Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Gene Products, nef: Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.Genes, nef: DNA sequences that form the coding region for a protein that down-regulates the expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). nef is short for negative factor.Caliciviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Norovirus: A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.Calicivirus, Feline: A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.Caliciviridae: A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most individual species are restricted to their natural hosts. They possess a characteristic six-pointed starlike shape whose surfaces have cup-shaped (chalice) indentions. Transmission is by contaminated food, water, fomites, and occasionally aerosolization of secretions. Genera include LAGOVIRUS; NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES; SAPPORO-LIKE VIRUSES; and VESIVIRUS.Sapovirus: A genus of the family CALICIVIRIDAE associated with worldwide sporadic outbreaks of GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The first recorded outbreak was in human infants in Sapporo, Japan in 1977. The genus is comprised of a single species, Sapporo virus, containing multiple strains.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Rabbit: A species in the genus LAGOVIRUS which causes hemorrhagic disease, including hemorrhagic septicemia, in rabbits.Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Minute virus of mice: The type species of PARVOVIRUS prevalent in mouse colonies and found as a contaminant of many transplanted tumors or leukemias.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Virus Uncoating: Intracellular step that follows VIRUS INTERNALIZATION during which the viral nucleic acid and CAPSID are separated.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Parvovirus, Canine: A species of the genus PARVOVIRUS and a host range variant of FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS. It causes a highly infectious fulminating ENTERITIS in dogs producing high mortality. It is distinct from CANINE MINUTE VIRUS, a species in the genus BOCAVIRUS. This virus can also infect cats and mink.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.DNA Packaging: The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-hck: Members of the src-family tyrosine kinase family that are strongly expressed in MYELOID CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Cyclophilin A: A 17-KDa cytoplasmic PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE involved in immunoregulation. It is a member of the cyclophilin family of proteins that binds to CYCLOSPORINE.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Parvovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, infecting a variety of vertebrates including humans. Parvoviruses are responsible for a number of important diseases but also can be non-pathogenic in certain hosts. The type species is MINUTE VIRUS OF MICE.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins: A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.Norwalk virus: The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Complement C3 Nephritic Factor: An IgG autoantibody against the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE, found in serum of patients with MESANGIOCAPILLARY GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. The binding of this autoantibody to C3bBb stabilizes the enzyme thus reduces the actions of C3b inactivators (COMPLEMENT FACTOR H; COMPLEMENT FACTOR I). This abnormally stabilized enzyme induces a continuous COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and generation of C3b thereby promoting the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX and cytolysis.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Reoviridae: A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Parvoviridae Infections: Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Parvoviridae: A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Levivirus: A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.Myristic Acid: A saturated 14-carbon fatty acid occurring in most animal and vegetable fats, particularly butterfat and coconut, palm, and nutmeg oils. It is used to synthesize flavor and as an ingredient in soaps and cosmetics. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Lentiviruses, Primate: A subgenus of LENTIVIRUS comprising viruses that produce immunodeficiencies in primates, including humans.Virus Release: Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.Picornaviridae: A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Bromovirus: A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Aphthovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. They cause vesicular lesions and upper respiratory tract infections. FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS is the type species.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Polyomavirus: A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.Human Immunodeficiency Virus Proteins: Proteins synthesized by HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES such as the HIV-1 and HIV-2.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Virosomes: Semi-synthetic complex derived from nucleic-acid free viral particles. They are essentially reconstituted viral coats, where the infectious nucleocapsid is replaced by a compound of choice. Virosomes retain their fusogenic activity and thus deliver the incorporated compound (antigens, drugs, genes) inside the target cell. They can be used for vaccines (VACCINES, VIROSOME), drug delivery, or gene transfer.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.Rous sarcoma virus: A species of replication-competent oncogene-containing virus in the genus ALPHARETROVIRUS. It is the original source of the src oncogene (V-SRC GENES) and causes sarcoma in chickens.gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Protein PrecursorsMason-Pfizer monkey virus: A species of BETARETROVIRUS isolated from mammary carcinoma in rhesus monkeys. It appears to have evolved from a recombination between a murine B oncovirus and a primate C oncovirus related to the baboon endogenous virus. Several serologically distinct strains exist. MPMV induces SIMIAN AIDS.Enterovirus B, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.Insect Viruses: Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.Parvovirus B19, Human: The type species of ERYTHROVIRUS and the etiological agent of ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM, a disease most commonly seen in school-age children.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Negative Staining: The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Bacteriophage P22: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.Nodaviridae: A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Oncogene Proteins, Viral: Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Myristic Acids: 14-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Feline panleukopenia virus: A species of PARVOVIRUS infecting cats with a highly contagious enteric disease. Host range variants include mink enteritis virus, canine parvovirus (PARVOVIRUS, CANINE), and raccoon parvovirus. After infecting their new hosts, many of these viruses have further evolved and are now considered distinct species.Infectious bursal disease virus: A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is thought to be through contaminated feed or water. Vaccines have been used with varying degrees of success.Rhinovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.
