Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most individual species are restricted to their natural hosts. They possess a characteristic six-pointed starlike shape whose surfaces have cup-shaped (chalice) indentions. Transmission is by contaminated food, water, fomites, and occasionally aerosolization of secretions. Genera include LAGOVIRUS; NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES; SAPPORO-LIKE VIRUSES; and VESIVIRUS.
A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, infecting a variety of vertebrates including humans. Parvoviruses are responsible for a number of important diseases but also can be non-pathogenic in certain hosts. The type species is MINUTE VIRUS OF MICE.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.
A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.
A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A species of the genus PARVOVIRUS and a host range variant of FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS. It causes a highly infectious fulminating ENTERITIS in dogs producing high mortality. It is distinct from CANINE MINUTE VIRUS, a species in the genus BOCAVIRUS. This virus can also infect cats and mink.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.
A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.
Intracellular step that follows VIRUS INTERNALIZATION during which the viral nucleic acid and CAPSID are separated.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. They cause vesicular lesions and upper respiratory tract infections. FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS is the type species.
Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE comprising small iridescent insect viruses. The infected larvae and purified virus pellets exhibit a blue to purple iridescence.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
A species in the genus LAGOVIRUS which causes hemorrhagic disease, including hemorrhagic septicemia, in rabbits.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
The type species of ERYTHROVIRUS and the etiological agent of ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM, a disease most commonly seen in school-age children.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
A genus of the family CIRCOVIRIDAE that infects SWINE; PSITTACINES; and non-psittacine BIRDS. Species include Beak and feather disease virus causing a fatal disease in psittacine birds, and Porcine circovirus causing postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs (PORCINE POSTWEANING MULTISYSTEMIC WASTING SYNDROME).
The type species of PARVOVIRUS prevalent in mouse colonies and found as a contaminant of many transplanted tumors or leukemias.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A 17-KDa cytoplasmic PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE involved in immunoregulation. It is a member of the cyclophilin family of proteins that binds to CYCLOSPORINE.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.
A species of ORTHOREOVIRUS infecting mammals (other than baboons). There are four serotypes. In humans they are generally benign but may sometimes cause upper respiratory tract illness or enteritis in infants and children. MAMMALIAN ORTHOREOVIRUS 3 is a very pathogenic virus in laboratory rodents.
Semi-synthetic complex derived from nucleic-acid free viral particles. They are essentially reconstituted viral coats, where the infectious nucleocapsid is replaced by a compound of choice. Virosomes retain their fusogenic activity and thus deliver the incorporated compound (antigens, drugs, genes) inside the target cell. They can be used for vaccines (VACCINES, VIROSOME), drug delivery, or gene transfer.
A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is thought to be through contaminated feed or water. Vaccines have been used with varying degrees of success.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of PARVOVIRUS that causes a disease in mink, mainly those homozygous for the recessive Aleutian gene which determines a desirable coat color.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE which infects fish, amphibians and reptiles. It is non-pathogenic for its natural host, Rana pipiens, but is lethal for other frogs, toads, turtles and salamanders. Frog virus 3 is the type species.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A genus of RNA fungi viruses in the family TOTIVIRIDAE. Some of the viruses contain additional satellite RNA or defective RNA. Transmission occurs during cell division, sporogenesis and cell fusion. The type species is Saccharomyces cerevisiae virus L-A.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
A species of replication-competent oncogene-containing virus in the genus ALPHARETROVIRUS. It is the original source of the src oncogene (V-SRC GENES) and causes sarcoma in chickens.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
A genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family ASTROVIRIDAE. They cause GASTROENTERITIS and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. The type species is Human astrovirus.
A genus of plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE in which the bipartite genome is encapsidated in separate icosahedral particles. Mosaic and mottle symptoms are characteristic, and transmission is exclusively by leaf-feeding beetles. Cowpea mosaic virus is the type species.
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
A species of PARVOVIRUS infecting cats with a highly contagious enteric disease. Host range variants include mink enteritis virus, canine parvovirus (PARVOVIRUS, CANINE), and raccoon parvovirus. After infecting their new hosts, many of these viruses have further evolved and are now considered distinct species.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
A slow progressive disease of mink caused by the ALEUTIAN MINK DISEASE VIRUS. It is characterized by poor reproduction, weight loss, autoimmunity, hypergammaglobulinemia, increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, and death from renal failure. The disease occurs in all color types, but mink which are homozygous recessive for the Aleutian gene for light coat color are particularly susceptible.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE containing highly flexuous filaments. Some members are important pathogens of crop plants. Natural vectors include APHIDS, whiteflies, and mealybugs. The type species is Beet yellows virus.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
A species of the Chenopodium genus which is the source of edible seed called quinoa. It contains makisterone A and other STEROIDS, some having ECDYSTEROID activity on insects.
A genus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE associated with worldwide sporadic outbreaks of GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The first recorded outbreak was in human infants in Sapporo, Japan in 1977. The genus is comprised of a single species, Sapporo virus, containing multiple strains.
A species of DELTAPAPILLOMAVIRUS infecting cattle.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
Virus diseases caused by the CIRCOVIRIDAE.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A species of PARVOVIRUS causing reproductive failure in pigs.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A genus of PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily DENSOVIRINAE, comprising helper-independent viruses containing only two species. Junonia coenia densovirus is the type species.
A mitosporic fungal genus including both saprophytes and plant parasites.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.
A genus of plant viruses that infects both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Its organisms are persistently transmitted by aphids, and weeds may provide reservoirs of infection.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, isolated from rodents and lagomorphs and occasionally causing febrile illness in man.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A species of BETARETROVIRUS isolated from mammary carcinoma in rhesus monkeys. It appears to have evolved from a recombination between a murine B oncovirus and a primate C oncovirus related to the baboon endogenous virus. Several serologically distinct strains exist. MPMV induces SIMIAN AIDS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).
The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.
Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
A species of the genus POTYVIRUS that affects many species of Prunus. It is transmitted by aphids and by infected rootstocks.
Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.
Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.
A family of bisegmented, double-stranded RNA viruses causing infection in fish, mollusks, fowl, and Drosophila. There are three genera: AQUABIRNAVIRUS; AVIBIRNAVIRUS; and ENTOMOBIRNAVIRUS. Horizontal and vertical transmission occurs for all viruses.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE infecting a wide range of arthropods and vertebrates including humans. It comprises at least 21 serological subgroups. Transmission is by vectors such as midges, mosquitoes, sandflies, and ticks.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.

CAR-dependent and CAR-independent pathways of adenovirus vector-mediated gene transfer and expression in human fibroblasts. (1/4982)

Primary fibroblasts are not efficiently transduced by subgroup C adenovirus (Ad) vectors because they express low levels of the high-affinity Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). In the present study, we have used primary human dermal fibroblasts as a model to explore strategies by which Ad vectors can be designed to enter cells deficient in CAR. Using an Ad vector expressing the human CAR cDNA (AdCAR) at high multiplicity of infection, primary fibroblasts were converted from being CAR deficient to CAR sufficient. Efficiency of subsequent gene transfer by standard Ad5-based vectors and Ad5-based vectors with alterations in penton and fiber was evaluated. Marked enhancement of binding and transgene expression by standard Ad5 vectors was achieved in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Expression by AdDeltaRGDbetagal, an Ad5-based vector lacking the arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) alphaV integrin recognition site from its penton base, was achieved in CAR-sufficient, but not CAR-deficient, cells. Fiber-altered Ad5-based vectors, including (a) AdF(pK7)betagal (bearing seven lysines on the end of fiber) (b) AdF(RGD)betagal (bearing a high-affinity RGD sequence on the end of fiber), and (c) AdF9sK betagal (bearing a short fiber and Ad9 knob), demonstrated enhanced gene transfer in CAR-deficient fibroblasts, with no further enhancement in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Together, these observations demonstrate that CAR deficiency on Ad targets can be circumvented either by supplying CAR or by modifying the Ad fiber to bind to other cell-surface receptors.  (+info)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus type 11 recombinant virus-like particles interacts with heparin and cell-surface glycosaminoglycans on human keratinocytes. (2/4982)

The L1 major capsid protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11, a 55-kDa polypeptide, forms particulate structures resembling native virus with an average particle diameter of 50-60 nm when expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show in this report that these virus-like particles (VLPs) interact with heparin and with cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) resembling heparin on keratinocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells. The binding of VLPs to heparin is shown to exhibit an affinity comparable to that of other identified heparin-binding proteins. Immobilized heparin chromatography and surface plasmon resonance were used to show that this interaction can be specifically inhibited by free heparin and dextran sulfate and that the effectiveness of the inhibitor is related to its molecular weight and charge density. Sequence comparison of nine human L1 types revealed a conserved region of the carboxyl terminus containing clustered basic amino acids that bear resemblance to proposed heparin-binding motifs in unrelated proteins. Specific enzymatic cleavage of this region eliminated binding to both immobilized heparin and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Removal of heparan sulfate GAGs on keratinocytes by treatment with heparinase or heparitinase resulted in an 80-90% reduction of VLP binding, whereas treatment of cells with laminin, a substrate for alpha6 integrin receptors, provided minimal inhibition. Cells treated with chlorate or substituted beta-D-xylosides, resulting in undersulfation or secretion of GAG chains, also showed a reduced affinity for VLPs. Similarly, binding of VLPs to a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant deficient in GAG synthesis was shown to be only 10% that observed for wild type cells. This report establishes for the first time that the carboxyl-terminal portion of HPV L1 interacts with heparin, and that this region appears to be crucial for interaction with the cell surface.  (+info)

Biophysical characterization of a designed TMV coat protein mutant, R46G, that elicits a moderate hypersensitivity response in Nicotiana sylvestris. (3/4982)

The hypersensitivity resistance response directed by the N' gene in Nicotiana sylvestris is elicited by the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) coat protein R46G, but not by the U1 wild-type TMV coat protein. In this study, the structural and hydrodynamic properties of R46G and wild-type coat proteins were compared for variations that may explain N' gene elicitation. Circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals no significant secondary or tertiary structural differences between the elicitor and nonelicitor coat proteins. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies, however, do show different concentration dependencies of the weight average sedimentation coefficients at 4 degrees C. Viral reconstitution kinetics at 20 degrees C were used to determine viral assembly rates and as an initial assay of the rate of 20S formation, the obligate species for viral reconstitution. These kinetic results reveal a decreased lag time for reconstitution performed with R46G that initially lack the 20S aggregate. However, experiments performed with 20S initially present reveal no detectable differences indicating that the mechanism of viral assembly is similar for the two coat protein species. Therefore, an increased rate of 20S formation from R46G subunits may explain the differences in the viral reconstitution lag times. The inferred increase in the rate of 20S formation is verified by direct measurement of the 20S boundary as a function of time at 20 degrees C using velocity sedimentation analysis. These results are consistent with the interpretation that there may be an altered size distribution and/or lifetime of the small coat protein aggregates in elicitors that allows N. sylvestris to recognize the invading virus.  (+info)

Time-resolved fluorescence investigation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein: influence of the binding of nucleic acids. (4/4982)

Depending on the HIV-1 isolate, MN or BH10, the nucleocapsid protein, NCp7, corresponds to a 55- or 71-amino acid length product, respectively. The MN NCp7 contains a single Trp residue at position 37 in the distal zinc finger motif, and the BH10 NCp7 contains an additional Trp, at position 61 in the C-terminal chain. The time-resolved intensity decay parameters of the zinc-saturated BH10 NCp7 were determined and compared to those of single-Trp-containing derivatives. The fluorescence decay of BH10 NCp7 could be clearly represented as a linear combination (with respect to both lifetimes and fractional intensities) of the individual emitting Trp residues. This suggested the absence of interactions between the two Trp residues, a feature that was confirmed by molecular modeling and fluorescence energy transfer studies. In the presence of tRNAPhe, taken as a RNA model, the same conclusions hold true despite the large fluorescence decrease induced by the binding of tRNAPhe. Indeed, the fluorescence of Trp37 appears almost fully quenched, in keeping with a stacking of this residue with the bases of tRNAPhe. Despite the multiple binding sites in tRNAPhe, the large prevalence of ultrashort lifetimes, associated with the stacking of Trp37, suggests that this stacking constitutes a major feature in the binding process of NCp7 to nucleic acids. In contrast, Trp61 only stacked to a small extent with tRNAPhe. The behavior of this residue in the tRNAPhe-NCp7 complexes appeared to be rather heterogeneous, suggesting that it does not constitute a major determinant in the binding process. Finally, our data suggested that the binding of NCp7 proteins from the two HIV-1 strains to nonspecific nucleic acid sequences was largely similar.  (+info)

Identification of additional genes that influence baculovirus late gene expression. (5/4982)

We were unable to confirm transient late gene expression using constructs of 18 genes that had been reported to support Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) late gene expression when transfected into Spodoptera frugiperda cells [Lu, A., and Miller, L. K. (1995). J. Virol. 69, 975-982]. Three genes (orf66, orf68, and orf41) were included, all or in part, in the constructs used in that study, but they had not been independently tested. Therefore we investigated these and neighboring orfs for their influence on late gene expression. We found that orf41 was required for late gene expression and that sequences within orf45 appeared to be required for the expression of orf41. Although orf66 and orf68 did not appear to affect late gene expression, orf69 stimulated expression. orf69 was found to have high homology to recent entries in GenBank from a variety of organisms. In addition, it was found that orf121, which was shown to be involved in early gene expression, and the viral homolog of pcna did not influence late gene expression.  (+info)

A new picornavirus isolated from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). (6/4982)

A previously unknown picornavirus was isolated from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). Electron microscopy images and sequence data of the prototype isolate, named Ljungan virus, showed that it is a picornavirus. The amino acid sequences of predicted Ljungan virus capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 were closely related to the human pathogen echovirus 22 (approximately 70% similarity). A partial 5' noncoding region sequence of Ljungan virus showed the highest degree of relatedness to cardioviruses. Two additional isolates were serologically and molecularly related to the prototype.  (+info)

Direct evidence that the proton motive force inhibits membrane translocation of positively charged residues within membrane proteins. (7/4982)

The M13 phage procoat protein requires both its signal sequence and its membrane anchor sequence in the mature part of the protein for membrane insertion. Translocation of its short acidic periplasmic loop is stimulated by the proton motive force (pmf) and does not require the Sec components. We now find that the pmf becomes increasingly important for the translocation of negatively charged residues within procoat when the hydrophobicity of the signal or membrane anchor is incrementally reduced. In contrast, we find that the pmf inhibits translocation of the periplasmic loop when it contains one or two positively charged residues. This inhibitory effect of the pmf is stronger when the hydrophobicity of the inserting procoat protein is compromised. No pmf effect is observed for translocation of an uncharged periplasmic loop even when the hydrophobicity is reduced. We also show that the Delta Psi component of the pmf is necessary and sufficient for insertion of representative constructs and that the translocation effects of charged residues are primarily due to the DeltaPsi component of the pmf and not the pH component.  (+info)

Interactions of heterologous DNA with polyomavirus major structural protein, VP1. (8/4982)

