The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Intracellular step that follows VIRUS INTERNALIZATION during which the viral nucleic acid and CAPSID are separated.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A species of the genus PARVOVIRUS and a host range variant of FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA VIRUS. It causes a highly infectious fulminating ENTERITIS in dogs producing high mortality. It is distinct from CANINE MINUTE VIRUS, a species in the genus BOCAVIRUS. This virus can also infect cats and mink.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, infecting a variety of vertebrates including humans. Parvoviruses are responsible for a number of important diseases but also can be non-pathogenic in certain hosts. The type species is MINUTE VIRUS OF MICE.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Virus diseases caused by CALICIVIRIDAE. They include HEPATITIS E; VESICULAR EXANTHEMA OF SWINE; acute respiratory infections in felines, rabbit hemorrhagic disease, and some cases of gastroenteritis in humans.
A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
A 17-KDa cytoplasmic PEPTIDYLPROLYL ISOMERASE involved in immunoregulation. It is a member of the cyclophilin family of proteins that binds to CYCLOSPORINE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A family of RNA viruses infecting a broad range of animals. Most individual species are restricted to their natural hosts. They possess a characteristic six-pointed starlike shape whose surfaces have cup-shaped (chalice) indentions. Transmission is by contaminated food, water, fomites, and occasionally aerosolization of secretions. Genera include LAGOVIRUS; NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES; SAPPORO-LIKE VIRUSES; and VESIVIRUS.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
The type species of PARVOVIRUS prevalent in mouse colonies and found as a contaminant of many transplanted tumors or leukemias.
Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. They cause vesicular lesions and upper respiratory tract infections. FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS is the type species.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A species of replication-competent oncogene-containing virus in the genus ALPHARETROVIRUS. It is the original source of the src oncogene (V-SRC GENES) and causes sarcoma in chickens.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
A species of BETARETROVIRUS isolated from mammary carcinoma in rhesus monkeys. It appears to have evolved from a recombination between a murine B oncovirus and a primate C oncovirus related to the baboon endogenous virus. Several serologically distinct strains exist. MPMV induces SIMIAN AIDS.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
The type species of ERYTHROVIRUS and the etiological agent of ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM, a disease most commonly seen in school-age children.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A species in the genus LAGOVIRUS which causes hemorrhagic disease, including hemorrhagic septicemia, in rabbits.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.
A species of PARVOVIRUS infecting cats with a highly contagious enteric disease. Host range variants include mink enteritis virus, canine parvovirus (PARVOVIRUS, CANINE), and raccoon parvovirus. After infecting their new hosts, many of these viruses have further evolved and are now considered distinct species.
A species of AVIBIRNAVIRUS causing severe inflammation of the bursa of Fabricius in chickens and other fowl. Transmission is thought to be through contaminated feed or water. Vaccines have been used with varying degrees of success.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Semi-synthetic complex derived from nucleic-acid free viral particles. They are essentially reconstituted viral coats, where the infectious nucleocapsid is replaced by a compound of choice. Virosomes retain their fusogenic activity and thus deliver the incorporated compound (antigens, drugs, genes) inside the target cell. They can be used for vaccines (VACCINES, VIROSOME), drug delivery, or gene transfer.
Products of viral oncogenes, most commonly retroviral oncogenes. They usually have transforming and often protein kinase activities.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of ORTHOREOVIRUS infecting mammals (other than baboons). There are four serotypes. In humans they are generally benign but may sometimes cause upper respiratory tract illness or enteritis in infants and children. MAMMALIAN ORTHOREOVIRUS 3 is a very pathogenic virus in laboratory rodents.
A genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family ASTROVIRIDAE. They cause GASTROENTERITIS and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. The type species is Human astrovirus.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A mitosporic fungal genus including both saprophytes and plant parasites.
A genus of the family CIRCOVIRIDAE that infects SWINE; PSITTACINES; and non-psittacine BIRDS. Species include Beak and feather disease virus causing a fatal disease in psittacine birds, and Porcine circovirus causing postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs (PORCINE POSTWEANING MULTISYSTEMIC WASTING SYNDROME).
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.

CAR-dependent and CAR-independent pathways of adenovirus vector-mediated gene transfer and expression in human fibroblasts. (1/5649)

Primary fibroblasts are not efficiently transduced by subgroup C adenovirus (Ad) vectors because they express low levels of the high-affinity Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). In the present study, we have used primary human dermal fibroblasts as a model to explore strategies by which Ad vectors can be designed to enter cells deficient in CAR. Using an Ad vector expressing the human CAR cDNA (AdCAR) at high multiplicity of infection, primary fibroblasts were converted from being CAR deficient to CAR sufficient. Efficiency of subsequent gene transfer by standard Ad5-based vectors and Ad5-based vectors with alterations in penton and fiber was evaluated. Marked enhancement of binding and transgene expression by standard Ad5 vectors was achieved in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Expression by AdDeltaRGDbetagal, an Ad5-based vector lacking the arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) alphaV integrin recognition site from its penton base, was achieved in CAR-sufficient, but not CAR-deficient, cells. Fiber-altered Ad5-based vectors, including (a) AdF(pK7)betagal (bearing seven lysines on the end of fiber) (b) AdF(RGD)betagal (bearing a high-affinity RGD sequence on the end of fiber), and (c) AdF9sK betagal (bearing a short fiber and Ad9 knob), demonstrated enhanced gene transfer in CAR-deficient fibroblasts, with no further enhancement in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Together, these observations demonstrate that CAR deficiency on Ad targets can be circumvented either by supplying CAR or by modifying the Ad fiber to bind to other cell-surface receptors.  (+info)

Maturation-induced conformational changes of HIV-1 capsid protein and identification of two high affinity sites for cyclophilins in the C-terminal domain. (2/5649)

Viral incorporation of cyclophilin A (CyPA) during the assembly of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is crucial for efficient viral replication. CyPA binds to the previously identified Gly-Pro90 site of the capsid protein p24, but its role remained unclear. Here we report two new interaction sites between cyclophilins and p24. Both are located in the C-terminal domain of p24 around Gly-Pro157 and Gly-Pro224. Peptides corresponding to these regions showed higher affinities (Kd approximately 0.3 microM) for both CyPA and cyclophilin B than the best peptide derived from the Gly-Pro90 site ( approximately 8 microM) and thus revealed new sequence motifs flanking Gly-Pro that are important for tight interaction of peptide ligands with cyclophilins. Between CyPA and an immature (unprocessed) form of p24, a Kd of approximately 8 microM was measured, which corresponded with the Kd of the best of the Gly-Pro90 peptides, indicating an association via this site. Processing of immature p24 by the viral protease, yielding mature p24, elicited a conformational change in its C-terminal domain that was signaled by the covalently attached fluorescence label acrylodan. Consequently, CyPA and cyclophilin B bound with much higher affinities ( approximately 0.6 and 0.25 microM) to the new, i.e. maturation-generated sites. Since this domain is essential for p24 oligomerization and capsid cone formation, CyPA bound to the new sites might impair the regularity of the capsid cone and thus facilitate in vivo core disassembly after host infection.  (+info)

Low temperature and pressure stability of picornaviruses: implications for virus uncoating. (3/5649)

The family Picornaviridae includes several viruses of great economic and medical importance. Poliovirus replicates in the human digestive tract, causing disease that may range in severity from a mild infection to a fatal paralysis. The human rhinovirus is the most important etiologic agent of the common cold in adults and children. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. These viruses have in common a capsid structure composed of 60 copies of four different proteins, VP1 to VP4, and their 3D structures show similar general features. In this study we describe the differences in stability against high pressure and cold denaturation of these viruses. Both poliovirus and rhinovirus are stable to high pressure at room temperature, because pressures up to 2.4 kbar are not enough to promote viral disassembly and inactivation. Within the same pressure range, FMDV particles are dramatically affected by pressure, with a loss of infectivity of more than 4 log units observed. The dissociation of polio and rhino viruses can be observed only under pressure (2.4 kbar) at low temperatures in the presence of subdenaturing concentrations of urea (1-2 M). The pressure and low temperature data reveal clear differences in stability among the three picornaviruses, FMDV being the most sensitive, polio being the most resistant, and rhino having intermediate stability. Whereas rhino and poliovirus differ little in stability (less than 10 kcal/mol at 0 degrees C), the difference in free energy between these two viruses and FMDV was remarkable (more than 200 kcal/mol of particle). These differences are crucial to understanding the different factors that control the assembly and disassembly of the virus particles during their life cycle. The inactivation of these viruses by pressure (combined or not with low temperature) has potential as a method for producing vaccines.  (+info)

Time-resolved fluorescence investigation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein: influence of the binding of nucleic acids. (4/5649)

Depending on the HIV-1 isolate, MN or BH10, the nucleocapsid protein, NCp7, corresponds to a 55- or 71-amino acid length product, respectively. The MN NCp7 contains a single Trp residue at position 37 in the distal zinc finger motif, and the BH10 NCp7 contains an additional Trp, at position 61 in the C-terminal chain. The time-resolved intensity decay parameters of the zinc-saturated BH10 NCp7 were determined and compared to those of single-Trp-containing derivatives. The fluorescence decay of BH10 NCp7 could be clearly represented as a linear combination (with respect to both lifetimes and fractional intensities) of the individual emitting Trp residues. This suggested the absence of interactions between the two Trp residues, a feature that was confirmed by molecular modeling and fluorescence energy transfer studies. In the presence of tRNAPhe, taken as a RNA model, the same conclusions hold true despite the large fluorescence decrease induced by the binding of tRNAPhe. Indeed, the fluorescence of Trp37 appears almost fully quenched, in keeping with a stacking of this residue with the bases of tRNAPhe. Despite the multiple binding sites in tRNAPhe, the large prevalence of ultrashort lifetimes, associated with the stacking of Trp37, suggests that this stacking constitutes a major feature in the binding process of NCp7 to nucleic acids. In contrast, Trp61 only stacked to a small extent with tRNAPhe. The behavior of this residue in the tRNAPhe-NCp7 complexes appeared to be rather heterogeneous, suggesting that it does not constitute a major determinant in the binding process. Finally, our data suggested that the binding of NCp7 proteins from the two HIV-1 strains to nonspecific nucleic acid sequences was largely similar.  (+info)

The haplotype distribution of two genes of citrus tristeza virus is altered after host change or aphid transmission. (5/5649)

Genetic variability of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was studied using the haplotypes detected by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of genes p18 and p20 in six virus populations of two origins. The Spanish group included a CTV isolate and subisolates obtained by graft-transmission to different host species. The other included two subisolates aphid-transmitted from a single Japanese isolate. The homozygosity observed for gene p20 was always significantly higher than that expected under neutral evolution, whereas only three populations showed high homozygosity for p18, suggesting stronger host constraints for p20 than for p18. Sequential transmissions of a Spanish isolate to new host species increased the difference between its population and that of the successive subisolates for gene p18, as estimated by the F statistic. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that variation between both groups of populations was not statistically significant, whereas variations between populations of the same group or within populations were significant for both genes studied. Our data indicate that selection affects the haplotype distribution and that adaptation to a new host can be as important or more as the geographical origin. Variation of the CTV populations after host change or aphid transmission may explain in part the wide biological variability observed among CTV isolates.  (+info)

A new picornavirus isolated from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). (6/5649)

A previously unknown picornavirus was isolated from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). Electron microscopy images and sequence data of the prototype isolate, named Ljungan virus, showed that it is a picornavirus. The amino acid sequences of predicted Ljungan virus capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 were closely related to the human pathogen echovirus 22 (approximately 70% similarity). A partial 5' noncoding region sequence of Ljungan virus showed the highest degree of relatedness to cardioviruses. Two additional isolates were serologically and molecularly related to the prototype.  (+info)

The cleavable carboxyl-terminus of the small coat protein of cowpea mosaic virus is involved in RNA encapsidation. (7/5649)

The site of cleavage of the small coat protein of cowpea mosaic virus has been precisely mapped and the proteolysis has been shown to result in the loss of 24 amino acids from the carboxyl-terminus of the protein. A series of premature termination and deletion mutants was constructed to investigate the role or roles of these carboxyl-terminal amino acids in the viral replication cycle. Mutants containing premature termination codons at or downstream of the cleavage site were viable but reverted to wild-type after a single passage through cowpea plants, indicating that the carboxyl-terminal amino acids are important. Mutants with the equivalent deletions were genetically stable and shown to be debilitated with respect to virus accumulation. The specific infectivity of preparations of a deletion mutant (DM4) lacking all 24 amino acids was 6-fold less than that of a wild-type preparation. This was shown to be a result of DM4 preparations containing a much increased percentage (73%) of empty (RNA-free) particles, a finding that implicates the cleavable carboxyl-terminal residues in the packaging of the virion RNAs.  (+info)

Induction of autoantibodies to mouse CCR5 with recombinant papillomavirus particles. (8/5649)

