Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most individual species are restricted to their natural hosts. They possess a characteristic six-pointed starlike shape whose surfaces have cup-shaped (chalice) indentions. Transmission is by contaminated food, water, fomites, and occasionally aerosolization of secretions. Genera include LAGOVIRUS; NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES; SAPPORO-LIKE VIRUSES; and VESIVIRUS.
A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, infecting a variety of vertebrates including humans. Parvoviruses are responsible for a number of important diseases but also can be non-pathogenic in certain hosts. The type species is MINUTE VIRUS OF MICE.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.
A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.
A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A species of the genus PARVOVIRUS and a host range variant of FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS. It causes a highly infectious fulminating ENTERITIS in dogs producing high mortality. It is distinct from CANINE MINUTE VIRUS, a species in the genus BOCAVIRUS. This virus can also infect cats and mink.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.
A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.
Intracellular step that follows VIRUS INTERNALIZATION during which the viral nucleic acid and CAPSID are separated.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. They cause vesicular lesions and upper respiratory tract infections. FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS is the type species.
Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE comprising small iridescent insect viruses. The infected larvae and purified virus pellets exhibit a blue to purple iridescence.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
A species in the genus LAGOVIRUS which causes hemorrhagic disease, including hemorrhagic septicemia, in rabbits.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
The type species of ERYTHROVIRUS and the etiological agent of ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM, a disease most commonly seen in school-age children.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
A genus of the family CIRCOVIRIDAE that infects SWINE; PSITTACINES; and non-psittacine BIRDS. Species include Beak and feather disease virus causing a fatal disease in psittacine birds, and Porcine circovirus causing postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs (PORCINE POSTWEANING MULTISYSTEMIC WASTING SYNDROME).
The type species of PARVOVIRUS prevalent in mouse colonies and found as a contaminant of many transplanted tumors or leukemias.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A 17-KDa cytoplasmic PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE involved in immunoregulation. It is a member of the cyclophilin family of proteins that binds to CYCLOSPORINE.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.
A species of ORTHOREOVIRUS infecting mammals (other than baboons). There are four serotypes. In humans they are generally benign but may sometimes cause upper respiratory tract illness or enteritis in infants and children. MAMMALIAN ORTHOREOVIRUS 3 is a very pathogenic virus in laboratory rodents.
Semi-synthetic complex derived from nucleic-acid free viral particles. They are essentially reconstituted viral coats, where the infectious nucleocapsid is replaced by a compound of choice. Virosomes retain their fusogenic activity and thus deliver the incorporated compound (antigens, drugs, genes) inside the target cell. They can be used for vaccines (VACCINES, VIROSOME), drug delivery, or gene transfer.
A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is thought to be through contaminated feed or water. Vaccines have been used with varying degrees of success.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of PARVOVIRUS that causes a disease in mink, mainly those homozygous for the recessive Aleutian gene which determines a desirable coat color.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A genus of RNA fungi viruses in the family TOTIVIRIDAE. Some of the viruses contain additional satellite RNA or defective RNA. Transmission occurs during cell division, sporogenesis and cell fusion. The type species is Saccharomyces cerevisiae virus L-A.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
A species of replication-competent oncogene-containing virus in the genus ALPHARETROVIRUS. It is the original source of the src oncogene (V-SRC GENES) and causes sarcoma in chickens.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
A genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family ASTROVIRIDAE. They cause GASTROENTERITIS and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. The type species is Human astrovirus.
A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
A species of PARVOVIRUS infecting cats with a highly contagious enteric disease. Host range variants include mink enteritis virus, canine parvovirus (PARVOVIRUS, CANINE), and raccoon parvovirus. After infecting their new hosts, many of these viruses have further evolved and are now considered distinct species.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
A slow progressive disease of mink caused by the ALEUTIAN MINK DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by poor reproduction, weight loss, autoimmunity, hypergammaglobulinemia, increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, and death from renal failure. The disease occurs in all color types, but mink which are homozygous recessive for the Aleutian gene for light coat color are particularly susceptible.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE containing highly flexuous filaments. Some members are important pathogens of crop plants. Natural vectors include APHIDS, whiteflies, and mealybugs. The type species is Beet yellows virus.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
A species of the Chenopodium genus which is the source of edible seed called quinoa. It contains makisterone A and other STEROIDS, some having ECDYSTEROID activity on insects.
A genus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE associated with worldwide sporadic outbreaks of GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The first recorded outbreak was in human infants in Sapporo, Japan in 1977. The genus is comprised of a single species, Sapporo virus, containing multiple strains.
A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
Virus diseases caused by the CIRCOVIRIDAE.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A species of PARVOVIRUS causing reproductive failure in pigs.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A genus of PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily DENSOVIRINAE, comprising helper-independent viruses containing only two species. Junonia coenia densovirus is the type species.
A mitosporic fungal genus including both saprophytes and plant parasites.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.
A genus of plant viruses that infects both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Its organisms are persistently transmitted by aphids, and weeds may provide reservoirs of infection.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, isolated from rodents and lagomorphs and occasionally causing febrile illness in man.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A species of BETARETROVIRUS isolated from mammary carcinoma in rhesus monkeys. It appears to have evolved from a recombination between a murine B oncovirus and a primate C oncovirus related to the baboon endogenous virus. Several serologically distinct strains exist. MPMV induces SIMIAN AIDS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).
The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.
Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
A species of the genus POTYVIRUS that affects many species of Prunus. It is transmitted by aphids and by infected rootstocks.
Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.
Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.
A family of bisegmented, double-stranded RNA viruses causing infection in fish, mollusks, fowl, and Drosophila. There are three genera: AQUABIRNAVIRUS; AVIBIRNAVIRUS; and ENTOMOBIRNAVIRUS. Horizontal and vertical transmission occurs for all viruses.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE infecting a wide range of arthropods and vertebrates including humans. It comprises at least 21 serological subgroups. Transmission is by vectors such as midges, mosquitoes, sandflies, and ticks.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.

CAR-dependent and CAR-independent pathways of adenovirus vector-mediated gene transfer and expression in human fibroblasts. (1/4982)

Primary fibroblasts are not efficiently transduced by subgroup C adenovirus (Ad) vectors because they express low levels of the high-affinity Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). In the present study, we have used primary human dermal fibroblasts as a model to explore strategies by which Ad vectors can be designed to enter cells deficient in CAR. Using an Ad vector expressing the human CAR cDNA (AdCAR) at high multiplicity of infection, primary fibroblasts were converted from being CAR deficient to CAR sufficient. Efficiency of subsequent gene transfer by standard Ad5-based vectors and Ad5-based vectors with alterations in penton and fiber was evaluated. Marked enhancement of binding and transgene expression by standard Ad5 vectors was achieved in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Expression by AdDeltaRGDbetagal, an Ad5-based vector lacking the arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) alphaV integrin recognition site from its penton base, was achieved in CAR-sufficient, but not CAR-deficient, cells. Fiber-altered Ad5-based vectors, including (a) AdF(pK7)betagal (bearing seven lysines on the end of fiber) (b) AdF(RGD)betagal (bearing a high-affinity RGD sequence on the end of fiber), and (c) AdF9sK betagal (bearing a short fiber and Ad9 knob), demonstrated enhanced gene transfer in CAR-deficient fibroblasts, with no further enhancement in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Together, these observations demonstrate that CAR deficiency on Ad targets can be circumvented either by supplying CAR or by modifying the Ad fiber to bind to other cell-surface receptors.  (+info)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus type 11 recombinant virus-like particles interacts with heparin and cell-surface glycosaminoglycans on human keratinocytes. (2/4982)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11, a 55-kDa polypeptide, forms particulate structures resembling native virus with an average particle diameter of 50-60 nm when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show in this report that these virus-like particles (VLPs) interact with heparin and with cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) resembling heparin on keratinocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells. The binding of VLPs to heparin is shown to exhibit an affinity comparable to that of other identified heparin-binding proteins. Immobilized heparin chromatography and surface plasmon resonance were used to show that this interaction can be specifically inhibited by free heparin and dextran sulfate and that the effectiveness of the inhibitor is related to its molecular weight and charge density. Sequence comparison of nine human L1 types revealed a conserved region of the carboxyl terminus containing clustered basic amino acids that bear resemblance to proposed heparin-binding motifs in unrelated proteins. Specific enzymatic cleavage of this region eliminated binding to both immobilized heparin and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Removal of heparan sulfate GAGs on keratinocytes by treatment with heparinase or heparitinase resulted in an 80-90% reduction of VLP binding, whereas treatment of cells with laminin, a substrate for alpha6 integrin receptors, provided minimal inhibition. Cells treated with chlorate or substituted beta-D-xylosides, resulting in undersulfation or secretion of GAG chains, also showed a reduced affinity for VLPs. Similarly, binding of VLPs to a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant deficient in GAG synthesis was shown to be only 10% that observed for wild type cells. This report establishes for the first time that the carboxyl-terminal portion of HPV L1 interacts with heparin, and that this region appears to be crucial for interaction with the cell surface.  (+info)

Biophysical characterization of a designed TMV coat protein mutant, R46G, that elicits a moderate hypersensitivity response in Nicotiana sylvestris. (3/4982)

The hypersensitivity resistance response directed by the N' gene in Nicotiana sylvestris is elicited by the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) coat protein R46G, but not by the U1 wild-type TMV coat protein. In this study, the structural and hydrodynamic properties of R46G and wild-type coat proteins were compared for variations that may explain N' gene elicitation. Circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals no significant secondary or tertiary structural differences between the elicitor and nonelicitor coat proteins. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies, however, do show different concentration dependencies of the weight average sedimentation coefficients at 4 degrees C. Viral reconstitution kinetics at 20 degrees C were used to determine viral assembly rates and as an initial assay of the rate of 20S formation, the obligate species for viral reconstitution. These kinetic results reveal a decreased lag time for reconstitution performed with R46G that initially lack the 20S aggregate. However, experiments performed with 20S initially present reveal no detectable differences indicating that the mechanism of viral assembly is similar for the two coat protein species. Therefore, an increased rate of 20S formation from R46G subunits may explain the differences in the viral reconstitution lag times. The inferred increase in the rate of 20S formation is verified by direct measurement of the 20S boundary as a function of time at 20 degrees C using velocity sedimentation analysis. These results are consistent with the interpretation that there may be an altered size distribution and/or lifetime of the small coat protein aggregates in elicitors that allows N. sylvestris to recognize the invading virus.  (+info)

Time-resolved fluorescence investigation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein: influence of the binding of nucleic acids. (4/4982)

Depending on the HIV-1 isolate, MN or BH10, the nucleocapsid protein, NCp7, corresponds to a 55- or 71-amino acid length product, respectively. The MN NCp7 contains a single Trp residue at position 37 in the distal zinc finger motif, and the BH10 NCp7 contains an additional Trp, at position 61 in the C-terminal chain. The time-resolved intensity decay parameters of the zinc-saturated BH10 NCp7 were determined and compared to those of single-Trp-containing derivatives. The fluorescence decay of BH10 NCp7 could be clearly represented as a linear combination (with respect to both lifetimes and fractional intensities) of the individual emitting Trp residues. This suggested the absence of interactions between the two Trp residues, a feature that was confirmed by molecular modeling and fluorescence energy transfer studies. In the presence of tRNAPhe, taken as a RNA model, the same conclusions hold true despite the large fluorescence decrease induced by the binding of tRNAPhe. Indeed, the fluorescence of Trp37 appears almost fully quenched, in keeping with a stacking of this residue with the bases of tRNAPhe. Despite the multiple binding sites in tRNAPhe, the large prevalence of ultrashort lifetimes, associated with the stacking of Trp37, suggests that this stacking constitutes a major feature in the binding process of NCp7 to nucleic acids. In contrast, Trp61 only stacked to a small extent with tRNAPhe. The behavior of this residue in the tRNAPhe-NCp7 complexes appeared to be rather heterogeneous, suggesting that it does not constitute a major determinant in the binding process. Finally, our data suggested that the binding of NCp7 proteins from the two HIV-1 strains to nonspecific nucleic acid sequences was largely similar.  (+info)

Identification of additional genes that influence baculovirus late gene expression. (5/4982)

We were unable to confirm transient late gene expression using constructs of 18 genes that had been reported to support Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) late gene expression when transfected into Spodoptera frugiperda cells [Lu, A., and Miller, L. K. (1995). J. Virol. 69, 975-982]. Three genes (orf66, orf68, and orf41) were included, all or in part, in the constructs used in that study, but they had not been independently tested. Therefore we investigated these and neighboring orfs for their influence on late gene expression. We found that orf41 was required for late gene expression and that sequences within orf45 appeared to be required for the expression of orf41. Although orf66 and orf68 did not appear to affect late gene expression, orf69 stimulated expression. orf69 was found to have high homology to recent entries in GenBank from a variety of organisms. In addition, it was found that orf121, which was shown to be involved in early gene expression, and the viral homolog of pcna did not influence late gene expression.  (+info)

A new picornavirus isolated from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). (6/4982)

A previously unknown picornavirus was isolated from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). Electron microscopy images and sequence data of the prototype isolate, named Ljungan virus, showed that it is a picornavirus. The amino acid sequences of predicted Ljungan virus capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 were closely related to the human pathogen echovirus 22 (approximately 70% similarity). A partial 5' noncoding region sequence of Ljungan virus showed the highest degree of relatedness to cardioviruses. Two additional isolates were serologically and molecularly related to the prototype.  (+info)

Direct evidence that the proton motive force inhibits membrane translocation of positively charged residues within membrane proteins. (7/4982)

The M13 phage procoat protein requires both its signal sequence and its membrane anchor sequence in the mature part of the protein for membrane insertion. Translocation of its short acidic periplasmic loop is stimulated by the proton motive force (pmf) and does not require the Sec components. We now find that the pmf becomes increasingly important for the translocation of negatively charged residues within procoat when the hydrophobicity of the signal or membrane anchor is incrementally reduced. In contrast, we find that the pmf inhibits translocation of the periplasmic loop when it contains one or two positively charged residues. This inhibitory effect of the pmf is stronger when the hydrophobicity of the inserting procoat protein is compromised. No pmf effect is observed for translocation of an uncharged periplasmic loop even when the hydrophobicity is reduced. We also show that the Delta Psi component of the pmf is necessary and sufficient for insertion of representative constructs and that the translocation effects of charged residues are primarily due to the DeltaPsi component of the pmf and not the pH component.  (+info)

Interactions of heterologous DNA with polyomavirus major structural protein, VP1. (8/4982)

'Empty' polyomavirus pseudocapsids, self-assembled from the major structural protein VP1, bind DNA non-specifically and can deliver it into the nuclei of mammalian cells for expression [Forstova et al. (1995) Hum. Gene Ther. 6, 297-3061. Formation of suitable VP1-DNA complexes appears to be the limiting step in this route of gene delivery. Here, the character of VP1-DNA interactions has been studied in detail. Electron microscopy revealed that VP1 pseudocapsids can create in vitro at least two types of interactions with double-stranded DNA: (i) highly stable complexes, requiring free DNA ends, where the DNA is partially encapsidated; and, (ii) weaker interactions of pseudocapsids with internal parts of the DNA chain.  (+info)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Derivation of a triple mosaic adenovirus based on modification of the minor capsid protein IX. AU - Tang, Yizhe. AU - Le, Long P.. AU - Matthews, Qiana L.. AU - Han, Tie. AU - Wu, Hongju. AU - Curiel, David T.. N1 - Funding Information: Ad5IXFlag and Ad5IXHis 6 are kind gifts from Dr. Anton Borovjagin, the stable cell line expressing sCAR protein is a kind gift from Dr. Maaike Everts. Discussions with Dr. Hideyo Ugai, Dr. Anton Borovjagin and Dr. Igor Dmitriev were helpful and stimulating throughout this work. The authors also thank Dr. Lacey McNally for technical support of immunogold electron microscopy and Minghui Wang for assistance in quantitative PCR analysis. This work was supported by the following grants: NIH R01CA111569 (Dr. David T. Curiel), NIH 5T32AI07493-11 (Dr. Casey Morrow), Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation 1-2005-71 (Dr. Hongju Wu) and 5-2007-660 (Dr. Hongju Wu). PY - 2008/8/1. Y1 - 2008/8/1. N2 - Adenoviral capsid protein IX (pIX) has been shown to be a ...
Outer capsid protein VP4: Spike-forming protein that mediates virion attachment to the host epithelial cell receptors and plays a major role in cell penetration, determination of host range restriction and virulence. Rotavirus attachment and entry into the host cell probably involves multiple sequential contacts between the outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7, and the cell receptors. It is subsequently lost, together with VP7, following virus entry into the host cell. Following entry into the host cell, low intracellular or intravesicular Ca(2+) concentration probably causes the calcium-stabilized VP7 trimers to dissociate from the virion. This step is probably necessary for the membrane-disrupting entry step and the release of VP4, which is locked onto the virion by VP7.
Herpesvirus capsid protein. Molecular model of the major capsid protein VP5 from herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). This virus infects epithelial cells around the mouth, causing fluid-filled blisters known as cold sores. There is no known cure for herpes infection and the virus remains in the body for life. - Stock Image F006/9435
Viral particles derived from mouse polyomavirus can be potentially used as a delivery system for therapeutic genes and drugs into target cells. This thesis focuses on preparation and characterization of polyomaviral particles that are modified with cell-penetrating peptides in order to increase efficiency of transduction of reporter genes into human cells. Viral particles that are composed of major capsid protein VP1 in combination with minor capsid protein VP2 and minor capsid protein VP3 that is modified with octaarginine, LAH4 peptide or with transduction domain of adenoviral protein VI are analysed in transduction assays. The thesis also provides information about the effect of the modification on encapsidation of heterologous DNA. The results of transduction assays performed with modified particles containing encapsidated luciferase gene revealed that efficiency of transduction did not increase but decreased in comparison with unmodified particles. These findings help to elucidate the role ...