'Empty' polyomavirus pseudocapsids, self-assembled from the major structural protein VP1, bind DNA non-specifically and can deliver it into the nuclei of mammalian cells for expression [Forstova et al. (1995) Hum. Gene Ther. 6, 297-3061. Formation of suitable VP1-DNA complexes appears to be the limiting step in this route of gene delivery. Here, the character of VP1-DNA interactions has been studied in detail. Electron microscopy revealed that VP1 pseudocapsids can create in vitro at least two types of interactions with double-stranded DNA: (i) highly stable complexes, requiring free DNA ends, where the DNA is partially encapsidated; and, (ii) weaker interactions of pseudocapsids with internal parts of the DNA chain.  (+info)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Derivation of a triple mosaic adenovirus based on modification of the minor capsid protein IX. AU - Tang, Yizhe. AU - Le, Long P.. AU - Matthews, Qiana L.. AU - Han, Tie. AU - Wu, Hongju. AU - Curiel, David T.. N1 - Funding Information: Ad5IXFlag and Ad5IXHis 6 are kind gifts from Dr. Anton Borovjagin, the stable cell line expressing sCAR protein is a kind gift from Dr. Maaike Everts. Discussions with Dr. Hideyo Ugai, Dr. Anton Borovjagin and Dr. Igor Dmitriev were helpful and stimulating throughout this work. The authors also thank Dr. Lacey McNally for technical support of immunogold electron microscopy and Minghui Wang for assistance in quantitative PCR analysis. This work was supported by the following grants: NIH R01CA111569 (Dr. David T. Curiel), NIH 5T32AI07493-11 (Dr. Casey Morrow), Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation 1-2005-71 (Dr. Hongju Wu) and 5-2007-660 (Dr. Hongju Wu). PY - 2008/8/1. Y1 - 2008/8/1. N2 - Adenoviral capsid protein IX (pIX) has been shown to be a ...
Outer capsid protein VP4: Spike-forming protein that mediates virion attachment to the host epithelial cell receptors and plays a major role in cell penetration, determination of host range restriction and virulence. Rotavirus attachment and entry into the host cell probably involves multiple sequential contacts between the outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7, and the cell receptors. It is subsequently lost, together with VP7, following virus entry into the host cell. Following entry into the host cell, low intracellular or intravesicular Ca(2+) concentration probably causes the calcium-stabilized VP7 trimers to dissociate from the virion. This step is probably necessary for the membrane-disrupting entry step and the release of VP4, which is locked onto the virion by VP7.
Herpesvirus capsid protein. Molecular model of the major capsid protein VP5 from herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). This virus infects epithelial cells around the mouth, causing fluid-filled blisters known as cold sores. There is no known cure for herpes infection and the virus remains in the body for life. - Stock Image F006/9435
Viral particles derived from mouse polyomavirus can be potentially used as a delivery system for therapeutic genes and drugs into target cells. This thesis focuses on preparation and characterization of polyomaviral particles that are modified with cell-penetrating peptides in order to increase efficiency of transduction of reporter genes into human cells. Viral particles that are composed of major capsid protein VP1 in combination with minor capsid protein VP2 and minor capsid protein VP3 that is modified with octaarginine, LAH4 peptide or with transduction domain of adenoviral protein VI are analysed in transduction assays. The thesis also provides information about the effect of the modification on encapsidation of heterologous DNA. The results of transduction assays performed with modified particles containing encapsidated luciferase gene revealed that efficiency of transduction did not increase but decreased in comparison with unmodified particles. These findings help to elucidate the role ...
Assembly of recombinant capsid proteins into virus-like particles (VLPs) still represents an interesting challenge in virus-based nanotechnologies. The structure of VLPs has gained importance for the development and design of new adjuvants and antigen carriers. The potential of Tobacco etch virus capsid protein (TEV CP) as adjuvant has not been evaluated to date. Two constructs for TEV CP expression in Escherichia coli were generated: a wild-type version (TEV-CP) and a C-terminal hexahistidine (His)-tagged version (His-TEV-CP). Although both versions were expressed in the soluble fraction of E. coli lysates, only His-TEV-CP self-assembled into micrometric flexuous filamentous VLPs. In addition, the His-tag enabled high yields and facilitated purification of TEV VLPs. These TEV VLPs elicited broader IgG2-specific antibody response against a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) protein when compared to the potent IgG1 response induced by the protein alone. His-TEV CP was
The high prevalence of pre-existing anti-Ad5 immunity in human populations may substantially limit the immunogenicity and clinical utility of rAd5 vector-based vaccines for HIV-1 and other pathogens. Our studies demonstrate ,90% Ad5 seroprevalence in sub-Saharan Africa with median NAb titers ,10-fold higher than those found in the United States. These data suggest that rAd5 vectors should be engineered to evade dominant Ad5-specific NAbs before their use as vaccine vectors in the developing world. To determine the principal targets of Ad5-specific NAbs, we exploited the lack of detectable serologic cross-reactivity between Ad5 and Ad35 (8). Virus neutralization studies using capsid chimeric rAd5/rAd35 vectors and serum samples from both humans and mice demonstrated that Ad5-specific NAbs were directed primarily against the Ad5 hexon protein. Fiber-specific NAbs were detected at low frequencies in vitro but were substantially less efficient than hexon-specific NAbs at blunting rAd5 vaccine ...
The L1 major capsid proteins of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 11 and 16 were purified and analyzed for structural integrity and in vitro self-assembly. Proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli as glutathione-S-transferase-L1 (GST-L1) fusions and purified to near homogeneity as pentamers (equiv …
Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are small DNA, non-enveloped, double-stranded and closed circular viruses. There are more than 150 HPV identified types. Genital HPV types are categorized according to their epidemiologic association with cervical cancer to high and low risk types. The high risk type HPV 16 is the most common in the world. we aimed to design a universal peptide based vaccine against HPV type 16 virus using Immunoinformatics Approach through prediction of highly conserved T and B-cell epitopes from the most abundant and highly immunogenic protein (L1 major capsid protein) derived from HPV type 16 strains all over the world. All sequences of the L1 major capsid protein were retrieved from NCBI database. Potentially continuous B and T cell epitopes were predicted using tools from immune epitope data base analysis resource (IEDB-AR). The Allergenicity of predicted epitopes was analyzed by AllerTOP Tool and the coverage was determined throughout the worlds. The B cell epitope 243KSEV246 ...
Samuel Campos, PhD, studies early events of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection. HPVs are small, non-enveloped DNA viruses that cause a variety of lesions ranging from benign waters to cervical cancers. Although over 100 types of HPVs have been identified, HPV16 is the most prevalent, and is alone responsible for more than 50% of cervical cancers in women worldwide. Dr. Campos and his lab study the mechanisms of HPV virus transmission at a cellular level, in hopes to discover new approaches for the prevention and treatment of HPV.HPV16 virions consist of an ~8kb circular dsDNA genome packaged into a ~60 nm protein capsid. The genome is condensed with cellular histones and exists in a chromatin-like state. The capsid is comprised of 72 pentamers of the major capsid protein L1 and up to 72 molecules of the minor capsid protein L2, localized along the inner capsid surface, within the central cavities beneath the L1 pentamers. Mature HPV16 virions exist in an oxidized state, with adjacent L1 ...
The utility of recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) vector-based vaccines for HIV-1 and other pathogens will likely be limited by the high prevalence of pre-existing Ad5-specific neutralizing Abs (NAbs) in human populations. However, the immunodominant targets of Ad5-specific NAbs in humans remain poorly characterized. In this study, we assess the titers and primary determinants of Ad5-specific NAbs in individuals from both the United States and the developing world. Importantly, median Ad5-specific NAb titers were ,10-fold higher in sub-Saharan Africa compared with the United States. Moreover, hexon-specific NAb titers were 4- to 10-fold higher than fiber-specific NAb titers in these cohorts by virus neutralization assays using capsid chimeric viruses. We next performed adoptive transfer studies in mice to evaluate the functional capacity of hexon- and fiber-specific NAbs to suppress the immunogenicity of a prototype rAd5-Env vaccine. Hexon-specific NAbs were remarkably efficient at ...
The mature HIV-1 conical core formation proceeds through highly regulated protease cleavage of the Gag precursor, which ultimately leads to substantial rearrangements of the capsid (CAp24) molecule involving both inter- and intra-molecular contacts of the CAp24 molecules. In this aspect, Asp51 which is located in the N-terminal domain of HIV-1 CAp24 plays an important role by forming a salt-bridge with the free imino terminus Pro1 following proteolytic cleavage and liberation of the CAp24 protein from the Pr55Gag precursor. Thus, previous substitution mutation of Asp51 to alanine (D51A) has shown to be lethal and that this invariable residue was found essential for tube formation in vitro, virus replication and virus capsid formation. We extended the above investigation by introducing three different D51 substitution mutations (D51N, D51E, and D51Q) into both prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems and studied their effects on in vitro capsid assembly and virus infectivity. Two substitution
One monoclonal antibody (mAb; 8E4), against the capsid protein of PCV2, was generated and characterised in this study. 8E4 reacted with the genotype PCV2a (CL, LG and JF2) strains but not PCV2b (YJ, SH and JF) strains by an immunoperoxidase mono-layer assay (IPMA) and a capture ELISA. Furthermore, the mAb had the capacity to neutralise PCV2a (CL, LG and JF2) strains but not PCV2b (YJ, SH and JF) strains. One critical amino acid that determined a conformational neutralising epitope was identified using mAb 8E4 and PCV2 infectious clone technique. Amino acid residues 47-72 in the capsid protein of PCV2a/CL were replaced with the corresponding region of PCV2b/YJ, and the reactivity of mAb 8E4 was lost. Further experiments demonstrated that one amino acid substitution, the alanine for arginine at position 59 (A59R) in the capsid protein of PCV2a (CL, LG and JF2) strains, inhibited completely the immunoreactivity of three PCV2a strains with mAb 8E4 ...
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-45 genotype circulates in high percentage in Bandung area - Indonesia, after HPV-16 and HPV-18. The aim of this study was to analyse variations of major capsid (L1) HPV-45 and its phylogeny. Furthermore in silico protein structure and epitope prediction was explored. Methods: L1 gene of HPV-45 was amplified, sequenced and aligned. Phylogenetic tree had been built and compared with a complete L1 HPV-45 sequence. Structure and epitope prediction of L1 protein were then developed in silico. Results: Of 5 L1 HPV-45 sequences collected, we have detected one variant of sub lineage A2 which was considered as a new variant, and two variants of B2. Superimposition of structure of these two variants with reference showed very similar structure. Furthermore, seven amino acid substitutions were found within these L1 variants of which two substitutions might change the polarity of corresponding amino acid I329T and S383G. The S383G occurred in surface loop (HI-Loop) of new L1
Nevertheless, up to now, this passive immune technique has not been carried out as a therapy for RVA-linked diarrhea. Although Ab muscles can have higher
We have presented several lines of evidence that the papillomavirus minor capsid protein mediates the endosomal escape of the viral genome. A C-terminal 23-amino-acid peptide from the L2 protein was identified that is essential for transit of the viral DNA across the endosomal membrane during papillomavirus infection. This peptide is also highly cytotoxic to bacteria, fungi, and mammalian cells after exogenous application due to membrane depolarization and permeabilization and induces the integration of GFP fusion proteins and full-length L2 protein into cellular membranes when expressed in mammalian cells, eventually resulting in cell death. Since the full-length L2 protein but not C-terminally mutated L2 nor L1 protein integrated into cellular membranes, an artificial effect of the observations with peptides and fusion proteins can be excluded. These critical functions render this peptide sequence indispensable for PV infection. The activity of this peptide is highest at modestly acidic pH, ...
Singararn SW, Garmann RF, Knobler CM, Gelbart WM, Ben-Shaul A. Role of RNA Branchedness in the Competition for Viral Capsid Proteins. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B. 2015;119 :13991-14002.
Shop Subgenomic capsid protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Subgenomic capsid protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
The individual papillomavirus type 11 (HPV-11) L1 main capsid protein could be trypsinized to create recombinant capsomeres that retain HPV genotype-restricted capsid antigenicity (M. immunogenic highly, genotype-restricted HPV capsid-neutralizing antigenic domains are included within capsomeres entirely. Thus, capsomeres may be viable vaccine applicants for preventing HPV disease. Papillomaviruses trigger hyperproliferative cutaneous and/or mucosal epithelial lesions in higher vertebrates, including human beings (31). A lot more than 70 genotypically specific human being papillomaviruses (HPVs) have already been identified (12) and may be categorized based on observed variations in disease phenotype (i.e., desired cells tropisms and/or disease organizations). For instance, most HPVs preferentially infect cutaneous pores and skin and usually trigger only harmless disease (e.g., plantar or common warts), while other styles even more infect PF 477736 oral or anogenital mucosal epithelium often. ...
It is becoming increasingly clear that mammalian cells can express a variety of factors that limit retroviral replication. One class of these factors blocks replication at a stage post-entry but prior to nuclear import and integration of the viral genome. Members of this family arc known as restriction factors. The best characterised member is the mouse gene hvl which determines susceptibility to infection by MLV. I-vl has two alleles known as Fvl and Fv/ whose restriction characteristics determine the host range of different MLV strains. It has become apparent that the phenomenon of restriction is not limited to MLV and murine cells. HIV-1, as well as MLV is restricted at a post-entry step in a number of primate species including rhesus macaques. African green monkeys and owl monkeys. The Thm5 gene in these species is the main determinant of both HIV-1 and MLV restriction. Viral determinants of this restriction map to the virus capsid protein, however despite strong genetic ev idence, no ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Recognition of the HIV capsid by the TRIM5α restriction factor is mediated by a subset of pre-existing conformations of the TRIM5α SPRY domain. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
This section of the Laboratory of Cellular Oncologys website gives detailed technical information about the production and manipulation of human papillomavirus (HPV) and polyomavirus (PyV) based gene delivery vectors. Such vectors are also known as pseudoviruses. They are generated by co-expressing the two viral capsid proteins (L1 and L2 (HPVs) or VP1 and VP2/3 (PyVs)) using codon-modified expression constructs. The two capsid proteins are necessary and sufficient for intracellular packaging of reporter plasmids within mammalian 293TT cells. The resulting high-titer pseudovirus stocks can deliver packaged reporter plasmids to a wide variety of cell types in vitro and in vivo ...
Beginning in 2012, our understanding of human papillomavirus (HPV) subcellular trafficking has undergone a drastic paradigm shift. Work from multiple laboratories has revealed that HPV has evolved a unique means to deliver its viral genome (vDNA) to the cell nucleus, relying on a myriad of host cell proteins and processes. The major breakthrough finding from these recent endeavors was the realization of L2-dependent utilization of cellular sorting factors for the retrograde transport of vDNA away from degradative endo/lysosomal compartments to the Golgi, prior to mitosis-dependent nuclear accumulation of L2/vDNA. An overview of current models of HPV entry, subcellular trafficking, and the role of L2 during initial infection is provided below, highlighting unresolved questions and gaps in knowledge.
We have professional and advanced research and production capacity for WNV Capsid protein reagents production, including cDNA Clones,etc. All WNV-C products are produced in house and quality controlled.
The official website for HHMI and the University of Pittsburghs Science Education Alliance program: Phage Hunters Advancing Genomics and Evolutionary Science.
1E6O: Mutual Conformational Adaptations in Antigen and Antibody Upon Complex Formation between an Fab and HIV-1 Capsid Protein P24
1E6J: Mutual Conformational Adaptations in Antigen and Antibody Upon Complex Formation between an Fab and HIV-1 Capsid Protein P24
TY - JOUR. T1 - A model of protein association based on their hydrophobic and electric interactions. AU - Mozo-Villarías, Angel. AU - Cedano, Juan. AU - Querol, Enrique. PY - 2014/10/17. Y1 - 2014/10/17. N2 - © 2014 Mozo-Villarías et al. The propensity of many proteins to oligomerize and associate to form complex structures from their constituent monomers, is analyzed in terms of their hydrophobic (H), and electric pseudo-dipole (D) moment vectors. In both cases these vectors are defined as the product of the distance between their positive and negative centroids, times the total hydrophobicity or total positive charge of the protein. Changes in the magnitudes and directions of H and D are studied as monomers associate to form larger complexes. We use these descriptors to study similarities and differences in two groups of associations: a) open associations such as polymers with an undefined number of monomers (i.e. actin polymerization, amyloid and HIV capsid assemblies); b) closed ...
Side-chain details from regions in subunit B shown with map and model.Comparable regions from the other two capsid subunits are shown in Supplementary Fig. 5.
The Effect of Limited Proteolysis on the Amino Acid Composition of Five Potyviruses and on the Serological Reaction and Peptide Map of the Tobacco Etch Virus Capsid Protein. Ernest Hiebert, J. H. Tremaine, and W. P. Ronald. Pages 411-416. VIEW ABSTRACT , VIEW ARTICLE. ...
applicable for standard unlabeled Pentamers and ProVE® Pentamers). Biotin-labeled Pentamer staining protocol. Pentamer staining for whole blood. Staining a single cell sample with multiple labeled Pentamers. Staining a single cell sample with multiple unlabeled Pentamers. Pentamer immunohistochemistry protocol. ...
The presence of HPV capsid protein 14 positive cases was associated with local recurrence in nine cases The genital transmission of HPV[5,7,11] Virusul HPV, de obicei, intr n corpul uman happens during sexual intercourse vaginal, anal prin soluii de continuitate la nivelul epidermului and oral.
