capsid proteins with ... rotavirus and bacteriophage φ6 have capsids built of 120 copies of capsid protein, corresponding to a T = 2 capsid, or arguably ... The capsid faces may consist of one or more proteins. For example, the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid has faces consisting ...
The genome encodes 3 structural proteins (Capsid, prM, and Envelope) and 8 non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A ... the genome encodes 3 structural proteins (Capsid, prM, and Envelope) and 8 non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A ... The capsid protein is enveloped. The genomic arrangement is a linear (+)ssRNA. Its genomic segmentation is Monopartite (Flint ... Entebbe Bat Virus is an enveloped virus, which means that it has to bind its envelope proteins to a cell surface protein on the ...
The capsid contains three proteins; capsid protein VP1 is the primary component and self-assembles into a 360-unit outer capsid ... MPyV capsid protein VP1 binds to sialic acids of gangliosides GD1a and GT1b on the cell surface. The functions of VP2 and VP3 ... Capsid proteins, produced in the cytoplasm of the host cell, enter the nucleus as assembled capsomers consisting of pentameric ... The three genes in the late region express the three capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3. Between the early and late regions is a ...
This encodes two capsid proteins, CP-17 and CP-16. The virion is non-enveloped, spherical, with a capsid of about 15 nm with ... Expression of the capsid proteins. Assembly of new virus particles. Virus release. Whitish muscle disease, which develops in ... The virion is constructed from two capsid proteins CP-17 and CP-16. It has a Monopartite, linear, ssRNA(+) genome. The virion ... Viral RNA is translated in a polyprotein to produce replication proteins. Replication by helper virus occurs in viral factories ...
The unique, single protein, trumpet-shaped capsomeres of Gyrovirus are arranged into 12 pentomers yielding a capsid 60 units in ... VP1 is the 51kd capsid protein; in addition to its structural function, it also contains motifs for rolling circle replication ... These proteins share 38.8%, 40.3%, and 32.2% amino acid identities between their homologs in the CAV. Two species have been ... VP3, also called apoptin, is a 13kd protein that has been shown to independently induce apoptosis in chicken cells. Apoptin is ...
The uncoating process is a highly ordered multistep process in which the capsid is weakened and most or all capsid proteins are ... These have also been termed "Capsid-targeting Antivirals", "Capsid Effectors", and "Capsid Assembly Modulators (CAMs)". Because ... Phage display was used to identify peptides that bind the HIV-1 capsid protein, and the most promising peptide inhibitor was ... It functions by binding to the hydrophobic pocket formed by two neighboring protein subunits in the capsid shell. This bond ...
... is known to have a structurally homologous capsid protein. Each capsid is assembled from 540 proteins. Unlike orthoretroviral ... HIV Gag protein is encoded by the HIV gag gene, HXB2 nucleotides 790-2292. The HIV p17 matrix protein (MA) is a 17 kDa protein ... The p24 capsid protein (CA) is a 24 kDa protein fused to the C-terminus of MA in the unprocessed HIV Gag polyprotein. After ... All orthoretroviral gag proteins are processed by the protease (PR or pro) into MA (matrix), CA (capsid), NC (nucleocapsid) ...
Assembled capsid protein alpha is cleaved into capsid protein beta and gamma. Release of infectious particles. The nodamura ... RNA2 encodes the viral capsid protein, alpha. RNA2 is approximately 1.3 kb in length. RNA1's Protein A is also responsible for ... Nodamura virus capsid contains a segmented RNA genome made up of RNA1 and RNA2. RNA1 is responsible for encoding protein A, ... The virion is made up of 180 copies of a single viral capsid protein. The virion is organized in T=3 icosahedral symmetry, ...
There are five or more proteins in the capid: gp8 (the major capsid protein); gp6, gp7 and gp8 (minor capsid proteins); and gp3 ... The activity of gp2 is regulated by two other viral proteins: gp5 (single strand binding protein) and gp1# New viral genomes ... The capsid has a helical symmetry and is generally has a length of 85-280 nm or 760-1950 nm and a width of 10-16 nm or 6-8 nm ... This is mediated by one of the viral proteins (gp3) binding to the host receptor. The conversion from single-stranded to double ...
... major capsid protein VP1, and one or two minor components, minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3. VP1 pentamers form the closed ... Expression of the late genes results in accumulation of the viral capsid proteins in the host cell cytoplasm. Capsid components ... Chen XS, Stehle T, Harrison SC (June 1998). "Interaction of polyomavirus internal protein VP2 with the major capsid protein VP1 ... SV40 has an additional capsid protein VP4; some examples have an additional regulatory protein called agnoprotein expressed ...
The capsid proteins on the other hand stay in the cytoplasm and interact with the genomic RNA, together forming the capsid. RuV ... The capsid protein (CP) has different functions. Its main tasks are the formation of homooligomeres to form the capsid, and the ... E2 and the capsid protein. E1 and E2 are type I transmembrane proteins which are transported into the endoplasmatic reticulum ( ... Further is it responsible for the aggregation of RNA in the capsid, it interacts with the membrane proteins E1 and E2 and binds ...