Assembly of recombinant capsid proteins into virus-like particles (VLPs) still represents an interesting challenge in virus-based nanotechnologies. The structure of VLPs has gained importance for the development and design of new adjuvants and antigen carriers. The potential of Tobacco etch virus capsid protein (TEV CP) as adjuvant has not been evaluated to date. Two constructs for TEV CP expression in Escherichia coli were generated: a wild-type version (TEV-CP) and a C-terminal hexahistidine (His)-tagged version (His-TEV-CP). Although both versions were expressed in the soluble fraction of E. coli lysates, only His-TEV-CP self-assembled into micrometric flexuous filamentous VLPs. In addition, the His-tag enabled high yields and facilitated purification of TEV VLPs. These TEV VLPs elicited broader IgG2-specific antibody response against a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) protein when compared to the potent IgG1 response induced by the protein alone. His-TEV CP was
The high prevalence of pre-existing anti-Ad5 immunity in human populations may substantially limit the immunogenicity and clinical utility of rAd5 vector-based vaccines for HIV-1 and other pathogens. Our studies demonstrate ,90% Ad5 seroprevalence in sub-Saharan Africa with median NAb titers ,10-fold higher than those found in the United States. These data suggest that rAd5 vectors should be engineered to evade dominant Ad5-specific NAbs before their use as vaccine vectors in the developing world. To determine the principal targets of Ad5-specific NAbs, we exploited the lack of detectable serologic cross-reactivity between Ad5 and Ad35 (8). Virus neutralization studies using capsid chimeric rAd5/rAd35 vectors and serum samples from both humans and mice demonstrated that Ad5-specific NAbs were directed primarily against the Ad5 hexon protein. Fiber-specific NAbs were detected at low frequencies in vitro but were substantially less efficient than hexon-specific NAbs at blunting rAd5 vaccine ...
Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are small DNA, non-enveloped, double-stranded and closed circular viruses. There are more than 150 HPV identified types. Genital HPV types are categorized according to their epidemiologic association with cervical cancer to high and low risk types. The high risk type HPV 16 is the most common in the world. we aimed to design a universal peptide based vaccine against HPV type 16 virus using Immunoinformatics Approach through prediction of highly conserved T and B-cell epitopes from the most abundant and highly immunogenic protein (L1 major capsid protein) derived from HPV type 16 strains all over the world. All sequences of the L1 major capsid protein were retrieved from NCBI database. Potentially continuous B and T cell epitopes were predicted using tools from immune epitope data base analysis resource (IEDB-AR). The Allergenicity of predicted epitopes was analyzed by AllerTOP Tool and the coverage was determined throughout the worlds. The B cell epitope 243KSEV246 ...
Samuel Campos, PhD, studies early events of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection. HPVs are small, non-enveloped DNA viruses that cause a variety of lesions ranging from benign waters to cervical cancers. Although over 100 types of HPVs have been identified, HPV16 is the most prevalent, and is alone responsible for more than 50% of cervical cancers in women worldwide. Dr. Campos and his lab study the mechanisms of HPV virus transmission at a cellular level, in hopes to discover new approaches for the prevention and treatment of HPV.HPV16 virions consist of an ~8kb circular dsDNA genome packaged into a ~60 nm protein capsid. The genome is condensed with cellular histones and exists in a chromatin-like state. The capsid is comprised of 72 pentamers of the major capsid protein L1 and up to 72 molecules of the minor capsid protein L2, localized along the inner capsid surface, within the central cavities beneath the L1 pentamers. Mature HPV16 virions exist in an oxidized state, with adjacent L1 ...
The utility of recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) vector-based vaccines for HIV-1 and other pathogens will likely be limited by the high prevalence of pre-existing Ad5-specific neutralizing Abs (NAbs) in human populations. However, the immunodominant targets of Ad5-specific NAbs in humans remain poorly characterized. In this study, we assess the titers and primary determinants of Ad5-specific NAbs in individuals from both the United States and the developing world. Importantly, median Ad5-specific NAb titers were ,10-fold higher in sub-Saharan Africa compared with the United States. Moreover, hexon-specific NAb titers were 4- to 10-fold higher than fiber-specific NAb titers in these cohorts by virus neutralization assays using capsid chimeric viruses. We next performed adoptive transfer studies in mice to evaluate the functional capacity of hexon- and fiber-specific NAbs to suppress the immunogenicity of a prototype rAd5-Env vaccine. Hexon-specific NAbs were remarkably efficient at ...
The mature HIV-1 conical core formation proceeds through highly regulated protease cleavage of the Gag precursor, which ultimately leads to substantial rearrangements of the capsid (CAp24) molecule involving both inter- and intra-molecular contacts of the CAp24 molecules. In this aspect, Asp51 which is located in the N-terminal domain of HIV-1 CAp24 plays an important role by forming a salt-bridge with the free imino terminus Pro1 following proteolytic cleavage and liberation of the CAp24 protein from the Pr55Gag precursor. Thus, previous substitution mutation of Asp51 to alanine (D51A) has shown to be lethal and that this invariable residue was found essential for tube formation in vitro, virus replication and virus capsid formation. We extended the above investigation by introducing three different D51 substitution mutations (D51N, D51E, and D51Q) into both prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems and studied their effects on in vitro capsid assembly and virus infectivity. Two substitution
One monoclonal antibody (mAb; 8E4), against the capsid protein of PCV2, was generated and characterised in this study. 8E4 reacted with the genotype PCV2a (CL, LG and JF2) strains but not PCV2b (YJ, SH and JF) strains by an immunoperoxidase mono-layer assay (IPMA) and a capture ELISA. Furthermore, the mAb had the capacity to neutralise PCV2a (CL, LG and JF2) strains but not PCV2b (YJ, SH and JF) strains. One critical amino acid that determined a conformational neutralising epitope was identified using mAb 8E4 and PCV2 infectious clone technique. Amino acid residues 47-72 in the capsid protein of PCV2a/CL were replaced with the corresponding region of PCV2b/YJ, and the reactivity of mAb 8E4 was lost. Further experiments demonstrated that one amino acid substitution, the alanine for arginine at position 59 (A59R) in the capsid protein of PCV2a (CL, LG and JF2) strains, inhibited completely the immunoreactivity of three PCV2a strains with mAb 8E4 ...
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-45 genotype circulates in high percentage in Bandung area - Indonesia, after HPV-16 and HPV-18. The aim of this study was to analyse variations of major capsid (L1) HPV-45 and its phylogeny. Furthermore in silico protein structure and epitope prediction was explored. Methods: L1 gene of HPV-45 was amplified, sequenced and aligned. Phylogenetic tree had been built and compared with a complete L1 HPV-45 sequence. Structure and epitope prediction of L1 protein were then developed in silico. Results: Of 5 L1 HPV-45 sequences collected, we have detected one variant of sub lineage A2 which was considered as a new variant, and two variants of B2. Superimposition of structure of these two variants with reference showed very similar structure. Furthermore, seven amino acid substitutions were found within these L1 variants of which two substitutions might change the polarity of corresponding amino acid I329T and S383G. The S383G occurred in surface loop (HI-Loop) of new L1
Nevertheless, up to now, this passive immune technique has not been carried out as a therapy for RVA-linked diarrhea. Although Ab muscles can have higher
We have presented several lines of evidence that the papillomavirus minor capsid protein mediates the endosomal escape of the viral genome. A C-terminal 23-amino-acid peptide from the L2 protein was identified that is essential for transit of the viral DNA across the endosomal membrane during papillomavirus infection. This peptide is also highly cytotoxic to bacteria, fungi, and mammalian cells after exogenous application due to membrane depolarization and permeabilization and induces the integration of GFP fusion proteins and full-length L2 protein into cellular membranes when expressed in mammalian cells, eventually resulting in cell death. Since the full-length L2 protein but not C-terminally mutated L2 nor L1 protein integrated into cellular membranes, an artificial effect of the observations with peptides and fusion proteins can be excluded. These critical functions render this peptide sequence indispensable for PV infection. The activity of this peptide is highest at modestly acidic pH, ...
Singararn SW, Garmann RF, Knobler CM, Gelbart WM, Ben-Shaul A. Role of RNA Branchedness in the Competition for Viral Capsid Proteins. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B. 2015;119 :13991-14002.
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The individual papillomavirus type 11 (HPV-11) L1 main capsid protein could be trypsinized to create recombinant capsomeres that retain HPV genotype-restricted capsid antigenicity (M. immunogenic highly, genotype-restricted HPV capsid-neutralizing antigenic domains are included within capsomeres entirely. Thus, capsomeres may be viable vaccine applicants for preventing HPV disease. Papillomaviruses trigger hyperproliferative cutaneous and/or mucosal epithelial lesions in higher vertebrates, including human beings (31). A lot more than 70 genotypically specific human being papillomaviruses (HPVs) have already been identified (12) and may be categorized based on observed variations in disease phenotype (i.e., desired cells tropisms and/or disease organizations). For instance, most HPVs preferentially infect cutaneous pores and skin and usually trigger only harmless disease (e.g., plantar or common warts), while other styles even more infect PF 477736 oral or anogenital mucosal epithelium often. ...
It is becoming increasingly clear that mammalian cells can express a variety of factors that limit retroviral replication. One class of these factors blocks replication at a stage post-entry but prior to nuclear import and integration of the viral genome. Members of this family arc known as restriction factors. The best characterised member is the mouse gene hvl which determines susceptibility to infection by MLV. I-vl has two alleles known as Fvl and Fv/ whose restriction characteristics determine the host range of different MLV strains. It has become apparent that the phenomenon of restriction is not limited to MLV and murine cells. HIV-1, as well as MLV is restricted at a post-entry step in a number of primate species including rhesus macaques. African green monkeys and owl monkeys. The Thm5 gene in these species is the main determinant of both HIV-1 and MLV restriction. Viral determinants of this restriction map to the virus capsid protein, however despite strong genetic ev idence, no ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Recognition of the HIV capsid by the TRIM5α restriction factor is mediated by a subset of pre-existing conformations of the TRIM5α SPRY domain. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
This section of the Laboratory of Cellular Oncologys website gives detailed technical information about the production and manipulation of human papillomavirus (HPV) and polyomavirus (PyV) based gene delivery vectors. Such vectors are also known as pseudoviruses. They are generated by co-expressing the two viral capsid proteins (L1 and L2 (HPVs) or VP1 and VP2/3 (PyVs)) using codon-modified expression constructs. The two capsid proteins are necessary and sufficient for intracellular packaging of reporter plasmids within mammalian 293TT cells. The resulting high-titer pseudovirus stocks can deliver packaged reporter plasmids to a wide variety of cell types in vitro and in vivo ...
Beginning in 2012, our understanding of human papillomavirus (HPV) subcellular trafficking has undergone a drastic paradigm shift. Work from multiple laboratories has revealed that HPV has evolved a unique means to deliver its viral genome (vDNA) to the cell nucleus, relying on a myriad of host cell proteins and processes. The major breakthrough finding from these recent endeavors was the realization of L2-dependent utilization of cellular sorting factors for the retrograde transport of vDNA away from degradative endo/lysosomal compartments to the Golgi, prior to mitosis-dependent nuclear accumulation of L2/vDNA. An overview of current models of HPV entry, subcellular trafficking, and the role of L2 during initial infection is provided below, highlighting unresolved questions and gaps in knowledge.
We have professional and advanced research and production capacity for WNV Capsid protein reagents production, including cDNA Clones,etc. All WNV-C products are produced in house and quality controlled.
1E6O: Mutual Conformational Adaptations in Antigen and Antibody Upon Complex Formation between an Fab and HIV-1 Capsid Protein P24
1E6J: Mutual Conformational Adaptations in Antigen and Antibody Upon Complex Formation between an Fab and HIV-1 Capsid Protein P24
TY - JOUR. T1 - A model of protein association based on their hydrophobic and electric interactions. AU - Mozo-Villarías, Angel. AU - Cedano, Juan. AU - Querol, Enrique. PY - 2014/10/17. Y1 - 2014/10/17. N2 - © 2014 Mozo-Villarías et al. The propensity of many proteins to oligomerize and associate to form complex structures from their constituent monomers, is analyzed in terms of their hydrophobic (H), and electric pseudo-dipole (D) moment vectors. In both cases these vectors are defined as the product of the distance between their positive and negative centroids, times the total hydrophobicity or total positive charge of the protein. Changes in the magnitudes and directions of H and D are studied as monomers associate to form larger complexes. We use these descriptors to study similarities and differences in two groups of associations: a) open associations such as polymers with an undefined number of monomers (i.e. actin polymerization, amyloid and HIV capsid assemblies); b) closed ...
Side-chain details from regions in subunit B shown with map and model.Comparable regions from the other two capsid subunits are shown in Supplementary Fig. 5.
The Effect of Limited Proteolysis on the Amino Acid Composition of Five Potyviruses and on the Serological Reaction and Peptide Map of the Tobacco Etch Virus Capsid Protein. Ernest Hiebert, J. H. Tremaine, and W. P. Ronald. Pages 411-416. VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. ...
applicable for standard unlabeled Pentamers and ProVE® Pentamers). Biotin-labeled Pentamer staining protocol. Pentamer staining for whole blood. Staining a single cell sample with multiple labeled Pentamers. Staining a single cell sample with multiple unlabeled Pentamers. Pentamer immunohistochemistry protocol. ...
The presence of HPV capsid protein 14 positive cases was associated with local recurrence in nine cases The genital transmission of HPV[5,7,11] Virusul HPV, de obicei, intr n corpul uman happens during sexual intercourse vaginal, anal prin soluii de continuitate la nivelul epidermului and oral.
Summary Direct evidence linking the capsid protein to specific dsRNA segments from the three killer strains of Ustilago maydis virus (P1, P4, P6) is presented. The capsid proteins of the three strains cross-react immunologically, have similar mol. wt. and similar peptide maps after limited proteolysis. The capsid proteins from P1 and P4 were translated from their respective H2 dsRNA segments, whereas the capsid protein for P6 was translated from H1 dsRNA. These in vitro translation products were each precipitated by the antiserum to capsid proteins of all three strains, had similar mol. wt. and similar peptide maps. All in vitro translation products competed effectively with native capsid proteins of all of the three strains in immunocompetition assays. These results suggest that the three strains code for a similar capsid protein, and that the information for capsid protein resides in the H2 segment of strain P1 and P4, and in the H1 segment of strain P6.
Control of capsid disassembly is crucial for efficient HIV-1 cDNA activity after access, yet sponsor elements involved in this procedure remain mainly mystery. MELK dictates ideal capsid disassembly through phosphorylation of Ser-149 in the multimerized HIV-1 primary, which prospects to effective virus-like Clonidine hydrochloride supplier cDNA activity in focus on cells. The phosphorylation-mimetic capsid mutation of Ser-149 triggered extravagant capsid disassembly and too-early finalization of invert transcription, and impeded nuclear admittance of HIV-1 cDNA, recommending the importance of well-ordered capsid disassembly in the early levels of virus-like duplication. This breakthrough discovery shall facilitate understanding of the useful hyperlink among pathogen uncoating, invert transcription and nuclear admittance, and is certainly anticipated to lead to developing a story technique for Helps therapy. Launch During the training course of individual immunodeficiency pathogen type 1 (HIV-1) ...
Spike-forming protein that mediates virion attachment to the host epithelial cell receptors and plays a major role in cell penetration, determination of host range restriction and virulence. Rotavirus entry into the host cell probably involves multiple sequential contacts between the outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7, and the cell receptors. According to the considered strain, VP4 seems to essentially target sialic acid and/or the integrin heterodimer ITGA2/ITGB1 (By similarity).
Recently, recombinant baculoviruses have been used to show that expression of six herpes simplex virus type 1 genes results in the formation of capsid-like particles. We have applied cryoelectron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction to establish their structural authenticity to a resolution of approximately 2.7 nm. By comparing capsids assembled with and without the expression of gene UL35, we have confirmed the presence of six copies of its product, VP26 (12 kDa), around each hexon tip. However, VP26 is not present on pentons, indicating that the conformational differences between the hexon and penton states of the major capsid protein, VP5, extend to the VP26 binding site. ...
The outer shell of the adenovirus capsid comprises three major types of protein (hexon, penton base and fiber) that perform the majority of functions facilitating the early stages of adenovirus infection. respect to the delivery of foreign molecules. Adenovirus capsid tasks in early illness The adenovirus (Ad) is definitely a non-enveloped, dsDNA disease whose outer shell of the icosahedral-shaped capsid is definitely comprises three major types of proteins: hexon, penton foundation and dietary fiber (Number 1). The hexon comprises the majority of the outer shell of the Ad capsid, forming 240 homotrimers that encapsidate the majority of the disease, including the viral genome and connected proteins [1]. The dietary fiber protrudes from each of the 12 vertices of the icosahedron, while the penton foundation lies at the base of each dietary fiber. These three capsid proteins contribute to the majority of activities required for the early phases of Ad infection. Number 1 Representation of ...
Herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV-1) and bacteriophage λ capsids undergo considerable structural changes during self-assembly and DNA packaging. The initial steps of viral capsid self-assembly require weak, non-covalent interactions between the capsid subunits to ensure free energy minimization and error-free assembly. In the final stages of DNA packaging, however, the internal genome pressure dramatically increases, requiring significant capsid strength to withstand high internal genome pressures of tens of atmospheres. Our data reveal that the loosely formed capsid structure is reinforced post-assembly by the minor capsid protein UL25 in HSV-1 and gpD in bacteriophage λ. Using atomic force microscopy nano-indentation analysis, we show that the capsid becomes stiffer upon binding of UL25 and gpD due to increased structural stability. At the same time the force required to break the capsid increases by ∼70% for both herpes and phage. This demonstrates a universal and evolutionarily conserved function
We modified the capsid protein of a human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) belonging to subgenogroup C4 (HEV71-C4) to generate a mouse virulent strain, based on the genetic information derived from our previous subgenogroup B3 mouse-adapted virus. Infectious clone-derived mutant virus populations containing the capsid protein mutations VP1-Q145E and VP1-Q145G were generated by site-directed mutagenesis of an infectious clone of a subgenogroup C4 strain. Viruses expressing the VP1-Q145E were virulent in 5-day-old BALB/c mice with 100 % mortality rate observed. Skeletal muscle appears to be the primary site of replication of this virus with limb muscle showing severe myositis. Virus was also isolated from spleen, liver, heart and brain of infected mice. This study demonstrates that introducing a key mutation into the HEV71 VP1 capsid protein is able to generate a mouse virulent HEV71 strain from a different genogroup as well as providing an alternative strategy for the generation of mouse virulent HEV71.