Summary Direct evidence linking the capsid protein to specific dsRNA segments from the three killer strains of Ustilago maydis virus (P1, P4, P6) is presented. The capsid proteins of the three strains cross-react immunologically, have similar mol. wt. and similar peptide maps after limited proteolysis. The capsid proteins from P1 and P4 were translated from their respective H2 dsRNA segments, whereas the capsid protein for P6 was translated from H1 dsRNA. These in vitro translation products were each precipitated by the antiserum to capsid proteins of all three strains, had similar mol. wt. and similar peptide maps. All in vitro translation products competed effectively with native capsid proteins of all of the three strains in immunocompetition assays. These results suggest that the three strains code for a similar capsid protein, and that the information for capsid protein resides in the H2 segment of strain P1 and P4, and in the H1 segment of strain P6.
Control of capsid disassembly is crucial for efficient HIV-1 cDNA activity after access, yet sponsor elements involved in this procedure remain mainly mystery. MELK dictates ideal capsid disassembly through phosphorylation of Ser-149 in the multimerized HIV-1 primary, which prospects to effective virus-like Clonidine hydrochloride supplier cDNA activity in focus on cells. The phosphorylation-mimetic capsid mutation of Ser-149 triggered extravagant capsid disassembly and too-early finalization of invert transcription, and impeded nuclear admittance of HIV-1 cDNA, recommending the importance of well-ordered capsid disassembly in the early levels of virus-like duplication. This breakthrough discovery shall facilitate understanding of the useful hyperlink among pathogen uncoating, invert transcription and nuclear admittance, and is certainly anticipated to lead to developing a story technique for Helps therapy. Launch During the training course of individual immunodeficiency pathogen type 1 (HIV-1) ...
Spike-forming protein that mediates virion attachment to the host epithelial cell receptors and plays a major role in cell penetration, determination of host range restriction and virulence. Rotavirus entry into the host cell probably involves multiple sequential contacts between the outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7, and the cell receptors. According to the considered strain, VP4 seems to essentially target sialic acid and/or the integrin heterodimer ITGA2/ITGB1 (By similarity).
Recently, recombinant baculoviruses have been used to show that expression of six herpes simplex virus type 1 genes results in the formation of capsid-like particles. We have applied cryoelectron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction to establish their structural authenticity to a resolution of approximately 2.7 nm. By comparing capsids assembled with and without the expression of gene UL35, we have confirmed the presence of six copies of its product, VP26 (12 kDa), around each hexon tip. However, VP26 is not present on pentons, indicating that the conformational differences between the hexon and penton states of the major capsid protein, VP5, extend to the VP26 binding site. ...
The outer shell of the adenovirus capsid comprises three major types of protein (hexon, penton base and fiber) that perform the majority of functions facilitating the early stages of adenovirus infection. respect to the delivery of foreign molecules. Adenovirus capsid tasks in early illness The adenovirus (Ad) is definitely a non-enveloped, dsDNA disease whose outer shell of the icosahedral-shaped capsid is definitely comprises three major types of proteins: hexon, penton foundation and dietary fiber (Number 1). The hexon comprises the majority of the outer shell of the Ad capsid, forming 240 homotrimers that encapsidate the majority of the disease, including the viral genome and connected proteins [1]. The dietary fiber protrudes from each of the 12 vertices of the icosahedron, while the penton foundation lies at the base of each dietary fiber. These three capsid proteins contribute to the majority of activities required for the early phases of Ad infection. Number 1 Representation of ...
Herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV-1) and bacteriophage λ capsids undergo considerable structural changes during self-assembly and DNA packaging. The initial steps of viral capsid self-assembly require weak, non-covalent interactions between the capsid subunits to ensure free energy minimization and error-free assembly. In the final stages of DNA packaging, however, the internal genome pressure dramatically increases, requiring significant capsid strength to withstand high internal genome pressures of tens of atmospheres. Our data reveal that the loosely formed capsid structure is reinforced post-assembly by the minor capsid protein UL25 in HSV-1 and gpD in bacteriophage λ. Using atomic force microscopy nano-indentation analysis, we show that the capsid becomes stiffer upon binding of UL25 and gpD due to increased structural stability. At the same time the force required to break the capsid increases by ∼70% for both herpes and phage. This demonstrates a universal and evolutionarily conserved function
TKH HIV caSVLd, a SURWHLQ VKHOO cRPSRVHd RI PRQRPHULc XQLWV RI CA, IRUPV a IXOOHUHQH cRQH WKaW SURWHcWV HIV¶V YLUaO JHQRPH aQd enzymes during infection. I am interested in elucidating the factors that influence stability of the capsid shell and capturing the structural interactions between HIV capsid, host restriction factors, and small molecules using biochemical and structural biology techniques. HIV capsid shell was broken down and purified into hexamer and pentamer units for in vitro study. Structural assays were performed using X-ray crystallography and biochemical analysis was performed using pelleting assays. By understanding capsid structure with factors that confer stability, treatments can be designed to target the protective HIV capsid before the critical step of viral genome integration with host DNA.
We modified the capsid protein of a human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) belonging to subgenogroup C4 (HEV71-C4) to generate a mouse virulent strain, based on the genetic information derived from our previous subgenogroup B3 mouse-adapted virus. Infectious clone-derived mutant virus populations containing the capsid protein mutations VP1-Q145E and VP1-Q145G were generated by site-directed mutagenesis of an infectious clone of a subgenogroup C4 strain. Viruses expressing the VP1-Q145E were virulent in 5-day-old BALB/c mice with 100 % mortality rate observed. Skeletal muscle appears to be the primary site of replication of this virus with limb muscle showing severe myositis. Virus was also isolated from spleen, liver, heart and brain of infected mice. This study demonstrates that introducing a key mutation into the HEV71 VP1 capsid protein is able to generate a mouse virulent HEV71 strain from a different genogroup as well as providing an alternative strategy for the generation of mouse virulent HEV71.
Author Summary Viruses are obligate intracellular pathogens, and all of them share one crucial step in their life cycle-the attachment to their host cell via cellular receptors, which are usually proteins or carbohydrates. This step is decisive for the selection of target cells and virus entry. In this study, we investigated murine polyomavirus (MuPyV), which attaches to host gangliosides with its major capsid protein, VP1. We have solved the crystal structures of VP1 in complex with previously known interaction partners as well as with the ganglioside GT1a, which we have identified as a novel functional receptor for MuPyV. Earlier studies have shown that different strains with singular amino acid exchanges in the receptor binding pocket of VP1 display altered pathogenicity and viral spread. Our investigations show that, while these exchanges do not abolish binding or significantly alter interaction modes to our investigated carbohydrates, they have subtle effects on glycan affinity. The combination of
Viral capsids are composed of multiple copies of one or a few gene products that self-assemble on their own or in the presence of the viral genome and/or auxiliary proteins into closed shells (capsids). We have analyzed 75 high-resolution virus capsid structures by calculating the average fraction of the solvent-accessible surface area of the coat protein subunits buried in the viral capsids. This fraction ranges from 0 to 1 and represents a normalized protein-protein interaction (PPI) index and is a measure of the extent of protein-protein interactions. The PPI indices were used to compare the extent of association of subunits among different capsids. We further examined the variation of the PPI indices as a function of the molecular weight of the coat protein subunit and the capsid diameter. Our results suggest that the PPI indices in T=1 and pseudo-T=3 capsids vary linearly with the molecular weight of the subunit and capsid size. This is in contrast to quasi-equivalent capsids with T>or=3, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Systemic delivery of siRNA by chimeric capsid protein. T2 - Tumor targeting and RNAi activity in vivo. AU - Choi, Kyung Mi. AU - Kim, Kwang Meyung. AU - Kwon, Ick Chan. AU - Kim, In-San. AU - Ahn, Hyung Jun. PY - 2013/1/7. Y1 - 2013/1/7. N2 - Recently, we reported that a chimeric capsid protein assembled into a macromolecular container-like structure with capsid shell and the resulting siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes efficiently suppressed RFP gene expression in the cell culture system. To extend RNAi to the in vivo applications, we here demonstrated that the siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes could have tumor-specific targeting ability in vivo as well as the increased stability of siRNA during body circulation. When systemically administered, our siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes delivered siRNA to tumor tissues and efficiently suppressed RFP gene expression in tumor-bearing mice. The enhanced longevity of siRNA in vivo could be explained by shielding effect derived from the ...
The assembly and regulation of viral capsid proteins into highly ordered macromolecular complexes is essential for viral replication. Here, we utilize crystal structures of the capsid protein from the smallest and simplest known viruses capable of autonomously replicating in animal cells, circoviruses, to establish structural and mechanistic insights into capsid morphogenesis and regulation. The beak and feather disease virus, like many circoviruses, encode only two genes: a capsid protein and a replication initiation protein. The capsid protein forms distinct macromolecular assemblies during replication and here we elucidate these structures at high resolution, showing that these complexes reverse the exposure of the N-terminal arginine rich domain responsible for DNA binding and nuclear localization. We show that assembly of these complexes is regulated by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), and provide a structural basis of capsid assembly around single-stranded DNA, highlighting novel binding ...
Phages HK97 and λ are model systems that have aided in the understanding of capsid and tail assembly. HK97 capsid assembly involves the formation of a T=7 icosahedral lattice from 415 monomers of the major capsid protein (mcp), 12 monomers of portal protein, and ~120 copies of the protease. Salt bridges have been found to play a critical role in the assembly pathway, but it is not clear how capsid size is determined. Phage phi1026b is larger than HK97 but the mcp shares 50% sequence similarity with HK97. We hypothesize that comparing the atomic models of phi1026b and HK97 will help illuminate conserved and unique interactions that may play a role in assembly and potentially size determination. By utilizing the FEI Krios microscope, Falcon II camera, and EPU data acquisition software, high-resolution structures were generated which allowed for the generation of atomic models of the phi1026b Prohead I and Head capsids. Differences were observed in the organization of the delta domain, capsomers, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - NONO Detects the Nuclear HIV Capsid to Promote cGAS-Mediated Innate Immune Activation. AU - Lahaye, Xavier. AU - Gentili, Matteo. AU - Silvin, Aymeric. AU - Conrad, Cécile. AU - Picard, Léa. AU - Jouve, Mabel. AU - Zueva, Elina. AU - Maurin, Mathieu. AU - Nadalin, Francesca. AU - Knott, Gavin J.. AU - Zhao, Baoyu. AU - Du, Fenglei. AU - Rio, Marlène. AU - Amiel, Jeanne. AU - Fox, Archa H.. AU - Li, Pingwei. AU - Etienne, Lucie. AU - Bond, Charles S.. AU - Colleaux, Laurence. AU - Manel, Nicolas. PY - 2018/10/4. Y1 - 2018/10/4. N2 - Detection of viruses by innate immune sensors induces protective antiviral immunity. The viral DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is necessary for detection of HIV by human dendritic cells and macrophages. However, synthesis of HIV DNA during infection is not sufficient for immune activation. The capsid protein, which associates with viral DNA, has a pivotal role in enabling cGAS-mediated immune activation. We now find that NONO is an ...
Peptides from different regions of the poliovirus type 1 capsid protein VP1 were synthesized. Antibodies raised against these peptides in rabbits and rats recognized the cognate peptides and denatured VP1. Peptides from four regions of VP1 generated antisera with neutralizing titers specifically against poliovirus type 1. Antisera against all other regions of VP1 failed to neutralize virus infectivity, although some of the antisera clearly bound to native virions. Thus, the neutralizing determinants on VP1 reside in specific noncontiguous regions of the protein and can be defined by specific peptides from these regions. ...
Cloning and expression of the gene encoding for the major capsid protein, VP-1, of the D-variant of encephalomyocarditis virus in Escherichia ...
PepTivator® Zika Capsid Protein C is a pool of lyophilized peptides, consisting mainly of 15-mer sequences with 11 amino acids overlap, covering the sequence of the Zika capsid protein C domain from virus isolate Z1106033 polyprotein gene (GenBank Acc. no. KU312312.1).In vitro stimulation of antigen-specific T cells with PepTivator Peptide Pools causes the secretion of effector cytokines and the up-regulation of activation markers, which then allow the detection and isolation of antigen-specific T cells. | Singapore
The HIV-1 capsid protein performs multiple roles in virus replication both during assembly and particle release and during virus trafficking into the nucleus. In order to decipher the roles of capsid protein during early replication, a reliable method to follow its intracellular distribution is required. To complement existing approaches to track HIV-1 capsid during early infection, we developed an HIV-1 imaging strategy, relying on viruses incorporating eGFP-tagged capsid (CA-eGFP) protein and mCherry-tagged integrase (IN-mCherry). Wild type infectivity and sensitivity to inhibition by PF74 point to the functionality of CA-eGFP containing complexes. Low numbers of CA-eGFP molecules are located inside the viral core and imported in the nucleus without significant loss in intensity. Less than 5% of particles carrying both CA-eGFP and IN-mCherry retain both labelled proteins after nuclear entry implying a major uncoating event at the nuclear envelope dissociating IN and CA. Still, 20% of all ...
The outer shell of the adenovirus capsid comprises three major types of protein (hexon, penton base and fiber) that perform the majority of functions facilitating the early stages of adenovirus infection. respect to the delivery of foreign molecules. Adenovirus capsid tasks in early illness The adenovirus (Ad) is definitely a non-enveloped, dsDNA disease whose outer shell of the icosahedral-shaped capsid is definitely comprises three major types of proteins: hexon, penton foundation and dietary fiber (Number 1). The hexon comprises the majority of the outer shell of the Ad capsid, forming 240 homotrimers that encapsidate the majority of the disease, including the viral genome and connected proteins [1]. The dietary fiber protrudes from each of the 12 vertices of the icosahedron, while the penton foundation lies at the base of each dietary fiber. These three capsid proteins contribute to the majority of activities required for the early phases of Ad infection. Number 1 Representation of ...
We provide evidence that F-actin is not involved in intranuclear capsid motility of herpesvirus capsids in primary fibroblasts. We found no indication of nuclear F-actin in cells infected with representative members of all three subfamilies of the Herpesviridae. This finding is consistent with reports showing that steady-state somatic cells do not exhibit phalloidin-stainable nuclear F-actin but that most nuclear actin is in a monomeric, G-actin form. This idea was underlined by a recent report that Lifeact- and phalloidin-stainable nuclear F-actin could be found in somatic cells only as a transient effect of serum stimulation (24). Another recent report describes submicron-length actin polymers using a truncated form of utrophin as a novel nuclear F-actin probe (25). But as the described polymers were extremely short, the authors suggested that it is unlikely they are involved in transport processes. Moreover, they also ruled out directed propulsive force generation by these novel actin ...
Title: HIV Capsid Pattern Sensing by the Host Cell. Abstract. The mature HIV capsid provides a range of interfaces recognizable by host factors and, during its post-entry journey from the cell periphery to the nucleus, the virus encounters a variety of them-some co-opted for optimal infectivity, others evolutionarily designed to prevent infection. A common feature of these interactions is the ability of capsid pattern sensing by the host. This feature allows a host factor to preferably bind intact capsid cores that contain the viral genome, and to avoid the numerous unassembled CA molecules present in the cell. However, high-order capsid recognition is challenging to study in vitro. Here I present various protein-engineering strategies for the production of a repertoire of soluble capsid assemblies and the use of these assemblies in the study of native capsid structure and capsid-host factor interactions. Our studies contribute to a better understanding of the diverse molecular mechanisms by ...
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An interaction between the HSV-1 UL25 capsid protein and cellular microtubule-associated protein was found using a yeast two-hybrid screen and β-D-galactosidase activity assays. Immunofluorescence microscopy of the UL25 protein demonstrated its co-localization with cellular microtubule-associated protein in the plasma membrane. Further investigations with deletion mutants suggest that UL25 is likely to have a function in the nucleus.
Little is known about capsid formation, that is the process in which the capsid proteins self-assemble into an icosahedral shape, nor about the precise interplay between the genome and the capsid proteins. If we would understand these two things better it might open new possibilities for anti-viral drugs, by either blocking the self-assembly process or by breaking the genome-capsid interaction.. A first proposal for the capsid structure was put forward by Caspar and Klug. Their quasi-equivalence principle asserts that each of the 20 triangular faces of the icosahedron is subdivided in 3 subunits, each consisting of at least one protein.. Most viruses have much more than 60 proteins in their capsid, so Caspar and Klug introduced their $T$-number giving the number of proteins per subunit. One superimposes the triangulation of the icosahedron with the hexagonal plane lattice, then $T$ is the number of sub-triangles of these hexagons contained in each subunit. For $T = 7$ we have the following ...
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) capsids are initially assembled with an interior proteins scaffold. capsids upon DNA product packaging we show that VP24 (formulated with the protease area) is certainly quantitatively retained. To research elements managing UL26 capsid incorporation and retention we used a mutant computer virus that fails to express UL26.5 (?virus). Purified ?B capsids showed altered sucrose gradient sedimentation and lacked the dense scaffold core seen in micrographs of wild-type B capsids but contained capsid shell proteins in wild-type amounts. Despite C-terminal sequence identity between UL26 and UL26.5 ?capsids lacking UL26.5 products did not contain compensatory high levels of UL26 proteins. Therefore HSV capsids can be maintained and/or assembled on a minimal scaffold made up of only wild-type levels of UL26 proteins. In contrast to UL26.5 increased expression of UL26 did not compensate for the ?growth defect. While indirect these findings are consistent with the view ...