... and several minor proteins with estimated masses of 75, 25, 12.5 and 10 kDa. The major capsid protein is predominantly β- ... There are five structural proteins: a major protein of 37 kiloDaltons (kDa) ... PMID 20164227.. Rice, G. (2004). "The structure of a thermophilic archaeal virus shows a double-stranded DNA viral capsid type ... above the capsid surface. The turrets have an average diameter of 24 nm. The center of each turret contains a ~3-nm channel. ...
The large polypeptide is divided into three structural proteins (capsid, prM, and E) and a group of non-structural proteins ( ... NS2B protein, a transmembrane protein, directly interacts with NS3 which is a soluble protein anchored to the membrane. With ... Proteins N2SA, NS4A, and NS4B are membrane-integrated proteins but have no clear function. To enter the cell, MODV virus is ... "Flavivirus Capsid Is a Dimeric Alpha-Helical Protein". Journal of Virology. 77 (12): 7143-7149. doi:10.1128/JVI.77.12.7143- ...
In Polyomavirus, the early proteins are T antigens. The late proteins make up the virus capsid. In Polyomaviruses, they are ... The early proteins produced in Papillomaviruses and Polyomaviruses regulate the cell cycle and activate DNA replication. In ... The late class consists primarily of structural proteins and assembly enzymes, and is dependent in all three families on the ... They are responsible for dissolving the virion capsid, directing DNA replication (in Poxviruses), protecting the virus from the ...
The capsid is non-enveloped, and composed of 60 copies of up to six types of capsid proteins (called VP1 through to VP6) which ... ORF1 encodes a nonstructural protein (NS1) that is involved in viral genome replication. ORF2 encodes the two capsid proteins- ... also required for the read through of an internal polyadenylation site that is essential for expression of the capsid proteins ... Sukhu, L; Fasina, O; Burger, L; Rai, A; Qiu, J; Pintel, D. J (2012). "Characterization of the Nonstructural Proteins of the ...
Virions contain a core of RNA or DNA within a capsid. A capsid is the protein shell of a virus. Parapoxvirus virions are ... All structural proteins have now been completed. An immature spherical particle is assembled in cytoplasmic viral factories. It ... Viral proteins attach to the host glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This brings about endocytosis which allows the virus penetration ... They possess an enveloped capsid and a distinguishing spiral coat, which is composed of a crossing pattern of tubes. Dissecting ...
The capsid is covered by fusion and hemagglutinin proteins. Inside the capsid exists the negative-sense RNA genome, which is ... The genome encodes for eight different proteins: N, C, P, V, M, F, H, and L. The L protein, also called large protein, is ... Additionally, the Feline morbillivirus F protein is known to have a single cleavage site that splits the protein into separate ... While the virus uses its own enzyme to make a copy of its genome, it hijacks host ribosomes to translate its RNA into protein. ...
They do not have structural proteins or a capsid. Mitoviruses have nonsegmented, linear, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA ...
Intermolecular disulphide bonding holds the L1 capsid proteins together. L1 capsid proteins can bind via its nuclear ... Protein pages needing a picture, Protein families, Protein domains, Proteins, Viral protein class). ... two late proteins are involved in capsid formation: a major (L1) and a minor (L2) protein, in the approximate proportion 95:5 ... and in the productive phase when it assembles into replicated virions along with L1 major capsid proteins. L2 proteins contain ...
The three serotypes of poliovirus, PV-1, PV-2, and PV-3, each have a slightly different capsid protein. Capsid proteins define ... smaller amounts of 3Dpol are produced than those of capsid proteins, VP1-4. These individual viral proteins are: 3Dpol, an RNA ... VP0, which is further cleaved into VP2 and VP4, VP1 and VP3, proteins of the viral capsid After translation, transcription and ... There are three poliovirus serotypes: types 1, 2, and 3. Poliovirus is composed of an RNA genome and a protein capsid. The ...
... including a minor capsid protein that has a single JR fold, an ATPase that packages the genome during capsid assembly, and a ... Duplodnaviria contains double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses that encode a major capsid protein (MCP) that has the HK97 fold. ... Krupovic M, Koonin EV (21 March 2017). "Multiple origins of viral capsid proteins from cellular ancestors". Proc Natl Acad Sci ... Krupovic M, Makarova KS, Koonin EV (1 February 2022). "Cellular homologs of the double jelly-roll major capsid proteins clarify ...
"Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 1 Contains Glycosylated Capsid Proteins, a Cellular Chromatin Protein, and Host-Derived Lipids ... A shared characteristic of many groups of archaeal viruses is the folded structure of the major capsid protein (MCP). ... Similarly, the genome of clavavirus APBV1 is packaged in a tight, left-handed superhelix with its major capsid proteins, ... Krupovic M, Koonin EV (21 March 2017). "Multiple origins of viral capsid proteins from cellular ancestors". Proc Natl Acad Sci ...
"Topologically linked protein rings in the bacteriophage HK97 capsid". Science. 289 (5487): 2129-2133. Bibcode:2000Sci... ... The process of protein ligation by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins has three main steps. In the initial step, the ... For the process of localization of proteins to the cell wall there is three-fold requirement that the protein contain a ... Biosignaling influences protein function, chromatin condensation, and protein-half life. The biostructural roles of isopeptide ...