Author Summary Viruses are obligate intracellular pathogens, and all of them share one crucial step in their life cycle-the attachment to their host cell via cellular receptors, which are usually proteins or carbohydrates. This step is decisive for the selection of target cells and virus entry. In this study, we investigated murine polyomavirus (MuPyV), which attaches to host gangliosides with its major capsid protein, VP1. We have solved the crystal structures of VP1 in complex with previously known interaction partners as well as with the ganglioside GT1a, which we have identified as a novel functional receptor for MuPyV. Earlier studies have shown that different strains with singular amino acid exchanges in the receptor binding pocket of VP1 display altered pathogenicity and viral spread. Our investigations show that, while these exchanges do not abolish binding or significantly alter interaction modes to our investigated carbohydrates, they have subtle effects on glycan affinity. The combination of
Viral capsids are composed of multiple copies of one or a few gene products that self-assemble on their own or in the presence of the viral genome and/or auxiliary proteins into closed shells (capsids). We have analyzed 75 high-resolution virus capsid structures by calculating the average fraction of the solvent-accessible surface area of the coat protein subunits buried in the viral capsids. This fraction ranges from 0 to 1 and represents a normalized protein-protein interaction (PPI) index and is a measure of the extent of protein-protein interactions. The PPI indices were used to compare the extent of association of subunits among different capsids. We further examined the variation of the PPI indices as a function of the molecular weight of the coat protein subunit and the capsid diameter. Our results suggest that the PPI indices in T=1 and pseudo-T=3 capsids vary linearly with the molecular weight of the subunit and capsid size. This is in contrast to quasi-equivalent capsids with T>or=3, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Systemic delivery of siRNA by chimeric capsid protein. T2 - Tumor targeting and RNAi activity in vivo. AU - Choi, Kyung Mi. AU - Kim, Kwang Meyung. AU - Kwon, Ick Chan. AU - Kim, In-San. AU - Ahn, Hyung Jun. PY - 2013/1/7. Y1 - 2013/1/7. N2 - Recently, we reported that a chimeric capsid protein assembled into a macromolecular container-like structure with capsid shell and the resulting siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes efficiently suppressed RFP gene expression in the cell culture system. To extend RNAi to the in vivo applications, we here demonstrated that the siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes could have tumor-specific targeting ability in vivo as well as the increased stability of siRNA during body circulation. When systemically administered, our siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes delivered siRNA to tumor tissues and efficiently suppressed RFP gene expression in tumor-bearing mice. The enhanced longevity of siRNA in vivo could be explained by shielding effect derived from the ...
The assembly and regulation of viral capsid proteins into highly ordered macromolecular complexes is essential for viral replication. Here, we utilize crystal structures of the capsid protein from the smallest and simplest known viruses capable of autonomously replicating in animal cells, circoviruses, to establish structural and mechanistic insights into capsid morphogenesis and regulation. The beak and feather disease virus, like many circoviruses, encode only two genes: a capsid protein and a replication initiation protein. The capsid protein forms distinct macromolecular assemblies during replication and here we elucidate these structures at high resolution, showing that these complexes reverse the exposure of the N-terminal arginine rich domain responsible for DNA binding and nuclear localization. We show that assembly of these complexes is regulated by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), and provide a structural basis of capsid assembly around single-stranded DNA, highlighting novel binding ...
Phages HK97 and λ are model systems that have aided in the understanding of capsid and tail assembly. HK97 capsid assembly involves the formation of a T=7 icosahedral lattice from 415 monomers of the major capsid protein (mcp), 12 monomers of portal protein, and ~120 copies of the protease. Salt bridges have been found to play a critical role in the assembly pathway, but it is not clear how capsid size is determined. Phage phi1026b is larger than HK97 but the mcp shares 50% sequence similarity with HK97. We hypothesize that comparing the atomic models of phi1026b and HK97 will help illuminate conserved and unique interactions that may play a role in assembly and potentially size determination. By utilizing the FEI Krios microscope, Falcon II camera, and EPU data acquisition software, high-resolution structures were generated which allowed for the generation of atomic models of the phi1026b Prohead I and Head capsids. Differences were observed in the organization of the delta domain, capsomers, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - NONO Detects the Nuclear HIV Capsid to Promote cGAS-Mediated Innate Immune Activation. AU - Lahaye, Xavier. AU - Gentili, Matteo. AU - Silvin, Aymeric. AU - Conrad, Cécile. AU - Picard, Léa. AU - Jouve, Mabel. AU - Zueva, Elina. AU - Maurin, Mathieu. AU - Nadalin, Francesca. AU - Knott, Gavin J.. AU - Zhao, Baoyu. AU - Du, Fenglei. AU - Rio, Marlène. AU - Amiel, Jeanne. AU - Fox, Archa H.. AU - Li, Pingwei. AU - Etienne, Lucie. AU - Bond, Charles S.. AU - Colleaux, Laurence. AU - Manel, Nicolas. PY - 2018/10/4. Y1 - 2018/10/4. N2 - Detection of viruses by innate immune sensors induces protective antiviral immunity. The viral DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is necessary for detection of HIV by human dendritic cells and macrophages. However, synthesis of HIV DNA during infection is not sufficient for immune activation. The capsid protein, which associates with viral DNA, has a pivotal role in enabling cGAS-mediated immune activation. We now find that NONO is an ...
Peptides from different regions of the poliovirus type 1 capsid protein VP1 were synthesized. Antibodies raised against these peptides in rabbits and rats recognized the cognate peptides and denatured VP1. Peptides from four regions of VP1 generated antisera with neutralizing titers specifically against poliovirus type 1. Antisera against all other regions of VP1 failed to neutralize virus infectivity, although some of the antisera clearly bound to native virions. Thus, the neutralizing determinants on VP1 reside in specific noncontiguous regions of the protein and can be defined by specific peptides from these regions. ...
Cloning and expression of the gene encoding for the major capsid protein, VP-1, of the D-variant of encephalomyocarditis virus in Escherichia ...
PepTivator® Zika Capsid Protein C is a pool of lyophilized peptides, consisting mainly of 15-mer sequences with 11 amino acids overlap, covering the sequence of the Zika capsid protein C domain from virus isolate Z1106033 polyprotein gene (GenBank Acc. no. KU312312.1).In vitro stimulation of antigen-specific T cells with PepTivator Peptide Pools causes the secretion of effector cytokines and the up-regulation of activation markers, which then allow the detection and isolation of antigen-specific T cells. | Singapore
The HIV-1 capsid protein performs multiple roles in virus replication both during assembly and particle release and during virus trafficking into the nucleus. In order to decipher the roles of capsid protein during early replication, a reliable method to follow its intracellular distribution is required. To complement existing approaches to track HIV-1 capsid during early infection, we developed an HIV-1 imaging strategy, relying on viruses incorporating eGFP-tagged capsid (CA-eGFP) protein and mCherry-tagged integrase (IN-mCherry). Wild type infectivity and sensitivity to inhibition by PF74 point to the functionality of CA-eGFP containing complexes. Low numbers of CA-eGFP molecules are located inside the viral core and imported in the nucleus without significant loss in intensity. Less than 5% of particles carrying both CA-eGFP and IN-mCherry retain both labelled proteins after nuclear entry implying a major uncoating event at the nuclear envelope dissociating IN and CA. Still, 20% of all ...
The outer shell of the adenovirus capsid comprises three major types of protein (hexon, penton base and fiber) that perform the majority of functions facilitating the early stages of adenovirus infection. respect to the delivery of foreign molecules. Adenovirus capsid tasks in early illness The adenovirus (Ad) is definitely a non-enveloped, dsDNA disease whose outer shell of the icosahedral-shaped capsid is definitely comprises three major types of proteins: hexon, penton foundation and dietary fiber (Number 1). The hexon comprises the majority of the outer shell of the Ad capsid, forming 240 homotrimers that encapsidate the majority of the disease, including the viral genome and connected proteins [1]. The dietary fiber protrudes from each of the 12 vertices of the icosahedron, while the penton foundation lies at the base of each dietary fiber. These three capsid proteins contribute to the majority of activities required for the early phases of Ad infection. Number 1 Representation of ...
We provide evidence that F-actin is not involved in intranuclear capsid motility of herpesvirus capsids in primary fibroblasts. We found no indication of nuclear F-actin in cells infected with representative members of all three subfamilies of the Herpesviridae. This finding is consistent with reports showing that steady-state somatic cells do not exhibit phalloidin-stainable nuclear F-actin but that most nuclear actin is in a monomeric, G-actin form. This idea was underlined by a recent report that Lifeact- and phalloidin-stainable nuclear F-actin could be found in somatic cells only as a transient effect of serum stimulation (24). Another recent report describes submicron-length actin polymers using a truncated form of utrophin as a novel nuclear F-actin probe (25). But as the described polymers were extremely short, the authors suggested that it is unlikely they are involved in transport processes. Moreover, they also ruled out directed propulsive force generation by these novel actin ...
Title: HIV Capsid Pattern Sensing by the Host Cell. Abstract. The mature HIV capsid provides a range of interfaces recognizable by host factors and, during its post-entry journey from the cell periphery to the nucleus, the virus encounters a variety of them-some co-opted for optimal infectivity, others evolutionarily designed to prevent infection. A common feature of these interactions is the ability of capsid pattern sensing by the host. This feature allows a host factor to preferably bind intact capsid cores that contain the viral genome, and to avoid the numerous unassembled CA molecules present in the cell. However, high-order capsid recognition is challenging to study in vitro. Here I present various protein-engineering strategies for the production of a repertoire of soluble capsid assemblies and the use of these assemblies in the study of native capsid structure and capsid-host factor interactions. Our studies contribute to a better understanding of the diverse molecular mechanisms by ...
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An interaction between the HSV-1 UL25 capsid protein and cellular microtubule-associated protein was found using a yeast two-hybrid screen and β-D-galactosidase activity assays. Immunofluorescence microscopy of the UL25 protein demonstrated its co-localization with cellular microtubule-associated protein in the plasma membrane. Further investigations with deletion mutants suggest that UL25 is likely to have a function in the nucleus.
Little is known about capsid formation, that is the process in which the capsid proteins self-assemble into an icosahedral shape, nor about the precise interplay between the genome and the capsid proteins. If we would understand these two things better it might open new possibilities for anti-viral drugs, by either blocking the self-assembly process or by breaking the genome-capsid interaction.. A first proposal for the capsid structure was put forward by Caspar and Klug. Their quasi-equivalence principle asserts that each of the 20 triangular faces of the icosahedron is subdivided in 3 subunits, each consisting of at least one protein.. Most viruses have much more than 60 proteins in their capsid, so Caspar and Klug introduced their $T$-number giving the number of proteins per subunit. One superimposes the triangulation of the icosahedron with the hexagonal plane lattice, then $T$ is the number of sub-triangles of these hexagons contained in each subunit. For $T = 7$ we have the following ...
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) capsids are initially assembled with an interior proteins scaffold. capsids upon DNA product packaging we show that VP24 (formulated with the protease area) is certainly quantitatively retained. To research elements managing UL26 capsid incorporation and retention we used a mutant computer virus that fails to express UL26.5 (?virus). Purified ?B capsids showed altered sucrose gradient sedimentation and lacked the dense scaffold core seen in micrographs of wild-type B capsids but contained capsid shell proteins in wild-type amounts. Despite C-terminal sequence identity between UL26 and UL26.5 ?capsids lacking UL26.5 products did not contain compensatory high levels of UL26 proteins. Therefore HSV capsids can be maintained and/or assembled on a minimal scaffold made up of only wild-type levels of UL26 proteins. In contrast to UL26.5 increased expression of UL26 did not compensate for the ?growth defect. While indirect these findings are consistent with the view ...
Enlarge Adult common green capsid Enlarge Capsid damage Enlarge Capsid damage to red Charles Ross fruit Common green capsid is a widespread and abundant
Abstract: Viruses self-assemble from identical capsid proteins and their genome consisting, for example, of a long single stranded (ss) RNA. For a big class of T = 3 viruses capsid proteins have long positive N-terminal tails. We explore the role played by the Coulomb interaction between the brush of positive N-terminal tails rooted at the inner surface of the capsid and the negative ss RNA molecule. We show that viruses are most stable when the total contour length of ss RNA is close to the total length of the tails. For such a structure the absolute value of the total RNA charge is approximately twice larger than the charge of the capsid. This conclusion agrees with structural data. ...
It is relatively easy to determine that the poliovirus capsid is made up of just four proteins, and that the four capsid proteins VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4 are present in equimolar amounts in the capsid. Groups of five copies of each protein are arranged at each of the 12 vertices of the icosahedral capsid see Chapters 5 and 15 . If the proteins are uniformly labeled with radioactive amino acids, more radioactivity will be in each large polypeptide chain than in each small one. A gel fractionation.... ...
Viruses are nanosized, genome-filled protein containers with remarkable thermodynamic and mechanical properties. They form by spontaneous self-assembly inside the crowded, heterogeneous cytoplasm of infected cells. Self-assembly of viruses seems to obey the principles of thermodynamically reversible self-assembly but assembled shells (capsids) strongly resist disassembly. Following assembly, some viral shells pass through a sequence of coordinated maturation steps that progressively strengthen the capsid. Viral shells have effective Youngs moduli ranging from that of polyethylene to that of plexiglas. Some of them can withstand internal osmotic pressures that are tens of atmospheres. (Roos et al. 2010:733). Viruses do not carry out metabolic activity and rely entirely on host-cell molecular machinery for reproduction. This absence of metabolic and reproductive activity suggests that, unlike cells, the assembly of viruses could perhaps be understood on the basis of equilibrium ...
Mouse anti Adenovirus Hexon antibody, clone 7C11 reacts with human, canine, bovine, monkey and rat adenoviruses. It is very likely that it
Bücher, K. S.; Yan, H.; Creutznacher, R.; Ruoff, K.; Mallagaray, A.; Grafmüller, A.; Dirks, J. S.; Kilic, T.; Weickert, S.; Rubailo, A. et al.; Drescher, M.; Schmidt, S.; Hansman, G.; Peters, T.; Uetrecht, C.; Hartmann, L.: Fucose-functionalized precision glycomacromolecules targeting human norovirus capsid protein. Macromolecules 19 (9), S. 3714 - 3724 (2018 ...
In the infected cell, newly synthesized genomic RNA is packaged together with the viral Pol-protein and a cellular chaperone complex into capsids. The RNA is then reverse transcribed into a partially double-stranded DNA within the capsid. Under natural conditions, almost exclusively mature capsids containing DNA are enveloped to be secreted as virions. The selectivity of this process depends on a still undefined maturation signal that communicates the RNA-DNA-transition from the interior to the capsid exterior.. The large envelope protein of HBV (L-protein) adopts two transmembrane topologies: At first, its preS-region is located on the cytosolic side of the ER-membrane and acts as a matrix-domain that binds the mature capsid to enable its envelopment. The same region is thereafter required on the viron surface as a receptor binding domain to initiate the next round of infection. So far, it is unknown if the dual topology is already pre-formed prior to viral budding and therefore stably present ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Replication deficient adenoviruses type 5 (Ad5) are widely used vectors for cancer gene therapy. The retargeting of Ad5 is achieved by incorporation of a targeting motifs into the adenovirus capsid proteins, mostly in the HI-loop of fiber or hexon hypervariable region 5 (HVR5). Increased expression of αv integrins has been frequently shown in tumor cells as compared to normal cells. The targeting motif within Ad5 that retargets its transduction to cells expressing αv integrins is RGD. One of the strategies of tumor gene therapy is inhibition of angiogenesis. Endothelial cells in angiogenesis express aminopeptidase N (APN) which binds targeting motifs containing NGR. It is known that different amino acid environment and/or cysteine residues flanking targeting peptides RGD and NGR influence the affinity and specificy of binding to corresponding receptors. The aim of this work was to investigate the existance of disulfide bond/s in two replication deficient Ad5 vectors: (i) Ad5HCRGDC containing ...
AAV capsid titer quantification for full/empty capsid ratio calculations with Gyrolab immunoassay: low sample volume, serotype specific, wide dynamic range
Using GPU-based simulations researchers at the Beckman Institute, University of Illinois have solved the entire molecular structure of the HIV capsid (protein shell). X-ray crystallography is used to probe the structure of the proteins that make up a virus. This is however inadequate when trying to determine how those proteins are assembled to build the virus. The solution: simulate the process with data from both ends of the process using high powered computers. This is exactly what the researchers did using the Blue Waters supercomputer at the University of Illinois. The machine has 237 Cray XE6 cabinets and 32 Cray XK7 cabinets with Nvidia Tesla Kepler GPU cluster. This provided simulations for detailed molecular motion on the 1300 identical proteins contained in the capsid. ...
DCV capsid polyprotein兔多克隆抗体(ab92954)可与重组片段样本反应并经WB, ELISA实验严格验证并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
This give the virus specificity, meaning that it will only be able to infect a certain host range. Once the viral genome is injected into the cell, then for a DNA phage, bacterial cells RNAP begins transcribing RNAs from certain promoters. The first class of viral genes is intermediate-early genes. Following translation of these genes, the early viral genes are transcribed. These genes encode proteins which get virus ready for DNA replication.. After DNA replication, usually into hundreds of copies, the late viral RNAs are made and translated into proteins. These act as structural components, either for capsid formation or cleaving and packaging of DNA into capsid, or to form the receptor on the capsid surface.. Nucleocapsid:. ...