Enlarge Adult common green capsid Enlarge Capsid damage Enlarge Capsid damage to red Charles Ross fruit Common green capsid is a widespread and abundant
Abstract: Viruses self-assemble from identical capsid proteins and their genome consisting, for example, of a long single stranded (ss) RNA. For a big class of T = 3 viruses capsid proteins have long positive N-terminal tails. We explore the role played by the Coulomb interaction between the brush of positive N-terminal tails rooted at the inner surface of the capsid and the negative ss RNA molecule. We show that viruses are most stable when the total contour length of ss RNA is close to the total length of the tails. For such a structure the absolute value of the total RNA charge is approximately twice larger than the charge of the capsid. This conclusion agrees with structural data. ...
It is relatively easy to determine that the poliovirus capsid is made up of just four proteins, and that the four capsid proteins VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4 are present in equimolar amounts in the capsid. Groups of five copies of each protein are arranged at each of the 12 vertices of the icosahedral capsid see Chapters 5 and 15 . If the proteins are uniformly labeled with radioactive amino acids, more radioactivity will be in each large polypeptide chain than in each small one. A gel fractionation.... ...
Viruses are nanosized, genome-filled protein containers with remarkable thermodynamic and mechanical properties. They form by spontaneous self-assembly inside the crowded, heterogeneous cytoplasm of infected cells. Self-assembly of viruses seems to obey the principles of thermodynamically reversible self-assembly but assembled shells (capsids) strongly resist disassembly. Following assembly, some viral shells pass through a sequence of coordinated maturation steps that progressively strengthen the capsid. Viral shells have effective Youngs moduli ranging from that of polyethylene to that of plexiglas. Some of them can withstand internal osmotic pressures that are tens of atmospheres. (Roos et al. 2010:733). Viruses do not carry out metabolic activity and rely entirely on host-cell molecular machinery for reproduction. This absence of metabolic and reproductive activity suggests that, unlike cells, the assembly of viruses could perhaps be understood on the basis of equilibrium ...
Mouse anti Adenovirus Hexon antibody, clone 7C11 reacts with human, canine, bovine, monkey and rat adenoviruses. It is very likely that it
Bücher, K. S.; Yan, H.; Creutznacher, R.; Ruoff, K.; Mallagaray, A.; Grafmüller, A.; Dirks, J. S.; Kilic, T.; Weickert, S.; Rubailo, A. et al.; Drescher, M.; Schmidt, S.; Hansman, G.; Peters, T.; Uetrecht, C.; Hartmann, L.: Fucose-functionalized precision glycomacromolecules targeting human norovirus capsid protein. Macromolecules 19 (9), S. 3714 - 3724 (2018 ...
In the infected cell, newly synthesized genomic RNA is packaged together with the viral Pol-protein and a cellular chaperone complex into capsids. The RNA is then reverse transcribed into a partially double-stranded DNA within the capsid. Under natural conditions, almost exclusively mature capsids containing DNA are enveloped to be secreted as virions. The selectivity of this process depends on a still undefined maturation signal that communicates the RNA-DNA-transition from the interior to the capsid exterior.. The large envelope protein of HBV (L-protein) adopts two transmembrane topologies: At first, its preS-region is located on the cytosolic side of the ER-membrane and acts as a matrix-domain that binds the mature capsid to enable its envelopment. The same region is thereafter required on the viron surface as a receptor binding domain to initiate the next round of infection. So far, it is unknown if the dual topology is already pre-formed prior to viral budding and therefore stably present ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Replication deficient adenoviruses type 5 (Ad5) are widely used vectors for cancer gene therapy. The retargeting of Ad5 is achieved by incorporation of a targeting motifs into the adenovirus capsid proteins, mostly in the HI-loop of fiber or hexon hypervariable region 5 (HVR5). Increased expression of αv integrins has been frequently shown in tumor cells as compared to normal cells. The targeting motif within Ad5 that retargets its transduction to cells expressing αv integrins is RGD. One of the strategies of tumor gene therapy is inhibition of angiogenesis. Endothelial cells in angiogenesis express aminopeptidase N (APN) which binds targeting motifs containing NGR. It is known that different amino acid environment and/or cysteine residues flanking targeting peptides RGD and NGR influence the affinity and specificy of binding to corresponding receptors. The aim of this work was to investigate the existance of disulfide bond/s in two replication deficient Ad5 vectors: (i) Ad5HCRGDC containing ...
AAV capsid titer quantification for full/empty capsid ratio calculations with Gyrolab immunoassay: low sample volume, serotype specific, wide dynamic range
Using GPU-based simulations researchers at the Beckman Institute, University of Illinois have solved the entire molecular structure of the HIV capsid (protein shell). X-ray crystallography is used to probe the structure of the proteins that make up a virus. This is however inadequate when trying to determine how those proteins are assembled to build the virus. The solution: simulate the process with data from both ends of the process using high powered computers. This is exactly what the researchers did using the Blue Waters supercomputer at the University of Illinois. The machine has 237 Cray XE6 cabinets and 32 Cray XK7 cabinets with Nvidia Tesla Kepler GPU cluster. This provided simulations for detailed molecular motion on the 1300 identical proteins contained in the capsid. ...
DCV capsid polyprotein兔多克隆抗体(ab92954)可与重组片段样本反应并经WB, ELISA实验严格验证并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
This give the virus specificity, meaning that it will only be able to infect a certain host range. Once the viral genome is injected into the cell, then for a DNA phage, bacterial cells RNAP begins transcribing RNAs from certain promoters. The first class of viral genes is intermediate-early genes. Following translation of these genes, the early viral genes are transcribed. These genes encode proteins which get virus ready for DNA replication.. After DNA replication, usually into hundreds of copies, the late viral RNAs are made and translated into proteins. These act as structural components, either for capsid formation or cleaving and packaging of DNA into capsid, or to form the receptor on the capsid surface.. Nucleocapsid:. ...
When it comes to viral vector based gene therapies, it is necessary to evaluate the stability and integrity of viral vector capsids. Having the right analytics for your gene therapy helps you bring a safe and effective drug to market. Time is also critical when getting a drug to market. That is why finding a robust technique that produces fast, reliable results is key.. However, current methods can be very time consuming and may not provide the sensitivity required to efficiently determine the quality of the capsids. There is also a lack of reliable and reproducible methods to cost-effectively manufacture these gene therapies.. This is where SCIEX comes in. SCIEX CE and LC-MS solutions provide you with precision analytics that give you the answers you need the first time around, while using small sample amounts, so you can bring a safe, effective drug to market faster.. ...
ID R4K521_CLOPA Unreviewed; 191 AA. AC R4K521; DT 24-JUL-2013, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 24-JUL-2013, sequence version 1. DT 20-DEC-2017, entry version 19. DE SubName: Full=Phage minor structural protein GP20 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1}; GN ORFNames=Clopa_0576 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1}; OS Clostridium pasteurianum BC1. OC Bacteria; Firmicutes; Clostridia; Clostridiales; Clostridiaceae; OC Clostridium. OX NCBI_TaxID=86416 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=BC1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:AGK95624.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000013523}; RG US DOE Joint Genome Institute; RA Lucas S., Han J., Lapidus A., Cheng J.-F., Goodwin L., Pitluck S., RA Peters L., Mikhailova N., Teshima H., Detter J.C., Han C., Tapia R., RA Land M., Hauser L., Kyrpides N., Ivanova N., Pagani I., Dunn J., RA Taghavi S., Francis A., van der Lelie D., Woyke ...
The genome encodes 3 structural proteins (Capsid, prM, and Envelope) and 8 non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A ... the genome encodes 3 structural proteins (Capsid, prM, and Envelope) and 8 non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A ... The capsid protein is enveloped. The genomic arrangement is a linear (+)ssRNA. Its genomic segmentation is Monopartite (Flint ... Entebbe Bat Virus is an enveloped virus, which means that it has to bind its envelope proteins to a cell surface protein on the ...
The capsid contains three proteins; capsid protein VP1 is the primary component and self-assembles into a 360-unit outer capsid ... MPyV capsid protein VP1 binds to sialic acids of gangliosides GD1a and GT1b on the cell surface. The functions of VP2 and VP3 ... Capsid proteins, produced in the cytoplasm of the host cell, enter the nucleus as assembled capsomers consisting of pentameric ... The three genes in the late region express the three capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3. Between the early and late regions is a ...
The unique, single protein, trumpet-shaped capsomeres of Gyrovirus are arranged into 12 pentomers yielding a capsid 60 units in ... VP1 is the 51kd capsid protein; in addition to its structural function, it also contains motifs for rolling circle replication ... These proteins share 38.8%, 40.3%, and 32.2% amino acid identities between their homologs in the CAV. Two species have been ... VP3, also called apoptin, is a 13kd protein that has been shown to independently induce apoptosis in chicken cells. Apoptin is ...
... is known to have a structurally homologous capsid protein. Each capsid is assembled from 540 proteins. Unlike orthoretroviral ... HIV Gag protein is encoded by the HIV gag gene, HXB2 nucleotides 790-2292. The HIV p17 matrix protein (MA) is a 17 kDa protein ... The p24 capsid protein (CA) is a 24 kDa protein fused to the C-terminus of MA in the unprocessed HIV Gag polyprotein. After ... All orthoretroviral gag proteins are processed by the protease (PR or pro) into MA (matrix), CA (capsid), NC (nucleocapsid) ...
Assembled capsid protein alpha is cleaved into capsid protein beta and gamma. Release of infectious particles. The nodamura ... RNA2 encodes the viral capsid protein, alpha. RNA2 is approximately 1.3 kb in length. RNA1's Protein A is also responsible for ... Nodamura virus capsid contains a segmented RNA genome made up of RNA1 and RNA2. RNA1 is responsible for encoding protein A, ... The virion is made up of 180 copies of a single viral capsid protein. The virion is organized in T=3 icosahedral symmetry, ...
There are five or more proteins in the capid: gp8 (the major capsid protein); gp6, gp7 and gp8 (minor capsid proteins); and gp3 ... The activity of gp2 is regulated by two other viral proteins: gp5 (single strand binding protein) and gp1# New viral genomes ... The capsid has a helical symmetry and is generally has a length of 85-280 nm or 760-1950 nm and a width of 10-16 nm or 6-8 nm ... This is mediated by one of the viral proteins (gp3) binding to the host receptor. The conversion from single-stranded to double ...
... major capsid protein VP1, and one or two minor components, minor capsid proteins VP2 and VP3. VP1 pentamers form the closed ... Expression of the late genes results in accumulation of the viral capsid proteins in the host cell cytoplasm. Capsid components ... Chen XS, Stehle T, Harrison SC (June 1998). "Interaction of polyomavirus internal protein VP2 with the major capsid protein VP1 ... SV40 has an additional capsid protein VP4; some examples have an additional regulatory protein called agnoprotein expressed ...
The capsid proteins on the other hand stay in the cytoplasm and interact with the genomic RNA, together forming the capsid. RuV ... The capsid protein (CP) has different functions. Its main tasks are the formation of homooligomeres to form the capsid, and the ... E2 and the capsid protein. E1 and E2 are type I transmembrane proteins which are transported into the endoplasmatic reticulum ( ... Further is it responsible for the aggregation of RNA in the capsid, it interacts with the membrane proteins E1 and E2 and binds ...
... and several minor proteins with estimated masses of 75, 25, 12.5 and 10 kDa. The major capsid protein is predominantly β- ... There are five structural proteins: a major protein of 37 kiloDaltons (kDa) ... PMID 20164227.. Rice, G. (2004). "The structure of a thermophilic archaeal virus shows a double-stranded DNA viral capsid type ... above the capsid surface. The turrets have an average diameter of 24 nm. The center of each turret contains a ~3-nm channel. ...
The large polypeptide is divided into three structural proteins (capsid, prM, and E) and a group of non-structural proteins ( ... NS2B protein, a transmembrane protein, directly interacts with NS3 which is a soluble protein anchored to the membrane. With ... Proteins N2SA, NS4A, and NS4B are membrane-integrated proteins but have no clear function. To enter the cell, MODV virus is ... "Flavivirus Capsid Is a Dimeric Alpha-Helical Protein". Journal of Virology. 77 (12): 7143-7149. doi:10.1128/JVI.77.12.7143- ...
In Polyomavirus, the early proteins are T antigens. The late proteins make up the virus capsid. In Polyomaviruses, they are ... The early proteins produced in Papillomaviruses and Polyomaviruses regulate the cell cycle and activate DNA replication. In ... The late class consists primarily of structural proteins and assembly enzymes, and is dependent in all three families on the ... They are responsible for dissolving the virion capsid, directing DNA replication (in Poxviruses), protecting the virus from the ...
The capsid is non-enveloped, and composed of 60 copies of up to six types of capsid proteins (called VP1 through to VP6) which ... ORF1 encodes a nonstructural protein (NS1) that is involved in viral genome replication. ORF2 encodes the two capsid proteins- ... also required for the read through of an internal polyadenylation site that is essential for expression of the capsid proteins ... Sukhu, L; Fasina, O; Burger, L; Rai, A; Qiu, J; Pintel, D. J (2012). "Characterization of the Nonstructural Proteins of the ...
Virions contain a core of RNA or DNA within a capsid. A capsid is the protein shell of a virus. Parapoxvirus virions are ... All structural proteins have now been completed. An immature spherical particle is assembled in cytoplasmic viral factories. It ... Viral proteins attach to the host glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This brings about endocytosis which allows the virus penetration ... They possess an enveloped capsid and a distinguishing spiral coat, which is composed of a crossing pattern of tubes. Dissecting ...
The capsid is covered by fusion and hemagglutinin proteins. Inside the capsid exists the negative-sense RNA genome, which is ... The genome encodes for eight different proteins: N, C, P, V, M, F, H, and L. The L protein, also called large protein, is ... Additionally, the Feline morbillivirus F protein is known to have a single cleavage site that splits the protein into separate ... While the virus uses its own enzyme to make a copy of its genome, it hijacks host ribosomes to translate its RNA into protein. ...
They do not have structural proteins or a capsid. Mitoviruses have nonsegmented, linear, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA ...
The three serotypes of poliovirus, PV-1, PV-2, and PV-3, each have a slightly different capsid protein. Capsid proteins define ... smaller amounts of 3Dpol are produced than those of capsid proteins, VP1-4. These individual viral proteins are: 3Dpol, an RNA ... VP0, which is further cleaved into VP2 and VP4, VP1 and VP3, proteins of the viral capsid After translation, transcription and ... There are three poliovirus serotypes: types 1, 2, and 3. Poliovirus is composed of an RNA genome and a protein capsid. The ...
... including a minor capsid protein that has a single JR fold, an ATPase that packages the genome during capsid assembly, and a ... Duplodnaviria contains double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses that encode a major capsid protein (MCP) that has the HK97 fold. ... Krupovic M, Koonin EV (21 March 2017). "Multiple origins of viral capsid proteins from cellular ancestors". Proc Natl Acad Sci ... Krupovic M, Makarova KS, Koonin EV (1 February 2022). "Cellular homologs of the double jelly-roll major capsid proteins clarify ...
"Sulfolobus Spindle-Shaped Virus 1 Contains Glycosylated Capsid Proteins, a Cellular Chromatin Protein, and Host-Derived Lipids ... A shared characteristic of many groups of archaeal viruses is the folded structure of the major capsid protein (MCP). ... Similarly, the genome of clavavirus APBV1 is packaged in a tight, left-handed superhelix with its major capsid proteins, ... Krupovic M, Koonin EV (21 March 2017). "Multiple origins of viral capsid proteins from cellular ancestors". Proc Natl Acad Sci ...
"Homologous Capsid Proteins Testify to the Common Ancestry of Retroviruses, Caulimoviruses, Pseudoviruses, and Metaviruses". ... They also share similar capsid and nucleocapsid proteins/domains. Caulimoviruses also share some features with belpaoviruses, ... Their polymerase proteins are similar in structure and include aspartic protease (retroviral aspartyl protease) and an ... Their reverse transcriptase proteins share a common origin. Moreover, belpaoviruses, metaviruses, pseudoviruses, and ...
... which is the precursor to the mature capsid. A scaffolding protein is not required for capsid assembly. However, studies on the ... The major capsid protein of HK97, called gp5, cross-links upon maturation to form a chain-mail like structure. While DNA is ... Oh B, Moyer CL, Hendrix RW, Duda RL (2014). "The delta domain of the HK97 major capsid protein is essential for assembly". ... "The Refined Structure of a Protein Catenane: The HK97 Bacteriophage Capsid at 3.44Å Resolution". Journal of Molecular Biology. ...
They do not have structural proteins or a capsid. Narnaviruses have nonsegmented, linear, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA ... Dolja, V. V.; Koonin, E. V. (2012). "Capsid-Less RNA Viruses". ELS. doi:10.1002/9780470015902.a0023269. ISBN 978-0470016176. ...
... including a minor capsid protein that has a single JR fold, an ATPase that packages the genome during capsid assembly, and a ... Duplodnaviria contains dsDNA viruses that encode a major capsid protein (MCP) that has the HK97 fold. Viruses in the realm also ... Krupovic M, Koonin EV (21 March 2017). "Multiple origins of viral capsid proteins from cellular ancestors". Proc Natl Acad Sci ... share a number of other characteristics involving the capsid and capsid assembly, including an icosahedral capsid shape and a ...
The capsid is composed on the viral coat protein (VCP). The genome encodes only two proteins-a replicase and the coat protein. ... Unlike geminiviruses, this virus does not have a movement protein. It has been officially classified into the genus ...
The "late region" contains genes encoding the viral capsid proteins.) In MTag-containing polyomaviruses, the early region ... but has a number of protein-protein interaction sites that mediate interactions with proteins in the host cell. Particularly in ... The result of this genetic encoding is three proteins that share a common N-terminal sequence, forming a protein domain called ... MTag preferentially performs other protein-protein interactions that compete with the Hsc70 interaction. MTag plays a role in ...
Proteins associated with nucleic acid are known as nucleoproteins, and the association of viral capsid proteins with viral ... long molecules of DNA or RNA that encode the structure of the proteins by which the virus acts; (ii) a protein coat, the capsid ... consists of nucleic acid surrounded by a protective coat of protein called a capsid. These are formed from protein subunits ... The capsid is made from proteins encoded by the viral genome and its shape serves as the basis for morphological distinction. ...