tev: This gene is only present in a few HIV-1 isolates. It is a fusion of parts of the tat, env, and rev genes, and codes for a ... nef- Nef, negative factor, is a N-terminal myristoylated membrane-associated phosphoprotein. It is involved in multiple ... The envelope is formed when the capsid buds from the host cell, taking some of the host-cell membrane with it. The envelope ... genes unique to HIV. The HIV genome contains three major genes, 5'gag-pol-env-3', encoding major structural proteins as well as ...
Vpu or Nef. The capsid protein derived from the polyprotein Gag is assembled into a viral core (the protein shell of a virus) ... An additional short ORF termed orfA (also known as orf2) precedes the env gene. The function of OrfA in viral replication is ... Like HIV-1, FIV has been engineered into a viral vector for gene therapy. Like other lentiviral vectors, FIV vectors integrate ... It has the typical genomic structure of retroviruses, including the gag, pol, and env genes. The Gag polyprotein is cleaved ...
coding regions genes: env, gag, pol, tat, rev, nef, vpr, vif, vpu/vpx Structural proteins (envelope): SU, TM,(gag): MA, CA, NC ... This intracellular protein recognizes the capsid of various retroviruses and blocks their reproduction. Other proteins such as ... Enzymes RT, PR, IN Gene regulators Tat, Rev Accessory proteins Nef, Vpr, Vpx, Vif Differences in species specificity of SIV and ... capsid containing a dimeric pair of positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome. ...
They may also have additional accessory genes depending on the virus (e.g., for HIV-1: vif, vpr, vpu, nef) whose products are ... P24 capsid protein CA, encoded by the viral gene gag. 24000 Da. ... dUTPase DU encoded by the pro gene (part of pol gene in some ... Use as gene delivery vectors[edit]. Main article: Lentiviral vector in gene therapy ... reduces the expression of a specific gene, thus allowing researchers to examine the necessity and effects of a given gene in a ...
"Entrez Gene: NMT1 N-myristoyltransferase 1". Rajala RV, Datla RS, Moyana TN, et al. (2000). "N-myristoyltransferase". Mol. Cell ... Geyer M, Fackler OT, Peterlin BM (2001). "Structure--function relationships in HIV-1 Nef". EMBO Rep. 2 (7): 580-5. doi:10.1093/ ... Göttlinger HG, Sodroski JG, Haseltine WA (1989). "Role of capsid precursor processing and myristoylation in morphogenesis and ... is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NMT1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000136448 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38 ...
Nef. All of the required signals for gene expression are found in the LTRs: Enhancer, promoter (can have both transcriptional ... is a unique motif involved in regulating the packaging of the viral genome into the capsid. It is composed of four stem-loop ( ... U3 and U5 has been further subdivided according to transcription factor sites and their impact on LTR activity and viral gene ... This method of dating is used by paleovirologists, though it fails to take into account confounding factors such as gene- ...
Haseltine and his laboratory quickly showed that damage to any of the viral genes that specify the virus capsid, polymerase, ... His laboratory went on to discover additional viral genes and proteins - vpr, vpu, vif, and nef - required for efficient virus ... If that were true for one gene, then why not all the human genes? New tools had been developed that allowed what had been ... determined the complete sequence of the viral genome and discovered the genes that specify the virus capsid, polymerase, ...
Finally, this genetically modified version of HIV-1, (i.e., HIV-1 virus with nef negative, vpu negative and signal peptide gene ... According to the researchers, the antibody against gp120 surface antigen and P24 capsid antigen increased up to 6-fold and 64- ... Kang, HIV-1 strain is genetically engineered such that first, "the gene responsible for pathogenicity, known as nef" is removed ... In the signal peptide exchange process, another gene called vpu is lost due to an overlapping. ...