When it comes to viral vector based gene therapies, it is necessary to evaluate the stability and integrity of viral vector capsids. Having the right analytics for your gene therapy helps you bring a safe and effective drug to market. Time is also critical when getting a drug to market. That is why finding a robust technique that produces fast, reliable results is key.. However, current methods can be very time consuming and may not provide the sensitivity required to efficiently determine the quality of the capsids. There is also a lack of reliable and reproducible methods to cost-effectively manufacture these gene therapies.. This is where SCIEX comes in. SCIEX CE and LC-MS solutions provide you with precision analytics that give you the answers you need the first time around, while using small sample amounts, so you can bring a safe, effective drug to market faster.. ...
ID R4K521_CLOPA Unreviewed; 191 AA. AC R4K521; DT 24-JUL-2013, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 24-JUL-2013, sequence version 1. DT 20-DEC-2017, entry version 19. DE SubName: Full=Phage minor structural protein GP20 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1}; GN ORFNames=Clopa_0576 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1}; OS Clostridium pasteurianum BC1. OC Bacteria; Firmicutes; Clostridia; Clostridiales; Clostridiaceae; OC Clostridium. OX NCBI_TaxID=86416 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=BC1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523}; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute; RA Lucas S., Han J., Lapidus A., Cheng J.-F., Goodwin L., Pitluck S., RA Peters L., Mikhailova N., Teshima H., Detter J.C., Han C., Tapia R., RA Land M., Hauser L., Kyrpides N., Ivanova N., Pagani I., Dunn J., RA Taghavi S., Francis A., van der Lelie D., Woyke ...
Now that my lab is fully equipped, Im taking on rotation students. Unfortunately, with the pandemic, its harder to have one-on-one meetings where I can sit down and walk the new students through every method. Furthermore, why repeat teaching the same thing to multiple students when I can just make an initial written record that everyone can reference and just ask me questions about? Thus, heres my instructional tutorial on how I design primers in the lab.. First, its good to start out by making a new benchling file for whatever youre trying to engineer. If youre just making a missense mutation, then you can start out by copying the map for the plasmid youre going to use as a template. Today, well be mutating a plasmid called G619C_AttB_hTrim-hCPSF6(301-358)-IRES-mCherry-P2A-PuroR to encode the F321N mutation the CPSF6 region. This should abrogate the binding of this peptide to the HIV capsid protein. Eventually every plasmid in the lab gets a unique identifier based on the order it ...
The genome encodes 3 structural proteins (Capsid, prM, and Envelope) and 8 non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A ... the genome encodes 3 structural proteins (Capsid, prM, and Envelope) and 8 non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A ... The capsid protein is enveloped. The genomic arrangement is a linear (+)ssRNA. Its genomic segmentation is Monopartite (Flint ... Entebbe Bat Virus is an enveloped virus, which means that it has to bind its envelope proteins to a cell surface protein on the ...
The capsid contains three proteins; capsid protein VP1 is the primary component and self-assembles into a 360-unit outer capsid ... MPyV capsid protein VP1 binds to sialic acids of gangliosides GD1a and GT1b on the cell surface. The functions of VP2 and VP3 ... Capsid proteins, produced in the cytoplasm of the host cell, enter the nucleus as assembled capsomers consisting of pentameric ... The three genes in the late region express the three capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3. Between the early and late regions is a ...
Both proteins are associated with cell membranes.[4] p41 (capsid protein)[edit]. The viral capsid protein CP, or p41, is a ... a capsid protein (called CP or p41), and two additional proteins, the RNA silencing suppressor p19 and movement protein p22.[4] ... TBSV is an unenveloped icosahedral virus with a T=3 viral capsid composed of 180 subunits of a single capsid protein. Its ... The p22 protein is a movement protein that is required for the virus to spread from cell to cell. P22 is an RNA-binding protein ...
The unique, single protein, trumpet-shaped capsomeres of Gyrovirus are arranged into 12 pentomers yielding a capsid 60 units in ... VP1 is the 51kd capsid protein; in addition to its structural function, it also contains motifs for rolling circle replication ... These proteins share 38.8%, 40.3%, and 32.2% amino acid identities between their homologs in the CAV. Two species have been ... VP3, also called apoptin, is a 13kd protein that has been shown to independently induce apoptosis in chicken cells. Apoptin is ...
Assembled capsid protein alpha is cleaved into capsid protein beta and gamma. Release of infectious particles. The nodamura ... RNA2 encodes the viral capsid protein, alpha. RNA2 is approximately 1.3 kb in length. RNA1's Protein A is also responsible for ... Nodamura virus capsid contains a segmented RNA genome made up of RNA1 and RNA2. RNA1 is responsible for encoding protein A, ... The virion is made up of 180 copies of a single viral capsid protein. The virion is organized in T=3 icosahedral symmetry, ...
There are five or more proteins in the capid: gp8 (the major capsid protein); gp6, gp7 and gp8 (minor capsid proteins); and gp3 ... The activity of gp2 is regulated by two other viral proteins: gp5 (single strand binding protein) and gp1# New viral genomes ... The capsid has a helical symmetry and is generally has a length of 85-280 nm or 760-1950 nm and a width of 10-16 nm or 6-8 nm ... This is mediated by one of the viral proteins (gp3) binding to the host receptor. The conversion from single-stranded to double ...
... major capsid protein VP1, and one or two minor components, minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3. VP1 pentamers form the closed ... Expression of the late genes results in accumulation of the viral capsid proteins in the host cell cytoplasm. Capsid components ... Chen XS, Stehle T, Harrison SC (June 1998). "Interaction of polyomavirus internal protein VP2 with the major capsid protein VP1 ... SV40 has an additional capsid protein VP4; some examples have an additional regulatory protein called agnoprotein expressed ...
The capsid proteins on the other hand stay in the cytoplasm and interact with the genomic RNA, together forming the capsid. RuV ... The capsid protein (CP) has different functions. Its main tasks are the formation of homooligomeres to form the capsid, and the ... E2 and the capsid protein. E1 and E2 are type I transmembrane proteins which are transported into the endoplasmatic reticulum ( ... Further is it responsible for the aggregation of RNA in the capsid, it interacts with the membrane proteins E1 and E2 and binds ...
... and several minor proteins with estimated masses of 75, 25, 12.5 and 10 kDa. The major capsid protein is predominantly β- ... There are five structural proteins: a major protein of 37 kiloDaltons (kDa) ... PMID 20164227.. Rice, G. (2004). "The structure of a thermophilic archaeal virus shows a double-stranded DNA viral capsid type ... above the capsid surface. The turrets have an average diameter of 24 nm. The center of each turret contains a ~3-nm channel. ...
The large polypeptide is divided into three structural proteins (capsid, prM, and E) and a group of non-structural proteins ( ... NS2B protein, a transmembrane protein, directly interacts with NS3 which is a soluble protein anchored to the membrane. With ... Proteins N2SA, NS4A, and NS4B are membrane-integrated proteins but have no clear function. To enter the cell, MODV virus is ... "Flavivirus Capsid Is a Dimeric Alpha-Helical Protein". Journal of Virology. 77 (12): 7143-7149. doi:10.1128/JVI.77.12.7143- ...
In Polyomavirus, the early proteins are T antigens. The late proteins make up the virus capsid. In Polyomaviruses, they are ... The early proteins produced in Papillomaviruses and Polyomaviruses regulate the cell cycle and activate DNA replication. In ... The late class consists primarily of structural proteins and assembly enzymes, and is dependent in all three families on the ... They are responsible for dissolving the virion capsid, directing DNA replication (in Poxviruses), protecting the virus from the ...
The capsid is non-enveloped, and composed of 60 copies of up to six types of capsid proteins (called VP1 through to VP6) which ... ORF1 encodes a nonstructural protein (NS1) that is involved in viral genome replication. ORF2 encodes the two capsid proteins- ... also required for the read through of an internal polyadenylation site that is essential for expression of the capsid proteins ... Sukhu, L; Fasina, O; Burger, L; Rai, A; Qiu, J; Pintel, D. J (2012). "Characterization of the Nonstructural Proteins of the ...
Virions contain a core of RNA or DNA within a capsid. A capsid is the protein shell of a virus. Parapoxvirus virions are ... All structural proteins have now been completed. An immature spherical particle is assembled in cytoplasmic viral factories. It ... Viral proteins attach to the host glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This brings about endocytosis which allows the virus penetration ... They possess an enveloped capsid and a distinguishing spiral coat, which is composed of a crossing pattern of tubes. Dissecting ...
The capsid is covered by fusion and hemagglutinin proteins. Inside the capsid exists the negative-sense RNA genome, which is ... The genome encodes for eight different proteins: N, C, P, V, M, F, H, and L. The L protein, also called large protein, is ... Additionally, the Feline morbillivirus F protein is known to have a single cleavage site that splits the protein into separate ... While the virus uses its own enzyme to make a copy of its genome, it hijacks host ribosomes to translate its RNA into protein. ...
They do not have structural proteins or a capsid. Mitoviruses have nonsegmented, linear, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA ...
The three serotypes of poliovirus, PV-1, PV-2, and PV-3, each have a slightly different capsid protein. Capsid proteins define ... smaller amounts of 3Dpol are produced than those of capsid proteins, VP1-4. These individual viral proteins are: 3Dpol, an RNA ... Poliovirus is composed of an RNA genome and a protein capsid. The genome is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA (+ssRNA) ... VP0, which is further cleaved into VP2 and VP4, VP1 and VP3, proteins of the viral capsid After translation, transcription and ...
The capsid itself is elongated and exhibits helical symmetry. The core itself is helical. There are two major capsid proteins ( ... homologous major capsid proteins. Due to these shared properties viruses from the two families are classified into an order ... are enveloped and encode two paralogous major capsid proteins with the same fold as those of ligamenviruses. Due to these ... The capsid varies considerably in length - 410-1950 nanometers (nm) - and is 24-38 nm in diameter. The envelope has a monolayer ...
"Homologous Capsid Proteins Testify to the Common Ancestry of Retroviruses, Caulimoviruses, Pseudoviruses, and Metaviruses". ... They also share similar capsid and nucleocapsid proteins/domains. Caulimoviruses also share some features with belpaoviruses, ... Their polymerase proteins are similar in structure and include aspartic protease (retroviral aspartyl protease) and an ... Their reverse transcriptase proteins share a common origin. Moreover, belpaoviruses, metaviruses, pseudoviruses, and ...
... capsid protein (CP) and two small putative proteins known as 6K1 and 6K2. The P3 cistron also encodes a second protein-P3N-PIPO ... The capsid protein ranges between 30 and 35 kDa in weight. The VPg protein interacts with eukaryotic initiation factor 4E ( ... The nucleocapsid contains ~2000 copies of the capsid protein. The symmetry of the nucleocapsid is helical with a pitch of 3.4 ... end a protein is covalently linked (the Vg protein). It encodes a single open reading frame (ORF) expressed as a 350kDa ...
... which is the precursor to the mature capsid. A scaffolding protein is not required for capsid assembly. However, studies on the ... The major capsid protein of HK97, called gp5, cross-links upon maturation to form a chain-mail like structure. While DNA is ... Oh B, Moyer CL, Hendrix RW, Duda RL (2014). "The delta domain of the HK97 major capsid protein is essential for assembly". ... "The Refined Structure of a Protein Catenane: The HK97 Bacteriophage Capsid at 3.44Å Resolution". Journal of Molecular Biology. ...
They do not have structural proteins or a capsid. Narnaviruses have nonsegmented, linear, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA ... doi:10.1038/s41396-020-0638-y.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) Dolja, V. V.; Koonin, E. V. (2012). "Capsid-Less RNA ...
... including a minor capsid protein that has a single JR fold, an ATPase that packages the genome during capsid assembly, and a ... Duplodnaviria contains dsDNA viruses that encode a major capsid protein (MCP) that has the HK97 fold. Viruses in the realm also ... Krupovic M, Koonin EV (21 March 2017). "Multiple origins of viral capsid proteins from cellular ancestors". Proc Natl Acad Sci ... share a number of other characteristics involving the capsid and capsid assembly, including an icosahedral capsid shape and a ...
The capsid is composed on the viral coat protein (VCP). The genome encodes only two proteins-a replicase and the coat protein. ... Unlike geminiviruses, this virus does not have a movement protein. It has been officially classified into the genus ...
The "late region" contains genes encoding the viral capsid proteins.) In MTag-containing polyomaviruses, the early region ... but has a number of protein-protein interaction sites that mediate interactions with proteins in the host cell. Particularly in ... The result of this genetic encoding is three proteins that share a common N-terminal sequence, forming a protein domain called ... MTag preferentially performs other protein-protein interactions that compete with the Hsc70 interaction. MTag plays a role in ...
Proteins associated with nucleic acid are known as nucleoproteins, and the association of viral capsid proteins with viral ... long molecules of DNA or RNA that encode the structure of the proteins by which the virus acts; (ii) a protein coat, the capsid ... consists of nucleic acid surrounded by a protective coat of protein called a capsid. These are formed from identical protein ... The capsid is made from proteins encoded by the viral genome and its shape serves as the basis for morphological distinction. ...
The "late region" contains genes encoding the viral capsid proteins.) The early region typically contains at least two genes ... The STag protein is expressed from a gene that overlaps the large tumor antigen (LTag) such that the two proteins share an N- ... STag is known to interact with host cell proteins, most notably protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and may activate the expression ... has homology to DnaJ proteins, and functions as a molecular chaperone. The C-terminal portion of the STag protein is distinct ...
In common with other picornaviruses, the capsid of BEV is composed of 60 copies of each of four structural proteins, VP1, VP2, ... "Conformational changes during proteolytic processing of a picornavirus capsid proteins". Arch. Virol. 145 (7): 1473-9. doi: ... The capsid is not enveloped and roughly spherical with an outer radius of 159 Ångströms and an inner radius of 107 Å. The outer ... Å in diameter which runs almost to the inner surface of the capsid. A hydrophobic pocket contained within VP1 contains a ...
The "late region" contains genes encoding the viral capsid proteins.) The early region typically contains at least two genes ... The ATPase domain also contains regions responsible for protein-protein interactions with host cell proteins, most notably ... without affecting these protein-protein interaction sites. LTag is a large protein whose domains can be detected and annotated ... Polyomavirus LTag proteins contain four well-conserved, globular protein domains: from N- to C-terminus, these are the J domain ...
The capsid protein remains attached to the coat protein binding site (CPB) at the 3'- end of the RNAs. The initiation factors ... The virion has a capsid (coat protein) but no envelope. The icosahedral symmetry of the capsid is round to elongated. The range ... RNA 4 encodes the capsid. Beside encapsidation and its role in movement the viral coat protein also plays a role in the ... "The structure of alfalfa mosaic virus capsid protein assembled as T=1 icosahedral particle at 4.0-Å resolution". Journal of ...
These efforts include protein capsids and liposomes. However, as some important, normal tissues, such as the liver and kidneys ... "In vivo encapsulation of nucleic acids using an engineered nonviral protein capsid". Journal of the American Chemical Society. ... fibroblast specific protein 1 (FSP-1) and fibroblast activation protein (FAP). None of these factors can be used to ... In addition, CAFs produce matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) that cleave the proteins within the ECM. CAFs are also able to ...
1985). "Amino terminal myristylation of the protein kinase p60src, a retroviral transforming protein". Science. 227 (4685): 427 ... Göttlinger HG, Sodroski JG, Haseltine WA (1989). "Role of capsid precursor processing and myristoylation in morphogenesis and ... 1990). "Myristoylation of gag proteins of HIV-1 plays an important role in virus assembly". AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 6 (6 ... Tashiro A, Shoji S, Kubota Y (1990). "Antimyristoylation of the gag proteins in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells ...
... and forms a complex with protein E. The immature particles are processed in the Golgi apparatus by the host protein furin, ... The capsid enters the cytosol, decays, and releases the genome. Receptor binding, as well as membrane fusion, are catalyzed by ... At first, an immature form of the virus particle is produced inside the ER, whose M-protein is not yet cleaved to its mature ... Host proteases cut this polyprotein into three structural (C, prM, E) and seven nonstructural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, ...
The 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D proteins are the capsid proteins VP4, VP2, VP3, and VP1, respectively.Virus-coded proteases perform the ... Binding causes a conformational change in the viral capsid proteins, and myristic acid are released. These acids form a pore in ... The rest of the genome encodes structural proteins at the 5' end and non-structural proteins at the 3' end in a single ... VPg may also play an important role in specific recognition of viral genome by movement protein (MP). Movement proteins are non ...
At the same time, large amounts of ribosomes, protein-synthesis components, protein folding chaperones, and mitochondria are ... the virus capsid synthesis, and assembly. Alternatively, the activation of host defense mechanisms may involve sequestration of ... The viral replication, protein synthesis and assembly require a considerable amount of energy, provided by large clusters of ... In animal cells, virus particles are gathered by the microtubule-dependent aggregation of toxic or misfolded protein near the ...
A map of the genome of JC virus, indicating the position of the tumor antigen genes (red), the three capsid protein genes ( ... virus as well as performing a transcriptional switch to allow for the formation of the various capsid and regulatory proteins ... Immunohistochemical detection of JC virus protein (stained brown) in a brain biopsy (glial cells demonstrating progressive ... The protein encoded by these early sequences, T-antigen, also plays a key role in viral proliferation,[11] directing the ...
... pol proteins, and env proteins. *Group-specific antigen (gag) proteins are major components of the viral capsid, which are ... For example, the gag gene is translated into molecules of the capsid protein, the pol gene is translated into molecules of ... This step will also make viral enzymes and capsid proteins (8). Viral RNA will be made in the nucleus. These pieces are then ... Env proteins play a role in association and entry of virions into the host cell.[5] Possessing a functional copy of an env gene ...
... but also found in viral capsid proteins. Cell signaling[edit]. TNF can bind two receptors, TNFR1 (TNF receptor type 1; CD120a; ... protein binding. • protease binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • identical protein binding ... positive regulation of protein complex assembly. • protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of cytokine production. • ... protein localization to plasma membrane. • positive regulation of protein catabolic process. • regulation of receptor activity ...