The "late region" contains genes encoding the viral capsid proteins.) The early region typically contains at least two genes ... The STag protein is expressed from a gene that overlaps the large tumor antigen (LTag) such that the two proteins share an N- ... STag is known to interact with host cell proteins, most notably protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), and may activate the expression ... has homology to DnaJ proteins, and functions as a molecular chaperone. The C-terminal portion of the STag protein is distinct ...
... capsid protein (CP) and two small putative proteins known as 6K1 and 6K2. The P3 cistron also encodes a second protein-P3N-PIPO ... This is processed into ten smaller proteins: protein 1 protease (P1-Pro), helper component protease (HC-Pro), protein 3 (P3), ... CP the capsid protein ranges between 30 and 35 kDa in weight. Pretty interesting sweet potato potyviral ORF (PISPO), Alkylation ... The nucleocapsid contains around 2000 copies of the capsid protein. The symmetry of the nucleocapsid is helical with a pitch of ...
In common with other picornaviruses, the capsid of BEV is composed of 60 copies of each of four structural proteins, VP1, VP2, ... "Conformational changes during proteolytic processing of a picornavirus capsid proteins". Arch. Virol. 145 (7): 1473-9. doi: ... The capsid is not enveloped and roughly spherical with an outer radius of 159 Ångströms and an inner radius of 107 Å. The outer ... Å in diameter which runs almost to the inner surface of the capsid. A hydrophobic pocket contained within VP1 contains a ...
The "late region" contains genes encoding the viral capsid proteins.) The early region typically contains at least two genes ... The ATPase domain also contains regions responsible for protein-protein interactions with host cell proteins, most notably ... without affecting these protein-protein interaction sites. LTag is a large protein whose domains can be detected and annotated ... Polyomavirus LTag proteins contain four well-conserved, globular protein domains: from N- to C-terminus, these are the J domain ...
Bryant, D H (2021). "Deep diversification of an AAV capsid protein by machine learning". Nat Biotechnol. 39 (6): 691-696. doi: ... Virus-like particles (VLPs) are assemblies of viral proteins that package cargo materials such as mRNAs, proteins, or RNPs in ... In these cases, juxtaposed membranes are pulled into close contact by specific protein-protein interactions and interfacial ... using capsid engineering) and the ability of the capsid and transgene to avoid the host immune response (by genetically ...
enveloped = has viral envelopes covering their protective protein capsids; positive sense = the RNA sequence may be directly ... Illustration of a SARS-CoV-2 virion[2] Red: spike proteins (S) Grey: lipid bilayer envelope Yellow: envelope proteins (E) ... S proteins are needed for interaction with the host cells. But human coronavirus NL63 is peculiar in that its M protein has the ... The E and M protein are the structural proteins that combined with the lipid bilayer to shape the viral envelope and maintain ...
The variants of CPV-2 are defined by surface protein (VP capsid) features. This classification does not correlate well with ... differing only in two amino acids in the viral capsid protein VP2.[11] It is also highly similar to mink enteritis virus (MEV ... Because the normal intestinal lining is also compromised, blood and protein leak into the intestines, leading to anemia and ... fresh frozen plasma and human albumin transfusions can help replace the extreme protein losses seen in severe cases and help ...
In T7 phage display, the protein to be displayed is attached to the C-terminus of the gene 10 capsid protein of T7. The ... Phage display is a laboratory technique for the study of protein-protein, protein-peptide, and protein-DNA interactions that ... a gene encoding a protein of interest is inserted into a phage coat protein gene, causing the phage to "display" the protein on ... characterize small molecules-protein interactions and map protein-protein interactions. Users can use three dimensional ...
The larger capsids (38-40 nm) exhibit T=3 symmetry and are composed of 180 VP1 proteins. Small capsids (23 nm) show T=1 ... a major structural protein (VP1) of about 58~60 kDa and a minor capsid protein (VP2). The most variable region of the viral ... The vaccine relies on using a virus-like particle that is made of the norovirus capsid proteins in order to mimic the external ... Tan M, Hegde RS, Jiang X (2004). "The P Domain of Norovirus Capsid Protein Forms Dimer and Binds to Histo-Blood Group Antigen ...
The N protein binds to RNA to form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) structures for packaging the genome into the viral capsid. The RNP ... Like the other structural proteins, the gene encoding the N protein is located toward the 3' end of the genome. N protein is ... In addition to its interactions with RNA, N forms protein-protein interactions with the coronavirus membrane protein (M) during ... Coronavirus proteins, Viral protein class, Viral structural proteins). ...
... the terminal protein (p3), the head or capsid protein (p8), the head or capsid fiber protein (p8.5), the distal tail knob (p9 ... the portal or connector protein (p10), the tail tube or lower collar proteins (p11), and the tail fibers or appendage proteins ... Both 5' ends of the genome are capped with a covalently bonded terminal protein (p3) that complexes with DNA polymerase during ... The Φ29 packaging motor is structurally composed of the procapsid and the connector proteins, which interact with the pRNA, the ...
... single-stranded RNA surrounded by a capsid made from a single viral encoded protein. The genome has been completely sequenced ...
... as a viroporin in addition to other roles mediated through interactions with viral proteins such as major capsid protein VP1. ... which can modulate protein trafficking of viral proteins or protect the proteins from the low pH they would otherwise encounter ... The human papillomavirus 16 E5 protein, the least well-studied of the three known oncogenic HPV proteins, was reported in 2012 ... Likely exceptions to this scheme exist, such as the rotavirus protein non-structural protein 4. Most viroporins are not ...
Another was that the virus coat, the protein capsid, is dependent upon the genetic material in the RNA core of the particle and ... His work made possible the dynamic simulation of the activities of thousands of proteins working together at the macromolecular ... 1996 marked the publication of Schulten's model of the LH2 structure of the photosynthetic reaction centre protein family of ... A 2009 review describes work in modeling and verifying simulations of proteins such as titin, fibrinogen, ankyrin, and cadherin ...
He established that, similarly to many proteins and other biomolecules, nanoparticles can self-organize into chains, sheets, ... nanowires, twisted ribbons and nanohelices, and spherical supraparticles replicating viral capsids. Kotov's work established ...
... which are involved in the formation and structure of the capsid. These late proteins are transported back into the nucleus. The ... The early viral mRNA is translated into early proteins. These early proteins are transported into the nucleus, where they are ... The capsid itself has been measured to be approximately 90-110 nm in diameter and expresses T=16 icosahedral symmetry. The ... The entire capsid contains 162 capsomeres. Other viruses within the family Alloherpesviridae have been shown to have spherical ...
... structural protein linking the viral envelope with the virus capsid Coronavirus membrane protein, structural protein expressed ... a protein composing the M-line of muscle cell sarcomeres Protein M, immunoglobulin-binding protein found on the surface of the ... M protein may refer to: M protein (Streptococcus), a virulence factor of the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes Viral matrix ... from the M gene in coronaviruses Myeloma protein, also called paraprotein, an abnormal protein in the urine or blood, often ...
The virions (virus particles) themselves contain their genome in a protein capsid 700 Å in diameter. They are characterised by ... directly contributes to disease since mice deficient in the C3 protein do not suffer from severe disease following infection. ...
It has two open reading frames encoding a replicase and capsid protein. The reading frames are arranged in opposite ...
... uses extremely brief pulses of light to destroy viral capsids while minimizing collateral damage to human cells and proteins. ...
The viral RNA is packed into the icosahedral capsid which is contained inside the protein inner envelope. The lipid outer ... envelope is of host cell origin but contains viral transmembrane and surface proteins. The virion is spherical in shape with a ...
The fourth ORF codes for capsid protein (the hard shell that encases the genetic material). This hard shelled capsid protein is ... The fifth ORF codes for nucleic-acid binding protein. This is the protein that helps the DNA or RNA connect with amino acids. ... The third ORF codes for putative movement protein. This protein ensures efficient cell to cell propagation (producing seeds). ... Next, a cell scraper is used to separate the cells, and the cells are analyzed to see if they contain the protein commonly ...
... calmodulin-binding protein - Calvin cycle - CAM photosynthesis - CAM plants - cancer - capsid - carbohydrate - carbon - carbon ... protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein folding - protein isoform - ... protein P16 - protein P34cdc2 - protein precursor - protein structure prediction - protein subunit - protein synthesis - ... proto-oncogene protein C-kit - proto-oncogene proteins c-abl - proto-oncogene proteins c-bcl-2 - Proto-oncogene proteins c-fos ...
By using a PtERV1 capsid, which produces higher titer virus-like particles, Perez-Caballero et al. reported that PtERV1 is not ... Kaiser SM, Malik HS, Emerman M (2007). "Restriction of an extinct retrovirus by the human TRIM5alpha antiviral protein". ... "Evidence for Restriction of Ancient Primate Gammaretroviruses by APOBEC3 but Not TRIM5α Proteins". PLOS Pathogens. 4 (10): ...
Genes code for instructions to make proteins, so small genomes cannot code for many proteins. Therefore, the virion capsid ... There are three main types of viral glycoproteins: Envelope proteins, membrane proteins, and spike proteins (E, M, and S). The ... the capsid is made up of one or more distinct protein types that repeatedly repeat to form the whole capsid. This repetitive ... either of the fusion protein or of a companion protein, is necessary for the majority of viral fusion proteins. The priming ...
In addition to protein recruitment, condensates can also be designed which release proteins in response to certain stimuli. In ... such as viral capsids or the proteasome - although both are examples of spontaneous molecular self-assembly or self- ... Membrane protein, or membrane-associated protein, clustering at neurological synapses, cell-cell tight junctions, or other ... In one approach, which localizes condensates to specific genomic regions, core proteins are fused to proteins such as TRF1 or ...
... and 1D proteins are the capsid proteins VP4, VP2, VP3, and VP1, respectively. Virus-coded proteases perform the cleavages, some ... Binding causes a conformational change in the viral capsid proteins, and myristic acid is released. The acid forms a pore in ... The rest of the genome encodes structural proteins at the 5' end and nonstructural proteins at the 3' end in a single ... Picornaviruses are nonenveloped, with an icosahedral capsid. The capsid is an arrangement of 60 protomers in a tightly packed ...
The envelope proteins on the outer surface of HDV are entirely provided by HBV. Alba, R; Bosch, A; Chillon, M (2005). "Gutless ... These plasmids contain either transgenic DNA or replication and capsid encoding DNA, plus helper DNA. Every cell that is ... Since the genome of the gutless virus does not include genes encoding the enzymes and/or structural proteins required to ... successfully transfected with all three DNA fragments will produce the necessary proteins to produce infective viruses. These ...
Proteins constitute around 94% of the virus by weight. The viral genome encodes structural proteins and non-structural proteins ... The virus capsid is not enveloped. Capsid / nucleocapsid is elongated with helical symmetry. The capsid is filamentous, ...
ORF1 is thought to encode the putative capsid protein and replication-associated protein of anelloviruses. The specific role of ... ORF2 is thought to either encode a protein with phosphatase activity (TTMVs) or a peptide that suppresses the NF- κ {\ ... They are classified as vertebrate viruses and have a non-enveloped capsid, which is round with isometric, icosahedral symmetry ... Torque teno virus (SANBAN Isolate) ORF2 protein suppresses NF-κB pathways via interaction with IκB kinases. Journal of virology ...
Based on sequence variation in the C-terminal region of the B646L gene encoding the major capsid protein p72, 22 ASFV genotypes ... Viral membrane proteins with similarity to cellular adhesion proteins modulate interaction of virus-infected cells and ... structural proteins, and many proteins that are not essential for replication in cells, but instead have roles in virus ... The virus encodes proteins that inhibit signalling pathways in infected macrophages and thus modulate transcriptional ...
A feature of the picornavirus genome is the virus protein that is linked at the 5' end of the genome, known as "VPg" (Virus- ... The RNA genome of the virion is inside the capsid that is composed by twelve capsomers, which are cup-shaped pentamers.[ ... Protein-attached-to-the-Genome). In addition, the 3' end of the genome has a poly-A tail. The transcription of the erbovirus ... genome gives rise to a polyprotein which is further more processed and cleaved to give the mature viral proteins, in order from ...
At the same time, large amounts of ribosomes, protein-synthesis components, protein folding chaperones, and mitochondria are ... the virus capsid synthesis, and assembly. Alternatively, the activation of host defense mechanisms may involve sequestration of ... The viral replication, protein synthesis and assembly require a considerable amount of energy, provided by large clusters of ... Szajner P, Weisberg AS, Wolffe EJ, Moss B (July 2001). "Vaccinia virus A30L protein is required for association of viral ...
RNA2 encodes protein α, a viral capsid protein precursor, which is auto-cleaved into two mature proteins, a 38 kDa β protein ... The capsid is constructed of 32 capsomers. The genome is linear, positive sense, bipartite (composed of two segments - RNA1 and ... RNA1, which is ~3.1 kilobases in length, encodes a protein that has multiple functional domains: a mitochondrial targeting ... In addition, RNA1 encodes a subgenomic RNA3 that encodes protein B2, an RNA silencing inhibitor. ...
Minor capsid protein VP2 and minor capsid protein VP3 are viral proteins that are components of the polyomavirus capsid. ... Polyomavirus capsids are composed of three proteins; the major component is major capsid protein VP1, which self-assembles into ... April 2006). "The VP2/VP3 minor capsid protein of simian virus 40 promotes the in vitro assembly of the major capsid protein ... The minor components are VP2 and VP3, which bind in the interior of the capsid. All three capsid proteins are expressed from ...
Crystal Structure of Rubella virus capsid protein (residues 127-277) ... Capsid protein. A, B. 151. Rubella virus strain M33. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: Capsid. ... Rubella virus capsid protein structure and its role in virus assembly and infection.. Mangala Prasad, V., Willows, S.D., Fokine ... The RV capsid protein is an essential structural component of virions as well as a key factor in virus-host interactions. Here ...
The abundant nuclear enzyme PARP participates in the life cycle of simian virus 40 and is stimulated by minor capsid protein ... Polyomavirus VP1 phosphorylation: coexpression with the VP2 capsid protein modulates VP1 phosphorylation in Sf9 insect cells. ... Three putative capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 are encoded by alternative open reading frames [1]. ... The abundant nuclear enzyme PARP participates in the life cycle of simian virus 40 and is stimulated by minor capsid protein ...
... called Protein Bacteriophage capsid proteins from b.10.1.1: Bacteriophage capsid proteins. *Protein Microvirus capsid proteins ... Timeline for Protein Microvirus capsid proteins from b.121.5.1: Microviridae-like VP: *Protein Microvirus capsid proteins from ... Protein Microvirus capsid proteins [49613] (3 species). include capsid protein F and spike protein G. ... Protein Microvirus capsid proteins from b.121.5.1: Microviridae-like VP appears in SCOPe 2.04. *Protein Microvirus capsid ...
Recombinant Rotavirus A Intermediate capsid protein VP6 from Cusabio. Cat Number: CSB-EP321618RGK. USA, UK & Europe ... Recombinant Rotavirus A Intermediate capsid protein VP6 , CSB-EP321618RGK. (No reviews yet) Write a Review Write a Review. ... Relevance: Intermediate capsid protein that self assbles to form an icosahedral capsid with a T=13 symmetry, which consists of ... Function: Intermediate capsid protein that self assembles to form an icosahedral capsid with a T=13 symmetry, which consists of ...
... analysis shows that the concept of a typical capsid protein is indeed viable - the typical capsid protein is prism-like, about ... Size of typical structural capsid protein. Range. mean diameter 5nm: thickness ~3nm nm ... P.12 3rd paragraph: Using the statistical analysis [investigators] have shown that capsid proteins of all viruses are ... find that there is a typical structural capsid protein, having a mean diameter of 5 nm and a mean thickness of 3 nm, with more ...
The proprotein convertase furin has been demonstrated to cleave the minor capsid protein, L2, post-attachment to host cells and ... Through studies using recombinant pseudovirus particles (PsV), many host cellular proteins have been implicated in the process ... Cruz L, Biryukov J, Conway MJ, Meyers C. Cleavage of the HPV16 Minor Capsid Protein L2 during Virion Morphogenesis Ablates the ... Cruz, L.; Biryukov, J.; Conway, M.J.; Meyers, C. Cleavage of the HPV16 Minor Capsid Protein L2 during Virion Morphogenesis ...
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Antibody to the capsid (PORF2) protein of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is sufficient to confer immunity, but knowledge of B-cell ... Riddell, M. A. ; Li, F. ; Anderson, D. A. / Identification of immunodominant and conformational epitopes in the capsid protein ... N2 - Antibody to the capsid (PORF2) protein of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is sufficient to confer immunity, but knowledge of B- ... AB - Antibody to the capsid (PORF2) protein of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is sufficient to confer immunity, but knowledge of B- ...
Fay, Petra Christel (2018) Antigenic and phylogenetic relationships of outer capsid protein VP2, from multiple bluetongue virus ... Antigenic and phylogenetic relationships of outer capsid protein VP2, from multiple bluetongue virus serotypes ... and five non-structural protein (NS1-NS5). The largest-outer-coat and cell-attachment protein of bluetongue virus (BTV), is VP2 ... The VP2 proteins were shown to raise nAbs and elicit a protective immune response in IFNAR (-/-) mice. A broad range of ...
The expression of the recombinant Cap protein in E. coli was significantly increased when Cap protein was fused with either a ... However, poor expression and poor protein solubility have hampered the production of recombinant Cap protein in the bacteria. ... a structural protein encoded by the cap (or C1) gene of PiCV, has been shown to be responsible for not only capsid assembly, ... The highest protein expression level of GST-rCapopt obtained was 394.27 ± 26.1 mg/L per liter using the E. coli strain ...