The vertebrate immune system has evolved to respond vigorously to microbial infection but to ignore self-antigens. Evidence has emerged that B cell responses to viruses are initiated by immune recognition of ordered arrays of antigen on the viral surface. To test whether autoantibodies against a self-antigen can be induced by placing it in a context that mimics the ordered surface of a viral particle, a peptide representing an extracellular loop of the mouse chemokine receptor CCR5 was incorporated into an immunodominant site of the bovine papillomavirus virus L1 coat protein, which self-assembles into virus-like particles. Mice inoculated with chimeric L1-CCR5 particles generated autoantibodies that bound to native mouse CCR5, inhibited binding of its ligand RANTES, and blocked HIV-1 infection of an indicator cell line expressing a human-mouse CCR5 chimera. These results suggest a general method for inducing autoantibodies against self-antigens, with diverse potential basic research and clinical applications.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Herpes simplex virus capsids are transported in neuronal axons without an envelope containing the viral glycoproteins. AU - Snyder, Aleksandra. AU - Wisner, Todd W.. AU - Johnson, David. PY - 2006/11. Y1 - 2006/11. N2 - Electron micrographic studies of neuronal axons have produced contradictory conclusions on how alpha-herpesviruses are transported from neuron cell bodies to axon termini. Some reports have described unenveloped capsids transported on axonal microtubules with separate transport of viral glycoproteins within membrane vesicles. Others have observed enveloped virions in proximal and distal axons. We characterized transport of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in human and rat neurons by staining permeabilized neurons with capsid- and glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Deconvolution microscopy was used to view 200-nm sections of axons. HSV glycoproteins were very rarely associated with capsids (3 to 5%) and vice versa. Instances of glycoprotein/capsid overlap frequently ...
Control of capsid disassembly is crucial for efficient HIV-1 cDNA activity after access, yet sponsor elements involved in this procedure remain mainly mystery. MELK dictates ideal capsid disassembly through phosphorylation of Ser-149 in the multimerized HIV-1 primary, which prospects to effective virus-like Clonidine hydrochloride supplier cDNA activity in focus on cells. The phosphorylation-mimetic capsid mutation of Ser-149 triggered extravagant capsid disassembly and too-early finalization of invert transcription, and impeded nuclear admittance of HIV-1 cDNA, recommending the importance of well-ordered capsid disassembly in the early levels of virus-like duplication. This breakthrough discovery shall facilitate understanding of the useful hyperlink among pathogen uncoating, invert transcription and nuclear admittance, and is certainly anticipated to lead to developing a story technique for Helps therapy. Launch During the training course of individual immunodeficiency pathogen type 1 (HIV-1) ...
Viral capsids are composed of multiple copies of one or a few gene products that self-assemble on their own or in the presence of the viral genome and/or auxiliary proteins into closed shells (capsids). We have analyzed 75 high-resolution virus capsid structures by calculating the average fraction of the solvent-accessible surface area of the coat protein subunits buried in the viral capsids. This fraction ranges from 0 to 1 and represents a normalized protein-protein interaction (PPI) index and is a measure of the extent of protein-protein interactions. The PPI indices were used to compare the extent of association of subunits among different capsids. We further examined the variation of the PPI indices as a function of the molecular weight of the coat protein subunit and the capsid diameter. Our results suggest that the PPI indices in T=1 and pseudo-T=3 capsids vary linearly with the molecular weight of the subunit and capsid size. This is in contrast to quasi-equivalent capsids with T>or=3, ...
Herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV-1) and bacteriophage λ capsids undergo considerable structural changes during self-assembly and DNA packaging. The initial steps of viral capsid self-assembly require weak, non-covalent interactions between the capsid subunits to ensure free energy minimization and error-free assembly. In the final stages of DNA packaging, however, the internal genome pressure dramatically increases, requiring significant capsid strength to withstand high internal genome pressures of tens of atmospheres. Our data reveal that the loosely formed capsid structure is reinforced post-assembly by the minor capsid protein UL25 in HSV-1 and gpD in bacteriophage λ. Using atomic force microscopy nano-indentation analysis, we show that the capsid becomes stiffer upon binding of UL25 and gpD due to increased structural stability. At the same time the force required to break the capsid increases by ∼70% for both herpes and phage. This demonstrates a universal and evolutionarily conserved function
Recently, recombinant baculoviruses have been used to show that expression of six herpes simplex virus type 1 genes results in the formation of capsid-like particles. We have applied cryoelectron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction to establish their structural authenticity to a resolution of approximately 2.7 nm. By comparing capsids assembled with and without the expression of gene UL35, we have confirmed the presence of six copies of its product, VP26 (12 kDa), around each hexon tip. However, VP26 is not present on pentons, indicating that the conformational differences between the hexon and penton states of the major capsid protein, VP5, extend to the VP26 binding site. ...
Phages HK97 and λ are model systems that have aided in the understanding of capsid and tail assembly. HK97 capsid assembly involves the formation of a T=7 icosahedral lattice from 415 monomers of the major capsid protein (mcp), 12 monomers of portal protein, and ~120 copies of the protease. Salt bridges have been found to play a critical role in the assembly pathway, but it is not clear how capsid size is determined. Phage phi1026b is larger than HK97 but the mcp shares 50% sequence similarity with HK97. We hypothesize that comparing the atomic models of phi1026b and HK97 will help illuminate conserved and unique interactions that may play a role in assembly and potentially size determination. By utilizing the FEI Krios microscope, Falcon II camera, and EPU data acquisition software, high-resolution structures were generated which allowed for the generation of atomic models of the phi1026b Prohead I and Head capsids. Differences were observed in the organization of the delta domain, capsomers, ...
Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) belongs to the β-herpesvirus subfamily of the Herpesviridae. To understand capsid assembly and capsid-tegument interactions, here we report atomic structures of HHV-6B capsid and capsid-associated tegument complex (CATC) obtained by cryoEM and sub-particle reconstruction. Compared to other β-herpesviruses, HHV-6B exhibits high similarity in capsid structure but organizational differences in its CATC (pU11 tetramer). 180
The outer shell of the adenovirus capsid comprises three major types of protein (hexon, penton base and fiber) that perform the majority of functions facilitating the early stages of adenovirus infection. respect to the delivery of foreign molecules. Adenovirus capsid tasks in early illness The adenovirus (Ad) is definitely a non-enveloped, dsDNA disease whose outer shell of the icosahedral-shaped capsid is definitely comprises three major types of proteins: hexon, penton foundation and dietary fiber (Number 1). The hexon comprises the majority of the outer shell of the Ad capsid, forming 240 homotrimers that encapsidate the majority of the disease, including the viral genome and connected proteins [1]. The dietary fiber protrudes from each of the 12 vertices of the icosahedron, while the penton foundation lies at the base of each dietary fiber. These three capsid proteins contribute to the majority of activities required for the early phases of Ad infection. Number 1 Representation of ...
Capsid protein VP1: Forms an icosahedral capsid of pseudo T=3 symmetry with capsid proteins VP2 and VP3. The capsid is 300 Angstroms in diameter, composed of 60 copies of each capsid protein and enclosing the viral positive strand RNA genome. Capsid protein VP1 mainly forms the vertices of the capsid. Capsid protein VP1 interacts with host cell receptor to provide virion attachment to target host cells. This attachment induces virion internalization. Tyrosine kinases are probably involved in the entry process. After binding to its receptor, the capsid undergoes conformational changes. Capsid protein VP1 N-terminus (that contains an amphipathic alpha-helix) and capsid protein VP4 are externalized. Together, they shape a pore in the host membrane through which viral genome is translocated to host cell cytoplasm. After genome has been released, the channel shrinks (By similarity).
The assembly and regulation of viral capsid proteins into highly ordered macromolecular complexes is essential for viral replication. Here, we utilize crystal structures of the capsid protein from the smallest and simplest known viruses capable of autonomously replicating in animal cells, circoviruses, to establish structural and mechanistic insights into capsid morphogenesis and regulation. The beak and feather disease virus, like many circoviruses, encode only two genes: a capsid protein and a replication initiation protein. The capsid protein forms distinct macromolecular assemblies during replication and here we elucidate these structures at high resolution, showing that these complexes reverse the exposure of the N-terminal arginine rich domain responsible for DNA binding and nuclear localization. We show that assembly of these complexes is regulated by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), and provide a structural basis of capsid assembly around single-stranded DNA, highlighting novel binding ...
Several members of the TRIM family have been implicated in antiviral defense. Our previous report showed that human TRIM11 potently inhibited HIV-1 transduction by reducing the viral reverse transcripts. These results prompted us to examine the effect of TRIM11 on HIV-1 uncoating, which is closely related to viral reverse transcription. Using a combination of in vitro binding and in situ proximity ligation assay, we showed that TRIM11 could interact with HIV-1 capsid. Overexpression of TRIM11 accelerates HIV-1 uncoating and reduces viral reverse transcription indicated by the fate-of-capsid assay and quantitative PCR respectively. Knockdown of TRIM11 enhanced HIV-1 capsid stability and increased viral reverse transcription. However, the replication of another retrovirus MLV is not affected by TRIM11. Moreover, the reverse transcription of HIV-1 mutant bearing capsid G89V showed insensitivity to restriction by TRIM11, indicating that the viral determinant of restriction by TRIM11 might reside on capsid.
The innate immune system is important for control of infections, including herpesvirus infections. Intracellular DNA potently stimulates antiviral IFN responses. It is known that plasmacytoid dendritic cells sense herpesvirus DNA in endosomes via TLR9 and that nonimmune tissue cells can sense herpesvirus DNA in the nucleus. However, it remains unknown how and where myeloid cells, such as macrophages and conventional dendritic cells, detect infections with herpesviruses. In this study, we demonstrate that the HSV-1 capsid was ubiquitinated in the cytosol and degraded by the proteasome, hence releasing genomic DNA into the cytoplasm for detection by DNA sensors. In this context, the DNA sensor IFN-γ-inducible 16 is important for induction of IFN-β in human macrophages postinfection with HSV-1 and CMV. Viral DNA localized to the same cytoplasmic regions as did IFN-γ-inducible 16, with DNA sensing being independent of viral nuclear entry. Thus, proteasomal degradation of herpesvirus capsids ...
TKH HIV caSVLd, a SURWHLQ VKHOO cRPSRVHd RI PRQRPHULc XQLWV RI CA, IRUPV a IXOOHUHQH cRQH WKaW SURWHcWV HIV¶V YLUaO JHQRPH aQd enzymes during infection. I am interested in elucidating the factors that influence stability of the capsid shell and capturing the structural interactions between HIV capsid, host restriction factors, and small molecules using biochemical and structural biology techniques. HIV capsid shell was broken down and purified into hexamer and pentamer units for in vitro study. Structural assays were performed using X-ray crystallography and biochemical analysis was performed using pelleting assays. By understanding capsid structure with factors that confer stability, treatments can be designed to target the protective HIV capsid before the critical step of viral genome integration with host DNA.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Systemic delivery of siRNA by chimeric capsid protein. T2 - Tumor targeting and RNAi activity in vivo. AU - Choi, Kyung Mi. AU - Kim, Kwang Meyung. AU - Kwon, Ick Chan. AU - Kim, In-San. AU - Ahn, Hyung Jun. PY - 2013/1/7. Y1 - 2013/1/7. N2 - Recently, we reported that a chimeric capsid protein assembled into a macromolecular container-like structure with capsid shell and the resulting siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes efficiently suppressed RFP gene expression in the cell culture system. To extend RNAi to the in vivo applications, we here demonstrated that the siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes could have tumor-specific targeting ability in vivo as well as the increased stability of siRNA during body circulation. When systemically administered, our siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes delivered siRNA to tumor tissues and efficiently suppressed RFP gene expression in tumor-bearing mice. The enhanced longevity of siRNA in vivo could be explained by shielding effect derived from the ...
Intermediate capsid protein that self assembles to form an icosahedral capsid with a T=13 symmetry, which consists of 230 trimers of VP6, with channels at each of its five-fold vertices. This capsid constitutes the middle concentric layer of the viral mature particle. The innermost VP2 capsid and the intermediate VP6 capsid remain intact following cell entry to protect the dsRNA from degradation and to prevent unfavorable antiviral responses in the host cell during all the replication cycle of the virus. Nascent transcripts are transcribed within the structural confines of this double-layered particle (DLP) and are extruded through the channels at the five-fold axes. VP6 is required for the transcription activity of the DLP (By similarity).
Scientists from the University of New South Wales (#UNSW, UK) found that the special protein capsid envelope created by HIV at the time of entry into the human body uses a specific host cell molecule, inositol-hexakisphosphate, as a shield from immunity. The latter gives the capsid stability and allows unhindered to carry the genetic material of the virus to the nucleus of the cell. According to experts, this discovery can be the first step to changing the strategy of #HIV treatment. A new goal for antiviral therapy, scientists suggest to make the capsid itself.
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) capsids are initially assembled with an interior proteins scaffold. capsids upon DNA product packaging we show that VP24 (formulated with the protease area) is certainly quantitatively retained. To research elements managing UL26 capsid incorporation and retention we used a mutant computer virus that fails to express UL26.5 (?virus). Purified ?B capsids showed altered sucrose gradient sedimentation and lacked the dense scaffold core seen in micrographs of wild-type B capsids but contained capsid shell proteins in wild-type amounts. Despite C-terminal sequence identity between UL26 and UL26.5 ?capsids lacking UL26.5 products did not contain compensatory high levels of UL26 proteins. Therefore HSV capsids can be maintained and/or assembled on a minimal scaffold made up of only wild-type levels of UL26 proteins. In contrast to UL26.5 increased expression of UL26 did not compensate for the ?growth defect. While indirect these findings are consistent with the view ...
In cells infected with herpes simplex viruses the capsids acquire an envelope at the nuclear membrane and are usually found in the cytoplasm in structures bound by membranes. Infected cells also accumulate unenveloped capsids alone or juxtaposed to cytoplasmic membranes. The juxtaposed capsids have been variously interpreted as either undergoing terminal deenvelopment resulting from fusion of the envelope with the membrane of the cytoplasmic vesicles or undergoing sequential envelopment and deenvelopment as capsids transit the cytoplasm into the extracellular space. Recent reports have shown that (i) wild-type virus attaches to but does not penetrate cells expressing glycoprotein D (G. Campadelli-Fiume, M. Arsenakis, F. Farabegoli, and B. Roizman, J. Virol. 62:159-167, 1988) and that (ii) a mutation in glycoprotein D enables the mutant virus to productively infect cells expressing the wild-type glycoprotein (G. Campadelli-Fiume, S. Qi, E. Avitabile, L. Foa-Tomasi, R. Brandimarti, and B. Roizman, ...