The virus consists of four nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins.[12] The structural proteins are the capsid and ... monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG), and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 ... a nonstructural protein that degrades RBP1 and turns off the host cell's ability to transcribe DNA.[51] NS2 interferes with the ... viral coat protein, a variant called E1-A226V. This mutation potentially allows the virus to multiply more easily in mosquito ...
Immature capsids are formed from coiled DNA. L genes are transcribed "after the synthesis of DNA and viral protein onset". ... DNA and proteins enter the host cell nucleus and turn-off host cell synthesis of nucleic acids, proteins, and other macro ... Similar Alphaviruses use gC protein to aid in binding the virion to the cell and gD to stabilize it, if required. gB, gD, gH, ... Entrance to host cells begins infection, and is largely controled by the US 2 viral protein. Envelope fusion with the plasma ...
In the influenza virus, the two relevant antigens are the surface proteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase.[4] The ... Mutations in the surface proteins allow the virus to elude some host immunity, and the numbers and locations of these mutations ... Sites recognized on the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins by host immune systems are under constant selective pressure. ... for evasion of these host immune systems by small mutations in the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes that make the protein ...
... the core capsid protein, the viral polymerase, surface antigens-preS1, preS2, and S, the X protein and HBeAg. The X protein is ... These envelope proteins can assemble independently of the viral capsid and genome into non-infectious virus-like particles that ... Envelope Proteins[edit]. The hepatitis envelope proteins are composed of subunits made from the viral preS1, preS2, and S genes ... The L (for "large") envelope protein contains all three subunits. The M (for "medium") protein contains only preS2 and S. The S ...
"Transferrin is an insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 binding protein". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and ... "Asymmetric binding of transferrin receptor to parvovirus capsids". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... regulation of protein stability. • transferrin transport. • iron ion homeostasis. • platelet degranulation. • ion transport. • ... The protein is composed of alpha helices and beta sheets that form two domains.[8] The N- and C- terminal sequences are ...
Four reassortant rotaviruses express one of the outer capsid, VP7, proteins (serotypes G1, G2, G3, or G4) from the human ... from the human rotavirus parent strain and the outer capsid protein VP7 (serotype G6) from the bovine rotavirus parent strain. ... The fifth reassortant virus expresses the attachment protein VP4, (type P1A), ... candidate made of the P2-VP8 fusion protein, which is currently undergoing development and trials in South Africa. Rotavirus ...
The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein 7 (NCp7) is the protein targeted by zinc ejectors. NCp7 is initially formed as part of the gag ... chaperones nucleic acids within the capsid of HIV-1, helps integrate the viral RNA into budding virions, and is intimately ... protein-protein interactions, and DNA replication. If these zinc ejectors unintentionally bind to the wrong zinc finger domains ... HIV Agents That Selectively Target Retroviral Nucleocapsid Protein Zinc Fingers without Affecting Cellular Zinc Finger Proteins ...
Viral capsid are often composed of protomers. Examples in chemistry include Tyrosine and 4-aminobenzoic acid. The former may be ... Buxbaum, E. (2007). Fundamentals of protein structure and function. New York: Springer. pp. 105-120. ISBN 978-0-387-26352-6. . ... In structural biology, a protomer is the structural unit of an oligomeric protein. It is the smallest unit composed of at least ... Chetverin, A.B. (1986). "Evidence for a diprotomeric structure of Na, K-ATPase: Accurate determination of protein concentration ...
The Megavirus particle exhibits a protein capsid diameter of 440 nanometres (as seen by electron microscopy on thin sections of ... 1023 proteins (predicted). 390 nm. 120 nm. JF801956 Mimivirus[2][9]. 1,181,549. 979 proteins (39 non-coding). 390 nm. 120 nm. ... 756 proteins (predicted). 390 nm. No. JN036606 Cafeteria roenbergensis virus[11]. 617,453 (730 kb). 544 proteins (predicted). ... At the amino-acid sequence level, the corresponding proteins share an average of 50% identical residues.[citation needed] ...
Girod A, Wobus C, Zádori Z, Ried M, Leike K, Tijssen P, Kleinschmidt J, Hallek M (2002). "The VP1 capsid protein of adeno- ... doi:10.1093/protein/11.2.135.. *↑ De Caro J, Carriere F, Barboni P, Giller T, Verger R, De Caro A (1998). "Pancreatic lipase- ... Svendsen A (2000). "Lipase protein engineering". Biochim Biophys Acta 1543 (2): 223-228. PMID 11150608. doi:10.1016/S0167-4838( ... Crenon I, Foglizzo E, Kerfelec B, Verine A, Pignol D, Hermoso J, Bonicel J, Chapus C (1998). "Pancreatic lipase-related protein ...
... an example is a virus capsid protein fragment). Antibodies contribute to immunity in three ways: They prevent pathogens from ... Stevens FJ, Solomon A, Schiffer M (1991). "Bence Jones proteins: a powerful tool for the fundamental study of protein chemistry ... and their realization that this protein is the same as the Bence-Jones protein described in 1845 by Henry Bence Jones.[101] ... An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig),[1] is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is ...
In molecular biology, Tat is a protein that is encoded for by the tat gene in HIV-1.[1][2] Tat is a regulatory protein that ... Protein transduction domain[edit]. Tat contains a protein transduction domain, which is therefore known as a cell-penetrating ... The protein is released by infected cells in culture, and is found in the blood of HIV-1 infected patients.[5] ... The basic region of HIV-Tat protein is suggested to form an alpha helix. The basic region is involved in RNA (TAR, trans- ...
When a new protein structure is solved by X-ray crystallography and deposited in the Protein Data Bank, its authors are ... such as viral capsids and molecular machines, which may be carried out with a cryo-electron microscope. Moreover, the strong ... Membrane proteins are a large component of the genome, and include many proteins of great physiological importance, such as ion ... The most popular method of incorporating anomalous scattering atoms into proteins is to express the protein in a methionine ...
The entire STMV particle consists of 60 identical copies of one protein that make up the viral capsid (coating), and a 1063 ... protein folding and protein structure prediction studies are often carried out using one, or a few, pseudo-atoms per amino acid ... AD; Brooks III, Charles L (2004). "CHARMM fluctuating charge force field for proteins: II protein/solvent properties from ... Protein Eng. Des. Sel. 24 (10): 773-775. doi:10.1093/protein/gzr032. PMID 21724649.. ...
"Rubella virus capsid associates with host cell protein p32 and localizes to mitochondria". J. Virol. 74 (12): 5569-76. doi: ... C1QBP has been shown to interact with Protein kinase D1,[10] BAT2,[11] PRKCD,[10] PKC alpha[10] and Protein kinase Mζ.[10] ... a protein co-purified with splicing factor SF2. Hyaluronic acid-binding protein as P-32 protein, co-purified with splicing ... protein binding. • hyaluronic acid binding. • kininogen binding. • mitochondrial ribosome binding. • mRNA binding. • protein ...
... with an icosohedral capsid. PMV itself has a genome of 4,326 nucleotides, encapsulated into 30-nm particles by a capsid protein ... The capsid protein of satellite panicum mosaic virus contributes to systemic invasion and interacts with its helper virus. ... panicum mosaic virions spread through the plant by producing three proteins (p8, p6.6, and p15) as part of their capsids. The ... The complex subcellular distribution of satellite panicum mosaic virus capsid protein reflects its multifunctional role during ...
The genome has a rather high G-C content of ~32%. The genome has 14 open reading frames, and encodes at least 15 proteins, of ... Virions have an envelope, a nucleoprotein complex, and a capsid, with spherical to pleomorphic and head-tail geometries. They ... which at least four are structural proteins embedded in the membrane. ...
... coat protein) ஒரு கூடும் (capsid) இருக்கும். சில தீநுண்மங்களில் முள் (Spikes) போன்ற அமைப்பும் உள்ளன. இவை கிளைக்கோ புரதங்களாக ...
Viral capsid proteins come together to form a precursor prohead, into which the genome enters. Once this has occurred, the ... The tails consist of helix based proteins with 6-fold symmetry. After maturation of virus particles, the cell is lysed by ... Tailed bacteriophage structure: (1) head, (2) tail, (3) DNA, (4) capsid, (5) collar, (6) sheath, (7) tail fibres, (8) spikes, ( ... and is attached to a flexible tail by a connector protein.[2] The order encompasses a wide range of viruses, many containing ...
... polyhedrons such as viral capsids, or dispersed individual proteins. Electrons can be used in these situations, whereas X-rays ... Protein structures determined by electron crystallography[edit]. The first electron crystallographic protein structure to ... and proteins, such as membrane proteins, that cannot easily form the large 3-dimensional crystals required for that process. ... Just as with proteins, it has been possible to determine the atomic structures of inorganic crystals by electron ...
The capsid is also constructed from 60 protein molecules and one of them creates the majority of the viral capsid structure. ... The viral capsid of a parvovirus is made up of two to four proteins, known as VP1-4 that form an icosahedral symmetry that is ... The mutation affects capsid proteins of feline parvovirus giving it the ability to infect dogs.[13] Both forms of the virus are ... Currently there is no vaccine to prevent infection by all parvoviruses, but recently the virus's capsid proteins, which are ...
... capsid proteins F (Virus Protein 1) and DNA pilot protein H (Virus Protein 2) and do not use scaffolding proteins. They also ... Members of the subfamily Microvirinae have four structural proteins: major capsid protein F, major spike protein G, a small DNA ... internal scaffolding protein B and external scaffolding protein D. Protein H is a multifunctional structural protein required ... The major capsid protein (F) has 426 amino acids, the major spike protein (G) has 175 amino acids, the small DNA-binding ...
... called the capsid, which is then surrounded by an amorphous protein layer called the tegument, and finally enclosed in a lipid ... ORF36 - vPK - viral protein kinase with multiple roles in replication cycle ORF37 - SOX - dual function protein - DNase ... a G protein-coupled receptor, interferon regulatory factor and Flice inhibitory protein (FLIP), as well as DNA synthesis ... ORF45 - tegument protein, interacts with p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSKs) to modulate the ERK/RSK MAPK signaling pathway ...
Viral protein that is a component of the outer layer of a double or triple concentric icosahedral capsid. Outer capsids are ... i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or ... UniProt ConsortiumEuropean Bioinformatics InstituteProtein Information ResourceSIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics ... an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc.,/p> ,p>,a href="/manual/evidences">More...,/a>,/p> Skip Header ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Short name: Virus_capsid_a-hlx_vir Description. The capsid of spherical viruses is built from a limited number of proteins and ... The proteins forming the capsid are VP2 (internal layer, with triangulation T = 1 and an asymmetric dimer in the icosahedral ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... The viral capsid of Picornaviruses is composed of 60 icosahedral copies of four capsid proteins, VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4, ... VP4 lies on the inner surface of the protein shell formed by the major capsid proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3. The three major ...
Viral protein that forms an icosahedral capsid with a T=25 symmetry to protect the viral genome. The T=25 capsid is composed of ... European Bioinformatics InstituteProtein Information ResourceSIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. ... an orthologous protein, a record from another database, etc.,/p> ,p>,a href="/manual/evidences">More…,/a>,/p> Skip Header ...
... and a similar protein fold to the dengue virus (DENV), the West Nile virus (WNV), and the Zika virus (ZIKV) capsid proteins. It ... capsid protein. A, B. 112. Japanese encephalitis virus strain SA-14. Mutation(s): 0 EC: 3.4.21.91 (UniProt), 3.6.1.15 (UniProt ... and compare it to other flavivirus capsid proteins. The JEV capsid has a helical secondary structure (α helixes 1-4) ... Crystal Structure of the Japanese Encephalitis Virus Capsid Protein.. Poonsiri, T., Wright, G.S.A., Solomon, T., Antonyuk, S.V. ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Capsid protein self-assembles to form rod-shaped virions about 18 nm in diameter with a central canal enclosing the viral ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): P03580 - Ribgrass mosaic virus (strain Hr) 1 * Q61147 - Mus musculus no ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ...
Minor capsid protein VP2 and minor capsid protein VP3 are viral proteins that are components of the polyomavirus capsid. ... Polyomavirus capsids are composed of three proteins; the major component is major capsid protein VP1, which self-assembles into ... April 2006). "The VP2/VP3 minor capsid protein of simian virus 40 promotes the in vitro assembly of the major capsid protein ... The minor components are VP2 and VP3, which bind in the interior of the capsid. All three capsid proteins are expressed from ...
The p24 protein can be detected in patient blood as early as 2 weeks after HIV infection, further reducing the window period ... p24 is a component of the HIV particle capsid. There are approximately 2000 molecules per virus particle, or at a molecule ... Fourth-generation HIV immunoassays detect viral p24 protein in the blood (as well as patient antibodies against the virus). ...
Rubella virus capsid protein structure and its role in virus assembly and infection. Vidya Mangala Prasad, Steven D. Willows, ... The RV capsid protein is an essential component of the virus and a key factor for successful replication of the virus in host ... The RV capsid protein is an essential structural component of virions as well as a key factor in virus-host interactions. Here ... The capsid protein structure has also helped to identify amino acid residues that are required for virus assembly. This ...
Minor capsid protein of human genital papillomaviruses contains subdominant, cross-neutralizing epitopes.. Roden RB1, Yutzy WH ...
Coat Protein Regulation by CK2, CPIP, HSP70, and CHIP Is Required for Potato Virus A Replication and Coat Protein Accumulation ... Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) Assembly-Activating Protein Is Not an Essential Requirement for Capsid Assembly of AAV Serotypes 4 ... Structural Protein VP2 of African Horse Sickness Virus Is Not Essential for Virus Replication In Vitro René G. P. van Gennip, ... Increasing Type 1 Poliovirus Capsid Stability by Thermal Selection Oluwapelumi O. Adeyemi, Clare Nicol, Nicola J. Stonehouse, ...
Ab236194 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides free ... Buy our Recombinant Major capsid protein P39 (Tagged). ... SDS-PAGE - Recombinant Major capsid protein P39 (Tagged) ( ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex Assays. By ...
... can translocate across the cell membrane and have been extensively studied for the delivery of proteins, nucleic acids, and ... We showed that the intact virion and a recombinant capsid protein (CaP) from a plant-infecting nonenveloped icosahedral RNA ... CPNT increased uptake of the green flourescent protein (GFP) into the cell when covalently fused to GFP or when present in ... can translocate across the cell membrane and have been extensively studied for the delivery of proteins, nucleic acids, and ...
Recombinant JCV Polyomavirus Major Capsid VP1 protein is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Full length protein 1 to 354 aa range, , 95 ... Recombinant JCV Polyomavirus Major Capsid VP1 protein. See all JCV Polyomavirus Major Capsid VP1 proteins and peptides. ... In regards to the JCV VP1 Protein, ab74569. JCV Polyomavirus Major Capsid VP1 protein is supplied in the form of VLP (Virus- ... Habe ich es richtig verstanden, dass das folgende Protein JCV Polyomavirus Major Capsid VP1 protein (ab 74569) einem humanem ...
In the strain UCD 67-385, these both proteins were identified as viral capsid protein (CP), allow to confirm the gag predicted ... Characterization of virus-like particles and identification of capsid proteins in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous ... A main protein of approx. 76 or 37 kDa composed the virions that only have the L1-dsRNA or L2-dsRNA, respectively. ... were separated by sucrose gradient and characterized in relation to the dsRNAs and proteins that compose them. It was found ...
Using bioinformatic tools we have previously shown that viral structural proteins are a rich source for new bioactive peptide ... The antibacterial mechanism of action of the two most active viral protein-derived peptides, vAMP 059 and vCPP 2319, was ... The antibacterial mechanism of action of the two most active viral protein-derived peptides, vAMP 059 and vCPP 2319, was ... Overall, the results show that structural viral proteins are an abundant source for membrane-active peptides sequences with ...
The NV virion is composed of 180 copies of a single structural protein that, when expressed in insect cells infected with a re ... Eight of the MAbs map to the C-terminal half of the capsid protein as they react by Western blot and by immunoprecipitation ... Antigenic mapping of the recombinant Norwalk virus capsid protein using monoclonal antibodies Virology. 1996 Mar 1;217(1):252- ... The three MAbs that recognize continuous epitopes map to the extreme C terminus of the capsid protein, between amino acids 457 ...
Molecular model of the major capsid protein VP5 from herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). This virus infects epithelial cells around ... Caption: Herpesvirus capsid protein. Molecular model of the major capsid protein VP5 from herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). This ... Keywords: alpha helix, artwork, beta sheet, biochemical, biochemistry, biological, biology, capsid protein, cut out, cut outs, ... protein, proteomics, research, strand, structure, tertiary structure, viral, virology, virus, vp5, white background ...
... side branches of the RNA molecules have specific affinity for the capsid proteins…On the other hand, self-assembly of viral ... Capsid proteins, or subunits, interact mainly through a combination of electrostatic repulsion, hydrophobic attraction and ... after capsid assembly has been completed, by the action of a rotary molecular motor imbedded in the capsid." (Roos et al. 2010: ... that links together the oppositely charged capsid proteins, and particular stem-loop ...
All polyomavirus capsids are constructed from 360 copies of the major coat protein, VP1, arranged in pentamers on a T=7 ... This work is important, as there are few known examples of viral proteins from non-enveloped viruses with a common fold for ... Functionally (but not structurally) related are the pentameric B proteins of the AB5-type toxins, such as Subtilase cytotoxin ( ... 2007) Simian Virus 40 depends on ER protein folding and quality control factors for entry into host cells. Cell 131: 516-529. ...
4). These proteins may belong to a transmembrane protein similar to P16 in PRD1. Minor capsid proteins surrounding the base of ... The similar capsid proteins and capsid architectures strongly suggest that these viral capsids originated and evolved from a ... The viral particle is composed of a 37-kDa major capsid protein (MCP) and several 25-, 12.5-, and 10-kDa minor capsid proteins ... The outer viral membrane leaflet closely follows the capsid shell and is colored dark red, the minor capsid proteins (PVI) are ...