Partial sequencing of the B646L gene encoding the major capsid protein p72 has so far led to the identification of 22 ASFV ... Partial Sequence of B646L Gene Encoding the p72 Capsid Protein. Sequence analysis of the B646L gene has been used extensively ... Sequences were obtained from 4 genome regions, including part of the gene B646L that encodes the p72 capsid protein, the ... Sequence Analysis of CP204L Gene Encoding p30 Protein. Amplification of a fragment containing the CP204L gene from each of 2 ...
Poliovirus transmission pathways are monitored through analysis of the viral capsid protein (VP1) coding region sequences from ... Abbreviations: cVDPV = circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus; ITD = intratypic differentiation; VP1 = viral capsid protein. ...
Proteins of the virus shell that encloses the nucleic acid of the vírus ...
JEV capsid shows helical secondary structure (α helixes 1-4) and protein folding similar to DENV and WNV capsid proteins. It ... Structural study of the C-terminal domain of non-structural protein 1 and capsid protein from Japanese encephalitis virus ... Poonsiri, T (2018) Structural study of the C-terminal domain of non-structural protein 1 and capsid protein from Japanese ... Structural study of the C-terminal domain of non-structural protein 1 and capsid protein from Japanese encephalitis virus ...
L genes encode viral capsid proteins. E genes are responsible for episomal replication. E proteins made by the viral genome ... This occurs with E1 and E2 genomes (see the image below). E1 protein has helicase activity for replication, and E2 encodes DNA- ... Disruption of E1 and E2 allows for dysregulated downstream genes and the expression of E6 and E7 proteins, which are ... E7 forms complexes with pRb and functionally inactivates pRb and related proteins, such as EF2, which leads to transcription ...
The capsid (CA) domain of retroviral Gag proteins posseses one subdomain, the major homology region (MHR) which is conserved ... abstract = "The capsid (CA) domain of retroviral Gag proteins posseses one subdomain, the major homology region (MHR) which is ... N2 - The capsid (CA) domain of retroviral Gag proteins posseses one subdomain, the major homology region (MHR) which is ... AB - The capsid (CA) domain of retroviral Gag proteins posseses one subdomain, the major homology region (MHR) which is ...
Structure of HIV p24 capsid protein revealed. *David H Frankel. *Full-Text HTML ...
The HCV core protein and DENV capsid protein, extensively interact with LDs to regulate their replication and assembly. ... LDs are targeted by several viral proteins and play multiple roles during the viral life cycle. The core and capsid protein, of ... The nucleocapsid contains the RNA genome complexed with multiple copies of the capsid protein. During viral replication, these ... flaviviruses use their viral proteins to regulate viral RNA replication through the interaction with LDs-surface proteins and ...
strong,Mouse anti Rotavirus antibody, clone 0521,/strong, recognises the p41 capsid protien of Rotavirus from human, monkey and ... Mouse anti Rotavirus Capsid Protein. Product Type. Monoclonal Antibody. Clone. 0521. Isotype. IgG2. Specificity. Rotavirus ... Mouse anti Rotavirus antibody, clone 0521 recognises the p41 capsid protien of Rotavirus from human, monkey and porcine ...
All polyomavirus capsids are constructed from 360 copies of the major coat protein, VP1, arranged in pentamers on a T=7 ... This work is important, as there are few known examples of viral proteins from non-enveloped viruses with a common fold for ... Functionally (but not structurally) related are the pentameric B proteins of the AB5-type toxins, such as Subtilase cytotoxin ( ... 2007) Simian Virus 40 depends on ER protein folding and quality control factors for entry into host cells. Cell 131: 516-529. ...
capsid accessory protein. Link to this post , posted 06 Apr, 2022 17:34 ... Experimental work (CryoEM) done with phage Patience (gp4) has identified a capsid accessory protein that has a homolog in the ...
All polyomavirus capsids are constructed from 360 copies of the major coat protein, VP1, arranged in pentamers on a T=7 ... This work is important, as there are few known examples of viral proteins from non-enveloped viruses with a common fold for ... Functionally (but not structurally) related are the pentameric B proteins of the AB5-type toxins, such as Subtilase cytotoxin ( ... 2007) Simian Virus 40 depends on ER protein folding and quality control factors for entry into host cells. Cell 131: 516-529. ...
The spike protein VP4 is a principal component in the entry apparatus of rotavirus, a non-enveloped virus that causes ... This rearrangement resembles the conformational transitions of membrane fusion proteins of enveloped viruses3,4,5,6. ... Bluetongue virus capsid protein VP5 perforates membranes at low endosomal pH during viral entry *Xian Xia ... Conformational change and protein-protein interactions of the fusion protein of Semliki Forest virus. Nature 427, 320-325 (2004 ...
Dual role of the TYLCV protein V2 in suppressing the host plant defense ...
Folding of the bacteriophage T4 capsid proteins requires the specialised gp31 co-chaperonin. *S.M. van der Vies (Speaker) ...
Antibodies produced to viral capsid and nuclear proteins facilitate the diagnosis of EBV infection. In individuals who are ... The 9 EBV proteins expressed during latency are the latent membrane proteins LMP-1, LMP-2A, and LMP-2B and the nuclear antigens ... Structurally, the EBV genome is enclosed in a nuclear capsid surrounded by a glycoprotein envelope.The EBV genome is a linear ... During latency, the viral genome adopts an episomal configuration and expresses only 9 proteins. This change in gene expression ...
A cocrystal structure of dengue capsid protein in complex of inhibitor. Hongjie Xia, Xuping Xie, Jing Zou, Christian G. Noble, ... A cocrystal structure of dengue capsid protein in complex of inhibitor. / Xia, Hongjie; Xie, Xuping; Zou, Jing et al. ... A cocrystal structure of dengue capsid protein in complex of inhibitor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... A cocrystal structure of dengue capsid protein in complex of inhibitor. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ...
... and 7 and nonstructural protein (NSP)1, 2, and 5 of bovine RVB are available in the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases, and none have ... Currently, a few sequences of viral protein (VP)1, 2, 4, 6, ... Viral Nonstructural Proteins / genetics* Substances * Capsid ... Currently, a few sequences of viral protein (VP)1, 2, 4, 6, and 7 and nonstructural protein (NSP)1, 2, and 5 of bovine RVB are ...
Order Recombinant Human parvovirus B19 Non-capsid protein NS-1 NS1 partial 01014476309 at Gentaur parvovirus B19 Non-capsid ... Our parvovirus B19 Non-capsid protein NS-1(NS1),partial is a recombinant Human parvovirus B19 (isolate AU) (HPV B19) protein ... The Human parvovirus B19 (isolate AU) (HPV B19) parvovirus B19 Non-capsid protein NS-1(NS1),partial is shipped on ice packs. ... For long term storage, keep the Recombinant Human parvovirus B19 Non-capsid protein NS-1(NS1),partial frozen at -20 or -80 ...
  • Bluetongue virus encapsidates the viral genome, composed of ten linear dsRNA genome-segments, encoding seven structural protein (VP1-VP7) and five non-structural protein (NS1-NS5). (
  • The largest-outer-coat and cell-attachment protein of bluetongue virus (BTV), is VP2 (encoded by genome segment-2 (Seg-2)), which elicits protective neutralising antibody (nAb) and total binding antibody (bAb) responses in infected animals. (
  • Sequences were obtained from 4 genome regions, including part of the gene B646L that encodes the p72 capsid protein, the complete E183L and CP204L genes, which encode the p54 and p30 proteins and the variable region of the B602L gene. (
  • E proteins made by the viral genome promote the activation of host DNA replication mechanisms that can then be used by the virus during its own replication. (
  • Structurally, the EBV genome is enclosed in a nuclear capsid surrounded by a glycoprotein envelope.The EBV genome is a linear DNA molecule that encodes for approximately 100 viral proteins that are expressed during replication. (
  • Nuclear delivery of the adenoviral genome requires that the capsid cross the limiting membrane of the endocytic compartment and traverse the cytosol to reach the nucleus. (
  • These data suggest that the MCMV capsid protein is expressed from a subgenomic RNA in vivo, and that the 25-kDa capsid protein is encoded by the 3′-proximal open reading frame in the MCMV genome. (
  • The nucleocapsid (N) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is responsible for compaction of the ∼30-kb RNA genome in the ∼90-nm virion. (
  • Here, we show that N protein, when combined in vitro with short fragments of the viral genome, forms 15-nm particles similar to the vRNP structures observed within virions. (
  • The orthomyxovirus genome contains eight segments of single-stranded negative-sense RNA (ribonucleic acid), and an endogenous RNA polymerase is present for the transcription of the negative-sense strand into a positive-sense strand to enable protein synthesis. (
  • Both are icosahedral with vertex fibers, have trimeric major coat proteins, and contain double-stranded linear DNA with terminal proteins, PRD1 is the only known spherical prokaryotic virus to have this form of genome, and is also unique in possessing a lipid membrane within its outer capsid. (
  • The capsid protects the viral RNA genome which is reverse-transcribed into DNA, trafficked to the nucleus, and integrated into the host genome. (
  • Minimising the amount of viral genome coding structural proteins, capsids are comprised of many copies of a small number of proteins, often only one, usually in a spherical or helical arrangement. (
  • Poliovirus is a type of anaerobe virus and consists of an RNA genome enclosed in a capsid. (
  • An icosahedral capsid contains the genome, which consists of a single, linear, double-stranded DNA molecule. (
  • br>Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped protein capsid containing eight genes in a circular, double-stranded DNA genome (Figure 1). (
  • Recent breakthroughs include the first visualization of calicivirus replication in real time by the introduction of a fluorescent protein marker in the feline calicivirus genome , a proof of concept study for human norovirus vaccines in an animal model , and the mapping of functional epitopes in a predominant norovirus genotype . (
  • Importance Previous studies have generated recombinant rotaviruses that express fluorescent proteins (FPs) by inserting reporter genes into the NSP1 open reading frame (ORF) of genome segment 5. (
  • Researchers have cloned several of the caliciviruses and placed the genome in a baculovirus that produces unlimited amounts of recombinant calicivirus capsid protein. (
  • Generally, EVs were considered to have only one ORF, but a second ORF was characterized in the EV genome and its encoded protein, ORF2p [ 12 ], was found to be crucial for viral intestinal infection. (
  • The virion organization (pseudo T=21 dextro) and major capsid protein fold (double-β-barrel) resemble those of Pseudoalteromonas phage PM2 (family Corticoviridae), which has a double-stranded DNA genome. (
  • The nucleoproteins are required for viral replication and packing of the genome into the new capsid, which is formed by M1-protein (or matrix protein). (
  • The capsid, formed by M1-protein, also contains the viral genome and a number of enzymes required for viral replication. (
  • In this cross-sectional diagram of the spherical virus, the convoluted ribonucleoprotein genome with its replication enzymes is inside the capsid which comprises M-protein subunits. (
  • We show that the exposure of KBV to acidic pH induces a reduction in interpentamer contacts within capsids and the reorganization of its RNA genome from a uniform distribution to regions of high and low density. (
  • The opening of capsids may be a shared mechanism for the genome release of viruses from the family Dicistroviridae. (
  • Here, we report the structure of an infectious particle of Kashmir bee virus and show how its protein capsid opens to release the genome. (
  • Our structural characterization of the infection process determined that therapeutic compounds stabilizing contacts between pentamers of capsid proteins could prevent the genome release of the virus. (
  • The Papillomavirus genome comprises three regions: LCR, "long control region" responsible for genome transcription control, L region, encoding the capsid major and minor proteins (L1 and L2, resp. (
  • The papillomavirus E2 protein simultaneously associates the host chromatin and the viral genome during mitosis [ 12 ]. (
  • Exogenous Rubella Virus Capsid Proteins Enhance Virus Genome Replication. (
  • Three genome-based key concepts being explored make use of the pathogen's genetic information, for example the parts that direct the production of these surface proteins, elaborates Johannes. (
  • In the first kind of genome-based vaccine, part of the virus's genetic material is inserted into a vector, which is transferred to bacteria or cells that produce the viral surface protein that is used as vaccine. (
  • Adenoviruses are medium-sized viruses with an icosahedral capsid containing a double stranded DNA genome. (
  • VP4 is an internal capsid protein linked to the genome. (
  • Through studies using recombinant pseudovirus particles (PsV), many host cellular proteins have been implicated in the process. (
  • A panel of murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was generated following immunization with recombinant ORF2.1 protein, representing the C-terminal 267 amino acids (aa) of the 660-aa capsid protein. (
  • For long term storage, keep the Recombinant Human parvovirus B19 Non-capsid protein NS-1(NS1),partial frozen at -20 or -80 degrees Celsius. (
  • In contrast, immunization of sheep with recombinant VP5 - the second outer capsid protein of BTV - did not confer protection. (
  • The assay, which utilizes a truncated 56 kDa recombinant HEV capsid protein expressed in insect cells as antigen, was performed as described previously (1), with modifications (2). (
  • Recombinant capsid protein assembly domain, Cp149 (the first 149 residues of Cp), assembles in vitro into empty capsids, identical to the capsids isolated from virus-expressing cells. (
  • Human papillomavirus type 6 L1 capsid protein antigen is contained in Gardasil, or a recombinant Human Papillomavirus Quadrivalent (Types 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine for intramuscular injection. (
  • Recombinant proteins are primarily produced from cultures of mammalian, insect, and bacteria cells. (
  • In recent years, the development of deconstructed virus-based vectors has allowed plants to become a viable platform for recombinant protein production, with advantages in versatility, speed, cost, scalability, and safety over the current production paradigms. (
  • In this paper, we review the recent progress in the methodology of agroinfiltration, a solution to overcome the challenge of transgene delivery into plant cells for large-scale manufacturing of recombinant proteins. (
  • These new advancements in agroinfiltration greatly enhance the robustness and scalability of transgene delivery in plants, facilitating the adoption of plant transient expression systems for manufacturing recombinant proteins with a broad range of applications. (
  • The approval of the first plant-derived therapeutic enzyme for Gaucher's disease has demonstrated the promise of plant-based systems for recombinant protein (RP) production [ 1 ]. (
  • With the NP868R-based system, we generated recombinant rotavirus (rSA11/NSP3-FL-UnaG) with a genetically modified 1.5-kB segment 7 dsRNA that encodes full-length NSP3 fused to UnaG, a 139-aa green fluorescent protein (FP). (
  • This was accomplished without interrupting any of the viral ORFs, yielding recombinant viruses likely expressing the complete set of functional viral proteins. (
  • The assay relies on a recombinant p24 protein succesful to detect whole IgG antibodies in sera utilizing a liquid micro array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (
  • Cloning, expression and characterization of recombinant CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori using monoclonal antibodies: Its potential in diagnostics Helicobacter pylori CagA protein performs a vital place throughout the severity of the gastric sicknesses. (
  • Microscale Perfusion-based Cultivation for Pichia pastoris Clone Screening Enables Accelerated and Optimized RecombinantProtein Production Processes Pichia pastoris has emerged before now years as a promising host for recombinant protein and biopharmaceutical manufacturing. (
  • Establishment of a two-step purification scheme for tag-free recombinant Taiwan native norovirus P and VP1 proteins The protruding (P) space of the important thing capsid protein VP1 of norovirus (NoV) is the important issue for immune recognition and host receptor binding. (
  • Cervarix is a non-infectious recombinant, AS04-adjuvanted vaccine, that contains recombinant L1 protein, the major antigenic protein of the capsid, of oncogenic HPV types 16 and 18. (
  • Combining the atomic structure of the RV capsid protein with the cryoelectron tomograms of RV particles established a low-resolution structure of the virion. (
  • Virion RNA directs the synthesis of several polypeptides in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate in vitro translation system of which only the 25-kDa polypeptide is immunoprecipitated by MCMV capsid protein antiserum. (
  • The genomic RNA is enclosed within a nucleocapsid formed by the capsid (C) protein that constitutes the core of the virion and is enveloped by a lipid bilayer derived from the host cell. (
  • When these proteins assemble to form the capsid, part of the host cell membrane is pinched off to form the envelope of the virion. (
  • The L1 and L2 proteins form icosahedral capsids for progeny virion generation. (
  • Among them, vpr is a virion-related protein present just in primate lentiviruses. (
  • Partial sequencing of the B646L gene encoding the major capsid protein p72 has so far led to the identification of 22 ASFV genotypes. (
  • Nucleotide sequences encoding the major capsid protein VP1 were determined for each isolate. (
  • HPVs are classified by genotype, and at least 130 types have been identified by sequencing the gene encoding the major capsid protein L1. (
  • P.12 3rd paragraph: 'Using the statistical analysis [investigators] have shown that capsid proteins of all viruses are similarly sized, prism-like, about 3 nm thick, having an average diameter of 5 nm and an average molecular weight of mprot≈2.7×10^4 amu [atomic mass unit=Dalton]. (
  • Abstract: 'From the analysis of sizes of approximately 130 small icosahedral viruses [investigators] find that there is a typical structural capsid protein, having a mean diameter of 5 nm and a mean thickness of 3 nm, with more than two thirds of the analyzed capsid proteins having thicknesses between 2 nm and 4 nm. (
  • This work is important, as there are few known examples of viral proteins from non-enveloped viruses with a common fold for which subtle modulations of surface properties result in altered glycan-binding specificities. (
  • Capsid proteins of several different families of non-enveloped animal viruses with single-stranded RNA genomes undergo autocatalytic cleavage (autocleavage) as a maturation step in assembly. (
  • Most viruses have highly symmetric and regular protein capsids. (
  • Those experiments help answer key questions, such as how viruses contact with surfaces, how capsid proteins put themselves together into a perfect shell, and what happens if you force the virus to grow into an unnatural shape. (
  • To understand how these proteins effect anterograde spread between neurons, we analyzed the subcellular localization of viral proteins after infection of cultured rat sympathetic neurons with wild-type or mutant viruses. (
  • Viruses encapsulate and protect their genetic materials in a protein shell called capsid. (
  • In addition to being enclosed in a capsid, some viruses are wrapped by an outer membrane of lipids and proteins. (
  • 6. Viruses consist of genetic materials (DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protective coat of protein (capsid). (
  • A virus consists of genetic material, which may be either DNA or RNA, and is surrounded by a protein coat and, in some viruses, by a membranous envelope. (