The HIV-1 capsid protein performs multiple roles in virus replication both during assembly and particle release and during virus trafficking into the nucleus. In order to decipher the roles of capsid protein during early replication, a reliable method to follow its intracellular distribution is required. To complement existing approaches to track HIV-1 capsid during early infection, we developed an HIV-1 imaging strategy, relying on viruses incorporating eGFP-tagged capsid (CA-eGFP) protein and mCherry-tagged integrase (IN-mCherry). Wild type infectivity and sensitivity to inhibition by PF74 point to the functionality of CA-eGFP containing complexes. Low numbers of CA-eGFP molecules are located inside the viral core and imported in the nucleus without significant loss in intensity. Less than 5% of particles carrying both CA-eGFP and IN-mCherry retain both labelled proteins after nuclear entry implying a major uncoating event at the nuclear envelope dissociating IN and CA. Still, 20% of all ...
We provide evidence that F-actin is not involved in intranuclear capsid motility of herpesvirus capsids in primary fibroblasts. We found no indication of nuclear F-actin in cells infected with representative members of all three subfamilies of the Herpesviridae. This finding is consistent with reports showing that steady-state somatic cells do not exhibit phalloidin-stainable nuclear F-actin but that most nuclear actin is in a monomeric, G-actin form. This idea was underlined by a recent report that Lifeact- and phalloidin-stainable nuclear F-actin could be found in somatic cells only as a transient effect of serum stimulation (24). Another recent report describes submicron-length actin polymers using a truncated form of utrophin as a novel nuclear F-actin probe (25). But as the described polymers were extremely short, the authors suggested that it is unlikely they are involved in transport processes. Moreover, they also ruled out directed propulsive force generation by these novel actin ...
Retrovirus capsid dimerization domain-like alignments. Alignments can be refined by adding alignments from other genomes, adding your own sequences and/or aligning to other models from the same superfamily. The display of alignments can also be customised.
Reverse transcription, an essential event in the HIV-1 lifecycle, requires deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) to fuel DNA synthesis, thus requiring penetration of dNTPs into the viral core. The central cavity of the capsid protein (CA) hexamer reveals itself as a plausible channel that allows the passage of dNTPs into assembled capsids. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of nucleotide import into the capsid remains unknown. Employing all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we established that cooperative binding between nucleotides inside a CA hexamer cavity results in energetically-favorable conditions for passive translocation of dNTPs into the HIV-1 capsid. Furthermore, binding of the host cell metabolite inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) enhances dNTP import, while binding of synthesized molecules like benzenehexacarboxylic acid (BHC) inhibits it. The enhancing effect on reverse transcription by IP6 and the consequences of interactions between CA and nucleotides were corroborated using ...
Title: HIV Capsid Pattern Sensing by the Host Cell. Abstract. The mature HIV capsid provides a range of interfaces recognizable by host factors and, during its post-entry journey from the cell periphery to the nucleus, the virus encounters a variety of them-some co-opted for optimal infectivity, others evolutionarily designed to prevent infection. A common feature of these interactions is the ability of capsid pattern sensing by the host. This feature allows a host factor to preferably bind intact capsid cores that contain the viral genome, and to avoid the numerous unassembled CA molecules present in the cell. However, high-order capsid recognition is challenging to study in vitro. Here I present various protein-engineering strategies for the production of a repertoire of soluble capsid assemblies and the use of these assemblies in the study of native capsid structure and capsid-host factor interactions. Our studies contribute to a better understanding of the diverse molecular mechanisms by ...
Enlarge Adult common green capsid Enlarge Capsid damage Enlarge Capsid damage to red Charles Ross fruit Common green capsid is a widespread and abundant
The capsid protein (CA) of the mature human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contains an N-terminal beta-hairpin that is essential for formation of the capsid core particle. CA is generated by proteolytic cleavage of the Gag precursor polyprotein during viral maturation. We have determined the NMR structure of a 283-residue N-terminal fragment of immature HIV-1 Gag (Gag(283)), which includes the intact matrix (MA) and N-terminal capsid (CA(N)) domains. The beta-hairpin is unfolded in Gag(283), consistent with the proposal that hairpin formation occurs subsequent to proteolytic cleavage of Gag, triggering capsid assembly. Comparison of the immature and mature CA(N) structures reveals that beta-hairpin formation induces a approximately 2 A displacement of helix 6 and a concomitant displacement of the cyclophylin-A (CypA)-binding loop, suggesting a possible allosteric mechanism for CypA-mediated destabilization of the capsid particle during infectivity. Structure of the N-terminal 283-residue fragment ...
Mature HIV-1 particles contain conical-shaped capsids that enclose the viral RNA genome and perform essential functions in the virus life cycle. Previous structural analysis of two- and three-dimensional arrays of the capsid protein (CA) hexamer revealed three interfaces. Here, we present a cryoEM study of a tubular assembly of CA and a high-resolution NMR structure of the CA C-terminal domain (CTD) dimer. In the solution dimer structure, the monomers exhibit different relative orientations compared to previous X-ray structures. The solution structure fits well into the EM density map, suggesting that the dimer interface is retained in the assembled CA. We also identified a CTD-CTD interface at the local three-fold axis in the cryoEM map and confirmed its functional importance by mutagenesis. In the tubular assembly, CA intermolecular interfaces vary slightly, accommodating the asymmetry present in tubes. This provides the necessary plasticity to allow for controlled virus capsid dis/assembly.
Taking a more systematic approach to the capsid protein-engineering problem, researchers mutated one by one each of the 735 amino acids within the AAV2 capsid, the best-known member of the AAV family, including all possible codon substitutions, insertions and deletions at each position. They generated a virus library containing about 200,000 variants and identified capsid changes that both maintained AAV2s viability and improved its homing potential (tropism) to specific organs in mice.. This full article appears on ,a href=https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/11/191128172334.htm,Science Daily,/a,. ...
Computer artwork of the inner surface of an icosahedral virus capsid. The capsid is the protein shell of the virus and encloses its genetic material. - Stock Image F018/4295
The outer shell of the adenovirus capsid comprises three major types of protein (hexon, penton base and fiber) that perform the majority of functions facilitating the early stages of adenovirus infection. respect to the delivery of foreign molecules. Adenovirus capsid tasks in early illness The adenovirus (Ad) is definitely a non-enveloped, dsDNA disease whose outer shell of the icosahedral-shaped capsid is definitely comprises three major types of proteins: hexon, penton foundation and dietary fiber (Number 1). The hexon comprises the majority of the outer shell of the Ad capsid, forming 240 homotrimers that encapsidate the majority of the disease, including the viral genome and connected proteins [1]. The dietary fiber protrudes from each of the 12 vertices of the icosahedron, while the penton foundation lies at the base of each dietary fiber. These three capsid proteins contribute to the majority of activities required for the early phases of Ad infection. Number 1 Representation of ...
The previously characterized monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) A1, A69, B1, and A20 are directed against assembled or nonassembled adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV-2) capsid proteins (A. receptor attachment by binding an epitope created during AAV-2 capsid assembly. The newly isolated antibodies C24-B and C37-B inhibit AAV-2 binding to cells, probably by realizing a loop region involved in binding of AAV-2 to the cellular receptor. In contrast, binding of D3 to a loop close to the forecasted threefold spike will not neutralize AAV-2 an infection. The discovered antigenic regions over the AAV-2 capsid surface area are ZD6474 price discussed regarding their possible assignments in different techniques from the viral lifestyle cycle. Adeno-associated infections (AAVs) are little, icosahedral viruses from the grouped family using a capsid of 20 to 25 nm in diameter. The capsid harbors a linear, single-stranded DNA genome of 4.7 kb which contains two open up reading structures flanked by inverted ...
Little is known about capsid formation, that is the process in which the capsid proteins self-assemble into an icosahedral shape, nor about the precise interplay between the genome and the capsid proteins. If we would understand these two things better it might open new possibilities for anti-viral drugs, by either blocking the self-assembly process or by breaking the genome-capsid interaction.. A first proposal for the capsid structure was put forward by Caspar and Klug. Their quasi-equivalence principle asserts that each of the 20 triangular faces of the icosahedron is subdivided in 3 subunits, each consisting of at least one protein.. Most viruses have much more than 60 proteins in their capsid, so Caspar and Klug introduced their $T$-number giving the number of proteins per subunit. One superimposes the triangulation of the icosahedron with the hexagonal plane lattice, then $T$ is the number of sub-triangles of these hexagons contained in each subunit. For $T = 7$ we have the following ...
In the infected cell, newly synthesized genomic RNA is packaged together with the viral Pol-protein and a cellular chaperone complex into capsids. The RNA is then reverse transcribed into a partially double-stranded DNA within the capsid. Under natural conditions, almost exclusively mature capsids containing DNA are enveloped to be secreted as virions. The selectivity of this process depends on a still undefined maturation signal that communicates the RNA-DNA-transition from the interior to the capsid exterior.. The large envelope protein of HBV (L-protein) adopts two transmembrane topologies: At first, its preS-region is located on the cytosolic side of the ER-membrane and acts as a matrix-domain that binds the mature capsid to enable its envelopment. The same region is thereafter required on the viron surface as a receptor binding domain to initiate the next round of infection. So far, it is unknown if the dual topology is already pre-formed prior to viral budding and therefore stably present ...
It is relatively easy to determine that the poliovirus capsid is made up of just four proteins, and that the four capsid proteins VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4 are present in equimolar amounts in the capsid. Groups of five copies of each protein are arranged at each of the 12 vertices of the icosahedral capsid see Chapters 5 and 15 . If the proteins are uniformly labeled with radioactive amino acids, more radioactivity will be in each large polypeptide chain than in each small one. A gel fractionation.... ...
AAV capsid titer quantification for full/empty capsid ratio calculations with Gyrolab immunoassay: low sample volume, serotype specific, wide dynamic range
TY - JOUR. T1 - Herpesviruses remodel host membranes for virus egress. AU - Johnson, David C.. AU - Baines, Joel D.. PY - 2011/5/1. Y1 - 2011/5/1. N2 - Herpesviruses replicate their DNA and package this DNA into capsids in the nucleus. These capsids then face substantial obstacles to their release from cells. Unlike other DNA viruses, herpesviruses do not depend on disruption of nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes for their release. Enveloped particles are formed by budding through inner nuclear membranes, and then these perinuclear enveloped particles fuse with outer nuclear membranes. Unenveloped capsids in the cytoplasm are decorated with tegument proteins and then undergo secondary envelopment by budding into trans-Golgi network membranes, producing infectious particles that are released. In this Review, we describe the remodelling of host membranes that facilitates herpesvirus egress.. AB - Herpesviruses replicate their DNA and package this DNA into capsids in the nucleus. These capsids then ...
DCV capsid polyprotein兔多克隆抗体(ab92954)可与重组片段样本反应并经WB, ELISA实验严格验证并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
When it comes to viral vector based gene therapies, it is necessary to evaluate the stability and integrity of viral vector capsids. Having the right analytics for your gene therapy helps you bring a safe and effective drug to market. Time is also critical when getting a drug to market. That is why finding a robust technique that produces fast, reliable results is key.. However, current methods can be very time consuming and may not provide the sensitivity required to efficiently determine the quality of the capsids. There is also a lack of reliable and reproducible methods to cost-effectively manufacture these gene therapies.. This is where SCIEX comes in. SCIEX CE and LC-MS solutions provide you with precision analytics that give you the answers you need the first time around, while using small sample amounts, so you can bring a safe, effective drug to market faster.. ...
Q What do capsid bugs look like? A Capsids look like small beetles with long legs and antennae and are about 6mm long. They move quickly...
Details: Particles were selected from scanned micrograph images, first automatically by the ethan method and then by manual screening with the boxer program in EMAN. The TEM instrument contrast transfer function parameters were determined automatically using fitctf2.py and were then visually validated using the EMAN ctfit program. The datasets were then divided into two subsets (even and odd) and processed completely independently, including both initial models and refinements. For 3D reconstructions, the whole datasets were divided into even-odd halves and the initial de novo models and subsequent iterative refinements were all independently performed for each half dataset. The images were first binned 4x to obtain initial models and particle parameters assuming icosahedral symmetry. De novo initial models were built using the random model approach. Random subsets of particles were assigned random initial orientations and iteratively refined until convergence. Consistent icosahedral capsid ...
Abstract: Viruses self-assemble from identical capsid proteins and their genome consisting, for example, of a long single stranded (ss) RNA. For a big class of T = 3 viruses capsid proteins have long positive N-terminal tails. We explore the role played by the Coulomb interaction between the brush of positive N-terminal tails rooted at the inner surface of the capsid and the negative ss RNA molecule. We show that viruses are most stable when the total contour length of ss RNA is close to the total length of the tails. For such a structure the absolute value of the total RNA charge is approximately twice larger than the charge of the capsid. This conclusion agrees with structural data. ...
Viruses are nanosized, genome-filled protein containers with remarkable thermodynamic and mechanical properties. They form by spontaneous self-assembly inside the crowded, heterogeneous cytoplasm of infected cells. Self-assembly of viruses seems to obey the principles of thermodynamically reversible self-assembly but assembled shells (capsids) strongly resist disassembly. Following assembly, some viral shells pass through a sequence of coordinated maturation steps that progressively strengthen the capsid. Viral shells have effective Youngs moduli ranging from that of polyethylene to that of plexiglas. Some of them can withstand internal osmotic pressures that are tens of atmospheres. (Roos et al. 2010:733). Viruses do not carry out metabolic activity and rely entirely on host-cell molecular machinery for reproduction. This absence of metabolic and reproductive activity suggests that, unlike cells, the assembly of viruses could perhaps be understood on the basis of equilibrium ...
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This give the virus specificity, meaning that it will only be able to infect a certain host range. Once the viral genome is injected into the cell, then for a DNA phage, bacterial cells RNAP begins transcribing RNAs from certain promoters. The first class of viral genes is intermediate-early genes. Following translation of these genes, the early viral genes are transcribed. These genes encode proteins which get virus ready for DNA replication.. After DNA replication, usually into hundreds of copies, the late viral RNAs are made and translated into proteins. These act as structural components, either for capsid formation or cleaving and packaging of DNA into capsid, or to form the receptor on the capsid surface.. Nucleocapsid:. ...
Bacteriophage lambda, shown in the electron micrograph, consists of a protein capsid 30 nm in radius that has a long cylindrical tail. Its genome, double stranded DNA (dsDNA), is protected by the capsid from attack by nuclease enzymes that would break it down into its nucleotides and therefore lose the genetic information needed to replicate the phage. The DNA contains 48.6 kilo-base pairs; if it were fully extended it would be 17 micrometers long. When the phage is replicated in the host cell, an early form of the capsid, the procapsid, is formed and the DNA is driven into it by a molecular motor at one of the procapsid vertices. This is quite feat! Imagine packing a length of string into an object that is only 1/400th its size. To make the job harder, add negative charges to the string and make it stiff. The stiffness of ds DNA is very high; a measure of this stiffness is its persistence length. It is difficult to bend objects on a scale smaller than the persistence length. The persistence ...