The four proteins are known as VP1 (red), VP2 (light grey), VP3 (orange) and VP4 (dark grey). - Stock Image C014/4896 ... Computer artwork showing how the four component proteins (VP1 to VP4) of an enterovirus particle (virion) interlock to form the ... Each virion is composed of sixty copies of each of the four structural proteins, which surround the RNA genome. ... capsid (outer shell). Enteroviruses are a genus of non-enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses associated with ...
Viral determinants of this restriction map to the virus capsid protein, however despite strong genetic ev idence, no direct ... In order to better understand the context of the capsid/restriction factor interaction, cell biology studies using live-cell ... Experiments using a series of mutants defective for proper processing and assembly of capsid yielded evidence suggesting that ... furthermore, structural studies aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the structure of the capsid core have suggested ...
... an outer capsid viral protein) and VP6(a major inner capsid viral protein) [6]. ... the same as for the major inner capsid protein present on EDTA-treated ADRV virions and in vitro-expressed VP6 protein [13]. ... Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and coding assignment of the major inner capsid protein gene of human group C rotavirus. ... A zinc ion controls assembly and stability of the major capsid protein of rotavirus. Erk, I., Huet, J.C., Duarte, M., Duquerroy ...
The rhesus rotavirus outer capsid protein VP4 functions as a hemagglutinin and is antigenically conserved when expressed by a ... Characterization of virus-like particles produced by the expression of rotavirus capsid proteins in insect cells. Crawford, S.E ... Molecular characterization of the outer capsid spike protein (VP4) gene from human group C rotavirus. Fielding, P.A., Lambden, ... Assembly of highly infectious rotavirus particles recoated with recombinant outer capsid proteins. Trask, S.D., Dormitzer, P.R ...
Structure of the HSV-1 capsid with capsid-associated tegument proteins.. Surface view of a 4.2-Å resolution map of the ... Our structure of the HSV-1 capsid with capsid-associated tegument proteins provides mechanistic insights into multiple aspects ... comprising multiple conformers of the capsid proteins VP5, VP19c, VP23, and VP26 and tegument proteins pUL17, pUL25, and pUL36 ... Herpesviruses comprise a large DNA genome enclosed in a large and complex protein cage called a capsid (see the Perspective by ...
In this study, we investigated murine polyomavirus (MuPyV), which attaches to host gangliosides with its major capsid protein, ... which are usually proteins or carbohydrates. This step is decisive for the selection of target cells and virus entry. ...
Protein target information for Structural capsid protein (Human immunodeficiency virus 1). Find diseases associated with this ...
Topologically Linked Protein Rings in the Bacteriophage HK97 Capsid. By William R. Wikoff, Lars Liljas, Robert L. Duda, Hiro ... Topologically Linked Protein Rings in the Bacteriophage HK97 Capsid. By William R. Wikoff, Lars Liljas, Robert L. Duda, Hiro ... Topologically Linked Protein Rings in the Bacteriophage HK97 Capsid Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... The final capsid maturation step is an autocatalytic reaction that creates 420 isopeptide bonds between proteins. Each subunit ...
  • Rotaviruses have a segmented double-stranded RNA genome enclosed in a complex capsid formed by three concentric protein layers. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The viral capsid of Picornaviruses is composed of 60 icosahedral copies of four capsid proteins, VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4, enclosing the viral positive-strand RNA genome. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Viral protein that forms an icosahedral capsid with a T=25 symmetry to protect the viral genome. (uniprot.org)
  • Part of NIH-supported research and tool development led by Professor Philip Bourne SDSC/UCSD, the image shows the complete viral protein coat, attached to short pieces of the viral genome (14 bases out of 3,569 total). (asknature.org)
  • Viruses are nanosized, genome-filled protein containers with remarkable thermodynamic and mechanical properties. (asknature.org)
  • In these cases, the genome is usually inserted, after capsid assembly has been completed, by the action of a rotary molecular motor imbedded in the capsid. (asknature.org)
  • The electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) image reconstruction of STIV showed a pseudo T = 31 icosahedral capsid with trimers at the quasi sixfold coordinated positions, turret-like appendages at the vertices, and what appears to be an internal lipid membrane sandwiched between the genome and capsid shell ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Each virion is composed of sixty copies of each of the four structural proteins, which surround the RNA genome. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Herpesviruses comprise a large DNA genome enclosed in a large and complex protein cage called a capsid (see the Perspective by Heldwein). (sciencemag.org)
  • Conformational changes often expose hydrophobic residues that subsequently interact with and reorganize the membrane bilayer, enabling cytosolic translocation of the viral genome, transcription complex, or partially disassembled virus capsid. (asm.org)
  • A major focus has been on the use of systems that express the structural proteins of the virus that self-assemble to generate "empty capsid" particles which share many features with the intact virus but lack the ribonucleic acid genome and are therefore non-infectious. (dovepress.com)
  • A point mutation in the core protein in which a phenylalanine at position 97 is exchanged for a smaller leucine leads to premature envelopment of the capsid before the genome maturation is fully completed. (pdbj.org)
  • Upon membrane insertion, L2 recruits the cytosolic retromer, which enables the L2 viral genome complex to enter the retrograde transport pathway and traffic to the Golgi en route for infection. (rupress.org)
  • Each TVV encloses a nonsegmented genome within a single-layered capsid and replicates entirely intracellularly, like many dsRNA viruses, and unlike those in the Reoviridae family. (sdsc.edu)
  • The atomic model reveals both a mostly negatively charged capsid interior, which is conducive to movement of the loosely packed genome, and channels at the 5-fold vertices, which we suggest as routes of mRNA release during transcription. (sdsc.edu)
  • Featuring an unsegmented dsRNA genome encoding a single capsid shell protein (CSP), TVVs contrast with multisegmented dsRNA viruses, such as the diarrhea-causing rotavirus, whose larger genome is split into 10 dsRNA segments encoding 5 unique capsid proteins. (sdsc.edu)
  • Our results reveal the intersubunit interactions driving CSP association for capsid assembly and the properties that govern organization and maintenance of the viral genome. (sdsc.edu)
  • Human papillomavirus type 16 minor capsid protein L2 has been shown to assist in the initial entry and intracellular trafficking events leading to nuclear translocation of the viral genome. (bepress.com)
  • The viral genome consists of ten double stranded (ds) RNA segments encoding at least 7 structural and 4 non¬structural proteins. (up.ac.za)
  • Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the purified virus showed that among six structural proteins, the P2 outer capsid protein (encoded by genome segment S2) was absent from the TD isolate, whereas all six proteins were present in the transmission-competent (TC) isolate. (semanticscholar.org)
  • P2 protein encoded by genome segment S2 of rice dwarf phytoreovirus is essential for virus infection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The structural proteins of some viruses occasionally mimic the three-dimensional nature of an actual virus while lacking the virus genome packaged inside its capsid [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • FCV has a genome of 7.7kb which encodes several proteins. (leicabiosystems.com)
  • In the final stages of DNA packaging, however, the internal genome pressure dramatically increases, requiring significant capsid strength to withstand high internal genome pressures of tens of atmospheres. (cmu.edu)
  • This demonstrates a universal and evolutionarily conserved function of the minor capsid protein: facilitating the retention of the pressurized viral genome in the capsid. (cmu.edu)
  • Given that HHV-6B has a genome size of 162 kb-much smaller than that of HCMV-the question arises whether its β-herpesvirus-specific tegument protein, pU11, binds capsids in the same way as HCMV's homologous protein pp150/pUL32 does. (nature.com)
  • Some of its genome segments (S2 and S6-S11) have been previously characterized but genome segments encoding viral capsid have not been characterized. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After translation of this mRNA into capsid, polymerase and other proteins, they assembled into viral procapsid within which one copy of each genome segments plus polarity RNA are packaged and replicated to form dsRNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fourth-generation HIV immunoassays detect viral p24 protein in the blood (as well as patient antibodies against the virus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibodies to HPV major capsid protein, L1, can develop in response to natural HPV infection as well as after vaccination. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • In contrast, antibodies to early, non-structural proteins, mainly E6 and E7 which are consistently expressed in HPVtransformed cells, have been found to be strongly associated with invasive carcinoma. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • This PhD thesis had two main objectives, first to characterize the bacterially expressed, affinity-purified glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins (GST) as alternative antigens for serology in terms of displayed epitope repertoire, using a panel of 92 VLP-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) generated against 9 mucosal alpha papillomavirus types. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Additionally, an antibody blocking assay based on Maltose binding protein (MBP)-fusions was established to analyze the typespecificity of HPV antibodies. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • It is shown here that GST-L1 fusion proteins display a broad variety of epitopes and thus are well suited for detection of human HPV antibodies. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP) of CHIKV. (mdpi.com)
  • Staining patterns with phospho-specific lamin A/C antibodies are compatible with earlier postulates of targeted capsid egress at lamina-depleted areas. (mdpi.com)
  • Impact of Naturally Occurring Variation in the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 58 Capsid Proteins on Recognition by Type-Specific Neutralizing Antibodies. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We investigate the impact of variation within the major (L1) and minor (L2) capsid proteins of HPV58 on susceptibility to neutralizing antibodies. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Impact of naturally occurring variation in the human papillomavirus 52 capsid proteins on recognition by type-specific neutralising antibodies. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Gold-labelled antibodies to the M r 60000 protein stained the cytoplasm in thin sections of infected cells but not that of uninfected cells. (unl.edu)
  • Check out links to articles that cite our custom service antibodies, peptides, and proteins in major peer-reviewed journals, organized by research category. (abgent.com)
  • We analysed the epitopes on the major capsid protein (L1) of Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 31 using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) generated against HPV-31 virus-like particles (VLPs). (deepdyve.com)
  • Custom ELISA Kits, Recombinant Proteins and Antibodies can be designed, manufactured and produced according to the researcher's specifications. (mybiosource.com)
  • The recombinant ORF2 products expressed in bacteria failed to induce neutralizing antibody, suggesting that neutralizing antibodies were only generated when properly folded capsid protein was used as an antigen. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Thin sections of tobacco etch virus (TEV)-infected leaves were treated with goat anti-rabbit antibodies conjugated to 15-nm gold particles after the sections had been exposed to rabbit antisera specific to virus particles, virus capsid, 70K CI protein, 54K NI protein, or 49K NI protein. (elsevier.com)
  • The ORFs of S1 and S3 were expressed as 141 kDa and 137 kDa insoluble His-tagged fusion proteins, respectively, in Escherichia coli M15 cells via pQE-30 vector, purified through Ni-NTA chromatography and polyclonal antibodies were raised. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immunoblot analysis of purified polyhedra, virion particles and virus infected mid-gut cells with the raised anti-p137 and anti-p141 antibodies showed specific immunoreactive bands and suggest that S1 and S3 may code for viral structural proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Atomic structure of the major capsid protein of rotavirus: implications for the architecture of the virion. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Combining the atomic structure of the RV capsid protein with the cryoelectron tomograms of RV particles established a low-resolution structure of the virion. (pnas.org)
  • We showed that the intact virion and a recombinant capsid protein (CaP) from a plant-infecting nonenveloped icosahedral RNA virus, Brome mosaic virus (BMV), can penetrate the membranes of plant protoplasts but are trapped by the extracellular matrix. (apsnet.org)
  • The NV virion is composed of 180 copies of a single structural protein that, when expressed in insect cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus, assembles into empty recombinant Norwalk virus-like particles (rNV VLPs) which are morphologically and antigenically similar to native NV. (nih.gov)
  • Computer artwork showing how the four component proteins (VP1 to VP4) of an enterovirus particle (virion) interlock to form the capsid (outer shell). (sciencephoto.com)
  • The single C-terminal helix of pUL36 resolved in the CATC links the capsid to the outer tegument and envelope: As the largest tegument protein in all herpesviruses and essential for virion formation, pUL36 has been shown to interact extensively with other tegument proteins, which in turn interact with envelope glycoproteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • Unique region of the minor capsid protein of human parvovirus B19 is exposed on the virion surface. (jci.org)
  • Acid-induced conformational changes in the capsid are thought to be required for membrane penetration, allowing cytosolic translocation of the partially uncoated virion containing the DNA, core proteins, hexon, and protein VIII ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • The capsid (C) protein of the Flaviviridae family members is involved in nucleocapsid formation and virion assembly. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • pU(L)17 is also associated with viral light particles that lack capsid proteins, suggesting its presence in the tegument of the HSV-1 virion. (gallusimmunotech.com)
  • Minor capsid protein of human genital papillomaviruses contains subdominant, cross-neutralizing epitopes. (nih.gov)
  • Seven of the MAbs recognize discontinuous epitopes, requiring the rNV capsid protein to remain at least partially folded, while the other three recognize continuous epitopes. (nih.gov)
  • Eight of the MAbs map to the C-terminal half of the capsid protein as they react by Western blot and by immunoprecipitation with a 32K trypsin cleavage product of the full-length 58K capsid protein, suggesting that the C-terminal half of the capsid protein may contain the immunodominant epitopes. (nih.gov)
  • The three MAbs that recognize continuous epitopes map to the extreme C terminus of the capsid protein, between amino acids 457 and 530, in a region that is relatively conserved among different human calicivirus capsid proteins. (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, bacterially expressed GST fusion proteins are good candidates to be used as antigens in HPV serology and are also useful tools to define and characterize the complex patterns of conformational and linear cross-reactive epitopes. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Costa JZ, Adams A, Bron J, Thompson K, Starkey W & Richards R (2007) Identification of B-cell epitopes on the betanodavirus capsid protein. (stir.ac.uk)
  • ORF2 encodes the major structural capsid (Cap) protein, which is a sole structural protein of the viral coat [ 5 ] and also the major immunogenic protein that works together with the principal carrier of type-specific epitopes [ 6 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Altogether, characterization of immunogenic epitopes in the capsid protein of PCV2 may contribute to the improvement of vaccines and diagnostics. (springer.com)
  • The results obtained suggested the existence of a cross-neutralizing conformational epitope at the N-terminal part of the FG loop of the major capsid protein, and the other four cross-reactive MAbs recognized epitopes also located at the N-terminal part of the FG loop. (deepdyve.com)
  • VP2 is the most variable of the proteins within the AHSV serogroup and carries serotype specific epitopes which induce a protective immune response against virulent homologous AHSV challenge. (up.ac.za)
  • First an attempt was made to chemically solubilise the particulate VP2 protein and refold the protein into a form that may present the neutralising epitopes more appropriately. (up.ac.za)
  • Both MAbs recognized conformational epitopes on the capsid protein of CaCV and were used to identify these epitopes. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Cross-neutralization tests using the variants indicated that the MAbs recognized functionally independent epitopes on the capsid protein. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The amino acid residues related to forming the conformational neutralizing epitopes were located in regions equivalent to the 5′ and 3′ hypervariable regions of the FCV capsid protein, where antigenic sites were demonstrated in previous studies. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Using bioinformatic tools we have previously shown that viral structural proteins are a rich source for new bioactive peptide sequences, namely antimicrobial and cell-penetrating peptides. (frontiersin.org)
  • 83 kD) structural proteins. (jci.org)
  • An outer capsid, consisting of two major structural proteins VP2 and VP5 surrounds the core. (up.ac.za)
  • In this work, we show that this class of proteins with unusually high net positive charge is frequently found among viral structural proteins, more specifically among capsid proteins. (ul.pt)
  • Our results of cloning, sequencing and functional analysis of AmCPV S1 and S3 indicate that S3 encoded viral structural proteins can self assemble to form viral outer capsid and S1 encoded protein remains associated with it as inner capsid to maintain the stability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The major capsid protein VP6 self-assembles into spherical or helical particles mainly depending upon pH. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • JCV VP1 protein was purified and lyophilized assembled into virus like particles (VLPs). (abcam.com)
  • A prominent feature of these neurotropic viruses is the long-range (up to tens of centimeters) axonal retrograde transport of the DNA-containing viral capsid from nerve endings at sites of infection (such as the lips) to neuronal cell bodies at the ganglia to establish latency or, upon reactivation, anterograde transport of the progeny viral particles from the ganglia to nerve terminals, resulting in reinfection of the dermis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Most enteric viruses are small particles (20-40 nm) composed of single-stranded RNA protected inside a capsid made of proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we present the crystal structure of VP6 determined to 2 Å resolution and describe its interactions with other capsid proteins by fitting the atomic model into electron cryomicroscopic reconstructions of viral particles. (embopress.org)
  • Knowing the detailed architecture of the rotavirus particles and understanding the assembly process can provide a structural basis for the rational design of drugs that interfere specifically with capsid assembly. (embopress.org)
  • The recombinant Cap protein has the ability to self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in vitro , it is particularly opportunity to develop the PV2 VLPs vaccine in Escherichia coli ,( E.coli ), because where the cost of the vaccine must be weighed against the value of the vaccinated pig, when it was to extend use the VLPs vaccine of PCV2. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Sedimentation results support the conclusion that the virus RNA and the M r 60000 protein were combined in polydispersed nucleoprotein particles which may or may not have been attached to ribosomes or ribosome subunits. (unl.edu)
  • Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) virions are large, complex enveloped particles containing a proteinaceous tegument layer connected to an icosahedral capsid. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Outer-capsid P8 proteins of phytoreoviruses mediate secretion of assembled virus-like particles from insect cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Assembly of recombinant capsid proteins into virus-like particles (VLPs) still represents an interesting challenge in virus-based nanotechnologies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anti-TEV or anti-TEV capsid sera specifically detected virus particles and capsid protein in the cytoplasm and capsid protein which was also found arrayed in a regular fashion adjacent to the cell wall. (elsevier.com)