  • In viruses that have membranes, membrane-bound viral proteins are synthesized by the host cell and move, like host cell membrane proteins, to the cell surface. (
  • Some viruses have only a few genes coding for capsid proteins. (
  • Although in general viruses "steal" their lipid envelope from the host cell, virtually all of them produce "envelope proteins" that penetrate the envelope and serve as receptors. (
  • Viral-vector vaccines use engineered viruses to enter host cells and deliver DNA that yields expression of tailored antigenic proteins. (
  • A similar major capsid protein fold is also found in other double-stranded DNA viruses in the kingdom Bamfordvirae. (
  • These proteins are encoded by the viral HA and NA genes (Section 2.3), respectively and are inserted into the plasma membrane of the infected cell before the newly-produced viruses bud off from the cell surface. (
  • The surface proteins protect enveloped viruses from the immune system. (
  • As a virus cannot multiply on its own and needs a host cell's machinery to grow, the surface protein plays the most important role in the survival and propagation of enveloped viruses such as the coronavirus. (
  • PPIs revealed for each viral bait were retested in yeast by applying a gap repair (GR) strategy, and notably against the cognate protein of both viruses, to determine whether the PPIs were specific for a single virus or common to both. (
  • For each virus, we identified 24 different PPIs involving six viral proteins and 22 unique tick proteins, with all PPIs being common to both viruses. (
  • Viruses are normally separately packaged in a capsid but this does not apply to the mitoviruses in TWIV 541 (and Hep D relies on Hep B capsid proteins). (
  • Previously observed similarities between the protein shell, or 'capsid', of viruses - that encloses and protects the genetic material - provide a basis for a classification system based on capsid structure, as previously proposed by Prof. Bamford. (
  • For a classification system based on virus capsid structure to be meaningful, the amino acids that provide the building blocks of the capsid proteins should be similar in related viruses. (
  • A seeming lack of sufficient amino acid sequence similarity picked up by conventional sequence analysis tools previously undermined capsid structure as a viable way to classify viruses. (
  • The classification of viruses is complex and based on many factors, including type and structure of the nucleoid and capsid, the presence of an envelope, the replication cycle, and the host range. (
  • The antigenic structures of both the ORF2.1 protein expressed in Escherichia coli and the virus-like particles (VLPs) expressed using the baculovirus system were examined by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) using five of these MAbs and HEV patient sera. (
  • These results suggest that sequences spanning aa 394 to 457 of the capsid protein participate in the formation of strongly immunodominant epitopes on the surface of HEV particles which may be important in immunity to HEV infection. (
  • To perform the prophylactic study of a vaccine derived from human papillomavirus (HPV) using Balb/c mice, we produced virus like particles consisting of HPV capsid protein L1 which has been reported to induce significant humoral and cellular immunity using various animal model systems. (
  • Immunization of sheep with infectious VSV replicon particles expressing the outer capsid VP2 protein of BTV-8 resulted in induction of BTV-8 serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies. (
  • Within the capsid is the information to make new virus particles - a single molecule of ribonucleic acid, or RNA. (
  • To characterize these 'dark matter' sequences, we used an artificial neural network to identify candidate viral capsid proteins, several of which formed virus-like particles when expressed in culture. (
  • ARC-520 is designed to reduce the production of new viral particles and viral proteins. (
  • Arrowhead's RNAi-based candidate ARC-520 is designed to treat chronic HBV infection by reducing the expression and release of new viral particles and key viral proteins. (
  • Capsids of KBV crack into pieces at acidic pH, resulting in the formation of open particles lacking pentamers of capsid proteins. (
  • Different capsid shapes within the same type of virus could point to differences in the infectivity of virus particles. (
  • The heterologous P protein expressed by Pichia pastoris self-assembles into P particles. (
  • Minor capsid protein VP2 and minor capsid protein VP3 are viral proteins that are components of the polyomavirus capsid. (
  • The proprotein convertase furin has been demonstrated to cleave the minor capsid protein, L2, post-attachment to host cells and is required for infectious entry by HPV16 PsV. (
  • VP2 is a minor capsid protein of BKV, expressed late in the lytic cycle. (
  • The innermost VP2 capsid and the intermediate VP6 capsid rain intact following cell entry to protect the dsRNA from degradation and to prevent unfavorable antiviral responses in the host cell during all the replication cycle of the virus. (
  • The HCV core protein and DENV capsid protein, extensively interact with LDs to regulate their replication and assembly. (
  • This study shows that in addition to the interaction between CypA and HIV-1 capsid occurring during early steps in virus replication, CypA is also important for the de novo synthesis of Vpr and that in the absence of CypA activity, the Vpr-mediated cell cycle arrest is completely lost in HIV- 1-infected T cells. (
  • The viral capsid protein (CA) is essential for replication. (
  • The early genes are associated with DNA replication, regulatory functions, and activation of the lytic life cycle, while the late genes are involved with production of the viral capsid parts. (
  • Microtubule transport of herpesvirus capsids from the cell periphery to the nucleus is imperative for viral replication and, in the case of many alphaherpesviruses, transmission into the nervous system. (
  • presenting late transcription in virus replication cycle, and E region, with early transcription in virus cycle, which codifies the proteins related to carcinogenic action [ 5 , 6 ]. (
  • E1 protein has helicase activity for replication, and E2 encodes DNA-binding protein for regulation of transcription. (
  • This is a non-coding section of the RNA, which means that it is not translated into a protein, but it is likely key to the virus's replication. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proteins, like proteins encoded in other RNA virus genomes, are subjected to a higher mutational burden than cellular proteins due to the error-prone nature of HIV-1 replication. (
  • While further investigation will be needed to elucidate the role of each tick protein in the replication cycle of tick-borne flaviviruses, our study provides a foundation for understanding the vector competence of I. ricinus at the molecular level. (
  • CanSinoBio Convidecia, and Convidecia Air (Ad5-nCoV) are genetically engineered vaccines with the replication-defective adenovirus type 5 as the vector to express SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. (
  • L1 encodes the major and L2 encodes the minor portions of the capsid. (
  • The first ORF encodes 11 proteins, including VP1 to VP4, 2A to 2C, and 3A to 3D. (
  • Encodes for about 126 proteins. (
  • The env quality encodes the viral surface glycoprotein gp160, which is severed into the surface protein gp120 (SU) and transmembrane protein gp41 (TM) during the course of viral development. (
  • Tat encodes the transactivators basic for enacting viral record while fire up encodes a protein that manages the grafting and product of viral records. (
  • A set of degenerate PCR primers for phage T4 g23, which encodes the major capsid protein in all of the T4-type phages, reveals a remarkable level of molecular diversity, which in some cases was correlated with morphological variation of the virions. (
  • The 2C protein encodes for the viral helicase and lies just upstream of the viral region that shares significant homology with human GAD65. (
  • The adenovirus major late transcription unit (MLTU) encodes the main structural capsid proteins. (
  • The capsid dimer is believed to be the building block of the nucleocapsid. (
  • The inhibitor-bound capsid tetramers are assembled inside virions, resulting in defective uncoating of nucleocapsid when infecting new cells. (
  • The primary function of its capsid protein (TBEVC) is to recruit the viral RNA and form a nucleocapsid. (
  • The nucleocapsid, which consists of a protein shell, or capsid, and contains the viral nucleic acids, has helical symmetry. (
  • Proteins of coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N). (
  • B-cell epitopes on the hepatitis C virus nucleocapsid protein determined by human monospecific antibodies. (
  • The full-length wild-type and codon-optimized PiCV capsid protein genes were cloned independently into three expression vectors pET28a, pGEX-4T-1 or pET32a. (
  • (B) The nucleotide sequences were compared between the wild-type (WT) and the codon-optimized (OPT) PiCV capsid protein genes. (
  • Alignment with capsid protein genes of other Trichoviruses revealed the TaTao ACLSV peach isolate to be phylogenetically closest to Peach mosaic virus, Apricot pseudo chlorotic leaf spot virus and Cherry mottle leaf virus. (
  • L genes encode viral capsid proteins. (
  • Within the host cell the genetic material of a DNA virus is replicated and transcribed into messenger RNA by host cell enzymes, and proteins coded for by viral genes are synthesized by host cell ribosomes. (
  • RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcribes genes that encode proteins and noncoding small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). (
  • Disruption of E1 and E2 allows for dysregulated downstream genes and the expression of E6 and E7 proteins, which are selectively maintained in virally induced tumors. (
  • The genetic material used to create the enzyme, hydrogenase, is produced by two genes from the common bacteria Escherichia coli, inserted inside the protective capsid using methods previously developed by these IU scientists. (
  • Preliminary crystallographic analysis of the major capsid protein P2 of the lipid-containing bacteriophage PM2. (
  • PM2 (Corticoviridae) is a dsDNA bacteriophage which contains a lipid membrane beneath its icosahedral capsid. (
  • In this respect it resembles bacteriophage PRD1 (Tectiviridae), although it is not known whether the similarity extends to the detailed molecular architecture of the virus, for instance the fold of the major coat protein P2. (
  • The capsid comes from the bacterial virus known as bacteriophage P22. (
  • Illustration showing the release of NiFe-hydrogenase from inside the virus shell, or "capsid," of bacteriophage P22. (
  • In murine polyomavirus the minor proteins have been reported to induce apoptosis in the infected cell, and in SV40 they have been identified as viroporins. (
  • Results: We generated a therapeutic HPV16-E7 DNA vaccine construct, pcDNA3-BPVL1-E7(49-57), encoding the fusion sequence of full-length BPVL1 protein and a murine E7 antigenic epitope, aa49-57. (
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the capsid protein of the murine virus revealed that. (
  • Antibody to the capsid (PORF2) protein of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is sufficient to confer immunity, but knowledge of B-cell epitopes in the intact capsid is limited. (
  • Mouse anti Rotavirus antibody, clone 0521 recognises the p41 capsid protien of Rotavirus from human, monkey and porcine isolates. (
  • The transformation of YEGα-HPV16 L1 was performed into the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y2805 by the lithium acetate method and the yeast clone expressing the highest level of L1 capsid protein of human papillomavirus type 16 was selected by Western blot analysis using anti-HPV16 L1 antibody. (
  • West Nile virus peptide is used for blocking the activity of West Nile Virus Core Protein antibody (Cat. (
  • Proteins were detected by immunoblotting with a GFP-specific antibody. (
  • Emergent BioSolutions Chikungunya CHIKV-VLP vaccine PXVX0317 is a multi-protein structure that could potentially promote a stronger immune response and increased antibody production. (
  • A schematic diagram of the constructions used in this study and the alignment results for the expressed PiCV capsid gene. (
  • The complete sequences of the coat protein (CP) gene of 26 isolates of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) from India were determined. (
  • Cloning and characterization of a novel human prefoldin and SPEC domain protein gene (PFD6L) from the fetal brain. (
  • A 100% homology with the common midwife toad ( A. obstetricans ) ranavirus partial major capsid protein gene (GenBank accession no. (
  • My desire to work on viral vectors for gene and cell therapy applications resulting in my relocating to Glasgow University from 2005-2013, where I made important contributions to how Adenoviral (Ad) based vectors interact with host cells and proteins, and how these interactions dictate viral tropism and toxicity. (
  • Adenovirus capsid chimeras: fiber terminal exon insertions/gene replacements in the major late transcription unit. (
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Adenovirus capsid chimeras: fiber terminal exon insertions/gene replacements in the major late transcription unit. (
  • We have previously shown that coadministration of DNA encoding L1 capsid protein of Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) can enhance the antigen-specific immune response elicited by a therapeutic HPV16-E7 DNA vaccination. (
  • P24 antigen ELISA and real-time PCR measurements demonstrated that exogenously added immunophilins do not influence HIV-1 infection and may conclude that endogenous CypA exerts its action after reverse transcription but before virus maturation, probably during capsid formation. (
  • Leveraging native protein translation and posttranslational-modification machinery within the host's actual cells eliminates concerns about achieving efficient antigen uptake. (
  • Arrowhead previously presented data generated in rodent models and in a chimpanzee chronically infected with HBV, showing that ARC-520 induces rapid, deep, and durable knockdown of both circulating HBV DNA and key viral proteins, including hepatitis B s-antigen, e-antigen, and the core protein that forms the capsid. (
  • Curevo CRV-101 is a vaccine designed to maximize CMI protection by combining the gE protein antigen with a proprietary adjuvant. (
  • The RV capsid protein is an essential structural component of virions as well as a key factor in virus-host interactions. (
  • Although PpiD is known to function in protein translocation, the functional significance of PpiD-YfgM complex formation as well as the molecular mechanisms of PpiD-YfgM and PpiD/YfgM-Sec translocon interactions remain unclear. (
  • This minimalistic design, held together by weak protein-protein interactions, supports an extremely efficient assembly process, resulting in a monodisperse, stable structure. (
  • The molecular mechanism of rabies virus pathogenesis is not well understood, and our research analyzes the different functions of the rhabdoviral proteins (e.g. rabies virus) and their interactions with host proteins and the immune system. (
  • PV oncoproteins are the source for the alterations related to carcinogenesis: they interfere with the host cell cycle control, through interactions with specific proteins, as p53, p RB, p21, and p27 [ 8 ]. (
  • Ensemble and single-molecule spectroscopy demonstrates that both emission and absorption of peridinin-chlorophyll-protein photosynthetic antennae can be largely enhanced through plasmonic interactions. (
  • At the molecular scale, vector competence is governed in part by binary interactions established between viral and cellular proteins within infected tick cells. (
  • To investigate virus-vector protein-protein interactions (PPIs), the entire set of open reading frames for LIV and TBEV was screened against an I. ricinus cDNA library established from three embryonic tick cell lines using yeast two-hybrid methodology (Y2H). (
  • Defining and genetically precluding dose limiting interactions between virus and host cells, proteins and receptors. (
  • In order to maximize retargeting, strategies which permit detargeting from undesirable interactions between the Ad capsid and components of the circulatory system (e.g. coagulation factors, erythrocytes, pre-existing neutralizing antibodies), can be employed simultaneously. (
  • All types of HPV share a common genomic structure and encode eight proteins: E1, E2, E4, E5, E6, and E7 (early) and L1 and L2 (late). (
  • Human species D adenovirus hexon capsid protein mediates cell entry through a direct interaction with CD46. (
  • A three-dimensional image reconstruction at high resolution from cryo-electron micrographs has revealed how hexon proteins form the viral facets and showed the interaction of penton base and fiber at the vertex. (
  • Hexon protein is a major coat protein of adenoviruses. (
  • Adenoviruses capsids have three principal protein components: the hexon, the penton, and the fiber. (
  • These include genetic modification strategies to incorporate peptide ligands (within fiber knob domain, fiber shaft, penton base, pIX or hexon), pseudotyping of capsid proteins to include whole fiber substitutions or fiber knob chimeras, pseudotyping with non-human Ad species or with capsid proteins derived from other viral families, hexon hypervariable region (HVR) substitutions and adapter-based conjugation/crosslinking of scFv, growth factors or monoclonal antibodies directed against surface-expressed target antigens. (
  • The capsid proteins hexon, penton, and fiber contribute to efficient infection by adenovirus, and each contributes in some manner to the antiviral immune response against adenovirus infection. (
  • The leader protease (L pro ) and capsid-coding sequences (P1) constitute approximately 3 kb of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). (
  • BKV VP2 is a pool of lyophilized peptides, consisting mainly of 15-mer sequences with 11 amino acids overlap, covering the complete sequence of the BK virus (BKV) VP2 protein (UniProt ID: P14997). (
  • In transient and transgenic mouse models of HBV infection, a single co-injection of Arrowhead's DPC delivery vehicle with cholesterol-conjugated siRNA targeting HBV sequences resulted in multi-log knockdown of HBV RNA, proteins and viral DNA with long duration of effect. (
  • By randomly reshuffling the order of amino acids and nucleotides in pairs or triplets of viral sequences, we used statistics to find previously undetected similarities below 17% protein sequence identity, well below what conventional tools are capable of detecting," says Professor Dennis Bamford. (
  • The detection of extremely weak similarities in protein and coding sequences by HOSS suggests that viral capsid similarities are due to common descent, not convergence as previously suspected. (
  • This endosomal escape is initiated upon internalization and involves a highly coordinated process of partial disassembly of the entering capsid to release the membrane lytic internal capsid protein VI. (
  • Detection of norovirus capsid protein in authentic standards and in stool extracts by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization and nanospray mass spectrometry. (
  • The detection of norovirus capsid protein was explored using three common MS-based methods: scanning of intact proteins, peptide mass fingerprinting, and peptide sequencing. (
  • Credit: NIAIDComputer-generated image of Gii.4 norovirus capsid protein, showing 1974 strain superimposed over modern strain. (
  • In this computer-generated image of the GII.4 norovirus capsid protein, a model of the GII.4 virus in 1974 (orange) is superimposed over a more recent GII.4 strain (pink). (
  • HBV has an icosahedral capsid composed of homodimeric core protein (Cp). (
  • Positive polarity in vitro transcripts from 3′-proximal MCMV cDNA clones direct the synthesis of the capsid protein in in vitro translation experiments. (
  • On the Cover: Proton binding leads to dimerization of the Rous sarcoma virus capsid protein, which initiates capsid assembly in vitro. (
  • The capsids were equally effective in either of their chiral forms, which can render them invisible to the immune system of the host, killing different bacteria phenotypes and superbugs without cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. (