Bacteriophage lambda, shown in the electron micrograph, consists of a protein capsid 30 nm in radius that has a long cylindrical tail. Its genome, double stranded DNA (dsDNA), is protected by the capsid from attack by nuclease enzymes that would break it down into its nucleotides and therefore lose the genetic information needed to replicate the phage. The DNA contains 48.6 kilo-base pairs; if it were fully extended it would be 17 micrometers long. When the phage is replicated in the host cell, an early form of the capsid, the procapsid, is formed and the DNA is driven into it by a molecular motor at one of the procapsid vertices. This is quite feat! Imagine packing a length of string into an object that is only 1/400th its size. To make the job harder, add negative charges to the string and make it stiff. The stiffness of ds DNA is very high; a measure of this stiffness is its persistence length. It is difficult to bend objects on a scale smaller than the persistence length. The persistence ...
An important part of a virus is its protein shell, called the viral capsid, that protects the viral genome. While the viral capsids of viruses in the family of Papovaviridae are usually spherical, their protein building blocks are known to assemble also as tubular structures [Kiselev, N.A., Klug, A., 1969. J. Mol. Biol. 40, 155]. In Twarock [2004. J. Theor. Biol. 226, 477] Viral Tiling Theory has been introduced for the structural description of the protein stoichiometry of the spherical capsids in this family. This approach is extended here to the tubular case and is used to classify the surface lattices of tubular structures in the family of Papovaviridae. The predictions of the theory are compared with the experimental results in Kiselev and Klug [1969. J. Mol. Biol. 40, 155]. ...
The capsid protein of HK97, gp5, cross-links upon maturation to form a concatenated chain-mail like structure ... The bacteriophage undergoes a maturation process upon DNA packaging during which it expands by nearly 5 nm and changes from spherically symmetrical to icosahedrally symmetrical ... of gp5 monomers comprise further capsid maturation and lead to formation of a mature phage head ...
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Optimization of an Elastic Network Augmented Coarse Grained Model to Study CCMV Capsid Deformation. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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The exterior of bacteriophage T4 capsid is coated with two outer capsid proteins, Hoc (highly antigenic outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 40 kDa) and Soc (small outer capsid protein; molecular mass, 9 kDa), at symmetrical positions on the icosahedron (160 copies of Hoc and 960 copies of Soc per capsid particle). Both these proteins are nonessential for phage infectivity and viability and assemble onto the capsid surface after completion of capsid assembly. We developed a phage display system which allowed in-frame fusions of foreign DNA at a unique cloning site in the 5 end of hoc or soc. A DNA fragment corresponding to the 36-amino-acid PorA peptide from Neisseria meningitidis was cloned into the display vectors to generate fusions at the N terminus of Hoc or Soc. The PorA-Hoc and PorA-Soc fusion proteins retained the ability to bind to the capsid surface, and the bound peptide was displayed in an accessible form as shown by its reactivity with specific monoclonal antibodies in an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The herpesvirus capsid surface protein, VP26, and the majority of the tegument proteins are dispensable for capsid transport toward the nucleus. AU - Antinone, Sarah E.. AU - Shubeita, George T.. AU - Coller, Kelly E.. AU - Lee, Joy I.. AU - Haverlock-Moyns, Sarah. AU - Gross, Steven P.. AU - Smith, Gregory A.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2011 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2006/6. Y1 - 2006/6. N2 - Upon entering a cell, alphaherpesvirus capsids are transported toward the minus ends of microtubules and ultimately deposit virus DNA within the host nucleus. The virus proteins that mediate this centripetal transport are unknown but are expected to be either viral tegument proteins, which are a group of capsid-associated proteins, or a surface component of the capsid itself. Starting with derivatives of pseudorabies virus that encode a fluorescent protein fused to a structural component of the virus, we have made a collection of 12 mutant viruses that lack either the VP26 ...
Retroviral capsid proteins are conserved structurally but assemble into different morphologies. The mature human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) capsid is best described by a fullerene cone model, in which hexamers of the capsid protein are linked to form a hexagonal surface lattice that is closed by incorporating 12 capsid-protein pentamers. HIV-1 capsid protein contains an amino-terminal domain (NTD) comprising seven α-helices and a β-hairpin, a carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) comprising four α-helices, and a flexible linker with a 310-helix connecting the two structural domains. Structures of the capsid-protein assembly units have been determined by X-ray crystallography; however, structural information regarding the assembled capsid and the contacts between the assembly units is incomplete. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of a tubular HIV-1 capsid-protein assembly at 8 Å resolution and the three-dimensional structure of a native HIV-1 core by cryo-electron tomography. The
Post-translational modifications in viral capsids are known to fine-tune and regulate several aspects of the infective life cycle of several viruses in the host. Recombinant viruses that are generated in a specific producer cell line are likely to inherit unique post-translational modifications during intra-cellular maturation of its capsid proteins. Data on such post-translational modifications in the capsid of recombinant adeno-associated virus serotypes (AAV1-rh10) is limited. We have employed liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis to characterize post-translational modifications in AAV1-rh10 capsid protein. Our analysis revealed a total of 52 post-translational modifications in AAV2-AAVrh10 capsids, including ubiquitination (17%), glycosylation (36%), phosphorylation (21%), SUMOylation (13%) and acetylation (11%). While AAV1 had no detectable post-translational modification, at least four AAV serotypes had ,7 post-translational modifications in their capsid protein. About 82% ...
Author summary The picornavirus family includes clinically important human and animal pathogens, for example: poliovirus, rhinovirus (causing the common cold) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) that infects cloven-hoofed animals. Picornaviruses contain a positive-sense RNA genome surrounded by a protein shell, also called a capsid. The capsid proteins are made from a precursor and correct processing and assembly of these capsid proteins is necessary in the virus life cycle to create new infectious virus particles. In this study, we have identified a short motif (just 5 amino acids long) within the capsid precursor, which is highly conserved among picornaviruses. Deletion of this motif inhibited processing of the junctions between the mature structural proteins within this precursor, with one junction being more than 400 amino acids away from this region. This motif also seems to be required for the optimal accumulation of the capsid precursor in cells. We hypothesize that the motif may be involved
Viral capsids are metastable structures that perform many essential processes; they also act as robust cages during the extracellular phase. Viruses can use multifunctional proteins to optimize resources (e.g., VP3 in avian infectious bursal disease virus, IBDV). The IBDV genome is organized as ribonucleoproteins (RNP) of dsRNA with VP3, which also acts as a scaffold during capsid assembly. We characterized mechanical properties of IBDV populations with different RNP content (ranging from none to four RNP). The IBDV population with the greatest RNP number (and best fitness) showed greatest capsid rigidity. When bound to dsRNA, VP3 reinforces virus stiffness. These contacts involve interactions with capsid structural subunits that differ from the initial interactions during capsid assembly. Our results suggest that RNP dimers are the basic stabilization units of the virion, provide better understanding of multifunctional proteins, and highlight the duality of RNP as capsid-stabilizing and genetic ...
Herpesvirus capsid protein. Molecular model of the major capsid protein VP5 from herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). This virus infects epithelial cells around the mouth, causing fluid-filled blisters known as cold sores. There is no known cure for herpes infection and the virus remains in the body for life. - Stock Image F006/9435
Summary The inner capsid structure of the OSU strain of porcine rotavirus was studied by electron microscopy of freeze-dried preparations and of negatively stained chemically disrupted virus particles. The analysis of the particles by the freeze-drying technique revealed a T:13 l (laevo) symmetry for the organization of the inner capsid. Treatment of single-capsid rotavirus particles with 30% formamide or 5 m-urea resulted in their degradation, giving rise to very similar products, corresponding to isolated vertices, edges and faces of the virus icosahedron. An analysis of such structures confirmed the triangulation number and handedness of the rotavirus inner capsid, and provided evidence for the open-mesh model, in which the five- and six-coordinated axes are represented by holes formed by smaller trimeric morphological subunits.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The herpesvirus VP1/2 protein is an effector of dynein-mediated capsid transport and neuroinvasion. AU - Zaichick, Sofia V.. AU - Bohannon, Kevin P.. AU - Hughes, Ami. AU - Sollars, Patricia J.. AU - Pickard, Gary E.. AU - Smith, Gregory A.. PY - 2013/2/13. Y1 - 2013/2/13. N2 - Microtubule transport of herpesvirus capsids from the cell periphery to the nucleus is imperative for viral replication and, in the case of many alphaherpesviruses, transmission into the nervous system. Using the neuroinvasive herpesvirus, pseudorabies virus (PRV), we show that the viral protein 1/2 (VP1/2) tegument protein associates with the dynein/dynactin microtubule motor complex and promotes retrograde microtubule transport of PRV capsids. Functional activation of VP1/2 requires binding to the capsid protein pUL25 or removal of the capsid-binding domain. A proline-rich sequence within VP1/2 is required for the efficient interaction with the dynein/dynactin microtubule motor complex as well as for PRV ...
The crystal structure of the double-stranded DNA bacteriophage HK97 mature empty capsid was determined at 3.6 angstrom resolution. The 660 angstrom diameter icosahedral particle contains 420 subunits with a new fold. The final capsid maturation step is an autocatalytic reaction that creates 420 isopeptide bonds between proteins. Each subunit is joined to two of its neighbors by ligation of the side-chain lysine 169 to asparagine 356. This generates 12 pentameric and 60 hexameric rings of covalently joined subunits that loop through each other, creating protein chainmail: topologically linked protein catenanes arranged with icosahedral symmetry. Catenanes have not been previously observed in proteins and provide a stabilization mechanism for the very thin HK97 capsid. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Partial amino-terminal sequences of the polyoma nonhistone proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 synthesized in vitro. AU - Hewick, R. M.. AU - Mellor, A.. AU - Smith, A. E.. AU - Waterfield, M. D.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - The three polyoma virus capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 were synthesized in vitro in the presence of several radiolabeled amino acids and, after purification on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels, were subjected to sequential Edman degradation. The partial amino-terminal amino acid sequences obtained were compared with the sequence of amino acids predicted from the polyoma virus DNA sequencing. Together, these results showed that the 5 ends of the VP1, VP2, and VP3 coding sequences are located 1,217, 289, and 634 nucleotides, respectively, from the junction of HpaII restriction fragments 3 and 5.. AB - The three polyoma virus capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3 were synthesized in vitro in the ...
Adenoviral vectors have great potential for use in gene therapy and genetic immunization. The targeting of Ad vectors to the relevant tissue and cell types in vivo could greatly improve their safety and performance by lowering the effective dosage required for therapeutic levels of gene expression. Redirection of Ad vector tropism will require physical modifications of the adenoviral capsid but direct genetic modification of the Ad capsid has so far been limited to small peptides. A novel system for the attachment of targeting ligands to the Ad capsid, based on the extremely strong avidin-biotin interaction, is described herein. The genetic insertion of a biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) into the fiber, protein IX, or hexon components of the Ad capsid has resulted in vectors that are metabolically biotinylated upon production in host cells. Avidin-dependent redirection of transduction through a variety of biotinylated ligands is greatly dependent on the nature of the biotinylated capsid protein. ...
Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] - 21512573. Nature 2011 Apr;472(7343):361-5. TRIM5 is a RING domain-E3 ubiquitin ligase that restricts infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and other retroviruses immediately following virus invasion of the target cell cytoplasm. Antiviral potency correlates with TRIM5 avidity for the retrovirion capsid lattice and several reports indicate that TRIM5 has a role in signal transduction, but the precise mechanism of restriction is unknown. Here we demonstrate that TRIM5 promotes innate immune signalling and that this activity is amplified by retroviral infection and interaction with the capsid lattice. Acting with the heterodimeric, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBC13-UEV1A (also known as UBE2N-UBE2V1), TRIM5 catalyses the synthesis of unattached K63-linked ubiquitin chains that activate the TAK1 (also known as MAP3K7) kinase complex and stimulate AP-1 and NFκB signalling. Interaction with the HIV-1 capsid lattice greatly enhances the UBC13-UEV1A-dependent E3 ...
Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are small DNA, non-enveloped, double-stranded and closed circular viruses. There are more than 150 HPV identified types. Genital HPV types are categorized according to their epidemiologic association with cervical cancer to high and low risk types. The high risk type HPV 16 is the most common in the world. we aimed to design a universal peptide based vaccine against HPV type 16 virus using Immunoinformatics Approach through prediction of highly conserved T and B-cell epitopes from the most abundant and highly immunogenic protein (L1 major capsid protein) derived from HPV type 16 strains all over the world. All sequences of the L1 major capsid protein were retrieved from NCBI database. Potentially continuous B and T cell epitopes were predicted using tools from immune epitope data base analysis resource (IEDB-AR). The Allergenicity of predicted epitopes was analyzed by AllerTOP Tool and the coverage was determined throughout the worlds. The B cell epitope 243KSEV246 ...
Assembly of recombinant capsid proteins into virus-like particles (VLPs) still represents an interesting challenge in virus-based nanotechnologies. The structure of VLPs has gained importance for the development and design of new adjuvants and antigen carriers. The potential of Tobacco etch virus capsid protein (TEV CP) as adjuvant has not been evaluated to date. Two constructs for TEV CP expression in Escherichia coli were generated: a wild-type version (TEV-CP) and a C-terminal hexahistidine (His)-tagged version (His-TEV-CP). Although both versions were expressed in the soluble fraction of E. coli lysates, only His-TEV-CP self-assembled into micrometric flexuous filamentous VLPs. In addition, the His-tag enabled high yields and facilitated purification of TEV VLPs. These TEV VLPs elicited broader IgG2-specific antibody response against a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) protein when compared to the potent IgG1 response induced by the protein alone. His-TEV CP was
Foamy viruses (FVs) of the Spumaretrovirinae subfamily are distinct retroviruses, with many features of their molecular biology and replication strategy clearly different from those of the Orthoretroviruses, such as human immunodeficiency, murine leukemia, and human T cell lymphotropic viruses. The FV Gag N-terminal region is responsible for capsid formation and particle budding via interaction with Env. However, the critical residues or motifs in this region and their functional interaction are currently ill-defined, especially in non-primate FVs. Mutagenesis of N-terminal Gag residues of feline FV (FFV) reveals key residues essential for either capsid assembly and/or viral budding via interaction with the FFV Env leader protein (Elp). In an in vitro Gag-Elp interaction screen, Gag mutations abolishing particle assembly also interfered with Elp binding, indicating that Gag assembly is a prerequisite for this highly specific interaction. Gradient sedimentation analyses of cytosolic proteins indicate