"Homologous Capsid Proteins Testify to the Common Ancestry of Retroviruses, Caulimoviruses, Pseudoviruses, and Metaviruses". ... They also share similar capsid and nucleocapsid proteins/domains. Caulimoviruses also share some features with belpaoviruses, ... Their polymerase proteins are similar in structure and include aspartic protease (retroviral aspartyl protease) and an ... Their reverse transcriptase proteins share a common origin. Moreover, belpaoviruses, metaviruses, pseudoviruses, and ...
... which is the precursor to the mature capsid. A scaffolding protein is not required for capsid assembly. However, studies on the ... The major capsid protein of HK97, called gp5, cross-links upon maturation to form a chain-mail like structure. While DNA is ... Oh B, Moyer CL, Hendrix RW, Duda RL (2014). "The delta domain of the HK97 major capsid protein is essential for assembly". ... "The Refined Structure of a Protein Catenane: The HK97 Bacteriophage Capsid at 3.44Å Resolution". Journal of Molecular Biology. ...
They do not have structural proteins or a capsid. Narnaviruses have nonsegmented, linear, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA ... Retrieved 15 June 2021.[dead link] Dolja, V. V.; Koonin, E. V. (2012). "Capsid-Less RNA Viruses". ELS. doi:10.1002/ ...
v t e (Viral structural proteins, HIV/AIDS, All stub articles, Protein stubs). ... The p24 protein can be detected in patient blood as early as 2 weeks after HIV infection, further reducing the window period ... p24 is a component of the HIV particle capsid. There are approximately 2000 molecules per virus particle, or at a molecule ... Fourth-generation HIV immunoassays detect viral p24 protein in the blood (as well as patient antibodies against the virus). ...
Timeline for Superfamily a.28.3: Retrovirus capsid protein C-terminal domain: *Superfamily a.28.3: Retrovirus capsid protein C- ... Retrovirus capsid protein C-terminal domain appears in SCOP 1.59. *Superfamily a.28.3: Retrovirus capsid protein C-terminal ... Lineage for Superfamily a.28.3: Retrovirus capsid protein C-terminal domain. *Root: SCOP 1.61 *. Class a: All alpha proteins [ ... Fold a.28: Acyl carrier protein-like [47335] (3 superfamilies). *. Superfamily a.28.3: Retrovirus capsid protein C-terminal ...
... capsid, and nucleocapsid proteins. The matrix Z proteins of arenaviruses are related to cellular RING domain proteins, and the ... From cell proteins to viral capsids. 2 Comments / By Vincent Racaniello / 19 October 2017 ... A very common motif among viral capsid proteins is called the single jelly roll, made up of eight beta strands in two four- ... Given this information on the origin of viral capsid proteins, we can modify the three hypotheses for the origin of viruses ...
MedChemExpress offers high purity Intermediate capsid protein VP6, Rotavirus A (sf9, His, myc ) with excellent lot-to-lot ... Viral Proteins. Biotinylated Proteins. Fluorescent-labeled Proteins. GMP-grade Proteins. Animal-free Recombinant Proteins. ... Immune Checkpoint Proteins. CAR-T related Proteins. CD Antigens. Fc Receptors. Receptor Proteins. Enzymes & Regulators. ... Intermediate capsid protein VP6, Rotavirus A (sf9, His, myc ). Cat. No.:. HY-P72302. Quantity:. MCE Japan Authorized Agent:. ...
ELP-CP, a structural fusion protein of the thermally responsive elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) and a viral capsid protein (CP ... N2 - ELP-CP, a structural fusion protein of the thermally responsive elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) and a viral capsid protein ... AB - ELP-CP, a structural fusion protein of the thermally responsive elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) and a viral capsid protein ... and a viral capsid protein (CP), was designed, and its assembly properties were investigated. Interestingly, this protein-based ...
Billingham, Cleveland. TS23 4AZ Phone: +44 (0)1642 567180 ...
Screen capsid proteins of 15 different AAVs Linear and conformational peptide microarrays available Compatible with multi- ... Capsid proteins of AAV1 (protein ID NP_049542.1), AAV2 (protein ID P03135), AAV3b (protein ID O56139), AAV4 (protein ID O41855 ... AAV5 (protein ID Q9YIJ1), AAV6 (protein ID O56137), AAV7 (protein ID Q8JQG0), AAV8 (protein ID Q8JQF8), AAV9 (protein ID ... PEPperCHIP® Pan-AAV Capsid Protein Microarray. Profile antibody responses against 15 AAV capsid proteins in one single assay.. ...
Home,WB/ELISA positive control,Other human pathogens,Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) recombinant proteins,Major capsid protein L1 ... WB/ELISA positive control contain full lenght of major L1 capsid protein of Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV 16)(Cat. No. WE08001). ... Infectious pancreatic necrosis Virus (IPNV) recombinant proteins. * Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus (ISAV) recombinant proteins ... Each WB/ELISA positive control contains purified viral protein that can serve as a binding target or an internal control for ...
Vertex-Specific Proteins pUL17 and pUL25 Mechanically Reinforce Herpes Simplex Virus Capsids. Journal of Virology. 2017 Jun;91( ... Vertex-Specific Proteins pUL17 and pUL25 Mechanically Reinforce Herpes Simplex Virus Capsids. In: Journal of Virology. 2017 ; ... Vertex-Specific Proteins pUL17 and pUL25 Mechanically Reinforce Herpes Simplex Virus Capsids. / Snijder, Joost; Radtke, Kerstin ... snijder-et-al-2017-vertex-specific-proteins-pul17-and-pul25-mechanically-reinforce-herpes-simplex-virus-capsidsFinal published ...