The gene is intronless and is thought to be a retrotransposon derived from the gene for the alpha form of the PKA catalytic ... 1997). "The Nef protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 enhances serine phosphorylation of the viral matrix". J. Virol. ... kinase incorporated within highly purified HIV-1 particles is required for viral infectivity and interacts with viral capsid ... "Entrez Gene: PRKACG protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, gamma". Marx, S O; Reiken S; Hisamatsu Y; Jayaraman T; Burkhoff ...
The six remaining genes, tat, rev, nef, vif, vpr, and vpu (or vpx in the case of HIV-2), are regulatory genes for proteins that ... sense single-stranded RNA that codes for the virus's nine genes enclosed by a conical capsid composed of 2,000 copies of the ... This virus has also lost a function of the nef gene that is present in most SIVs. For non-pathogenic SIV variants, nef ... The TAR may also be processed into microRNAs that regulate the apoptosis genes ERCC1 and IER3.[36][37] The rev protein (p19) is ...
V520 contains a weakened adenovirus that serves as a carrier for three subtype B HIV genes (gag / pol / nef). Subtype B is the ... Damaging the virion Capsid (Phase I-III, VI, VII) Damaging the Reverse Transcriptase (Phase I-VII) Damaging the RNA (Phase I- ... Increasing the complexity of the canarypox vectors by inclusion of more genes/epitopes has increased the percent of volunteers ... Because the vaccine contains only three HIV genes housed in a weakened adenovirus, study participants cannot become infected ...
... nef gene product - neoplasm protein - Nernst equation - nerve - nerve growth factor - nerve growth factor receptor - nerve ... capsid - Carbohydrate - Carbon - Carbon fixation - Carboxylic acid - carcinoembryonic antigen - carrier - carrier protein - CAS ... gene - gene expression - gene pool - gene regulatory network - genetic carrier - genetic code - genetic drift - Genetic ... erbA gene - erbB gene - erbB-2 gene - erbB-2 receptor - erythropoietin - erythropoietin receptor - Essential amino acid - Ester ...
... early gene expression and immune evasion. ... capsid:. *matrix protein *M1 protein. *viral envelope *M2 ...
In molecular biology, Tat is a protein that is encoded for by the tat gene in HIV-1.[1][2] Tat is a regulatory protein that ... Tat then binds to cellular factors and mediates their phosphorylation, resulting in increased transcription of all HIV genes,[4 ... Genes,+tat at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
RETRO VIRAL GENES • vif • The virus infectivity factor gene required for infectivity • nef • The negative regulator factor ... RETRO VIRAL GENES • gag (group-specific antigen): makes the cone shape viral capsid • pol (polymerase): codes for viral enzymes ... RETRO VIRAL GENES • Tat The Trans activator gene influences the function of genes some distance away. • Rav The differential ... GENES IN HIV 1 AND HIV 2 • vpu • Virus protein U gene is required for efficient viral replication • Found only in HIV-1 • vpx ...
Gene vectors are also used extensively in basic biomedical research. ... Vectors derived from lentiviruses can be used for treatment strategies dependent on both transgene expression and gene ... For example, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has 6 regulatory or auxiliary genes: vif, vpr, vpu, tat, rev and nef. ... essential for packaging viral RNA into virus capsid), the polypurine tract required for reverse transcription, and the long- ...
2). Mutations were identified in the LTR region as well as in Gag, Pol, Vif, Vpr, Tat, Env and Nef genes (Fig. 2 and Table 1). ... Capsid p24 was measured by ELISA 6 days after treatment. This figure shows the raw data of Fig. 5B. Download FIG S4, PDF file, ... FLAG-Nef, FLAG-Nef-1, FLAG-Nef-2, FLAG-Vpr and FLAG-Vpr1-57 in the presence of DMSO or dCA from cells presented in the top ... we measured WT or MUT promoter activity upon cotransfections of the WT Tat with WT Nef or mutated Nef-1 or Nef-2 plasmids ...
tev: This gene is only present in a few HIV-1 isolates. It is a fusion of parts of the tat, env, and rev genes, and codes for a ... nef- Nef, negative factor, is a N-terminal myristoylated membrane-associated phosphoprotein. It is involved in multiple ... The envelope is formed when the capsid buds from the host cell, taking some of the host-cell membrane with it. The envelope ... genes unique to HIV. The HIV genome contains three major genes, 5gag-pol-env-3, encoding major structural proteins as well as ...