Capsids of the B19 parvovirus are composed of major (VP2; 58 kD) and minor (VP1; 83 kD) structural proteins. These proteins are identical except for a unique 226 amino acid region at the amino terminus of VP1. Previous immunization studies with recombinant empty capsids have demonstrated that the presence of VP1 was required to elicit virus-neutralizing antibody activity. However, to date, neutralizing epitopes have been identified only on VP2. Crystallographic studies of a related parvovirus (canine parvovirus) suggested the unique amino-terminal portion of VP1 assumed an internal position within the viral capsid. To determine the position of VP1 in both empty capsids and virions, we expressed a fusion protein containing the unique region of VP1. Antisera raised to this protein recognized recombinant empty capsids containing VP1 and VP2, but not those containing VP2 alone, in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The antisera immunoprecipitated both recombinant empty capsids and human ...
Samuel Campos, PhD, studies early events of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection. HPVs are small, non-enveloped DNA viruses that cause a variety of lesions ranging from benign waters to cervical cancers. Although over 100 types of HPVs have been identified, HPV16 is the most prevalent, and is alone responsible for more than 50% of cervical cancers in women worldwide. Dr. Campos and his lab study the mechanisms of HPV virus transmission at a cellular level, in hopes to discover new approaches for the prevention and treatment of HPV.HPV16 virions consist of an ~8kb circular dsDNA genome packaged into a ~60 nm protein capsid. The genome is condensed with cellular histones and exists in a chromatin-like state. The capsid is comprised of 72 pentamers of the major capsid protein L1 and up to 72 molecules of the minor capsid protein L2, localized along the inner capsid surface, within the central cavities beneath the L1 pentamers. Mature HPV16 virions exist in an oxidized state, with adjacent L1 ...
In a mature and infectious retroviral particle, the capsid protein (CA) forms a shell surrounding the genomic RNA and the replicative machinery of the virus. The irregular nature of this capsid shell precludes direct atomic resolution structural analysis. CA hexamers and pentamers are the fundamental building blocks of the capsid, however the pentameric state, in particular, remains poorly characterized. We have developed an efficient in vitro protocol for studying the assembly of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) CA that involves mild acidification and produces structures modeling the authentic viral capsid. These structures include regular spherical particles with T = 1 icosahedral symmetry, built from CA pentamers alone. These particles were subject to cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) and image processing, and a pseudo-atomic model of the icosahedron was created by docking atomic structures of the constituent CA domains into the cryo-EM-derived three-dimensional density map. The N-terminal domain ...
One monoclonal antibody (mAb; 8E4), against the capsid protein of PCV2, was generated and characterised in this study. 8E4 reacted with the genotype PCV2a (CL, LG and JF2) strains but not PCV2b (YJ, SH and JF) strains by an immunoperoxidase mono-layer assay (IPMA) and a capture ELISA. Furthermore, the mAb had the capacity to neutralise PCV2a (CL, LG and JF2) strains but not PCV2b (YJ, SH and JF) strains. One critical amino acid that determined a conformational neutralising epitope was identified using mAb 8E4 and PCV2 infectious clone technique. Amino acid residues 47-72 in the capsid protein of PCV2a/CL were replaced with the corresponding region of PCV2b/YJ, and the reactivity of mAb 8E4 was lost. Further experiments demonstrated that one amino acid substitution, the alanine for arginine at position 59 (A59R) in the capsid protein of PCV2a (CL, LG and JF2) strains, inhibited completely the immunoreactivity of three PCV2a strains with mAb 8E4 ...
PubMed journal article: High prevalence of immunoglobulin A antibody against Epstein-Barr virus capsid antigen in adult patients with lupus with disease flare: case control studies. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Our main goal was to produce a library of Adeno-associated viruses that infect cells with different specificities and efficiencies, due to differing capsid composition, and select from this library the best AAVs that are highly specific. Since it is not the case that viruses that work well in vitro will work as good in vivo, we had the aim of testing our candidates in mice as well. To achieve this, the capsid genes from AAV serotypes 1,2,5,6,8 and 9 were shuffled between each other in a primerless PCR reaction that relies on the close homology between the different cap genes. Those capsid genes were first digested with DNase I, then pooled together and allowed to anneal to each other. A second PCR was done then to amplify the shuffled cap gene fragments that were generated in the first PCR while introducing AscI and PacI restriction sites, which are used to clone the cap genes into a helper vector. AAVs that were then produced in HEK293 cells, which were transfected with the cap-gene-ITR ...
Singararn SW, Garmann RF, Knobler CM, Gelbart WM, Ben-Shaul A. Role of RNA Branchedness in the Competition for Viral Capsid Proteins. JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY B. 2015;119 :13991-14002.
The individual papillomavirus type 11 (HPV-11) L1 main capsid protein could be trypsinized to create recombinant capsomeres that retain HPV genotype-restricted capsid antigenicity (M. immunogenic highly, genotype-restricted HPV capsid-neutralizing antigenic domains are included within capsomeres entirely. Thus, capsomeres may be viable vaccine applicants for preventing HPV disease. Papillomaviruses trigger hyperproliferative cutaneous and/or mucosal epithelial lesions in higher vertebrates, including human beings (31). A lot more than 70 genotypically specific human being papillomaviruses (HPVs) have already been identified (12) and may be categorized based on observed variations in disease phenotype (i.e., desired cells tropisms and/or disease organizations). For instance, most HPVs preferentially infect cutaneous pores and skin and usually trigger only harmless disease (e.g., plantar or common warts), while other styles even more infect PF 477736 oral or anogenital mucosal epithelium often. ...
It is becoming increasingly clear that mammalian cells can express a variety of factors that limit retroviral replication. One class of these factors blocks replication at a stage post-entry but prior to nuclear import and integration of the viral genome. Members of this family arc known as restriction factors. The best characterised member is the mouse gene hvl which determines susceptibility to infection by MLV. I-vl has two alleles known as Fvl and Fv/ whose restriction characteristics determine the host range of different MLV strains. It has become apparent that the phenomenon of restriction is not limited to MLV and murine cells. HIV-1, as well as MLV is restricted at a post-entry step in a number of primate species including rhesus macaques. African green monkeys and owl monkeys. The Thm5 gene in these species is the main determinant of both HIV-1 and MLV restriction. Viral determinants of this restriction map to the virus capsid protein, however despite strong genetic ev idence, no ...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections represent a significant burden on global public health. Current HBV treatments using nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) and PEG interferons cannot fully alleviate this burden as they do not affect the transcriptional activity of the tenacious covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) responsible for viral persistence. Capsid assembly modulators (CAMs) disrupt the encapsidation of pre-genomic RNA and can cause nucleocapsid disassembly, thereby affecting multiple steps of HBV replication and reduction of cccDNA pools. This review provides a concise overview of the development of CAMs and the progress achieved in understanding their interactions with HBV core proteins. ...
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Nevertheless, up to now, this passive immune technique has not been carried out as a therapy for RVA-linked diarrhea. Although Ab muscles can have higher
The L1 major capsid proteins of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 11 and 16 were purified and analyzed for structural integrity and in vitro self-assembly. Proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli as glutathione-S-transferase-L1 (GST-L1) fusions and purified to near homogeneity as pentamers (equiv …
What Additional Protective Layer Of Protein Surrounds Some Viruses - The capsid and envelope play many roles in viral contamination, inclusive of virus attachment to cells, entry into cells, release of the capsid contents into the cells, and packaging of newly fashioned viral debris. The capsid and envelope are also answerable for transfer of the viral genetic material from one mobile to another. these systems also decide the stableness traits of the virus particle, which includes resistance to chemical or bodily inactivation.. The primary role of capsid is to bundle the viral genome. There are strategies related to this feature: the recruitment of the viral RNA all through assembly and the discharge of the genome at some stage in infection. even though particle assembly takes vicinity on endoplasmic reticulum membranes, capsid localizes in nucleoli and lipid droplets.. Because the capsid is outermost, most agents of inactivation must act on the capsid before they can reach the viral RNA, and in ...
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Minor protein of the capsid that localizes along the inner surface of the virion, within the central cavities beneath the L1 pentamers. Plays a role in capsid stabilization through interaction with the major capsid protein L1. Once the virion enters the host cell, L2 escorts the genomic DNA into the nucleus by promoting escape from the endosomal compartments and traffic through the host Golgi network. Mechanistically, the C-terminus of L2 possesses a cell-penetrating peptide that protudes from the host endosome, interacts with host cytoplasmic retromer cargo and thereby mediates the capsid delivery to the host trans-Golgi network. Plays a role through its interaction with host dynein in the intracellular microtubule-dependent transport of viral capsid toward the nucleus. Mediates the viral genome import into the nucleus through binding to host importins. Once within the nucleus, L2 localizes viral genomes to host PML bodies in order to activate early gene expression for establishment of ...
The structure of bacteriophage SPP1 capsid was determined at sub-nanometer resolution by cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle analysis. The icosahedral capsid is composed of the major capsid protein gp13 and the auxiliary protein gp12 that are organized in a T=7 lattice. DNA is arranged in layers with a distance of ∼24.5 Å. Gp12 forms spikes that are anchored at the centre of gp13 hexamers. In a gp12-deficient mutant the centres of hexamers are closed by loops of gp13 coming together to protect the SPP1 genome from the outside environment. The HK97-like fold was used to build a pseudo-atomic model of gp13. Its structural organization remains unchanged upon tail binding and following DNA release. Gp13 exhibits enhanced thermostability in the DNA-filled capsid. A remarkable convergence between thermostability of the capsid and of the other virion components was found, revealing that the overall architecture of the SPP1 infectious particle co-evolved towards high robustness.. ...
ViroBytes is a modified BioBytes procedure for rational shuffling of capsid genes from natural isolates of Adeno-Associated Virus. Main motivation for the new protocol is unsatisfactory incorporation of certain serotypes (and especially certain parts of AAV capsid regions eg. from AAV5) using conventional shuffling strategies (Grimm et al., 2008). Application of magnetic beads for controlled assembly and the principle of BioByte formation and annealing persists. Sticky overhangs are used for selective combination of the bytes but different method is used for the production of individual ViroBytes. AAV serotypes 1,2,5,6,8 and 9 were selected as suitable candidates for fragmentation due to their exceptional individual properties. The analysis of Cap gene sequences revealed multiple homology regions which were then used for rational fragment formation. Total number of fragments per Cap gene is eight in our case and all fragments have similar length around ~250bp to assure similar behaviour in the ...
Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Structural Molecular Biology. STRUCTURAL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY. ...
Defensins are effectors of the innate immune response with potent antibacterial activity. Their role in antiviral immunity, particularly for non-enveloped viruses, is poorly understood. We recently found that human alpha-defensins inhibit human adenovirus (HAdV) by preventing virus uncoating and rel …
The viral genome is packaged in a regular icosahedral protein shell (capsid) composed of 162 capsomeres (see Fig. 214e-1). The outer covering of the virus is a lipid-containing membrane (envelope) acquired as the DNA-containing capsid buds through the inner nuclear membrane of the host cell. Between the capsid and lipid bilayer of the envelope is the tegument. Viral replication has both nuclear and cytoplasmic phases. Initial attachment to the cell membrane involves interactions of viral glycoproteins C and B with several cellular heparan sulfate-like surface receptors. Subsequently, viral glycoprotein D binds to cellular co-receptors that belong to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family of proteins, the immunoglobulin superfamily (nectin family), or both. The ubiquity of these receptors contributes to the wide host range of herpesviruses. HSV replication is highly regulated. After fusion and entry, the nucleocapsid enters the cytoplasm and several viral proteins are released from the virion. ...
The virions of Herpesvirales order have complex and characteristic structures consisting of both symmetrical and nonsymmetrical components. The spherical virion is composed of the core, capsid, tegument and envelope. The core consists of the viral genome packaged as a single, linear, dsDNA molecule into a preformed capsid and the DNA is packed in a liquid-crystalline array that fills the entire internal volume of the capsid. The capsids assemble by cocondensation around a protein scaffold to form a procapsid in which the subunits are weakly connected. Proteolytic cleavage of the scaffolding protein triggers loss of scaffold and reorganization of the shell into the characteristic capsid form. The structure of the tegument is poorly defined, with evidence of symmetry only in the region immediately adjacent to the capsid. The tegument contains various proteins, not all of which are required for the formation of virions. The genomes are composed of linear dsDNA ranging from 125 to 295 kbp in size and from
Phage display is a method to discover peptide ligands while minimizing and optimizing the structure and function of proteins (Hallahan, 2003). The phage is used as a scaffold to display recombinant libraries of peptides and provides a means to recover and amplify the peptides that bind to putative receptor molecules in vivo. In vivo selection simultaneously provides positive and subtractive screens because organs and tissues such as tumors are spatially separated. Phage DNA can then be sequenced to determine the amino acid sequence of peptides on the capsid that have been recovered from tumors. The T7 phage display system exploits the T7 capsid protein as a scaffold to display peptides on the capsid protein unique to the 10B protein on the surface of the phage. Gene 10 encoding the capsid protein is cloned with a series of multiple cloning sites at the C-terminus of the 10B protein. The natural translational frame shift site within the capsid gene has been removed so that only a single form of ...
Video, Wyss researchers have created a high-throughput platform to generate an Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) library containing 200,000 variants, each carrying a distinct mutation in the virus capsid protein.
p41 (capsid protein)[edit]. The viral capsid protein CP, or p41, is a double jelly roll protein that assembles into an ... TBSV is an unenveloped icosahedral virus with a T=3 viral capsid composed of 180 subunits of a single capsid protein. Its ... The capsid of the tomato bushy stunt virus, with the three symmetrically distinct coat protein (p41) monomers colored in orange ... a capsid protein (called CP or p41), and two additional proteins, the RNA silencing suppressor p19 and movement protein p22.[4] ...
Capsid (2018), published by HOME Publications Shonky: The Aesthetics of Awkwardness (2018), published by Hayward Publishing ... "John Walter, CAPSID". Retrieved 20 November 2018. "Shonky: The Aesthetics of Awkwardness". Retrieved 20 November 2018. "Coming ... visual culture and HIV through his multimedia project Alien Sex Club and the behaviour of viruses through his project CAPSID ( ...
His 2016 book Capsid: A Love Song won the POZ Award for best HIV writing (fiction/poetry) and was a finalist for a Lambda ... "Capsid: A Love Song". Los Angeles Review of Books. Retrieved 2018-06-06. Osmundson, Joseph. "Things Unsaid". Gawker. Retrieved ... Capsid: A Love Song (Indolent Books, 2016), ISBN 978-1-945023-03-3 INSIDE/OUT (Sibling Rivalry Press, 2018), ISBN 978-1-943977- ...
Dolja, Valerian V (2001). "Capsid-Less RNA Viruses". eLS. doi:10.1002/9780470015902.a0023269. ISBN 978-0470016176. ICTVdB ...