Capsid lattice stability was studied by solving seven crystal structures (in native background), including P38A, P38A/T216I, ... HIV-1 capsid (CA) stability is important for viral replication. E45A and P38A mutations enhance and reduce core stability, thus ... Multidisciplinary studies with mutated HIV-1 capsid proteins reveal structural mechanisms of lattice stabilization. ... Multidisciplinary studies with mutated HIV-1 capsid proteins reveal structural mechanisms of lattice stabilization. ...
... the extreme diversity of genome architectures in these viruses that encode no universal proteins other than the capsid protein ... genomic and metagenomics sequence databases for distant homologs of the tectivirus-like Double Jelly-Roll major capsid proteins ... From: Vast diversity of prokaryotic virus genomes encoding double jelly-roll major capsid proteins uncovered by genomic and ... Protein sequences were clustered by the pairwise sequence similarity using CLANS. Different groups of DJR MCP are shown as ...
The protein shell enclosing the viral genome is…: Chapter 19 (Virus (Capsid, Viral envelopes, Bacteriophages, Provirus , ... Vaccine , Epidemic, prions, Virus is an infectious particle consisting of little more than genes packaged in a protein coat. ... Capsid. * The protein shell enclosing the viral genome is called capsid.. Capsid maybe rod-shaped, polyhedral, or more complex ... 7) The viral proteins include capsid proteins and reverse transcriptase (made in the cyotsol)and envelope glycoproteins (made ...
Alignment with capsid protein genes of other Trichoviruses revealed the TaTao ACLSV peach isolate to be phylogenetically ... Molecular variability analyses of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus capsid protein. Journal of Biosciences, 35. 605 -615. ... The complete sequences of the coat protein (CP) gene of 26 isolates of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) from India were ...
capsid protein: ABC. SMTL:PDB. SMTL Chain Id:. PDB Chain Id:. A. A ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF NORWALK VIRUS CAPSID Coordinates. PDB Format Method. X-RAY DIFFRACTION 3.40 Å. Oligo State. homo- ... Prasad, B.V. et al., X-ray crystallographic structure of the Norwalk virus capsid. Science (1999) Release Date. 2001-05-16. ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF NORWALK VIRUS CAPSID ...
Early Stages of the HIV-1 Capsid Protein Lattice Formation. Title. Early Stages of the HIV-1 Capsid Protein Lattice Formation. ...
Partial sequencing of the B646L gene encoding the major capsid protein p72 has so far led to the identification of 22 ASFV ... Partial Sequence of B646L Gene Encoding the p72 Capsid Protein. Sequence analysis of the B646L gene has been used extensively ... Sequences were obtained from 4 genome regions, including part of the gene B646L that encodes the p72 capsid protein, the ... Sequence Analysis of CP204L Gene Encoding p30 Protein. Amplification of a fragment containing the CP204L gene from each of 2 ...
CroV is covered by a protein shell (capsid) comprised of major capsid proteins (MCP) and minor capsid proteins (mCP). The ... Initial trials in the expression vector without protein chaperone failed to obtain soluble MCP. By fusing trigger factor (TF), ... TF facilitates the proper folding of proteins at low temperature in bacteria. After large-scale expression in bacteria, ultra- ... and amplified by PCR followed by cloning into a bacterial expression system in order to obtain purified protein of high ...
Poliovirus transmission pathways are monitored through analysis of the viral capsid protein (VP1) coding region sequences from ... Abbreviations: cVDPV = circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus; ITD = intratypic differentiation; VP1 = viral capsid protein. ...
Foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype C (isolate C-S8c1) Capsid protein VP1. Product list ... The virus particle (25-30 nm) has an icosahedral capsid made of protein, without envelope, containing a single strand of ...
Minor proteins, mobile arms and membrane-capsid interactions in the bacteriophage PRD1 capsid ... Minor proteins, mobile arms and membrane-capsid interactions in the bacteriophage PRD1 capsid ...
Capsid Protein VP0. * Click molecule labels to explore molecular sequence information.. Citing MMDB ... CAPSID PROTEIN VP0CAPSID PROTEIN VP1CAPSID PROTEIN VP3 ...
Structure and Dynamics of the Membrane-bound form of Pf1 Coat Protein: Implications for Structural Rearrangement During Virus ... Capsid protein G8P. A. 46. Primolicivirus Pf1. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: VIII. Membrane Entity: Yes ... The three-dimensional structure of the membrane-bound form of the major coat protein of Pf1 bacteriophage was determined in ... Structure and Dynamics of the Membrane-bound form of Pf1 Coat Protein: Implications for Structural Rearrangement During Virus ...
Capsid protein VP4 superfamily, Picornavirus. The name of this superfamily has been modified since the most recent official ... CATH: Protein Structure Classification Database by I. Sillitoe, N. Dawson, T. Lewis, D. Lee, J. Lees, C. Orengo is licensed ...