  • CPV capsids thus formed can be released as non-occluded virus particles to directly infect fresh neighboring cells or occluded in a viral protein matrix called polyhedrin to form polyhedra [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Naturally-occurring variants of Human papillomavirus (HPV) 58 have been defined as lineages and sublineages but little is known about the impact of this diversity on protein function. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We investigated the impact of naturally occurring variation within the major (L1) and minor (L2) capsid proteins on the antigenicity of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 52 (HPV52). (bioportfolio.com)
  • We conducted p16 INK4a /Ki-67 and L1 capsid protein immunostaining and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA typing on 56 LBCS diagnosed with ASC-H or LSIL-H, all of which were subjected to histologic confirmation or follow-up cytologic examination. (medsci.org)
  • Human Papillomavirus Minor Capsid Protein L2 (L2) - L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. (globalmarketsdirect.com)
  • Human Papillomavirus Minor Capsid Protein L2 (L2) pipeline Target constitutes close to 5 molecules. (globalmarketsdirect.com)
  • The latest report Human Papillomavirus Minor Capsid Protein L2 - Drugs in Development, 2021, outlays comprehensive information on the Human Papillomavirus Minor Capsid Protein L2 (L2) targeted therapeutics, complete with analysis by indications, stage of development, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (globalmarketsdirect.com)
  • It also reviews key players involved in Human Papillomavirus Minor Capsid Protein L2 (L2) targeted therapeutics development with respective active and dormant or discontinued projects. (globalmarketsdirect.com)
  • Phylogeny and In Silico Structure Analysis of Major Capsid Protein (L1) Human Papillomavirus 45 from Indonesian Isolates', Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention , 21(9), pp. 2517-2523. (waocp.org)
  • The capsid of spherical viruses is built from a limited number of proteins and often displays icosahedral symmetry. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Self-assembly of viruses seems to obey the principles of thermodynamically reversible self-assembly but assembled shells ('capsids') strongly resist disassembly. (asknature.org)
  • This work is important, as there are few known examples of viral proteins from non-enveloped viruses with a common fold for which subtle modulations of surface properties result in altered glycan-binding specificities. (functionalglycomics.org)
  • By using sequence alignment and modeling techniques, this lineage was recently extended to include additional large-faceted viruses containing a double-barrel trimeric major coat protein ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • The structural and sequence comparison between the MCPs of these viruses, and similarities between their capsid architectures support the idea that their viral capsids share a common ancestor. (pnas.org)
  • Numerous examples of these structures have been characterized, ranging from spherical viruses to tubular protein assemblies. (portlandpress.com)
  • In order to resolve the location and activity of submicroscopic viruses in living cells, viral proteins are often fused to fluorescent proteins (FPs) and visualized by microscopy. (unl.edu)
  • Structural comparison of TVV2 to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae L-A virus reveals a conserved helix-rich fold within the CSP and putative guanylyltransferase domain along the capsid exterior, suggesting conserved mRNA maintenance strategies among Totiviridae This first atomic structure of a TVV provides a framework to guide future biochemical investigations into the interplay between Trichomonas vaginalis and its viruses. (sdsc.edu)
  • Structural comparison between TVV2 capsids and those of distantly related dsRNA viruses indicates conserved strategies of nascent RNA release and a putative viral guanylyltransferase domain implicated in the cytoplasmic maintenance of viral messenger and genomic RNA. (sdsc.edu)
  • Recombinant chimeric EMC viruses containing threonine, serine, proline, aspartic acid, or valine at position 152 of the major capsid protein VP1 bind poorly to beta-cells. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Capsid proteins of several different families of non-enveloped animal viruses with single-stranded RNA genomes undergo autocatalytic cleavage (autocleavage) as a maturation step in assembly. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) can translocate across the cell membrane and have been extensively studied for the delivery of proteins, nucleic acids, and therapeutics in mammalian cells. (apsnet.org)
  • The antibacterial mechanism of action of the two most active viral protein-derived peptides, vAMP 059 and vCPP 2319, was studied in detail. (frontiersin.org)
  • Overall, the results show that structural viral proteins are an abundant source for membrane-active peptides sequences with strong antibacterial properties. (frontiersin.org)
  • Pepscan was performed with a panel of thirty-four 12-mer synthetic peptides that mimicked the entire betanodavirus capsid protein. (stir.ac.uk)
  • The aim of this study was to use phage display screening to identify antigenic peptides in the PCV2 capsid protein. (springer.com)
  • Peptides from different regions of the poliovirus type 1 capsid protein VP1 were synthesized. (caltech.edu)
  • Thus, the neutralizing determinants on VP1 reside in specific noncontiguous regions of the protein and can be defined by specific peptides from these regions. (caltech.edu)
  • Zika Capsid Protein C is a pool of lyophilized peptides, consisting mainly of 15-mer sequences with 11 amino acids overlap, covering the sequence of the Zika capsid protein C domain from virus isolate Z1106033 polyprotein gene (GenBank Acc. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • We measured T-cell proliferation to overlapping synthetic peptides covering the entire VP1 capsid protein of an RV-A and RV-C genotype for 20 healthy adult donors. (edu.au)
  • The organisation of the three major capsid proteins leads to surface depressions, or pits, thought to be involved in receptor binding, while the variable outer rim is involved in antibody recognition. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Chimeric VLP vaccination also induced antibody responses to other HPV16 early proteins suggesting that these proteins were released from the lesions in response to vaccination. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Previous immunization studies with recombinant empty capsids have demonstrated that the presence of VP1 was required to elicit virus-neutralizing antibody activity. (jci.org)
  • Oral Vaccination with the Porcine Rotavirus VP4 Outer Capsid Protein Expressed by Lactococcus lactis Induces Specific Antibody Production," Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , vol. 2010, Article ID 708460, 9 pages, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Though raised against DEN2 protein, this antibody is predicted to cross-react with the other serotypes based on comparative sequence analysis. (genetex.com)
  • Capsid Protein (Dengue virus) antibody detects Capsid Protein (Dengue virus) protein at cytoplasm by immunofluorescent analysis. (genetex.com)
  • Green: Capsid Protein (Dengue virus) protein stained by Capsid Protein (Dengue virus) antibody (GTX124247) diluted at 1:2000. (genetex.com)
  • Over 280,000 products but you can't find the right antibody for your protein or application? (acris-antibodies.com)
  • However, immunostaining of VP1 is not definitive since the antibody widely used to detect the protein (Clone 5D8/1) might also cross-react with additional proteins under some conditions. (springer.com)
  • However, evidence for this has mainly been generated using a particular mouse monoclonal antibody (clone 5-D8/1) which binds the viral capsid protein VP1. (diva-portal.org)
  • If you cannot find the target and/or product is not available in our catalog, please click here to contact us and request the product or submit your request for custom elisa kit production , custom recombinant protein production or custom antibody production . (mybiosource.com)
  • Location of monoclonal antibody binding sites in the capsid protein of feline calicivirus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • These TEV VLPs elicited broader IgG2-specific antibody response against a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) protein when compared to the potent IgG1 response induced by the protein alone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Outer capsids are part of reoviridae and cystoviridae virions. (uniprot.org)
  • Capsid protein self-assembles to form rod-shaped virions about 18 nm in diameter with a central canal enclosing the viral genomic RNA. (rcsb.org)
  • The RV capsid protein is an essential structural component of virions as well as a key factor in virus-host interactions. (pnas.org)
  • Mutational studies based on this structure confirmed the role of amino acid residues in the capsid that function in the assembly of infectious virions. (pnas.org)
  • To determine the position of VP1 in both empty capsids and virions, we expressed a fusion protein containing the unique region of VP1. (jci.org)
  • The antisera immunoprecipitated both recombinant empty capsids and human plasma-derived virions, and agglutinated the latter as shown by immune electron microscopy. (jci.org)
  • Recombinant protein VI and preprotein VI, but not a deletion mutant lacking an N-terminal amphipathic α-helix, possessed membrane lytic activity similar to partially disassembled virions. (asm.org)
  • First, the capsids of nonenveloped virions are assembled as immature stable structures that are rendered metastable upon proteolytic processing of capsid proteins ( 17 ). (asm.org)
  • Subsequent infection of host cells by newly assembled mature virions is initiated by the binding of the Ad fiber protein to the coxsackie B and Ad receptor (CAR) ( 4 ) or CD46 ( 12 , 27 , 34 , 41 , 54 ). (asm.org)
  • Heteroaryldihydropyrimidines (HAPs) inappropriately activate assembly of hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (Cp), suppressing formation of virions. (elifesciences.org)
  • Its virions are 45 nm in diameter and have a 5-kb double-stranded, circular, supercoiled DNA, which is encased in a protein capsid ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • To help determine how pU(L)17 becomes incorporated into virions and its functions therein, we identified pU(L)17-interacting proteins by immunoprecipitation with pU(L)17-specific IgY at 16 h postinfection, followed by mass spectrometry. (gallusimmunotech.com)
  • Mandarin fish caveolin 1 interaction with major capsid protein of infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus and its role in early stages of infection. (harvard.edu)
  • Autocatalytic cleavage releases the assembly protein, and subsequently abolishes interaction with major capsid protein. (mybiosource.com)
  • Such challenges can be addressed today using a combination of biological (i.e., cell culture) and physico-chemical (i.e., protein mass spectrometry, structural virology approaches) techniques ( Wigginton and Kohn, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The T=25 capsid is composed of 1500 subunits, each subunit occupying a quasi-equivalent position. (uniprot.org)
  • This generates 12 pentameric and 60 hexameric rings of covalently joined subunits that loop through each other, creating protein chainmail: topologically linked protein catenanes arranged with icosahedral symmetry. (sciencemag.org)
  • These residues pack against the neighboring subunits and increase the inter-dimer contact suggesting that the C-termini play an important role in capsid stabilization and provide a much larger interaction interface than previously observed. (pdbj.org)
  • This giant polyhedral body is constructed as a closed shell assembled from several thousand protein subunits. (portlandpress.com)
  • The overall fold is similar to that of protein VP7 from bluetongue virus, with the subunits wrapping about a central 3‐fold axis. (embopress.org)
  • The initial steps of viral capsid self-assembly require weak, non-covalent interactions between the capsid subunits to ensure free energy minimization and error-free assembly. (cmu.edu)
  • Structural polymorphism of the major capsid protein of rotavirus. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • VP4 lies on the inner surface of the protein shell formed by the major capsid proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The three major capsid proteins have a conserved beta-barrel fold, while VP4 has little regular secondary structure. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Molecular model of the major capsid protein VP5 from herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). (sciencephoto.com)
  • All polyomavirus capsids are constructed from 360 copies of the major coat protein, VP1, arranged in pentamers on a T=7 icosahedral lattice [2] . (functionalglycomics.org)
  • We report here the crystal structure of the major capsid protein (MCP) of the Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus, an archaeal virus isolated from an acidic hot spring (pH 2-4, 72-92°C) in Yellowstone National Park. (pnas.org)
  • The viral particle is composed of a 37-kDa major capsid protein (MCP) and several 25-, 12.5-, and 10-kDa minor capsid proteins ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • The DNA polymerase (DNApol) and major capsid protein (MCP) genes were used as models to study promoter activity in Chilo iridescent virus (CIV). (nih.gov)
  • Infection of Bombyx mori SPC-BM-36 cells in the presence of inhibitors of DNA or protein synthesis showed that DNApol, as well as helicase, is an immediate-early gene and confirmed that the major capsid protein (MCP) is a late gene. (nih.gov)
  • Although some observed bound structures here closely resemble the major binding interfaces in the capsid assembly, they are statistically insignificant in our simulation trajectories. (iupui.edu)
  • The capsid (Cap) protein of PCV2 is a major candidate antigen for development of recombinant vaccine and serological diagnostic method. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A PCR-based assay targeting the major capsid protein rene of a dinorna-like ssRNA virus that infects coral photosymbionts. (coralcoe.org.au)
  • This protein plays a role in capsid stabilization through interaction with the major capsid protein L1. (globalmarketsdirect.com)
  • Capsid scaffolding protein: Acts as a scaffold protein by binding major capsid protein in the cytoplasm, inducing the nuclear localization of both proteins. (mybiosource.com)
  • Multimerizes in the nucleus such as major capsid protein forms the icosahedral T=16 capsid. (mybiosource.com)
  • Structure of the herpesvirus major capsid protein. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The major capsid protein, VP5 (149 kDa), makes up both types of capsomere, pentons and hexons. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The major core proteins VP3 and VP7 together with the minor core proteins VP1, VP4 and VP6 form the core particle surrounding the 10 dsRNA segments. (up.ac.za)
  • The cloning, sequencing and expression of a major antigenic region from the feline calicivirus capsid protein. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Major capsid reinforcement by a minor protein in herpesviruses and pha" by Udom Sae-Ueng, Ting Liu et al. (cmu.edu)
  • Major capsid reinforcement by a minor protein in herpesviruses and phage. (cmu.edu)
  • The aim of this study was to analyse variations of major capsid (L1) HPV-45 and its phylogeny. (waocp.org)
  • Stedman, K.M. Genetic Analysis of the Major Capsid Protein of the Archaeal Fusellovirus SSV1: Mutational Flexibility and Conformational Change. (preprints.org)
  • The best-studied spindle-shaped virus, SSV1, is composed mostly of the major capsid protein VP1. (preprints.org)
  • Similarly, the 76 kDa major outer-capsid protein mu1 of mammalian orthoreoviruses (reoviruses), which are non-enveloped and have double-stranded RNA genomes, undergoes putative autocleavage between residues 42 and 43, yielding N-terminal N-myristoylated fragment mu1N and C-terminal fragment mu1C. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Acidification of the endosome induces conformational change of capsid protein thereby injecting virus genomic RNA into host cytoplasm (By similarity). (mybiosource.com)
  • Coimmunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy confirmed that HB interacts and colocalizes with the C protein in the cytoplasm. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The p24 protein can be detected in patient blood as early as 2 weeks after HIV infection, further reducing the window period necessary to accurately detect the HIV status of the patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we provide evidence for additional roles of the PepMV CP and host-encoded Hsp70 in viral infection, the first as a truly multifunctional protein able to specifically bind to a host chaperone and to counterattack an RNA-based defense mechanism, and the latter as an essential factor for PepMV infection. (apsnet.org)
  • The triglyceride-synthesizing enzyme acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) plays a critical role in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection by recruiting the HCV capsid protein core onto the surface of cellular lipid droplets (LDs). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • As this protein is detectable from the early stage of AIDS virus infection, its measurement is commonly used as an indicator of HIV-1 infection and viral load. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) L1 capsid protein in abnormal cervical cytology with HPV16 infection and analyze its association with cervical histopathology in Korean women. (medsci.org)
  • After the cleavage of the fusion motif, the nCap protein has the ability to self-assemble into VLPs, which can be used as as a potential vaccine to protect pigs from PCV2-infection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Capsid distortion and disruption is a new mechanism by which molecules like the HAPs can block HBV infection. (elifesciences.org)
  • The notion that the previously reported VP1 positivity in islets of recent-onset type 1 diabetes patients could reflect cross-reactivity to native islet proteins and not the presence of EV is supported by difficulties in demonstrating EV infection by independent techniques such as PCR or in situ hybridization. (diva-portal.org)
  • Since this domain is essential for p24 oligomerization and capsid cone formation, CyPA bound to the new sites might impair the regularity of the capsid cone and thus facilitate in vivo core disassembly after host infection. (uzh.ch)
  • The first 200 N-terminus amino acids of the L2 capsid protein of BPV-4 (designated L2a) are an effective prophylactic vaccine against BPV-4 infection. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A associates with viral proteins and impacts HSV-1 infection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • c The indicated HEK293 cell lines were infected with 20 ng/ml (p24 gag ) wild type HIV-1 as well as different capsid mutants and late reverse transcription levels were assessed at 6 h post infection by qPCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we identified one critical amino acid that determines a conformational neutralizing epitope in the capsid protein of PCV2. (thepigsite.com)
  • 2011. Identification of one critical amino acid that determines a conformational neutralizing epitope in the capsid protein of porcine circovirus type 2. (thepigsite.com)
  • the proteins contain a leucine zipper sequence of amino acids which allow them to adhere to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following assembly, some viral shells pass through a sequence of coordinated maturation steps that progressively strengthen the capsid. (asknature.org)
  • The anti-apoptotic protein myeloid cell leukaemia sequence-1 (Mcl-1) was abundant in beta cells that were immunonegative for VP1 but Mcl-1 was depleted in cells containing VP1. (springer.com)
  • However, the early TAT peptide derived from the HIV transcription activator protein has been proven that the sequence contains Furin protease cleaved motifs which limited the TAT application in delivery of exogenous active molecules. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Several nucleotide changes resulting in amino acid substitutions in the capsid protein were found by sequence analysis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The graphic displays domains and Protease cut sites on the protein sequence. (burnham.org)
  • BLAST analysis showed 20-22% homology of S1 and S3 sequence with spike and capsid proteins, respectively, of other closely related cypoviruses like Bombyx mori CPV (BmCPV), Lymantria dispar CPV (LdCPV), and Dendrolimus punctatus CPV (DpCPV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Structural analysis of the capsid architecture, determined by fitting the subunit into the electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of the virus, identified a number of key interactions that are akin to those observed in adenovirus and PRD1. (pnas.org)
  • furthermore, structural studies aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the structure of the capsid core have suggested new interactions w hich may be important for its formation, stability and consequent infectivity of the virus. (bl.uk)
  • We adopt a transferrable residue-level coarse-grained energy function to describe the interactions between the protein domains. (iupui.edu)
  • However, unlike the robust CSP-interlocking interactions such as the use of auxiliary "clamping" proteins among Reoviridae , only lateral CSP interactions are observed in TVV2, consistent with an assembly strategy optimized for TVVs' intracellular-only replication cycles within their protozoan host. (sdsc.edu)
  • Molecular interactions of Epstein-Barr virus capsid proteins. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To understand capsid assembly and capsid-tegument interactions, here we report atomic structures of HHV-6B capsid and capsid-associated tegument complex (CATC) obtained by cryoEM and sub-particle reconstruction. (nature.com)