The capsid has two layers and is icosahedral. The two known cell surface proteins are A type and B type spikes. The capsid ...
... capsid protein, p24); SP1 (spacer peptide 1, p2); NC (nucleocapsid protein, p7); SP2 (spacer peptide 2, p1) and P6 protein. pol ... Each virion comprises a viral envelope and associated matrix enclosing a capsid, which itself encloses two copies of the single ... positive-sense single-stranded RNA enclosed by a conical capsid composed of the viral protein p24, typical of lentiviruses. The ...
doi:10.1038/s41396-020-0638-y.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) Dolja, V. V.; Koonin, E. V. (2012). "Capsid-Less RNA ... They do not have structural proteins or a capsid. Narnaviruses have nonsegmented, linear, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA ...
The capsid protein is enveloped. The genomic arrangement is a linear (+)ssRNA. Its genomic segmentation is Monopartite (Flint ... The genome encodes 3 structural proteins (Capsid, prM, and Envelope) and 8 non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A ... Capsid, prM, and Envelope) and 8 non-structural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5 and NS5B). The genomic RNA is ...
The capsid contains three proteins; capsid protein VP1 is the primary component and self-assembles into a 360-unit outer capsid ... MPyV capsid protein VP1 binds to sialic acids of gangliosides GD1a and GT1b on the cell surface. The functions of VP2 and VP3 ... Capsid proteins, produced in the cytoplasm of the host cell, enter the nucleus as assembled capsomers consisting of pentameric ... The three genes in the late region express the three capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3. Between the early and late regions is a ...
The capsid has two layers. The outer layer is a protein structure of 240 capsid proteins trimers, and the inner one is a ... mobile arms and membrane-capsid interactions in the bacteriophage PRD1 capsid". Nature Structural Biology. 9 (10): 756-63. doi: ... Capsid proteins polymerize around a lipoprotein vesicle translocated in the cytoplasm by virion assembly factors. Mature virons ...
The isometric capsid has a diameter of 35-39 nm. Capsids appear round to hexagonal in outline. The capsid surface structure ... Virions consist of a capsid. Virus capsid is not enveloped, round with icosahedral symmetry. ... Capsid with 32 cup-shaped depressions. Under in vitro conditions, virions are inactivated in acid environment of pH 3-5. The ...
Virus capsid is non-enveloped, and are round with icosahedral symmetry and triangulation number T=3. The isometric capsid has a ... Viral structural protein: Capsid protein has a molar mass of 58000-60000 Da; is the coat protein. Capsid protein has a ... Empty virions have diameter of 23 nm, with triangulation number T=1. The capsid surface structure reveals a regular pattern ... "Calicivirus isolate Geel 2008/Belgium non-structural polyprotein gene, partial cds; and capsid protein precursor and small ...
Its capsid shells are multilayered. The capsid is round to elongate with icosahedral symmetry and the virus is composed of 16% ...
The virion has a capsid (coat protein) but no envelope. The icosahedral symmetry of the capsid is round to elongated. The range ... The capsid protein remains attached to the coat protein binding site (CPB) at the 3'- end of the RNAs. The initiation factors ... The capsid dissociates from CPB. CPB undergoes a conformational change into TLS (tRNA-like structure). P1/P2 bind to the minus ... RNA 4 encodes the capsid. Beside encapsidation and its role in movement the viral coat protein also plays a role in the ...
The pgRNA is inserted into an assembled viral capsid containing the viral polymerase. Inside this capsid the genome is ... These envelope proteins can assemble independently of the viral capsid and genome into non-infectious virus-like particles that ... the core capsid protein, the viral polymerase, surface antigens-preS1, preS2, and S, the X protein and HBeAg. The X protein is ...
The virus-like particle contains 180 subunits of the capsid protein, and each capsid protein (CP) shows three major domains: (i ... The average diameter of the viral capsid is only 37 nm. Its RNA strand is split in two sections RNA1 and RNA2 that together ... Mechanisms of Capsid Assembly and Viral Infection. PLoS Pathogens 11(10), e1005203. ...
Genomes are circular and segmented, composed of multiple segments of double-stranded, superhelical DNA packaged in capsid ... Following integration, the genes responsible for virus replication and the capsids were (eventually) no longer included in the ... In this scenario, the PDV structural proteins (capsids) were probably "borrowed" from existing viruses. ...
Electron micrograph of two Human gammaherpesvirus 4 virions (viral particles) showing round capsids loosely surrounded by the ...
Capsid. Genomic arrangement. Genomic segmentation Avibirnavirus. Icosahedral. T=13. Non-enveloped. Linear. Segmented ...
The capsid itself has been measured to be approximately 90-110 nm in diameter and expresses T=16 icosahedral symmetry. The ... The entire capsid contains 162 capsomeres. Other viruses within the family Alloherpesviridae have been shown to have spherical ... The steps to this method of replication (excluding the aforementioned process of cell entry) are as follow: The capsid is ... which are involved in the formation and structure of the capsid. These late proteins are transported back into the nucleus. The ...
The virus capsid is not enveloped. Capsid / nucleocapsid is elongated with helical symmetry. The capsid is filamentous, ...
Rader, AJ; Vlad, Daniel; Bahar, Ivet (2005). "Maturation Dynamics of Bacteriophage HK97 Capsid". Structure. 13 (3): 413-21. doi ... to large macromolecular assemblies such as a ribosome or a viral capsid. Protein domain dynamics plays key roles in a multitude ...
VP1 is the 51kd capsid protein; in addition to its structural function, it also contains motifs for rolling circle replication ... They are nonenveloped and have an icosahedral capsid with T=1 symmetry. The unique, single protein, trumpet-shaped capsomeres ... of Gyrovirus are arranged into 12 pentomers yielding a capsid 60 units in size. The genome is circular, non-segmented, and 2290 ...
Modis Y, Trus BL, Harrison SC (September 2002). "Atomic model of the papillomavirus capsid". EMBO J. 21 (18): 4754-62. doi: ... including the capsid of human papillomavirus, the envelope of dengue virus, and several components of HIV. He has also turned ...
The capsid is formed of the L1 and L2 structural proteins, with the L1 C-terminus exposed. All BPVs have a circular double- ... ISBN 978-1-904455-04-2. Modis Y, Trus BL, Harrison SC (2002). "Atomic model of the papillomavirus capsid". EMBO J. 21 (18): ... Like other papillomaviruses, BPVs are small non-enveloped viruses with an icosahedral capsid around 50-60 nm in diameter. ...
Virus capsid is not enveloped, round with T=3 icosahedral symmetry. The isometric capsid has a diameter of 35-39 nm. Particles ... Viral structural protein: Capsid protein has a molar mass of 59000-71000 Da; is the coat protein. Capsid protein has a ... Capsids appear round to hexagonal in outline. The capsid surface structure reveals a regular pattern with distinctive features ... 3 Capsid Protein Leads to Larger T=4 Capsids" (PDF). Journal of Virology. 86 (12): 6470-6480. doi:10.1128/JVI.07050-11. PMC ...
While DNA is being packaged into the capsid, the capsid expands by nearly 5 nm and changes from spherical to icosahedral in ... which is the precursor to the mature capsid. A scaffolding protein is not required for capsid assembly. However, studies on the ... The major capsid protein of HK97, called gp5, cross-links upon maturation to form a chain-mail like structure. ... Oh B, Moyer CL, Hendrix RW, Duda RL (2014). "The delta domain of the HK97 major capsid protein is essential for assembly". ...
The capsid appears hexagonal, but its icosahedral symmetry is imperfect, due to the presence of the "stargate", at a single ... The Megavirus particle exhibits a protein capsid diameter of 440 nanometres (as seen by electron microscopy on thin sections of ... it had the largest capsid diameter of all known viruses, as well as the largest and most complex genome among all known viruses ...
This fusion creates a pore through which the viral capsid enters the cell.[13] Following entry into the cell the RNA of the ...
The capsid is constructed of 32 capsomers. The genome is linear, positive sense, bipartite (composed of two segments - RNA1 and ... RNA2 encodes protein α, a viral capsid protein precursor, which is auto-cleaved into two mature proteins, a 38 kDa β protein ... The virus is not enveloped and has an icosahedral capsid (triangulation number = 3) ranging from 29 to 35 nm in diameter. ...
CAPSID. Computational Algorithms for Protein Structures and Interactions. Département 5 : Systèmes complexes, intelligence ... The Capsid team develops algorithms and software to help study biological systems and phenomena from a structural point of view ...
The proteins making up the capsid are called capsid proteins or viral coat proteins (VCP). The capsid and inner genome is ... rotavirus and bacteriophage φ6 have capsids built of 120 copies of capsid protein, corresponding to a "T=2" capsid, or arguably ... The capsid faces may consist of one or more proteins. For example, the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid has faces consisting ... Capsids are broadly classified according to their structure. The majority of the viruses have capsids with either helical or ...
The core section of HIV that contains the genetic information (two single strands of RNA) and three enzymes needed for HIV to replicate.
p24 is a component of the HIV particle capsid. There are approximately 2000 molecules per virus particle, or at a molecule ...
Short name: Virus_capsid_a-hlx_vir Description. The capsid of spherical viruses is built from a limited number of proteins and ... The major capsid protein VP6 self-assembles into spherical or helical particles mainly depending upon pH. VP6 assemblies arise ... Atomic structure of the major capsid protein of rotavirus: implications for the architecture of the virion.. EMBO J. 20 1485-97 ... The proteins forming the capsid are VP2 (internal layer, with triangulation T = 1 and an asymmetric dimer in the icosahedral ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The viral capsid of Picornaviruses is composed of 60 icosahedral copies of four capsid proteins, VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4, ... Capsid protein VP4 superfamily, Picornavirus (IPR037080). Short name: Capsid_VP4_sf_Picornavirus ... The three major capsid proteins have a conserved beta-barrel fold, while VP4 has little regular secondary structure. The ... VP4 lies on the inner surface of the protein shell formed by the major capsid proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3. ...
... R. Kerner LPTL, Université Paris-VI-CNRS UMR 7600, Tour 24, 4-ème, Boite 121, ... A model of growth of icosahedral capsids is proposed. It is similar to the stochastic model of fullerene growth, but takes into ... We show that the observed high yield of capsid production implies a high level of self-organization of the elementary building ... account variations in the composition of pentamers and hexamers that are responsible for the final capsid size. ...
Viral protein that forms an icosahedral capsid with a T=25 symmetry to protect the viral genome. The T=25 capsid is composed of ...
capsid protein. A, B. 112. Japanese encephalitis virus strain SA-14. Mutation(s): 0 EC: 3.4.21.91 (UniProt), 3.6.1.15 (UniProt ... and compare it to other flavivirus capsid proteins. The JEV capsid has a helical secondary structure (α helixes 1-4) and a ... Crystal Structure of the Japanese Encephalitis Virus Capsid Protein.. Poonsiri, T., Wright, G.S.A., Solomon, T., Antonyuk, S.V. ... This is the first JEV capsid protein to be described and is an addition to the structural biology of the Flavivirus. ...
Here, we examine that question with respect to viral capsid assembly by studying the pathway complexity of model capsid ... Pathway Complexity of Model Virus Capsid Assembly Systems. Navodit Misra,1 Daniel Lees,2 Tiequan Zhang,3 and Russell Schwartz3 ... which allow us to precisely and deterministically compare the accuracy of capsid models under different degrees of ... information in support of a common conclusion that the ability of simple pathway models to adequately explain capsid assembly ...
Capsid protein. C [auth A], D [auth B], E [auth C], F [auth D], A [auth E], B [auth H]. 262. Hepatitis B virus duck/DHBV-16. ... Slowly folding surface extension in the prototypic avian hepatitis B virus capsid governs stability.. Makbul, C., Nassal, M., ... Most basics of the hepadnaviral life-cycle were unraveled using duck HBV (DHBV) as a model although DHBV has a capsid protein ( ... Most basics of the hepadnaviral life-cycle were unraveled using duck HBV (DHBV) as a model although DHBV has a capsid protein ( ...
The capsid is composed of 72 pentamers linked to each other by disulfide bonds and associated with VP2 or VP3 proteins. ... Forms an icosahedral capsid with a T=7 symmetry and a 40 nm diameter. ... Forms an icosahedral capsid with a T=7 symmetry and a 40 nm diameter. The capsid is composed of 72 pentamers linked to each ... Capsid protein, Host nucleus, T=7 icosahedral capsid protein, Virion. ,p>This section describes post-translational ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in ...
On one hand, the particles of PTA salt are able to enter the grooves of the virus capsid in C. On the other hand, only the ... 2011) Poliovirus RNA is released from the capsid near a twofold symmetry axis. J Virol 85(2):776-783. ... The covalent binding of clusters creates more robust tags on the virus capsid compared with many other currently used markers ... Site-specific targeting of enterovirus capsid by functionalized monodisperse gold nanoclusters Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
The N-terminal sequences of the capsid proteins were compared with the nucleotide sequence of the capsid open reading frame. ... Cloning and sequencing of the TaV capsid gene identified an open reading frame that could potentially encode a capsid precursor ... A novel capsid expression strategy for Thosea asigna virus (Tetraviridae).. Pringle FM1, Gordon KH, Hanzlik TN, Kalmakoff J, ... The capsid gene of TaV is carried on both the genomic and subgenomic RNA molecules, while the RNA polymerase gene is present ...
dsRNA mycovirus capsids are based on a 120-subunit T = 1 capsid, with a dimer as the asymmetric unit. These capsids, which ... Within the capsid, fungal dsRNA viruses show a low degree of genome compaction compared to reoviruses, and contain one to two ... Mycovirus capsid proteins (CP) share a conserved α-helical domain, although the latter may carry different peptides inserted at ... The atomic structure of the T = 1 capsids of four mycoviruses was resolved: the L-A virus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScV-L-A ...
Bacteriophage capsids: Tough nanoshells with complex elastic properties. I. L. Ivanovska, P. J. de Pablo, B. Ibarra, G. Sgalari ... Bacteriophage capsids: Tough nanoshells with complex elastic properties. I. L. Ivanovska, P. J. de Pablo, B. Ibarra, G. Sgalari ... Bacteriophage capsids: Tough nanoshells with complex elastic properties. I. L. Ivanovska, P. J. de Pablo, B. Ibarra, G. Sgalari ... Bacteriophage capsids: Tough nanoshells with complex elastic properties Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
Royalty free 3D model Human Parvovirus B19 Capsid for download as ma, obj, and fbx on TurboSquid: 3D models for games, ... Human Parvovirus B19 virus capsid viral organism microscopic micro cell anatomy microbiology bio biology germ science protein ... In MAYA ver., whole capsid was built from instances of one capsomere unit, makes the file very small, fast, and easy to use.. ... Scientifically accurate 3D structure of Human Parvovirus B19 capsid based on PDB : 3J6R.. Atom surface style and protein ribbon ...
An in-frame restriction site linker was inserted across the capsid coding domain of a recombinant plasmid. A … ... Insertional mutagenesis of AAV2 capsid and the production of recombinant virus Virology. 1999 Dec 20;265(2):274-85. doi: ... Three classes of capsid mutants where identified. Class I mutants expressed structural proteins but were defective in virion ... In summary, the AAV capsid variants described here will facilitate further study of virus assembly, entry, and infection, as ...
The capsid has become an attractive target for the development of new antiretroviral drugs. The report appears as the cover ... Researchers report that they have determined the precise chemical structure of the HIV capsid, a protein shell that protects ...
To understand capsid assembly and capsid-tegument interactions, here we report atomic structures of HHV-6B capsid and capsid- ... Compared to other β-herpesviruses, HHV-6B exhibits high similarity in capsid structure but organizational differences in its ... To understand capsid assembly and capsid-tegument interactions, here we report atomic structures of HHV-6B capsid and capsid- ... Zhang, Y., Liu, W., Li, Z. et al. Atomic structure of the human herpesvirus 6B capsid and capsid-associated tegument complexes ...
Krupovic, M. & Koonin, E. V. Multiple origins of viral capsid proteins from cellular ancestors. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 114, ... Bacteriophage P23-77 capsid protein structures reveal the archetype of an ancient branch from a major virus lineage. Structure ... Origin of viruses: primordial replicators recruiting capsids from hosts. *Mart Krupovic. ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001-5486-00981 ... Viral capsid proteins are segregated in structural fold space. PLOS Comput. Biol. 9, e1002905 (2013). ...