The Capsid Protein of Nervous Necrosis Virus Antagonizes Host Type I IFN Production by a Dual Strategy to Negatively Regulate ... In this study, we reported that capsid protein (CP) of red-spotted grouper NNV (RGNNV) suppressed the IFN antiviral response to ... This study reveals a novel mechanism of RGNNV evading host immune response via its CP protein that will provide insights into ... Furthermore, we found that CP potentiated LjTRAF3 K48 ubiquitination degradation in a L. japonicus ring finger protein 114- ...
pA104R is a highly conserved HU/IHF-like DNA-packaging protein identified in the ASFV nucleoid that appears to be profoundly ... The involvement of viral DNA-binding proteins in the regulation of virulence genes, transcription, DNA replication, and repair ... These include the major capsid protein p72 (ORF B646L) which is essential for assembly of the icosahedral capsid on the inner ... ASFV Structural Proteins and Proteins Involved in Assembly. Up to 70 structural proteins have been identified from the ASFV ...
However, the plug density is more prominent in APV and may include VP4, a minor capsid protein unique to bird polyomaviruses. ... The structure of the pentameric major capsid protein (VP1) is mostly conserved; however, APV VP1 has a unique, truncated C- ... and a possible location of the minor capsid protein VP4.. Shen, P.S., Enderlein, D., Nelson, C.D., Carter, W.S., Kawano, M., ... consistent with the known location of minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3. ...
Capsid protein VP1 divergence from Sabin OPV strain**(%). Date of latest outbreak case, healthy child specimen, or ... viral protein 1.. * In the column "Outbreaks/Emergences," outbreaks list total cases clearly associated with cVDPVs, emergences ...
Capsid protein and C-terminal part of CpmB protein in the Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity island 1 80alpha-derived ... Vorheriger BeitragCryoEM structure of Herpes Simplex virus 1 capsid with associated tegument protein complexes E-Microscopy 4.2 ...
  • Partial sequencing of the B646L gene encoding the major capsid protein p72 has so far led to the identification of 22 ASFV genotypes. (cdc.gov)
  • Nucleotide sequences encoding the major capsid protein VP1 were determined for each isolate. (cdc.gov)
  • A post-translational modification of human Norovirus capsid protein attenuates glycan binding. (virocarb.de)
  • Detection of norovirus capsid protein in authentic standards and in stool extracts by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization and nanospray mass spectrometry. (cdc.gov)
  • The detection of norovirus capsid protein was explored using three common MS-based methods: scanning of intact proteins, peptide mass fingerprinting, and peptide sequencing. (cdc.gov)
  • Fucose-functionalized precision glycomacromolecules targeting human norovirus capsid protein. (mpg.de)
  • The researchers took a new approach, expressing norovirus capsid protein to create viruslike particles that cannot cause the disease but nevertheless stimulate an immune response. (medscape.com)
  • The extra sequences at the N-termini of viral jelly roll capsid proteins, involved in recognizing the viral genome, likely evolved after the capture of these proteins from cells. (virology.ws)
  • This indicates that herpesviruses withstand the internal pressure that is generated during DNA genome packaging by locally reinforcing the mechanical sturdiness of the vertices, the most stressed part of the capsids. (vu.nl)
  • Sequences were obtained from 4 genome regions, including part of the gene B646L that encodes the p72 capsid protein, the complete E183L and CP204L genes, which encode the p54 and p30 proteins and the variable region of the B602L gene. (cdc.gov)
  • The virus particle (25-30 nm) has an icosahedral capsid made of protein, without envelope, containing a single strand of ribonucleic acid (RNA) containing a positive encoding of its genome. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • CAMs disturb proper nucleocapsid assembly, by inducing formation of either aberrant assemblies (CAM-A) or of apparently normal but genome-less empty capsids (CAM-E). Classical structural approaches have revealed the CAM binding sites on the capsid protein (Cp), but conformational information on the CAM-induced off-path aberrant assemblies is lacking. (pasteur.fr)
  • E proteins made by the viral genome promote the activation of host DNA replication mechanisms that can then be used by the virus during its own replication. (medscape.com)
  • It binds in the cytoplasm the human BAF protein which prevent autointegration of the viral genome, and might be included in virions at the ration of zero to 3 BAF dimer per virion. (proteopedia.org)
  • Viral capsids are protein coats found inside viruses that contain and protect the viral genome. (lu.se)
  • Herpesviruses consist of a double-stranded DNA genome contained within a protein shell, termed the capsid, that is surrounded by an unstructured protein layer and a lipid-envelope. (lu.se)
  • We recently discovered a high internal DNA pressure of tens of atmospheres in HSV-1 capsids, resulting from tight genome confinement and repulsive DNA-DNA interactions. (lu.se)
  • SCOP: Structural Classification of Proteins and ASTRAL. (berkeley.edu)
  • Retroviral structural proteins also appear to have originated from cell proteins, with clear homologies with matrix, capsid, and nucleocapsid proteins. (virology.ws)
  • Capsid protein p24 forms the conical core that encapsulates the genomic RNA-nucleocapsid complex in the virion. (proteopedia.org)
  • Nucleocapsid protein p7 encapsulates and protects viral dimeric unspliced (genomic) RNA. (proteopedia.org)
  • It seems likely that viral structural proteins originated from cellular genes. (virology.ws)
  • Alignment with capsid protein genes of other Trichoviruses revealed the TaTao ACLSV peach isolate to be phylogenetically closest to Peach mosaic virus, Apricot pseudo chlorotic leaf spot virus and Cherry mottle leaf virus. (csircentral.net)