  • The second method for increasing the solubility and immunogenicity of the VP2 protein was by co-expression of VP2 and VP5, the two outer capsid proteins of AHSV¬3. (up.ac.za)
  • The capsid protein structure has also helped to identify amino acid residues that are required for virus assembly. (pnas.org)
  • Amino acid residues 47-72 in the capsid protein of PCV2a/CL were replaced with the corresponding region of PCV2b/YJ, and the reactivity of mAb 8E4 was lost. (thepigsite.com)
  • Sea bass serum samples reacted strongly with three regions of the capsid protein comprising amino acid residues 1-32, 91-162 and 181-212. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Phosphorylation of serine residues in the unresolved C-terminal domain of the mutant leaves the structure of the ordered capsid largely unchanged. (pdbj.org)
  • In the present study, through the bioinformatics and experimental approach, we have identified a novel CPP derived from the N terminus of VP1 protein of chicken anemia virus (CAV), designated as CVP1-N2, which is rich in arginine residues and contains α-helical structure. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Expression of capsid (C) protein induced the accumulation, while mutations at residues L51 and A52 in C protein abrogated the accumulation. (prolekare.cz)
  • In 2003, gel eletrophoresis studies demonstrated that intact UL-6 portals associate in vitro with viral protein UL-26. (wikipedia.org)
  • This communication describes the in vitro assembly of genetically recombinant Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) viral capsid proteins (CPs) into biological nanotubes, several micrometres long yet with a diameter of only 17 nm, triggered by double-stranded DNAs of different lengths. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Simultaneously, the whole native Cap protein was able to self-assemble into VLPs in vitro when viewed under an electron microscope. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Staining on islets of Langerhans from subjects with recent-onset type 1 diabetes, but not on isolated human islets infected in vitro with enteroviruses, could be blocked after mixing the clone 5-D8/1 with the mitochondrial proteins. (diva-portal.org)
  • These in vitro translation products were each precipitated by the antiserum to capsid proteins of all three strains, had similar mol. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • All in vitro translation products competed effectively with native capsid proteins of all of the three strains in immunocompetition assays. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The identity of the in vitro products with authentic viron proteins was established in two ways. (elsevier.com)
  • Second, the mobilities of the in vitro products on two-dimensional gels were the same as those of viral proteins labeled in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • We conclude that all three viral capsid proteins are synthesized independently in vitro, that all three viral capsid proteins are virally coded, and that each of the capsid proteins has a discrete mRNA. (elsevier.com)
  • The amino acid, alanine, at position 59 in the capsid protein of PCV2a (CL, LG and JF2) strains is a critical amino acid, which determines one neutralising epitope of those strains, according to researchers at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. (thepigsite.com)
  • Huang and co-authors concluded that the alanine at position 59 in the capsid protein of PCV2a (CL, LG and JF2) strains is a critical amino acid, which determines one neutralising epitope of PCV2a (CL, LG and JF2) strains. (thepigsite.com)
  • Furthermore in silico protein structure and epitope prediction was explored. (waocp.org)
  • Structure and epitope prediction of L1 protein were then developed in silico. (waocp.org)
  • The protein is probably a virus protein because its apparent molecular weight varied slightly with the strain of virus. (unl.edu)
  • With state-of-the art molecular biology and protein biochemistry labs, we work with our clients to rapidly evaluate in parallel to identify the optimal expression system for candidate proteins. (abgent.com)
  • Baunoch, D, Das, P & Hari, V 1988, ' Intracellular localization of TEV capsid and inclusion proteins by immunogold labeling ', Journal of Ultrastructure Research and Molecular Structure Research , vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 203-212. (elsevier.com)
  • however, the precise molecular mechanisms of autophagy induction and effect of FMDV capsid protein on autophagy remain unknown. (mysciencework.com)
  • S1 consisted of 3852 nucleotides, with one long ORF of 3735 nucleotides and could encode a protein of 1245 amino acids with molecular mass of ~141 kDa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Similarly, S3 consisted of 3784 nucleotides having a long ORF of 3630 nucleotides and could encode a protein of 1210 amino acids with molecular mass of ~137 kDa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Further studies will help to understand the molecular mechanism of capsid formation during cypovirus replication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Direct evidence linking the capsid protein to specific dsRNA segments from the three killer strains of Ustilago maydis virus (P1, P4, P6) is presented. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The capsid proteins from P1 and P4 were translated from their respective H2 dsRNA segments, whereas the capsid protein for P6 was translated from H1 dsRNA. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In this work, the VLPs from several strains of X. dendrorhous , which differ in their dsRNAs content, were separated by sucrose gradient and characterized in relation to the dsRNAs and proteins that compose them. (springer.com)
  • TEV VLPs administered along with PRRSV chimeric protein changed the IgG2/IgG1 ratio against the chimeric protein, suggesting that TEV CP can modulate the immune response against a soluble antigen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, in most cases the self-assembly of viral capsid proteins (CPs) into VLPs still remains a challenge [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also evaluated the potential use of TEV CP VLPs as an adjuvant for a novel porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) chimeric protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immunogold staining showed that S3 encoded proteins self assembled to form viral outer capsid and VLPs maintained their stability at different pH in presence of S1 encoded protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Further investigation during 2006 showed that assembly of capsid with portal depends on interaction of UL-6 with "scaffolding" protein UL-26.5, amino acids 143 through 151. (wikipedia.org)
  • The polymers, which are synthesised like natural proteins in yeast cells (Pichia pastoris), consist entirely of natural amino acids and can ultimately be fully degraded in the human body. (wur.nl)
  • Together, these data show that HClO and ONOOH consistently target oxidant-sensitive amino acids regardless of the structural organization of Qβ and MS2, even though the phenotypes change as a function of the interaction with adjacent proteins/RNA. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Zika capsid protein C domain from virus subtype Z1106033 comprises the amino acids 1-127 of the full length polyprotein. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • Each genogroup present a specific highly-conserved motif of six amino acids (between amino acids 86 and 91) in the PCV-2 capsid protein. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results suggest that the amino acids between positions 86 and 91 of the capsid protein are determinant for the virulence of isolates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dengue virus capsid protein was selected for a detailed experimental analysis. (ul.pt)
  • Recombinant Rubella Virus Capsid (C) Protein (1-123aa), was produced in E. coli. (creativebiomart.net)
  • A chimeric gene of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigene were constructed and expressed in E. coli cells. (mysciencework.com)
  • UL-6 associates with a UL-15/UL-28 protein complex during capsid assembly. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have used electron cryo-microscopy and image processing to investigate how the point mutation affects the structure of the capsid at 2.6- to 2.8 Å-resolution. (pdbj.org)
  • Extensive antigenic mimicry by retrovirus capsid proteins. (nih.gov)
  • An in-silico approach was taken to reveal the antigenic heterogeneities within the capsid protein VP1 of Asia1. (dovepress.com)
  • Several antigenic sites were identified and mapped onto the three-dimensional protein structure. (dovepress.com)
  • Variations at these antigenic sites were analyzed by calculating the protein variability index and finding mutation combinations. (dovepress.com)
  • The expressed fusion protein was examined by Dot-ELISA and Western blot and the three antigenic determinants were detected. (mysciencework.com)
  • The GFP-Core fusion protein showed not only the striking green fluorescence under natural light but also the HCV antigenic activity. (mysciencework.com)
  • When the capsid is nearly complete, the viral DNA enters the capsid (i.e., the DNA is encapsidated) by a mechanism involving the portal and a DNA-binding protein complex similar to bacteriophage terminase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple studies suggest an evolutionary relationship between Capsid Portal Protein and bacteriophage portal proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The capsid architecture of STIV is reminiscent of the mammalian adenovirus, bacteriophage PRD1, and Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus (PBCV-1). (pnas.org)
  • The crystal structure of the double-stranded DNA bacteriophage HK97 mature empty capsid was determined at 3.6 angstrom resolution. (sciencemag.org)
  • Herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV-1) and bacteriophage λ capsids undergo considerable structural changes during self-assembly and DNA packaging. (cmu.edu)
  • Our data reveal that the loosely formed capsid structure is reinforced post-assembly by the minor capsid protein UL25 in HSV-1 and gpD in bacteriophage λ. (cmu.edu)
  • Viral DNA is housed in protective nano-scale containers, called capsids, that self-assemble within the host cell. (asknature.org)
  • These resilient proteinaceous packets self-assemble in response to a variety of weak forces that, in concert, provide the capsid with a great deal of stability. (asknature.org)
  • Many proteins self-assemble to form large supramolecular complexes. (portlandpress.com)
  • In these studies, we determined the relationship between adenovirus (Ad) capsid disassembly and the development of membrane lytic activity. (asm.org)
  • A new model of Ad entry is proposed based on our present observations of capsid disassembly and membrane penetration. (asm.org)
  • Internalization of Ad is thought to trigger capsid disassembly, starting with the loss of the fiber protein at the cell surface ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • Subsequent disassembly of the capsid occurs in endosomes and appears to require acidification ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • However, the precise relationship between Ad capsid disassembly and the development of membrane lytic activity has not been established. (asm.org)
  • Putative autocleavage of reovirus mu1 protein in concert with outer-capsid disassembly and activation for membrane permeabilization. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Abgent has over fifteen years of experience producing recombinant proteins in E. coli and mammalian cells (CHO and HEK293, etc), and we have added a powerful yeast expression platform to our menu of services. (abgent.com)
  • Supercharged proteins are a recently identified class of proteins that have the ability to efficiently deliver functional macromolecules into mammalian cells. (ul.pt)
  • We showed that this protein is able to deliver functional nucleic acids into mammalian cells. (ul.pt)
  • In addition, we show that VP2 induced autophagy in a variety of mammalian cell lines and decreased aggregates of a model mutant HTT (huntingtin) polyglutamine expansion protein (HTT103Q). (mysciencework.com)
  • The similar capsid proteins and capsid architectures strongly suggest that these viral capsids originated and evolved from a common ancestor. (pnas.org)
  • These results suggest that the three strains code for a similar capsid protein, and that the information for capsid protein resides in the H2 segment of strain P1 and P4, and in the H1 segment of strain P6. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Crowning every capsid vertex are five copies of heteropentameric CATC. (sciencemag.org)
  • It is composed of 240 copies of the same protein, arranged in a pattern of pentagons and hexagons. (elifesciences.org)
  • TVV2 has an icosahedral, T = 2*, capsid comprised of 60 copies of the icosahedral asymmetric unit (a dimer of the two capsid shell protein [CSP] conformers, CSP-A and CSP-B), typical of icosahedral dsRNA virus capsids. (sdsc.edu)
  • Ad assembly occurs in the nucleus following cleavage of preproteins TP, IIIa, VI, VII, VIII, and μ by the virally encoded 23K cysteine protease, a process that may confer a metastable capsid structure. (asm.org)
  • These same elements allowed comparably higher levels of the mu1delta protein, in which cleavage at the mu1N/delta junction has not occurred, to be recovered from particle uncoating intermediates in which mu1 had been previously cleaved by chymotrypsin in a distinct protease-sensitive region near residue 580. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Capsid protein is proteolytically cut by tetravirus peptidase (A21.001) cleavage. (burnham.org)
  • Experiments using a series of mutants defective for proper processing and assembly of capsid yielded evidence suggesting that the restriction factor binding site is in fact formed only when capsid is in its polymeric state in a mature virus, thus explaining why conventional approaches had failed to detect any interaction. (bl.uk)
  • The capsid protein encoded by U(L)17 of herpes simplex virus 1 interacts with tegument protein VP13/14. (gallusimmunotech.com)
  • it shows that pp150, a β-herpesvirus subfamily-specific tegument protein, forms a " △ "-shaped group-of-three structure on each of the 320 triplexes in a capsid, leading to a net that encloses the capsid. (nature.com)
  • We have derived atomic models for a total of 59 conformers of the four capsid proteins and one tegument protein of HHV-6B. (nature.com)
  • We found a distinct reactivity with two mitochondrial proteins, creatine kinase B-type and ATP synthase beta subunit. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this study, hemoglobin subunit beta (HB) was identified as a C protein-binding protein by glutathione S-transferase pulldown and subsequent mass spectrometry analysis of PK-15 cells, which are permissive cells for classical swine fever virus (CSFV). (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The VP2 protein is therefore the antigen of choice for the development of a subunit vaccine against AHSV. (up.ac.za)
  • The RV capsid protein is an essential component of the virus and a key factor for successful replication of the virus in host cells. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, the shell appears to be perforated by pores for metabolite transport into and out of the carboxysome, suggesting comparisons to the pores through oligomeric transmembrane proteins, which serve to transport small molecules across the membrane bilayers of cells and eukaryotic organelles. (portlandpress.com)
  • The innate viral sensor, protein kinase R (PKR) was upregulated selectively in beta cells that were immunopositive for VP1. (springer.com)
  • These proteins form a protective shield for the virus' genetic information: they also interact with the cells of the host during key events of the virus' life cycle. (elifesciences.org)
  • In this study, we describe the fusion of FPs to three proteins of pseudorabies virus (PRV) that allowed imaging of capsids in living cells. (unl.edu)
  • Finally, the capacity of CVP1-N2 for delivery of gene into cells was determined, where it was able to carry red fluorescent protein (RFP) and apoptin genes into cells respectively and induce the apoptosis. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • In this study, we attempted to elucidate the mechanisms of the accumulation of protein aggregates in the WNV-infected cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • To identify the viral factor inducing the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, intracellular accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins was examined in the cells expressing the viral protein. (prolekare.cz)
  • The expression levels of LC3-II, an autophagy-related protein, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an autophagy inducer, were reduced in the cells infected with WT WNV, while the reduction was not observed in the cells infected with WNV with the mutations in C protein. (prolekare.cz)
  • In the cells expressing C protein, AMPK was co-precipitated with C protein and mutations in L51 and A52 reduced the interaction. (prolekare.cz)
  • stimulation of Zika Capsid Protein C-specific T cells. (miltenyibiotec.com)
  • My findings have implications for the role of L2 at the viral production stages when the virus needs to prevent cellular differentiation while maintaining the cells' ability to replicate DNA, and might partially compensate the function of HPV16 E7 protein, when E7 is no longer expressed in the infected cells, on maintaining cell dividing and DNA replication. (bepress.com)
  • It has been determined in this investigation that the majority of recombinant AHSV-3 VP2 proteins expressed in Sf-9 insect cells are in an insoluble, aggregated form. (up.ac.za)
  • The P2 protein of rice dwarf phytoreovirus is required for adsorption of the virus to cells of the insect vector. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The pU(L)17-VP13/14 interaction was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation in the presence and absence of intact capsids and by affinity copurification of pU(L)17 and VP13/14 from lysates of cells infected with a recombinant virus encoding His-tagged pU(L)17. (gallusimmunotech.com)
  • This ubiquity raises the hypothesis that supercharged viral capsid proteins may have biological roles that arise from an intrinsic ability to penetrate cells. (ul.pt)
  • The results raise the possibility that the ability to penetrate cells is part of the native biological functions of some viral capsid proteins. (ul.pt)
  • Polyadenylated cytoplasmic RNA from polyoma virus-infected cells can be translated in the wheat germ system to yield all three polyoma virus capsid proteins, VP1, VP2, and VP3. (elsevier.com)
  • Remarkable variability of apple mosaic virus capsid protein gene after nucleotide position 141 Petrzik, K. (deepdyve.com)
  • The protein is commonly referred to as the HSV-1 UL-6 protein because it is the transcription product of Herpes gene UL-6. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gag gene of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) encodes a precursor protein known as Pr55Gag. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Lenz, O. 2002-07-01 00:00:00 Eight new sequences of European isolates from almond, apple, hop, prune and pear of the Apple mosaic ilarvirus (ApMV) capsid protein gene are presented. (deepdyve.com)
  • Identification of a novel cell-penetrating peptide derived from the capsid protein of chicken anemia virus and its application in gene delivery. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • My study suggests a potential novel function of the L2 protein, as a regulator of cellular gene transcription. (bepress.com)
  • For the dual expression of the two proteins it was necessary to characterise the AHSV-3 VP5 gene and express it as a baculovirus recombinant first. (up.ac.za)
  • Unlike half of the genes in SSV1, including the minor capsid protein gene vp3 , the vp1 gene does not tolerate deletion or transposon insertion. (preprints.org)
  • The viral capsids of adenovirus, PRD1, and PBCV-1 are believed to have descended from a common ancestor ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Some of the assembly principles revealed in the carboxysome are reminiscent of those seen in icosahedral viral capsids. (portlandpress.com)
  • Protein Expression and Purification. (pnas.org)
  • In this report, a highly soluble Cap-tag protein expressed in E.coli was constructed with a p-SMK expression vector with a fusion tag of small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this dissertation, I present data that expression of the L2 protein in this cellular model system HaCaTs resulted in a shift from G0/G1 phase to mitotic S phase, as well as a reduced amount of retinoblastoma protein (Rb) and an increase in Cdc2 phosphorylation. (bepress.com)
  • Fusion expression of green fluorescent protein and HCV capsid. (mysciencework.com)
  • Importantly, our work provides the first piece of evidence that expression of FMDV capsid protein VP2 can induce autophagy through the EIF2S1-ATF4-AKT-MTOR cascade, and we found that VP2 interacted with HSPB1 (heat shock protein family B [small] member 1) and activated the EIF2S1-ATF4 pathway, resulting in autophagy and enhanced FMDV replication. (mysciencework.com)
  • Western blot: detection of feline Calicivirus (FCV) capsid protein (62 kD) using NCL-1G9. (leicabiosystems.com)
  • Recombinantly expressed ORF2 products (capsid precursors) of the variants showed no reactivity to the MAbs used for the selection, suggesting that the resistance was induced by a failing in binding of the MAbs to the variant capsid proteins. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Reactivities of the MAbs to the revertant ORF2 products produced from each variant ORF2 by site-directed mutagenesis identified a single amino acid substitution in each variant capsid protein responsible for the failure of MAb binding. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • ORF1 encodes the replicase (Rep and Rep') proteins located on the viral plus strands, which initiates viral replication. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)