Thus, substituting HIV-1 accessory genes with those from SIV may enable HIV-1 to replication in macaques. We and others have ... Thus, substituting HIV-1 accessory genes with those from SIV may enable HIV-1 replication in macaques. We and others have ... Nef) have been shown to play key roles in overcoming these restriction factors in macaque cells. ... Nef) have been shown to play key roles in overcoming these restriction factors in macaque cells. ...
The present invention provides systems utilizing unique features of retroviral replication to analyze uncharacterized genes ... The present invention relates to the expression and screening of genomic DNA sequences encoding uncharacterized genes and ... The gag gene encodes the internal structural proteins (e.g., matrix, capsid, and nucleocapsid proteins); the pol gene encodes ... Additional genes in the lentiviral genome include the vif, vpr, tat, rev, vpu, nef, and vpx genes. ...
Vpu or Nef. The capsid protein derived from the polyprotein Gag is assembled into a viral core (the protein shell of a virus) ... An additional short ORF termed orfA (also known as orf2) precedes the env gene. The function of OrfA in viral replication is ... Like HIV-1, FIV has been engineered into a viral vector for gene therapy. Like other lentiviral vectors, FIV vectors integrate ... It has the typical genomic structure of retroviruses, including the gag, pol, and env genes. The Gag polyprotein is cleaved ...
This capsid surrounds two strands of HIV RNA, each of which contains nine of the virus genes. Three of these genes (gag, pol, ... Three regulatory genes (tat, rev, and nef) and three auxiliary genes (vif, vpr and vpu) contain information regarding the ... The only real difference between the two is that HIV-2 has the vpx gene while HIV-1 does not. As you can tell by the name, the ... Inside the viral core there is a capsid that is made of 2000 copies of a viral protein called p24. ...
An IRES element between the reporter gene and the HIV-Nef drives the expression of eGFP. For this study, the additional pNL4-3- ... The titer of virus stocks was adjusted to 100 ng/μl of p24 (HIV capsid protein). To determine whether HIV replication ... reporter virus was constructed by substituting the region of pNL4-3-GFP which contains the eGFP gene instead of the DsRed gene ... Liu, X., and Kumar, A. (2015). Differential signaling mechanism for HIV-1 Nef-mediated production of IL-6 and IL-8 in human ...
Nef expression is used to increase the viral replication and stimulates the survival of infected host cells [14].. ... TRIM5α proteins have used to block the incoming retroviral capsids and it may cause the accelerated uncoating by proteasomal ... Structure and cytopathogenic activity of HIV Vpr/Vpx proteins and genes. The vpx and vpr genes are presented in the HIV-2 and ... In rhesus monkeys AIDS has initiated by vpr and vpx genes of SIVmac. The vpr and vpx genes are translated into 100 amino acids ...
3 but also added a vector expressing an HIV-1 provirus containing the FLuc indicator gene in place of nef (HIV-1WT) or a ... we did not see any difference in the level of HIV-1 capsid (p24) expression or in the expression of endogenous β-actin (Fig. 4B ... plasmid DNA and used as a template for PCR using primers specific to the FLuc gene inserted into HIV-1 in place of the nef gene ... 5A, we indeed detected a high level of C-to-T mutation when we sequenced segments of the FLuc gene present in both the HIV-1WT ...
11202931:Gene Expression and Antiviral Activity of Alpha/Be. *11202932:The Polerovirus Minor Capsid Protein Determines Ve ... 11202941:Nef Proteins from Diverse Groups of Primate Lentiv. *11202942:Capsid Processing Requirements for Abrogation of F ... 11202573:Deletion of M2 Gene Open Reading Frames 1 and 2 of ... 11202924:The Capsid Protein of Satellite Panicum Mosaic Vir. * ...
nef (neg factor, MHC downreg etc). vpr (cell cycle regulator). vpu (CD4 degradation). vif (degrades editing enzyme Apobec3G). ... CA (capsid - cone shape. NC (nucleocapsid - binds genomic RNA). Think MaCaNac island ... How do Class-I HLA and CCR5 genes play a role in HIV infection? ... Protease catalyzes post-budding maturation by allowing capsid ... Initially only multispliced are translated, making Tat, Rev, Nef. Rev binds RREs to export larger mRNAs. ...
tat, rev, nef, vif, vpr, vpu: Each of these genes codes for a single protein with the same names; see Tat, Rev, Nef, Vif, Vpr, ... Once the viral capsid enters the cell, an enzyme called reverse transcriptase liberates the single-stranded (+)RNA from the ... These include the gag, pol, env, tat, and nef genes. The genome and proteins of HIV have been the subject of extensive research ... tev: This gene is only present in a few HIV-1 isolates. It is a fusion of parts of the tat, env, and rev genes, and codes for a ...