  • The involvement of viral DNA-binding proteins in the regulation of virulence genes, transcription, DNA replication, and repair make them significant targets. (mdpi.com)
  • L genes encode viral capsid proteins. (medscape.com)
  • Disruption of E1 and E2 allows for dysregulated downstream genes and the expression of E6 and E7 proteins, which are selectively maintained in virally induced tumors. (medscape.com)
  • Missing from these hypothesis is how nucleic acids became virus particles - that is, how they acquired structural proteins. (virology.ws)
  • Many cell proteins have jelly role motifs, and some form 60-subunit virus-like particles in cells. (virology.ws)
  • At some point these genetic elements acquired structural proteins from the cells and became bona fide virus particles. (virology.ws)
  • Interestingly, this protein-based block copolymer could be self-assembled via two mechanisms into two different, well-defined nanocapsules: (1) pH-induced assembly yielded 28 nm virus-like particles, and (2) ELP-induced assembly yielded 18 nm virus-like particles. (psu.edu)
  • Comparisons between the membrane-bound form of the coat protein and the previously determined structural form found in filamentous bacteriophage particles demonstrate that it undergoes a significant structural rearrangement during the membrane-mediated virus assembly process. (rcsb.org)
  • Adherence was not affected by pretreatment of the cells with virus particles or viral proteins. (lu.se)
  • Also cleaves Nef and Vif, probably concomitantly with viral structural proteins on maturation of virus particles (By similarity). (proteopedia.org)
  • 2021). Virus-like particles (VLP), self-assembled HPV L1+L2 protein capsids that resemble intact virions, are used as antigen in the assay. (cdc.gov)
  • Here we show that solid-state NMR can provide such information, including for wild-type full-length Cp183, and we find that in these assemblies, the asymmetric unit comprises a single Cp molecule rather than the four quasi-equivalent conformers typical for the icosahedral T = 4 symmetry of the normal HBV capsids. (pasteur.fr)
  • Structure of the HIV-1 full-length capsid protein in a conformationally trapped unassembled state induced by small-molecule binding. (nature.com)
  • Some viruses have an outer envelope consisting of protein and lipid, surrounding a protein capsid complex with genomic RNA or DNA and sometimes enzymes needed for the first steps of viral replication. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Using atomic force microscopy imaging and nanoindentation measurements, we investigated the effect of the minor capsid proteins pUL17 and pUL25 on the structural stability of icosahedral herpes simplex virus capsids. (vu.nl)
  • pUL17 and pUL25, which form the capsid vertex-specific component (CVSC), particularly contributed to capsid resilience along the 5-fold and 2-fold but not along the 3-fold icosahedral axes. (vu.nl)
  • X-ray structure of the Norwalk virus capsid, with the inset showing details of the structure of the subunits. (bcm.edu)
  • The core is constituted by capsid protein hexamer subunits. (proteopedia.org)
  • By explicitly modelling the shapes of the subunits in the cage and matching the shapes with proteins from structural databases, we find that we can create structures with many different sizes, shapes, and porosities - including low porosities. (lu.se)
  • The chip contains the sequences of 15 different capsid proteins converted into more than 5,000 overlapping peptides for high-resolution epitope data. (pepperprint.com)
  • Protein sequences were clustered by the pairwise sequence similarity using CLANS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The complete sequences of the coat protein (CP) gene of 26 isolates of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) from India were determined. (csircentral.net)
  • An analysis of the sequence an structure of major virion proteins has identified likely ancestors in cellular proteins. (virology.ws)
  • The individual protein subunit of the virus capsid and formed in repetitive sequence. (innvista.com)
  • In another paper, we developed methods to predict large cubic symmetrical protein assemblies, such as viral capsids, from sequence. (lu.se)
  • Since protein structure is more conserved over evolutionary timescales than its amino acid sequence, reliable structure prediction by AlphaFold has revolutionised our ability to predict protein function. (lu.se)
  • The rod-shaped plant virus tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is widely used as a nano-fabrication template, and chimeric peptide expression on its major coat protein has extended its potential applications. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Here we describe a simple bacterial expression system for production and rapid purification of recombinant chimeric TMV coat protein carrying C-terminal peptide tags. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • C-terminal peptide tags in such arrays are exposed on the protein surface, allowing interaction with target species. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Lali K. Medina-Kauwe (2013) Development of adenovirus capsid proteins in targeting gene and drug delivery, Therapeutic Delivery , 4(2):267-77. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • One example is syncytin , a retroviral protein used for the construction of the mammalian placenta. (virology.ws)
  • Capsid lattice stability was studied by solving seven crystal structures (in native background), including P38A, P38A/T216I, E45A, E45A/R132T CA, using molecular dynamics simulations of lattices, cryo-electron microscopy of assemblies, time-resolved imaging of uncoating, biophysical and biochemical characterization of assembly and stability. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Chakroborty, Sayan, "Expression and characterization of major capsid protein (MCP) of a giant marine virus: Cafeteria roenbergensis virus (CroV)" (2013). (utep.edu)