  • We hypothesised that native proteins subjected to natural selection in vivo should be more robust than proteins generated in vitro in the absence of natural selection. (
  • Antibodies directed towards the region 11-30 of the VP4 capsid enhance infection of peripheral blood cells with CVB4 in vitro. (
  • The QLITKPL sequence was partially localized between aa 8 and 14 of core protein, but no clear homology was found for the two sFabC14 peptides. (
  • A virus particle consists of nucleic acid enclosed in a hollow protein cage called a "capsid. (
  • there may also be a few enzymes or regulatory proteins involved in assembling the capsid around newly synthesized viral nucleic acid, in controlling the biochemical mechanisms of the host cell, and in lysing the host cell when new virions have been assembled. (
  • In one aspect, the invention generally provides a nucleic acid molecule encoding a parvovirus structural protein or fragment thereof, where at least about 50-100% of the nucleic acid molecule's codons are optimized for expression in a nonpermissive mammalian cell. (
  • In another aspect, the invention provides a nucleic acid molecule encoding a parvovirus B19 (B19V) structural protein or fragment thereof, where the codons of the nucleic acid molecule are optimized for expression in a mammalian non-erythroid lineage cell. (
  • Using wild-type and protein VI-mutated human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-C5), we show that capsid stability and membrane rupture are major determinants of entry-related sorting of incoming adenovirus virions. (
  • In this study, we show the intricate connection of adenovirus particle stability and the entry-dependent release of the membrane-lytic capsid protein VI required for endosomal escape. (
  • We show that the amphipathic helix of the adenovirus internal protein VI is required to stabilize pentons in the particle while coinciding with penton release upon entry and that release of protein VI mediates membrane lysis, thereby preventing lysosomal sorting. (
  • We suggest that this dual functionality of protein VI ensures an optimal disassembly process by balancing the metastable state of the mature adenovirus particle. (
  • Similarly, the 76 kDa major outer-capsid protein μ1 of mammalian orthoreoviruses (reoviruses), which are non-enveloped and have double-stranded RNA genomes, undergoes putative autocleavage between residues 42 and 43, yielding N-terminal N-myristoylated fragment μ1N and C-terminal fragment μ1C. (
  • abstract = "Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) is a 30-nm icosahedral plant virus composed of a single 25-kDa capsid protein component and a 4.4-kb single-stranded, positive-sense genomic RNA. (
  • For the first time, the crystal structure of the JEV capsid protein at 1.98 Å is also reported and compared to the existing flavivirus capsid protein. (
  • Additional functionality of Flavivirus capsid proteins has been documented, but further investigation is needed for TBEVC. (
  • the major component is major capsid protein VP1, which self-assembles into pentamers that in turn self-assemble into enclosed icosahedral structures. (
  • Although many scientists believe that AAVs are less immunogenic than other delivery systems because they do not contain engineered lipids or other chemical compounds, the capsid protein itself can elicit an immune response. (
  • During maturation, the viral protease cleaves Gag into single components and CA assembles into a mature capsid. (
  • To pursue such a feat, this interdisciplinary research team adopted the geometric principles of the virus architecture to engineer a synthetic biologic - protein Ψ-capsid - which assembles from a small molecular motif found in human cells. (
  • JEV capsid shows helical secondary structure (α helixes 1-4) and protein folding similar to DENV and WNV capsid proteins. (
  • Here we report the high-resolution cocrystal structure (1.5 Å) of the DENV-2 capsid protein in complex with an inhibitor that potently suppresses DENV-2 but not other DENV serotypes. (
  • Resistant DENV-2 emerges through one mutation that abolishes hydrogen bonds in the capsid structure, leading to a loss of compound binding. (
  • The results have uncovered an antiviral mechanism through inhibitor-induced tetramerization of the viral capsid and provided essential structural and functional knowledge for rational design of panserotype DENV capsid inhibitors. (
  • All three capsid proteins are expressed from alternative start sites on a single transcript of the "late region" of the circular viral chromosome (so named because it is transcribed late in the process of viral infection). (
  • Expressions of innate immune response proteins, most notably proinflammatory cytokines, against enteroviral (EV) infection have been documented in the heart of human dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). (
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 dramatically alters the architecture and protein composition of cellular membranes during infection, but its effects upon membrane lipid composition remain unclear. (
  • Here I show that infection and conical capsid formation of K25A can be rescued by compensating mutants without restoring the charged K25 ring. (
  • At least three viral membrane proteins (gE, gI, and Us9) are necessary for the spread of infection from presynaptic to postsynaptic neurons (anterograde spread) in infected rodents. (
  • The virus expresses the early proteins--E1, E2, E5, E6, and E7--in the lower spinous layers (earlier in the infection). (
  • Many experts believe that reducing key viral proteins can revive patients' adaptive immune response and potentially lead to a functional cure of chronic HBV infection with a finite treatment regimen. (
  • This intermediate state can be useful for drug targeting to prevent the spike protein to initiate viral infection. (
  • Detection of IgG3 antibodies specific to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) p24 protein as marker for recently acquired infection. (
  • Simulate the assembly processes of entire cellular organelles like Chromatophores and Ribosomes as well as Membrane Proteins or Viral Capsids, which consist of a few million atoms? (
  • Using ideas from mathematics and computer science, Professor Sinclair from OIST's Mathematical Biology Unit worked with scientists at the University of Helsinki to reinvestigate whether the structure-based classification for viral capsids is in fact supported by previously undetected sequence similarity. (
  • Attachment of the viral proteins to host receptors mediates endocytosis of the virus into the host cell. (
  • Other approaches include using genetically modified RV G proteins or RV capsids to carry antigens of other pathogens as vaccines against Anthrax and Botulism. (
  • A zinc ion controls assembly and stability of the major capsid protein of rotavirus.Erk I., Huet J.-C., Duarte M., Duquerroy S., Rey F.A., Cohen J., Lepault J.J. Virol. (
  • The capsid (CA) domain of retroviral Gag proteins posseses one subdomain, the major homology region (MHR) which is conserved among nearly all avian and mammalian retroviruses. (
  • All polyomavirus capsids are constructed from 360 copies of the major coat protein, VP1, arranged in pentamers on a T=7 icosahedral lattice [2] . (
  • P31 lies at the vertices, while the major coat protein, P3, forms the facets. (
  • M.Tanimura and K.Miyamura: 'Molearlar Evolation of the Major Capsid Protein VP1 of Enterovirus 70' J.Virol.68. (
  • The team discovered that a small molecule called IP6 plays a major role in stabilizing the protein shell within the Rous sarcoma virus. (
  • The grand canonical free energy landscape predicts a relatively high and broad barrier to initiating assembly that prevents the accumulation of intermediates, following which the energy decreased towards the full capsid with no local minima. (
  • It is generally believed that the stoichiometry of this interaction is one molecule of VP2 or VP3 to each VP1 pentamer, though higher ratios have sometimes been reported, possibly indicating that pentamers can accommodate associations with two minor proteins. (
  • It is proposed that this together with charge distribution on the exterior of the protein influence NS1-host protein interaction specificity which may impact on pathogenicity. (
  • Other biophysical techniques, such as dynamic light scattering and zeta potential are also excellent to characterize LDs in terms of size in a simple and fast way and test possible LDs interaction with viral proteins. (
  • The inhibitor induces a "kissing" interaction between two capsid dimers. (
  • S proteins are needed for interaction with the host cells. (
  • Hypothesis: Inositol phospholipids are well known to form clusters in the cytoplasmic leaflet of the plasma membrane that are responsible for the interaction and recruitment of proteins involved in key biological processes like endocytosis, ion channel activation and secondary messenger production. (
  • Thus, the helix has a dual function in maintaining the metastable state of the capsid by preventing premature disassembly and mediating efficient membrane lysis to evade lysosomal targeting. (
  • PpiD and YfgM are inner membrane proteins that are both composed of an N-terminal transmembrane segment and a C-terminal periplasmic domain. (
  • Escherichia coli YfgM and PpiD form a stable complex that interacts with the SecY/E/G (Sec) translocon, a channel that allows protein translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane. (
  • The viral envelope is made up of a lipid bilayer in which the membrane (M), envelope (E), and spike (S) structural proteins are anchored. (
  • Photosystem I (PSI) is a membrane protein complex that catalyzes sunlight-driven transmembrane electron transfer as part of the photosynthetic machinery. (
  • Surprisingly, capsid and tegument proteins but not viral membrane proteins were detected in axons. (
  • The spread of Us9 missense mutants in the rodent nervous system correlated with the amount of viral membrane proteins localized to axons. (
  • We conclude that the Us9 membrane protein controls axonal localization of diverse viral membrane proteins but not that of capsid or tegument proteins. (
  • The capsid is covered by a proteinaceous matrix called the tegument, which is surrounded by a lipid envelope derived from host cell trans-golgi membrane ( 7 ) ( Figure 3 ). (
  • Torres-Ocampo, A. P. "Lipid Raft Phase Modulation by Membrane-Anchored Proteins with Inherent Phase Separation Properties. (
  • The viral envelope is a lipid bilayer formed from the plasma membrane of the host cell, which contains two virus-encoded proteins, haemagglutinin and neuraminidase. (
  • Orthomyxoviruses have a capsid surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer derived from the plasma membrane of the cell that produced the virus. (
  • The capsid displays an icosahedral symmetry T=189-217, with an internal lipid membrane. (
  • Katharine Hammond, research scientist at NPL and PhD student at UCL Physics & Astronomy, said: "By scanning a sharp tip over the membrane surface, just like a miniature finger would read Braille, we could trace the contours of the capsids on the membranes and observe in real time how they punctured holes in their target membranes. (
  • Computer modeling of the COVID-19 virus on supercomputers showed that the spike protein visits an intermediate state before it can dock to the receptor protein on the host cell membrane. (
  • for example, in JC virus both VP2 and VP3 seem to be essential for packaging the viral chromosome into the capsid, while absence of these proteins in SV40 prevents successful entry into new host cells, with variable effects on packaging reported. (
  • Polyomavirus VP1 phosphorylation: coexpression with the VP2 capsid protein modulates VP1 phosphorylation in Sf9 insect cells. (
  • The M protein is found in infected cells as a glycosylated precursor, premembrane (prM) protein. (
  • We have discovered that the protein Bad has unexpected functions in breast cancer cells. (
  • Proteins such as perforin, granzyme B and granulisin have the property of lysing cells infected by M. tuberculosis , or even directly lysing the bacilli. (
  • The exact role E4 plays is not clear, but it interacts with the cytoskeleton proteins, more specifically the keratin intermediate filaments in epithelial cells. (
  • Notably, NSP3-UnaG protein was readily detected in infected cells via live cell imaging, with intensity levels much greater than that of the NSP1-UnaG fusion product of rSA11/NSP1-FL-UnaG. (
  • Furthermore, the main capsid protein (also known as P10) of RBSDV alone can induce autophagy in both Sf9 and L. striatellus cells. (
  • Further experiments indicated that Sf9 cells expressing RBSDV P10 can promote the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), resulting in GAPDH phosphorylation and relocation of GAPDH from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. (
  • B ) Fluorescence microscopy of Lsm4-GFP cells co-expressing the mCherry-tagged PB proteins Dcp2 or Edc3. (
  • The vaccinated person's cells produce the viral protein from this RNA, which then triggers an immune response. (
  • To raised discover the underlying mechanism of liver metastatic formation by placenta-specific protein 1 (PLAC1) in human colorectal most cancers, we investigated the proliferation, invasion and angiogenic capabilities of human colorectal most cancers cells with completely different liver metastatic potentials in addition to the mechanism of motion of PLAC1 within the metastatic course of. (
  • The most interesting observation from the nPOD data is the patchy distribution of insulitis, with MHC class II hyper-expression on β-cells, which was co-located with viral protein. (
  • I'm trying to dock two identical proteins that will eventually build up into a capsid structure. (
  • Until the arrival of petascale supercomputers, scientists were unable to decipher in atomic-level detail the entire HIV capsid--an assemblage of more than 1,300 identical proteins forming a cone-shaped structure. (
  • In the background, there is a space-filling model of the resulting dimeric species, overlaying an image of the fully assembled viral capsid protein, visualized using electron microscopy (see Bailey et al. (
  • The team developed a computational prototype tool called the 'Helsinki Okinawa Sequence Similarity' or HOSS for short, to detect amino acid sequence similarity in viral coat proteins of icosahedral virus capsids - polyhedral capsids with 20 faces. (
  • Furthermore, by using electron cryomicroscopy, as well as penton- and protein VI-specific antibodies, we show that the amphipathic helix of protein VI contributes to capsid stability by preventing premature disassembly and deployment of pentons and protein VI. (
  • Putative serine/threonine-protein kinase 040L (EC 2.7.11. (
  • [15] The E and M protein are the structural proteins that combined with the lipid bilayer to shape the viral envelope and maintain its size. (
  • Using tiny lipid discs, scientists resolve contradictory evidence about how many proteins are required for neurotransmitter release. (
  • EM showed that the virus attacks the fat body, an organ important for protein production, immune function and lipid storage. (
  • The different colors represent different regions of the organism's outer protein shell, or capsid. (
  • consist of genetic material ( DNA or RNA) and have an outer protein shell, known as a capsid. (
  • While it is known that the mutagenesis of residues in the MHR will impair virus infectivity, the precise structure and function of the MHR is not known,In order to obtain further information on the MHR, we have examined the structure of a synthetic peptide encompassing the MHR of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) CA protein. (
  • There are currently no references for West Nile virus Capsid peptide (GTX85510-PEP) . (
  • Intermediate capsid protein that self assbles to form an icosahedral capsid with a T=13 symmetry, which consists of 230 trimers of VP6, with channels at each of its five-fold vertices. (
  • Half of the known virus families have icosahedral capsids (polyhedrons containing 20 triangular faces, with five-fold symmetry around each vertex). (
  • HBV capsids are composed of 90 (capsid symmetry T = 3) or 120 (T = 4) Cp149 dimers. (
  • Both residues are important IP6 binders, and their mutation interferes with mature capsid formation. (
  • In still another embodiment, the B19V structural protein is a VP1 protein containing an altered PLA2 motif (e.g., a PLA2 deletion, a H153A mutation, a D175A mutation, and a P133R mutation) that lacks or has reduced inflammatory properties when injected into a subject relative to a wild-type PLA2 motif. (
  • A virus with two capsid mutations, one conferring Ab-escape yet impaired infectivity and a second compensatory mutation, yielded a highly neurovirulent variant. (
  • This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomer , which are proteins on the surface of the virus. (
  • SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Stabilized in the Closed State Induces Potent Neutralizing Responses. (
  • The viral receptor protein angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) 4 is expressed in several epithelial tissues, including the intestine, alongside TMPRSS2, a protease that activates the viral spike protein for binding. (
  • The initial findings, which showed the existence of an intermediate semi-open state of the spike protein, was published in the Journal of Chemical Physics. (
  • CoraVax utilizes the spike protein component of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. (
  • The COVID-19 Vaccine Moderna Intramuscular Injection is an mRNA vaccine targeted against the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus encoding for a prefusion stabilized form of the Spike (S) protein authorized for use in Japan on May 21, 2021. (
  • Human proteins, cDNA and human recombinants are used in human reactive ELISA kits and to produce anti-human mono and polyclonal antibodies. (
  • In order to produce HPV16 VLPs, the cDNA of L1 capsid protein in HPV type 16, obtained by polymerase chain reaction, was inserted into yeast expression vector, YEGα-HIR525 under the control of GAL10 promoter. (
  • The inner capsid layer consists of 120 copies of VP3 arranged as 60 dimers that form a scaffold for VP7. (
  • At mild, biologically-relevant, dimer-dimer association free energy, assembly started after a lag phase of 10 s and appeared to be a two-state reaction with Cp149 dimers and complete T = 4 capsids. (
  • Moreover, the NSP3-UnaG protein, like functional wildtype NSP3, formed dimers in vivo . (
  • CYCLOPHILINS are a family of proteins that bind the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A, possess peptidyl prolylcis trans isomerase activity, and assist in the folding of proteins1 6. (
  • Protein disulfide isomerases are a family of proteins that catalyze the oxidation and isomerization of disulfide bonds in newly synthesized proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. (
  • In mice and flies, the Arc protein forms capsids and carries genetic information. (
  • It then forms a protective shell, a so-called capsid, around its genetic information and becomes infectious. (
  • Before diving into the concepts, we must first understand the basic structure of a virus - each virus particle has genetic material (DNA or RNA), a protective protein cover (capsid), and in cases like the flu virus or the coronavirus, an additional envelope with surface proteins. (
  • When the surface protein recognizes the right kind of host cell, it attaches to it and releases the virus's genetic material into the cell. (
  • Researchers have determined the precise chemical structure of the HIV capsid, a protein shell that protects the virus's genetic material and is a key to its ability to infect and debilitate the human body's defense mechanism. (
  • Mutational studies based on this structure confirmed the role of amino acid residues in the capsid that function in the assembly of infectious virions. (
  • Virions isometric (icosahedral), not enveloped, 18-26 nm in diameter, made of 60 units of the capsid protein. (
  • The Human parvovirus B19 (isolate AU) (HPV B19) parvovirus B19 Non-capsid protein NS-1(NS1),partial is shipped on ice packs. (