Based on previous studies of HIV-1 CA mutants exhibiting altered capsid stability, we concluded that formation of a capsid of ... We propose that while proper HIV-1 uncoating in target cells is dependent on the intrinsic stability of the viral capsid, the ... To further examine the connection between HIV-1 capsid stability and infectivity, we isolated second-site suppressors of HIV-1 ... Unexpectedly, neither suppressor mutation corrected the intrinsic viral capsid stability defect associated with the respective ...
They may also have additional accessory genes depending on the virus (e.g., for HIV-1: vif, vpr, vpu, nef) whose products are ... P24 capsid protein CA, encoded by the viral gene gag. 24000 Da. ... dUTPase DU encoded by the pro gene (part of pol gene in some ... Use as gene delivery vectors[edit]. Main article: Lentiviral vector in gene therapy ... reduces the expression of a specific gene, thus allowing researchers to examine the necessity and effects of a given gene in a ...
Oncogenic potential of integrating gene vectors. Schema of a lentiviral particle with its mRNA genome embedded in the capsid is ... nef, negative factor. ... Gene therapy requires efficient gene delivery to cure or ... Insertional gene activation by lentiviral and gammaretroviral vectors. J. Virol. 83:283-294. View this article via: CrossRef ... In vivo gene delivery and stable transduction of nondividing cells by a lentiviral vector. Science. 272:263-267. View this ...
... shows a graphical map of the genes and proteins of HIV-1, including the breakpoints on reference ... Genes and Gene Products. GAG The genomic region encoding the capsid proteins (group specific antigens). The precursor is the ... The nef genes of HIV and SIV are dispensable in vitro, but are essential for efficient viral spread and disease progression in ... In HIV-2, SIV-SMM, SIV-RCM, SIV-MND-2, and SIV-DRL the Vpx gene is apparently the result of a Vpr gene duplication event, ...
Two copies of this gene provide strong protection against HIV infection, although the protection is not absolute. This gene is ... The accessory proteins tat, rev, nef, vif, vpr, and vpu enhance virus production. Although called accessory proteins, tat and ... HIV-1 is composed of two copies of single-stranded RNA enclosed by a conical capsid, which is in turn surrounded by a plasma ... genes that are unique to HIV. The gag gene provides the physical infrastructure of the virus; pol provides the basic enzymes by ...
SIV has ten genes.] All retroviruses contain the genes gag (codes for internal structural proteins and capsid proteins using ... nef (misnamed negative regulator factor, but really an enhancing factor), vpr (virus protein R), and vpu (virus protein U).. ... 5) Reverse transcription of ssRNA to ssDNA using the enzyme reverse transcriptase occurs within the capsid. (6) DNA synthesis ... When the mutation, called D32 and read delta-32, occurs in the gene on only one of the two human chromosomes, called a ...
IPR008916, Retrov_capsid_C. IPR008919, Retrov_capsid_N. IPR010999, Retrovr_matrix. IPR043128, Rev_trsase/Diguanyl_cyclase. ... Also cleaves Nef and Vif, probably concomitantly with viral structural proteins on maturation of virus particles. Hydrolyzes ... IPR008916, Retrov_capsid_C. IPR008919, Retrov_capsid_N. IPR010999, Retrovr_matrix. IPR043128, Rev_trsase/Diguanyl_cyclase. ... Capsid protein p24By similarityAdd BLAST. 234. ChainiPRO_0000249398. 390 - 463. Nucleocapsid protein p7By similarityAdd BLAST. ...
IPR008916, Retrov_capsid_C. IPR008919, Retrov_capsid_N. IPR010999, Retrovr_matrix. IPR043128, Rev_trsase/Diguanyl_cyclase. ... Also cleaves Nef and Vif, probably concomitantly with viral structural proteins on maturation of virus particles. Hydrolyzes ... IPR008916, Retrov_capsid_C. IPR008919, Retrov_capsid_N. IPR010999, Retrovr_matrix. IPR043128, Rev_trsase/Diguanyl_cyclase. ... Capsid protein p24By similarityAdd BLAST. 231. ChainiPRO_0000249387. 362 - 428. Nucleocapsid protein p7By similarityAdd BLAST. ...