  • Fabrication and characterization of gold nano-wires templated on virus-like arrays of tobacco mosaic virus coat proteins. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • X-ray crystallographic structure of the Norwalk virus capsid. (expasy.org)
  • Norwalk virus is a small virus that consists of a single strand of RNA , which comprises the genetic material of the virus, surrounded by multiple copies of a single protein assembled into a protective coat that is called the capsid. (bcm.edu)
  • Multidisciplinary studies with mutated HIV-1 capsid proteins reveal structural mechanisms of lattice stabilization. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Once the provirus is integrated into the host cell DNA, it is transcribed using typical cellular mechanisms to produce viral proteins and genetic material. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Finally, we use a eukaryotic cell-free system to reveal how CAMs modulate capsid-RNA interactions and capsid phosphorylation. (pasteur.fr)
  • LU-Fold specialises in high-throughput prediction of protein complexes to predict novel protein-protein interactions. (lu.se)
  • A very common motif among viral capsid proteins is called the single jelly roll , made up of eight beta strands in two four-stranded sheets. (virology.ws)
  • The capsid not only protects the genetic material of the virus, but also helps in host-virus recognition, which is the critical initial step for viral infection. (utep.edu)
  • In most cases, the virus's genetic material, DNA, is enclosed within a protective protein shell called a capsid. (lu.se)
  • A research group at Lund University is working to understand the process by which the virus ejects its genetic material from the capsid and into cells and what causes the virus's DNA to be released. (lu.se)
  • Profile antibody responses against 15 AAV capsid proteins in one single assay. (pepperprint.com)
  • Profile antibody responses against the most important wild type AAV capsid proteins with the PEPperCHIP ® Pan-AAV Capsid Protein Microarray. (pepperprint.com)
  • Antibody fingerprinting workflow using the PEPperCHIP® Pan-AAV Capsid Protein Microarray. (pepperprint.com)
  • Monitor antibody responses to AAV capsid proteins. (pepperprint.com)
  • Each WB/ELISA positive control contains purified viral protein that can serve as a binding target or an internal control for antibody validation or any antibody based assay such as western blotting or ELISA. (nanoexpo.eu)
  • Available with linear or cyclic constrained peptides for linear or conformational epitope mapping, the PEPperCHIP ® Pan-AAV Capsid Protein Microarray can be used to analyze patient and animal sera as well as research and diagnostic anti-AAV antibodies on the epitope level. (pepperprint.com)
  • 15 different wild type AAV capsid proteins are converted into overlapping peptides and printed onto glass slides. (pepperprint.com)
  • Mutagenesis studies confirm that hydrophobic residues in the centre of the three-helix bundle are crucial for capsid assembly and stability, and for viral infectivity. (nature.com)
  • WB/ELISA positive control contain full lenght of major L1 capsid protein of Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV 16)(Cat. (nanoexpo.eu)
  • CroV is covered by a protein shell (capsid) comprised of major capsid proteins (MCP) and minor capsid proteins (mCP). (utep.edu)
  • The three-dimensional structure of the membrane-bound form of the major coat protein of Pf1 bacteriophage was determined in phospholipid bilayers using orientation restraints derived from both solid-state and solution NMR experiments. (rcsb.org)
  • However, when recombination analyses were performed using RDP4, no recombination was found in either the partial major capsid protein (MCP) gene or the putative eukaryotic initiation factor 2 - α (eIF2-α) homologue gene. (gaacademy.org)
  • Fourth-generation HIV immunoassays detect viral p24 protein in the blood (as well as patient antibodies against the virus). (wikipedia.org)
  • The immune system responds to antigens by producing cells that directly attack the pathogen, or by producing special proteins called antibodies . (khanacademy.org)
  • Plug-like density features were observed at the base of the VP1 pentamers, consistent with the known location of minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3. (rcsb.org)
  • We have previously discussed the idea that viruses originated from selfish genetic elements such as plasmids and transposons when these nucleic acids acquired structural proteins (see A plasmid on the road to becoming a virus ). (virology.ws)
  • A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. (bvsalud.org)
  • It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. (bvsalud.org)
  • In contrast to previous structures determined solely in detergent micelles, the structure in bilayers contains information about the spatial arrangement of the protein within the membrane, and thus provides insights to the bacteriophage assembly process from membrane-inserted to bacteriophage-associated protein. (rcsb.org)
  • The N-terminal helix and the hinge that connects it to the transmembrane helix are significantly more dynamic than the rest of the protein, thus facilitating structural rearrangement during bacteriophage assembly. (rcsb.org)
  • Crystal structure of dimeric HIV-1 capsid protein. (nature.com)
  • Led by Gregory Smith, associate professor in immunology and microbiology at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, researchers found that viral protein 1-2, or VP1/2, allows the herpesvirus to interact with cellular motors, known as dynein. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Remarkably, this viral protein can be artificially activated, and in these conditions it zips around within cells in the absence of any virus. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Many of the studies were centered around viral protein capsids. (lu.se)
  • WB/ELISA positive controls from Made for Virology provide stable, validated protein standards for a wide range of human viruses including respiratory tract pathogens, as well as, animal and marine pathogens. (nanoexpo.eu)