Rabbit polyclonal DCV capsid polyprotein antibody validated for WB, ELISA, ICC. Referenced in 1 publication and 1 independent ... DCV capsid polyprotein (DCVgp2) includes rhv_like or Picornavirus capsid protein domain_like and CRPV_capsid domains. ... The predicted MW of the capsid polyprotein is around 100kDa. But, after infection of DCV to cells, the polyprotein is cleaved ... Picornaviruses are non-enveloped plus-strand ssRNA animal viruses with icosahedral capsids composed of 60 copies each of 4 ...
Phage capsid against influenza: perfectly fitting inhibitor prevents viral infection. A new approach brings the hope of new ... Perfectly fitting binding sites cause influenza viruses to be enveloped by the phage capsids in such a way that it is ... Phage capsid nanoparticles with defined ligand arrangement block influenza virus entry. Nature Nanotechnology DOI 10.1038/s4156 ... researchers from Berlin have developed a chemically modified phage capsid that "stifles" influenza viruses. ...
Components of the Reovirus Capsid Differentially Contribute to Stability Nonenveloped and enveloped viruses are exposed to the ... The μ1 and σ3 proteins form the outer capsid; contacts between neighboring subunits are thought to confer resistance to ...
Alternative In Vitro Methods for the Determination of Viral Capsid Structural Integrity, Combined Genetic and Chemical Capsid ... Video articles in JoVE about capsid include Viral Structure, ... Some viruses have capsids that are enclosed by an envelope of ... The capsid is composed of subunits called capsomeres. The capsid and genome-containing core are together known as the ... Many criteria are used to classify viruses, including capsid design. Most viruses have icosahedral or helical capsids, although ...
Increasing Type 1 Poliovirus Capsid Stability by Thermal Selection Oluwapelumi O. Adeyemi, Clare Nicol, Nicola J. Stonehouse, ... Parvovirus Capsid Structures Required for Infection: Mutations Controlling Receptor Recognition and Protease Cleavages Heather ... Alternative Polyadenylation of Human Bocavirus at Its 3′ End Is Regulated by Multiple Elements and Affects Capsid Expression ... Adeno-associated Virus (AAV) Assembly-Activating Protein Is Not an Essential Requirement for Capsid Assembly of AAV Serotypes 4 ...
Buy our Recombinant Major capsid protein P39 (Tagged). Ab236194 is a full length protein produced in Escherichia coli and has ...
We showed that the intact virion and a recombinant capsid protein (CaP) from a plant-infecting nonenveloped icosahedral RNA ...
  • The proteins making up the capsid are called capsid proteins or viral coat proteins (VCP). (wikipedia.org)
  • The capsid faces may consist of one or more proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid has faces consisting of three proteins named VP1-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some viruses, including those with helical capsids and especially those with RNA genomes, the capsid proteins co-assemble with their genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other viruses, especially more complex viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes, the capsid proteins assemble into empty precursor procapsids that includes a specialized portal structure at one vertex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The capsid of spherical viruses is built from a limited number of proteins and often displays icosahedral symmetry. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The proteins forming the capsid are VP2 (internal layer, with triangulation T = 1 and an asymmetric dimer in the icosahedral repeating unit), VP6 (intermediate layer, T = 13 symmetry), VP7 (external layer, T = 13) and VP4, which forms a spike inserted in the outermost two layers. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Extensive antigenic mimicry by retrovirus capsid proteins. (nih.gov)
  • The viral capsid of Picornaviruses is composed of 60 icosahedral copies of four capsid proteins, VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4, enclosing the viral positive-strand RNA genome. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • VP4 lies on the inner surface of the protein shell formed by the major capsid proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The three major capsid proteins have a conserved beta-barrel fold, while VP4 has little regular secondary structure. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The organisation of the three major capsid proteins leads to surface depressions, or pits, thought to be involved in receptor binding, while the variable outer rim is involved in antibody recognition. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Here we present the crystal structure of the JEV capsid protein, a potential drug target, at 1.98 Å, and compare it to other flavivirus capsid proteins. (rcsb.org)
  • The JEV capsid has a helical secondary structure (α helixes 1-4) and a similar protein fold to the dengue virus (DENV), the West Nile virus (WNV), and the Zika virus (ZIKV) capsid proteins. (rcsb.org)
  • Water-soluble Au 102 ( para -mercaptobenzoic acid) 44 clusters, functionalized by maleimide linkers to target cysteines of viral capsid proteins, were synthesized and conjugated to enteroviruses echovirus 1 and coxsackievirus B3. (pnas.org)
  • TaV particles have a buoyant density of 1.296 g/cm3 in CsCl and consist of two capsid proteins of 56 and 6 kDa. (nih.gov)
  • The N-terminal sequences of the capsid proteins were compared with the nucleotide sequence of the capsid open reading frame. (nih.gov)
  • The sequences indicate that the pre-protein is cleaved at two positions to produce the 56 and 6 kDa capsid proteins as well as a predicted third protein that was not detected in the mature virion. (nih.gov)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the capsid proteins indicated that TaV is more closely related to NbetaV than to the Nudaurelia omega-like viruses. (nih.gov)
  • These capsids show structural variations of the same framework, with 60 asymmetric or symmetric homodimers for ScV-L-A and PsV-F, respectively, monomers with a duplicated similar domain for PcV, and heterodimers of two different proteins for RnQV1. (mdpi.com)
  • Mycovirus capsid proteins (CP) share a conserved α-helical domain, although the latter may carry different peptides inserted at preferential hotspots. (mdpi.com)
  • Infectivity of these mutants ranged from 5 to 100% of that of the wild-type, demonstrating for the first time the ability to alter capsid proteins without interfering with infectivity. (nih.gov)
  • Our results offer insights into HHV-6B capsid assembly and the roles of its tegument proteins, including not only the β-herpesvirus-specific pU11 and pU14, but also those conserved across all subfamilies of Herpesviridae . (nature.com)
  • We have derived atomic models for a total of 59 conformers of the four capsid proteins and one tegument protein of HHV-6B. (nature.com)
  • Picornaviruses are non-enveloped plus-strand ssRNA animal viruses with icosahedral capsids composed of 60 copies each of 4 virus encoded proteins. (abcam.com)
  • The core is surrounded by a protective coat of proteins called the capsid. (jove.com)
  • Some viruses have capsids that are enclosed by an envelope of lipids and proteins outside of the capsid. (jove.com)
  • The main idea behind this selection is to end with a set of structures which could represents as much as possible the different conformations that the ligands could face off when they will interact with the capsid proteins in the cell. (scripps.edu)
  • In the strain UCD 67-385, these both proteins were identified as viral capsid protein (CP), allow to confirm the gag predicted ORFs in XdV-L1A, XdV-L1B, and XdV-L2, with CPs of 76.6, 76.2, and 38.8 kDa, respectively. (springer.com)
  • Dai and Zhou used electron microscopy to determine a high-resolution structure of the HSV-1 capsid bound to the tegument proteins that occupy the space between the capsid and the nuclear envelope. (sciencemag.org)
  • By using cryo-electron microscopy, we obtained an atomic model of the HSV-1 capsid with CATC, comprising multiple conformers of the capsid proteins VP5, VP19c, VP23, and VP26 and tegument proteins pUL17, pUL25, and pUL36. (sciencemag.org)
  • The single C-terminal helix of pUL36 resolved in the CATC links the capsid to the outer tegument and envelope: As the largest tegument protein in all herpesviruses and essential for virion formation, pUL36 has been shown to interact extensively with other tegument proteins, which in turn interact with envelope glycoproteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • The HIV-1 Gag consists of four domains-matrix (MA), capsid (CA), nucleocapsid (NC) and p6-and two short peptides, SP1 and SP2, that are cleaved into distinct proteins by the viral protease during maturation. (springer.com)
  • Bluetongue virus outer capsid proteins are sufficient to trigger apoptosis in mammalian cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In vitro recoating of reovirus cores with baculovirus-expressed outer-capsid proteins mu1 and sigma3. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Immature or B capsids of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) are composed of seven proteins encoded by six viral genes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These modifications were achieved by chemical coupling of a ligand by the formation of a thiourea functionality between the amino group of the capsid proteins and the reactive isothiocyanate motif incorporated into the ligand. (rsc.org)
  • Gilead's tool compound, GS-CA1 (light green, right), binds between two capsid proteins in the pinwheel-like hexamer. (acs.org)
  • But when Gilead began the project, not much was known about the capsid, which is made up of 1,500 capsid proteins that organize themselves into hexamers and pentamers to form an eggplant-shaped shell. (acs.org)
  • A major focus has been on the use of systems that express the structural proteins of the virus that self-assemble to generate "empty capsid" particles which share many features with the intact virus but lack the ribonucleic acid genome and are therefore non-infectious. (dovepress.com)
  • Furthermore, capitalizing on the derived sequence requirements for capsid-encoded protease cleavage sites, we implement a bioinformatic approach for identifying novel host proteins targeted by viral proteases. (elifesciences.org)
  • The capsid also helps the virus to infect host cells by binding to the host receptor proteins and releasing its genetic material. (elifesciences.org)
  • Viral capsids are the main target of the host's defence system, and therefore, continuously change in an attempt to escape the immune system by introducing alterations (known as mutations) into the genes encoding viral capsid proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • The analysis also identified specific amino acid sequences of capsid proteins that are essential for certain tasks, such as building the capsid. (elifesciences.org)
  • It also included an analysis of sequences in the capsid that allow it to be recognized by another viral protein, which cuts the capsid proteins into the right size from a larger precursor. (elifesciences.org)
  • For example, proteins of the capsid that are less likely to mutate will provide a better target as they lower the possibility of the virus to become resistant to the treatment. (elifesciences.org)
  • As a result, viral capsids show the highest evolutionary rates among viral proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • Pre-clinical immunogenicity of human papillomavirus alpha-7 and alpha-9 major capsid proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Phylogenetic relationship between the major capsid proteins of the Alpha-7 and Alpha-9 genotypes. (nih.gov)
  • A) Amino acid sequences of the L1 major capsid proteins representing both VLP and pseudoviruses of the Alpha-7 (HPV18, HPV39, HPV45, HPV59, HPV68) and Alpha-9 (HPV16, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV52, HPV58) genotypes and the control BPV [20]. (nih.gov)
  • This communication describes the in vitro assembly of genetically recombinant Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) viral capsid proteins (CPs) into biological nanotubes, several micrometres long yet with a diameter of only 17 nm, triggered by double-stranded DNAs of different lengths. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Here, we provide electron microscopy-based data demonstrating the association of both nuclear capsids and NEC proteins at nuclear lamina budding sites. (mdpi.com)
  • The capsid and inner genome is called the nucleocapsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rotaviruses have a segmented double-stranded RNA genome enclosed in a complex capsid formed by three concentric protein layers. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Viral protein that forms an icosahedral capsid with a T=25 symmetry to protect the viral genome. (uniprot.org)
  • These capsids, which remain structurally undisturbed throughout the viral cycle, nevertheless, are dynamic particles involved in the organization of the viral genome and the viral polymerase necessary for RNA synthesis. (mdpi.com)
  • Within the capsid, fungal dsRNA viruses show a low degree of genome compaction compared to reoviruses, and contain one to two copies of the RNA-polymerase complex per virion. (mdpi.com)
  • Given that HHV-6B has a genome size of 162 kb-much smaller than that of HCMV-the question arises whether its β-herpesvirus-specific tegument protein, pU11, binds capsids in the same way as HCMV's homologous protein pp150/pUL32 does. (nature.com)
  • The capsid and genome-containing core are together known as the nucleocapsid. (jove.com)
  • The nucleic acid genome fits inside the grooves of the helical capsid. (jove.com)
  • The viral capsid not only protects the virus's genome, but it also plays a critical role in interactions with host cells. (jove.com)
  • In these cases, the genome is usually inserted, after capsid assembly has been completed, by the action of a rotary molecular motor imbedded in the capsid. (asknature.org)
  • Herpesviruses comprise a large DNA genome enclosed in a large and complex protein cage called a capsid (see the Perspective by Heldwein). (sciencemag.org)
  • As an HBV inhibitor, NZ-4 leads to the formation of genome-free capsids, including a new population of capsid that runs faster on agarose gels. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this regard, successful viral spread relies on the capability of viral capsids to (i) shelter the viral genome, (ii) display molecular determinants for cell receptor recognition, (iii) facilitate efficient genome delivery, and (iv) escape from the immune system. (frontiersin.org)
  • The outer capsid protein of rice dwarf virus is encoded by genome segment S8. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, we do not understand how key nuclear processes, including capsid assembly, genome replication, capsid packaging, and nuclear egress, are dynamically connected in space and time. (asm.org)
  • The opening in the capsid, which is more than 120 A in diameter, enables the release of the genome without the need to unwind its putative double-stranded RNA segments. (muni.cz)
  • We also detect capsids lacking pentamers during genome release from echovirus 30. (muni.cz)
  • The HIV capsid (left) protects the viral genome so it can be delivered into host cells. (acs.org)
  • Aside from its obvious appeal as a vital shield for the viral genome, the capsid offers a potential solution to the resistance problem that plagues HIV treatment. (acs.org)
  • The region of the viral genome that encodes for the capsid protein is among its most unchanged stretches, explains Vanderbilt University virologist Christopher Aiken. (acs.org)
  • genome is 16µm and it is stored in a 58 nm diameter spherical capsid (primary source). (harvard.edu)
  • genome takes up a volume of roughly 50,000nm^3 which should be compared to 100,000nm^3, the approximate volume available within the capsid. (harvard.edu)
  • A point mutation in the core protein in which a phenylalanine at position 97 is exchanged for a smaller leucine leads to premature envelopment of the capsid before the genome maturation is fully completed. (pdbj.org)
  • Linear regression of genome length against capsid size yields an estimate of the "fill" of viral capsids to be 0.52±0.03 (see Figure S3).Again, this result is consistent with variation based on prior measurements and provides further posterior validation to [their] estimate of the fill parameter and its uncertainty. (harvard.edu)
  • Upon membrane insertion, L2 recruits the cytosolic retromer, which enables the L2 viral genome complex to enter the retrograde transport pathway and traffic to the Golgi en route for infection. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we examine that question with respect to viral capsid assembly by studying the 'pathway complexity' of model capsid assembly systems, which we informally define as the number of reaction pathways and intermediates one must consider to accurately describe a given system. (hindawi.com)
  • The models provide complementary information in support of a common conclusion that the ability of simple pathway models to adequately explain capsid assembly kinetics varies considerably across the space of biologically meaningful assembly parameters. (hindawi.com)
  • In summary, the AAV capsid variants described here will facilitate further study of virus assembly, entry, and infection, as well as advance the development of this versatile vector system. (nih.gov)
  • To understand capsid assembly and capsid-tegument interactions, here we report atomic structures of HHV-6B capsid and capsid-associated tegument complex (CATC) obtained by cryoEM and sub-particle reconstruction. (nature.com)