Kashanchi, F.,, and J. N. Brady. 2005. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation of HTLV-1. Oncogene 24:5938- ... The open boxes in the genome representation at the top denote ORFs of the accessory proteins Tat, Rev, Nef, Vif, Vpr, and Vpu, ... the capsid (CA) protein p24, and a C-terminal protein p15, which is subsequently cleaved into p7 and the nucleocapsid (NC) ... Baba, M. 2006. Recent status of HIV-1 gene expression inhibitors. Antivir. Res. 71:301-306.. ...
... an essential gene adjacent to the polyhedrin gene in the AcMNPV genome. While some viruses, like human immunodeficiency virus ... Roncken, P.A. ; Nefs, Merten ; Witte, Ymkje van de - \ 2017. Ruimte+Wonen 1 (2017)03. - p. 30 - 41. ... The proteolytic degradation of VP1/ VP2 AAV capsid proteins reduces the infectivity of rAAV vectors but can be prevented by the ... Nefs, Merten ; Geuze, A.H. ; Bos, E.J. - \ 2016. Rotterdam : Deltametropolis Association - ISBN 9789076630182 - 132 ...
What are the 4 accessory proteins/genes on the HIV genome? nef. vpr. vpu. vif As a group, remove restriction factors that host ... gag p24 = capsid. gag p17 = matrix, lines inner leaflet of viral envelope ...
  • Each virion comprises a viral envelope and associated matrix enclosing a capsid, which itself encloses two copies of the single-stranded RNA genome and several enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome is organized from the 5′ to the 3′ end, and major protein components are contained in gag , pol and env genes. (news-medical.net)
  • Some of the other additional genes that are important are psi-sequence near the 5' end of the RNA-genome (essential for packaging viral RNA into virus capsid), the polypurine tract required for reverse transcription, and the long-terminal repeats (LTRs) which are part of the promoter for transcription of the viral genes. (news-medical.net)
  • The drug discovery process is currently undergoing a fundamental revolution as it embraces functional genomics, that is, high throughput genome- or gene-based biology. (google.com)
  • Rajarapu G (2014) Genes and Genome of HIV-1. (omicsonline.org)
  • Gene therapy requires efficient gene delivery to cure or prevent disease by modifying the genome of somatic cells. (jci.org)
  • However, gene vectors, which insert themselves into the host genome in order to achieve persistent protein expression, can trigger oncogenesis by upregulating cellular protooncogenes. (jci.org)
  • Gene vectors that insert themselves into the host genome would allow for a long-lasting phenotypic correction even if the target cells undergo repeated rounds of cell division. (jci.org)
  • The RNA genome includes seven (7) genomic structural components and nine (9) genes . (labourlists.org)
  • The incorporated HIV genome also contains a site that can receive NF-kB and in response activate the gene promoter. (blogspot.com)
  • also found a particular HERV-T gene that was unexpectedly well preserved in the human genome. (elifesciences.org)
  • The review also focuses on how the small size of the plant genome can be utilized in order to bring about several genetic modifications making them resistant to different platforms in order to integrate the gene of interest. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Development of transgenic plants in order to produce vaccines can be brought about by the stable integration of a gene into the plant genome and this can now transform plants such as potato, tobacco (regarded as higher order in the plant family) into suitable bioreactors for the actual production of subunit vaccines which can be administered orally as well as parental. (medcraveonline.com)
  • There are two main ideas on which the development of plant vaccines depend on which is the production of transgenic plants and stable infection of the heterologous gene into the plant genome using precise viral vectors. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Removed from plasma membrane by HIV-1 Nef protein that increases clathrin-dependent endocytosis of this antigen to target it to lysosomal degradation. (bioon.com.cn)
  • Retroviral vectors based on lentiviruses retain these properties, and have been developed as candidate therapeutic agents for gene delivery to cells of the central nervous system, muscle and hepatocytes as well as antigen‐presenting cells in the immune system. (els.net)
  • Antibodies block the free virus, stopping its entry into cells and the expression of its genes, and therefore subsequent antigen presentation. (iavireport.org)
  • The 2001 Keystone Conference on HIV Pathogenesis will explore these issues with sessions devoted to cellular immune responses and protective immunity, antiviral immunity and antigen processing, mechanisms of CD4 depletion and renewal, HIV latency and reservoirs, immune reconstitution and immunotherapy, envelope structure and function, HIV receptors and tropism, the HIV life cycle, HIV auxiliary genes, and new directions for treatment. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • Avidities of IgG directed against viral capsid antigen or early antigen: useful markers for significant Epstein-Barr virus serology. (uniklinik-freiburg.de)