  • Les échantillons de sérum de 140 patients susceptibles d'avoir contracté le virus de la dengue ont été analysés entre mai et octobre 2015 à l'aide du test ELISA et de l'amplification en chaîne par polymérase multiplexe. (who.int)
  • HIV-1 capsid (CA) stability is important for viral replication. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Molecular elucidation of drug-induced abnormal assemblies of the hepatitis B virus capsid protein by solid-state NMR. (pasteur.fr)
  • Protein assemblies are some of the most complex molecular machines in nature. (lu.se)
  • In a series of 3 papers, we analyzed the structure, developed structure prediction tools, and design tools, for different protein assemblies. (lu.se)
  • The viral core protein retains protease activity, needed for cleavage from a protein precursor. (virology.ws)
  • CATH: Protein Structure Classification Database by I. Sillitoe, N. Dawson, T. Lewis, D. Lee, J. Lees, C. Orengo is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License . (cathdb.info)
  • Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of a tubular HIV-1 capsid-protein assembly at 8 Å resolution and the three-dimensional structure of a native HIV-1 core by cryo-electron tomography. (nature.com)
  • Structure of the amino-terminal core domain of the HIV-1 capsid protein. (nature.com)
  • This method is based upon AlphaFold, a new AI tool that has revolutionized protein structure prediction. (lu.se)
  • The method can quickly elucidate the structure of many relevant proteins for humans, and for understanding structures relevant to disease, such as the structures of viral capsids. (lu.se)
  • However, with the help of the synchrotron research facility NIST in Maryland, USA, and thanks to a special grant from the Swedish Research Council, we were ultimately able to use neutron light to image the structure of phage virus DNA and its density inside the capsid and see how these changed at different temperatures," explained Alex Evilevitch. (lu.se)
  • TF facilitates the proper folding of proteins at low temperature in bacteria. (utep.edu)
  • After large-scale expression in bacteria, ultra-high purity TF-MCP fusion protein was obtained by affinity chromatography and size exclusion chromatography. (utep.edu)
  • Smith's team conducted a variety of experiments with VP1/2 to demonstrate its important role in transporting the virus, including artificial activation and genetic mutation of the protein. (sciencedaily.com)
  • We have utilized a C-terminal His-tag to create virus coat protein-templated nano-rods able to bind gold nanoparticles uniformly. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • I want to explore in more detail the idea that the structural proteins of viruses likely originated from cell proteins ( link to paper ). (virology.ws)
  • The matrix Z proteins of arenaviruses are related to cellular RING domain proteins, and the matrix proteins of some negative strand RNA viruses are related to cellular cyclophilin. (virology.ws)
  • There are many more examples, providing support for the hypothesis that viruses evolved on multiple instances by recruiting different cell proteins. (virology.ws)
  • Given this information on the origin of viral capsid proteins, we can modify the three hypotheses for the origin of viruses into one. (virology.ws)
  • Now, the question if of course - is it of viral origin or is it a cellular protein co-opted by viruses? (virology.ws)
  • The cryo-electron-microscopy structures enable modelling by large-scale molecular dynamics simulation, resulting in all-atom models for the hexamer-of-hexamer and pentamer-of-hexamer elements as well as for the entire capsid. (nature.com)
  • In the final paper, we developed tools to design capsid-like proteins called cages - structures that can be used for drug delivery and vaccine design. (lu.se)
  • There is also the phenomenon of HAP2 - a fusion protein that is used by many different eucaryotic organisms "all over" the phylogenetic tree (from Chlamydomonas to Bees) for mediating cell-cell fusion, predominantley of gametes. (virology.ws)
  • Turns out, that this protein look exactly like a class II viral fusion protein. (virology.ws)
  • ELP-CP, a structural fusion protein of the thermally responsive elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) and a viral capsid protein (CP), was designed, and its assembly properties were investigated. (psu.edu)
  • The latter were a result of the emergent properties of the fusion protein. (psu.edu)
  • Mass spectrum (MS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were performed to analyze the molecular weight and hydrodynamic diameter of the fusion protein. (utep.edu)
  • The MS and DLS results suggested that pure TF-MCP fusion protein is in trimeric form, which indicates the proper folding of the MCP. (utep.edu)
  • In this study, we reported that capsid protein (CP) of red-spotted grouper NNV (RGNNV) suppressed the IFN antiviral response to promote RGNNV replication in Lateolabrax japonicus brain cells , which depended on the ARM , S, and P domains of CP. (bvsalud.org)
  • E1 protein has helicase activity for replication, and E2 encodes DNA-binding protein for regulation of transcription. (medscape.com)
  • They facilitate many cellular functions, from DNA replication to molecular motion, energy production, and even the production of other proteins. (lu.se)
  • However, the plug density is more prominent in APV and may include VP4, a minor capsid protein unique to bird polyomaviruses. (rcsb.org)
  • Many human cytokines will produce a nice response in mouse cell lines, and many mouse proteins will show activity on human cells. (medchemexpress.com)
  • This capsid restriction by TRIM5 is one of the factors which restricts HIV-1 to the human species (By similarity). (proteopedia.org)
  • The different colors represent different regions of the organism's outer protein shell, or capsid. (cdc.gov)