  • Another approved and marketed class of HIV-1 antiviral therapeutics inhibits the HIV-1 protease, a viral enzyme required to process newly synthesized viral polyproteins into the mature viral gene products, enabling the virus to assemble itself into new infectious virus particles [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • For example, efficacy of vaccine approaches using HIV Gag and Nef as immunogens cannot be tested using SHIV as a challenge virus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Consider, for example, human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5), a naturally-occurring virus that has been engineered so that it carries HIV genes, creating an AIDS vaccine vector. (iavireport.org)
  • In clinical trials of an early version of the vaccine containing a gene for the HIV Gag protein, the response to the vaccine was blunted in people even with moderate levels (a titer over 1:200) of pre-existing anti-Ad5 antibodies. (iavireport.org)
  • It turned out that a higher dose of a newer version of the vaccine carrying three HIV genes elicited detectable immunity in a broader spectrum of volunteers. (iavireport.org)
  • The same issue has arisen for various vectors for vaccines and gene therapy based on poliovirus or BCG (a bacterial strain used as a vaccine against tuberculosis) and adeno-associated virus (AAV). (iavireport.org)
  • It is a popular vector-it's now being explored as a vaccine vector for HIV, Ebola virus, anthrax, and the SARS coronavirus, as well as many applications in gene therapy-and many strategies to overcome pre-existing immunity to this vector are being developed. (iavireport.org)
  • The candidate vaccine, ADMVA, contains the env/gag-pol and nef-tat fusion genes of HIV and uses a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) viral vector. (iavireport.org)
  • The HIV genes contained in the candidate vaccine are derived from subtype C, prevalent in China, India, and Africa. (iavireport.org)
  • Thirty volunteers will receive a single immunization with the recombinant adeno-associated vaccine, known as tgAAC09, a recombinant vaccine made from HIV genes enclosed in the capsid of Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV). (iavireport.org)
  • MRKAd5 is a trivalent vaccine that includes gag , po l, and nef genes from subtype B HIV and utilizes a human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector. (iavireport.org)
  • A vaccine platform was constructed with an HIV-1 subtype B DNA immunogen expressing full-length consensus sequences from HIV-1 rev, nef, tat, and gag with additional cellular epitope clusters from the env and pol regions. (violinet.org)
  • Gag-VRPs is a cocktail vaccine of V3014-packaged VRPs expressing the SIVsm H-4i nonmyristylated matrix-capsid region, full-length gp160, and a secreted form of gp160 (gp140). (violinet.org)
  • 2014. Recombinant adenovirus type 5 HIV gag/pol/nef vaccine in South Africa: unblinded, long-term follow-up of the phase 2b HVTN 503/Phambili study. (parasite-journal.org)
  • The second-site suppressor mutations in CA that we have identified rescue virus infection without correcting the intrinsic capsid stability defects associated with the P38A and E45A mutations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We propose that while proper HIV-1 uncoating in target cells is dependent on the intrinsic stability of the viral capsid, the effects of stability-altering mutations can be mitigated by additional mutations that affect interactions with host factors in target cells or the consequences of these interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ability of mutations at other CA surfaces to compensate for effects at the NTD-NTD interface further indicates that uncoating in target cells is controlled by multiple intersubunit interfaces in the viral capsid. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, one of the major challenges in using ART is the emergence of viral drug resistance due to mutations in the PR gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fig 7497-07-6 IC50 2 Differential carbamide peroxide gel electrophoresis of WT and removal and the T149A/T178A mutations presented into HIV-1 capsid defined by Brun et al. (research-in-field.com)
  • Mutations in the CypA binding site of HIV-1 CA or treatment of target cells with CsA allows HIV-1 capsids to saturate TRIM5α/Ref1, presumably by binding to it ( 19 , 40 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Proposed functions for Vpr include the targeting the nuclear import of preintegration complexes, cell growth arrest, transactivation of cellular genes, and induction of cellular differentiation. (lanl.gov)
  • PRMT6 is a type I enzyme of the protein arginine methyltransferase family [ 14 ] which, among other functions, regulates cellular gene expression by methylating arginine-2 of histone H3. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The resulting inhibition of cellular protein synthesis serves to ensure maximal viral gene expression and to evade host immune response. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Transcriptional analysis revealed that HDF genes were enriched for high expression in immune cells, suggesting that viruses evolve in host cells that optimally perform the functions required for their life cycle. (sciencemag.org)
  • Another aspect of Nef that might directly impact HIV and SIV associated pathogenesis is usually evidenced in cell-free single-round infection-competent viruses where WT viruses are consistently 5- to 20-fold more infectious than for 1 h at 10C. (research-in-field.com)
  • Supernatants were then harvested, removed by low-speed centrifugation … Single-round infection-competent 7497-07-6 IC50 viruses transporting the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene were made in 293T cells transfected with JetPRIME (Ozyme, Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, France) as follows. (research-in-field.com)
  • Some of them are the use of post-transcriptional regulatory elements that boost the transgene transcriptional expression, the use of heterologous polyadenylation enhancer elements, or the use of diverse internal promoters to express a specific gene of interest. (news-medical.net)
  • TAT Transactivator of HIV gene expression. (lanl.gov)
  • One of two essential viral regulatory factors (Tat and Rev) for HIV gene expression. (lanl.gov)
  • Nucleotide sequence and expression in E. coli of a human interferon-alpha gene selected from a genomic library using synthetic oligonucleotides. (nih.gov)
  • Although the bacteria frequently acquire foreign genes in order to adapt the environment, the expression of foreign genes in a new host is more likely to reduce the bacterial fitness [ 3 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • By dampening the expression of many AT-rich genes, these silencers improve the probability that newly-acquired sequences will be tolerated by the recipient organism. (prolekare.cz)
  • Such genes occasionally find use when an individual cell in the population evolves the necessary regulatory circuitry to control the gene's expression under the appropriate environmental and temporal contexts [ 8 - 13 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • Transfection of CEM cells with identical amounts of either a nef deletion (Δ) mutant or wild-type (wt) proviral DNA yielded similar expression levels of the HIV capsid protein p24. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MxA gene expression after live virus vaccination: A sensitive marker for endogenous type I interferon. (uniklinik-freiburg.de)
  • Discuss the regulation of gene expression in HIV and the life cycle, and comment on the importance of these in the success - Essay Example Memory helper cells are differentially infected by the virus. (blogspot.com)
  • Regulation of gene expression of HIV The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets immune cells, specifically T helper cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. (blogspot.com)
  • Rev is an RNA binding protein that acts post-transcriptionally to induce the transition from the early to the late, cytopathic phase of HIV gene expression (Cullen, 1991). (blogspot.com)
  • Thus, the presence of particle-associated Nef in wt virus resulted in an increase in p24 production in infected CEM cell. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The transfer vector plasmid contains cis-acting genetic sequences crucial for vector's ability to infect the target cell and to transfer selected therapeutic (or reporter) genes. (news-medical.net)
  • The protein encoded by Nef, for instance, appears necessary for the virus to replicate efficiently, and the Vpu-encoded protein influences the release of new virus particles from infected cells. (emedtv.com)
  • Genetically, it comprises Long Terminal Repeat (LTR), psi-sequence packaging sequence, and gene of interest sequence driven by a promoter. (oxfordgenetics.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene binds to several chemokine receptors, including chemokine binding protein 2 and chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5). (nih.gov)
  • In rare cases, when that cell is a precursor of a sperm or egg cell, then the viral genes may then be passed on to the animal's offspring, ultimately leaving genetic traces that can be studied in modern animals. (elifesciences.org)
  • The most reasonable and popular suggestion was that, by virtue of its direct interaction with CA or its peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity, CypA affected capsid uncoating or some other step in the subsequent and poorly characterized postentry phases of the HIV-1 life cycle ( 17 , 23 , 25 , 43 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Thus, acquisition of CypA by incoming HIV-1 capsids may be a defense against restriction factors in human cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Lentiviruses can integrate a significant amount of viral cDNA into the DNA of the host cell and can efficiently infect nondividing cells, so they are one of the most efficient methods of gene delivery . (wikipedia.org)
  • Both variant forms of interferon-alpha4 gene (IFNA4a and IFNA4b) are present in the human population. (nih.gov)
  • Human Gene Therapy 11: 179-190. (els.net)
  • Using codon based models we detect signals of positive Darwinian selection in approximately 5.3%, 4.9% and 6.0% of the genes on the human, pig and mouse lineages respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It can infect a variety of cell types and in the presence of the rep gene product, the viral DNA can integrate preferentially into human chromosome 19. (powershow.com)