  • Zhang DW, Luo RH, Xu L, Yang LM, Xu XS, Bedwell GJ, Engelman AN, Zheng YT, Chang S. A HTRF based competitive binding assay for screening specific inhibitors of HIV-1 capsid assembly targeting the C-Terminal domain of capsid. (harvard.edu)
  • Residues on Adeno-associated Virus Capsid Lumen Dictate Interactions and Compatibility with the Assembly-Activating Protein. (harvard.edu)
  • Figure 2: The 2 models of the capsid core assembly. (scripps.edu)
  • Self-assembly of viruses seems to obey the principles of thermodynamically reversible self-assembly but assembled shells ('capsids') strongly resist disassembly. (asknature.org)
  • Following assembly, some viral shells pass through a sequence of coordinated maturation steps that progressively strengthen the capsid. (asknature.org)
  • Additionally, we introduce ViroBytes, a random assembly protocol based on rationally design capsid parts. (igem.org)
  • Experiments using a series of mutants defective for proper processing and assembly of capsid yielded evidence suggesting that the restriction factor binding site is in fact formed only when capsid is in its polymeric state in a mature virus, thus explaining why conventional approaches had failed to detect any interaction. (bl.uk)
  • Other capsid-targeting compounds appear to act by perturbing capsid assembly, resulting in noninfectious progeny virions. (ovid.com)
  • Experimental drugs that interfere with hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsid assembly continue to show promise as a new approach to antiviral treatment, according to research presented at the AASLD Liver Meeting last month in San Francisco. (worldhepatitisalliance.org)
  • Capsid assembly modulators (CAMs) interfere with the HBV core protein, which plays a role in packaging viral genetic material into a nucleocapsid shell. (worldhepatitisalliance.org)
  • Viral genomic replication is followed by nuclear capsid assembly, DNA encapsidation and nuclear egress. (mdpi.com)
  • Some of the assembly principles revealed in the carboxysome are reminiscent of those seen in icosahedral viral capsids. (portlandpress.com)
  • The Epstein-Barr Virus Capsid Antigen (VCA) IgA ELISA Kit is intended for the measurement of IgA antibodies to Epstein-Barr Virus Capsid Antigen (VCA) in a sample. (mpbio.com)
  • Antibodies to HPV major capsid protein, L1, can develop in response to natural HPV infection as well as after vaccination. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Chemically-modified capsids also showed reduced interactions with neutralizing antibodies. (rsc.org)
  • The study design will also assess the effect of the presence of anti-AAV2 capsid neutralizing antibodies at the time of vaccination on the safety and immunogenicity of tgAAC09. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Since the prevalence of pre-existing neutralizing antibodies to AAV2 capsid is high (IAVI and Targeted Genetics, data on file), this protocol amendment adds Group G which is composed of volunteers who have documented pre-existing anti-AAV2 capsid neutralizing antibodies titers ≤ 1/8. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP) of CHIKV. (mdpi.com)
  • The EBV (Epstein Barr Virus) Antibodies to Viral Capsid Antigen (VCA) IgM test looks for a type of antibody which the body develops in response to infection with Epstein-Barr Virus . (requestatest.com)
  • Staining patterns with phospho-specific lamin A/C antibodies are compatible with earlier postulates of targeted capsid egress at lamina-depleted areas. (mdpi.com)
  • Effect of a hepatitis B virus inhibitor, NZ-4, on capsid formation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In 2017, GS-CA1, a highly potent capsid inhibitor, was described that holds promise for clinical development. (ovid.com)
  • FOSTER CITY, Calif.--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Gilead Sciences, Inc. (NASDAQ:GILD) today announced data on GS-6207, an investigational, novel, selective, first-in-class inhibitor of HIV-1 capsid function, that support its further development and potential role as a component in long-acting HIV combination therapy. (businesswire.com)
  • This is an ongoing double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept Phase 1b study in people living with HIV who are capsid inhibitor-naïve. (businesswire.com)
  • By 2018, Gilead expects to begin human studies of a capsid inhibitor with the potential to be dosed once a month or less frequently. (acs.org)
  • It will be the first time a capsid inhibitor makes it to the clinic. (acs.org)
  • Since the preservation of the capsid function is deeply rooted in the virus evolutionary dynamics, here we review the current structural evidence focused on capsid antibody evasion mechanisms from that perspective. (frontiersin.org)
  • Previous immunization studies with recombinant empty capsids have demonstrated that the presence of VP1 was required to elicit virus-neutralizing antibody activity. (jci.org)
  • The localization pattern of capsid expression was analyzed by immunofluorescent assay in HeLa, 293-T, RD, or SH-SY5Y cells by using anti-His tag antibody as described ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Capsid Protein (Dengue virus) antibody detects Capsid Protein (Dengue virus) protein at cytoplasm by immunofluorescent analysis. (genetex.com)
  • Green: Capsid Protein (Dengue virus) protein stained by Capsid Protein (Dengue virus) antibody (GTX124247) diluted at 1:2000. (genetex.com)
  • In the first study, 36 adults with SLE and 36 sex and age matched controls were enrolled for examination of serum IgG, IgM, and IgA antibody against EBV-virus capsid antigen (EBV-VCA). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The Capsid team develops algorithms and software to help study biological systems and phenomena from a structural point of view. (loria.fr)
  • Structural analyses of major capsid protein (MCP) architectures have been used to categorise viruses into lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural polymorphism of the major capsid protein of rotavirus. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This is the first JEV capsid protein to be described and is an addition to the structural biology of the Flavivirus. (rcsb.org)
  • furthermore, structural studies aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the structure of the capsid core have suggested new interactions w hich may be important for its formation, stability and consequent infectivity of the virus. (bl.uk)
  • In addition to having limited structural information about the shell, Gilead researchers knew of no molecules that could convincingly bind to the capsid protein. (acs.org)
  • Despite their importance, a comprehensive understanding of how mutations affect viral fitness across different structural and functional attributes of the capsid is lacking. (elifesciences.org)
  • Using this resource, we identify structural and sequence determinants that accurately predict mutational fitness effects, refine evolutionary analyses, and define the sequence specificity of key capsid-encoded motifs. (elifesciences.org)
  • The extensive integration between subunits in capsids requires the formation of an intermediate complex, termed a procapsid, from which individual subunits can undergo the necessary refolding and structural rearrangements needed to transition to the more stable capsid. (deepdyve.com)
  • Wyss researchers have created a high-throughput platform to generate an Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) library containing 200,000 variants, each carrying a distinct mutation in the virus capsid protein. (harvard.edu)
  • Filling Adeno-Associated Virus Capsids: Estimating Success by Cryo-Electron Microscopy. (harvard.edu)
  • BOSTON & WALTHAM, Mass.--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (Nasdaq:VRTX) and Affinia Therapeutics announced today that the two companies have entered into a strategic research collaboration to engineer novel adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsids to deliver transformative genetic therapies to people with serious diseases. (businesswire.com)
  • All serotypes show different tissue specificites when injected into mouse or humans, and this tissue tropism is thought to be mainly due to interactions between the virus capsid and receptors on the cell surface. (igem.org)
  • Our findings represent the most comprehensive investigation of mutational fitness effects in a picornavirus capsid to date and illuminate important aspects of viral biology, evolution, and host interactions. (elifesciences.org)
  • Mature HIV-1 capsid structure by cryo-electron microscopy and all-atom molecular dynamics. (scripps.edu)
  • This is a three-dimensional reconstruction of a Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 B-capsid solved by cryo-electron microscopy. (shapeways.com)
  • Members of the double-stranded RNA virus lineage, including reovirus, rotavirus and bacteriophage φ6 have capsids built of 120 copies of capsid protein, corresponding to a "T=2" capsid, or arguably a T=1 capsid with a dimer in the asymmetric unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Johnson, John E. 2009-02-08 00:00:00 Lambda-like double-stranded (ds) DNA bacteriophage undergo massive conformational changes in their capsid shell during the packaging of their viral genomes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Although various mature capsids have been characterized at atomic resolution, no such procapsid structure is available for a dsDNA virus or bacteriophage. (deepdyve.com)
  • whole capsid was built from instances of one capsomere unit, makes the file very small, fast, and easy to use. (turbosquid.com)
  • The structure was solved after crystallization of the hexamer form of the capsid (see Figure 1), which is the building block of the whole capsid core of the HIV (see Figure 2 in the Home Page Overview ). (scripps.edu)
  • That leads to a "delicate equilibrium in the whole capsid shell, which we thought could really be its Achilles' heel," Cihlar, who conceived of the capsid program back in 2006, adds. (acs.org)
  • Figure 1: PDB 4xfx , the hexamer structure of the native HIV-1 mature capsid protein. (scripps.edu)
  • When this project started, several X-ray structures of the mature capsid protein were available in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). (scripps.edu)
  • The triangulation number T for the capsid is defined as: T = h 2 + h ⋅ k + k 2 {\displaystyle T=h^{2}+h\cdot k+k^{2}} In this scheme, icosahedral capsids contain 12 pentamers plus 10(T − 1) hexamers. (wikipedia.org)
  • A model of growth of icosahedral capsids is proposed. (hindawi.com)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus-1 capsid (HIV-1 CA) is involved in different stages of the viral replication cycle. (springer.com)
  • CAMs also inhibit formation of HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), probably by interfering with capsid disassembly, an early step in viral replication. (worldhepatitisalliance.org)
  • The major capsid protein VP6 self-assembles into spherical or helical particles mainly depending upon pH. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Here we present high-resolution structures of several DHBV capsid-like particles (CLPs) determined by electron cryo-microscopy. (rcsb.org)
  • Electron microscopy of TaV particles indicated a 38 nm, T = 4 icosahedral capsid similar in structure to that of Nudaurelia beta virus (NbetaV). (nih.gov)
  • A prominent feature of these neurotropic viruses is the long-range (up to tens of centimeters) axonal retrograde transport of the DNA-containing viral capsid from nerve endings at sites of infection (such as the lips) to neuronal cell bodies at the ganglia to establish latency or, upon reactivation, anterograde transport of the progeny viral particles from the ganglia to nerve terminals, resulting in reinfection of the dermis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Peptides released from reovirus outer capsid form membrane pores that recruit virus particles. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is similar to the stochastic model of fullerene growth, but takes into account variations in the composition of pentamers and hexamers that are responsible for the final capsid size. (hindawi.com)
  • The resulting capsid model contains 360 chains of VP1 protein arranged as 72 pentamers in an icosahedron (12 faces). (proteopedia.org)
  • All polyomavirus capsids are constructed from 360 copies of the major coat protein, VP1, arranged in pentamers on a T=7 icosahedral lattice [2] . (functionalglycomics.org)
  • We discover that the exit of the RNA from the particle of echovirus 18 results in a loss of one, two, or three adjacent capsid-protein pentamers. (muni.cz)
  • Outer capsids are part of reoviridae and cystoviridae virions. (uniprot.org)
  • These AAV virions with altered capsid subunits will provide critical templates for manipulating AAV vectors for cell-specific gene delivery in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • To determine the position of VP1 in both empty capsids and virions, we expressed a fusion protein containing the unique region of VP1. (jci.org)
  • The antisera immunoprecipitated both recombinant empty capsids and human plasma-derived virions, and agglutinated the latter as shown by immune electron microscopy. (jci.org)
  • Atomic structure of the major capsid protein of rotavirus: implications for the architecture of the virion. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The weak forces at work include attraction or repulsion between electrostatic charges, water solubility, and constituent amino acid structures in various parts of the capsid. (asknature.org)
  • Here, the rates at which chloride and sodium ions do so differ substantially, and the two ions also bind to different parts of the capsid. (thebodypro.com)
  • We have used electron cryo-microscopy and image processing to investigate how the point mutation affects the structure of the capsid at 2.6- to 2.8 Å-resolution. (pdbj.org)
  • The amino acid, alanine, at position 59 in the capsid protein of PCV2a (CL, LG and JF2) strains is a critical amino acid, which determines one neutralising epitope of those strains, according to researchers at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. (thepigsite.com)
  • In this study, we identified one critical amino acid that determines a conformational neutralizing epitope in the capsid protein of PCV2. (thepigsite.com)
  • Amino acid residues 47-72 in the capsid protein of PCV2a/CL were replaced with the corresponding region of PCV2b/YJ, and the reactivity of mAb 8E4 was lost. (thepigsite.com)
  • Further experiments demonstrated that one amino acid substitution, the alanine for arginine at position 59 (A59R) in the capsid protein of PCV2a (CL, LG and JF2) strains, inhibited completely the immunoreactivity of three PCV2a strains with mAb 8E4. (thepigsite.com)
  • Huang and co-authors concluded that the alanine at position 59 in the capsid protein of PCV2a (CL, LG and JF2) strains is a critical amino acid, which determines one neutralising epitope of PCV2a (CL, LG and JF2) strains. (thepigsite.com)
  • 2011. Identification of one critical amino acid that determines a conformational neutralizing epitope in the capsid protein of porcine circovirus type 2. (thepigsite.com)
  • By sequence analysis of their capsid protein (CA) region, two amino acid polymorphisms that correlated with DEB025 resistance were identified: H87Q and I91N, both located in the CypA-binding loop of the CA protein of HIV-1. (mdpi.com)
  • Gallay PA, Ptak RG, Bobardt MD, Dumont J-M, Vuagniaux G, Rosenwirth B. Correlation of Naturally Occurring HIV-1 Resistance to DEB025 with Capsid Amino Acid Polymorphisms. (mdpi.com)
  • Sea bass serum samples reacted strongly with three regions of the capsid protein comprising amino acid residues 1-32, 91-162 and 181-212. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Viral protein that is a component of the outer layer of a double or triple concentric icosahedral capsid. (uniprot.org)
  • Putative autocleavage of outer capsid protein micro1, allowing release of myristoylated peptide micro1N during particle uncoating, is critical for cell entry by reovirus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Antigenic relationships among human rotaviruses as determined by outer capsid protein VP4. (semanticscholar.org)
  • dsRNA mycovirus capsids are based on a 120-subunit T = 1 capsid, with a dimer as the asymmetric unit. (mdpi.com)
  • After maturation of the virus, the CA protein assembles with thousands of copies to form the capsid Core. (scripps.edu)
  • Crowning every capsid vertex are five copies of heteropentameric CATC. (sciencemag.org)
  • It is a T=1 capsid so there are 60 copies of the monomer per capsid and based on the Matthews coefficient there are ~3 capsids in the unit cell. (phenix-online.org)
  • The viral RNA is enclosed in a shell made of more than a thousand copies of the same protein, the capsid protein (CA). The shell itself is called a capsid. (thebodypro.com)
  • Most viruses have icosahedral or helical capsids, although some viruses have developed more complex capsid structures. (jove.com)
  • The majority of the viruses have capsids with either helical or icosahedral structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The capsid is composed of subunits called capsomeres. (jove.com)
  • A capsid consists of subunits called capsomeres that self-assemble to form the shell seen here. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The distances between atoms were then greatly reduced to enable Jmol (and other common molecular visualization programs ) to display the model more easily, with overlapping "atomic" spheres to simulate the capsid. (proteopedia.org)
  • Avian polyomavirus capsid, molecular model. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Molecular model of the major capsid protein VP5 from herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). (sciencephoto.com)
  • CAPSID (2018-19) incorporated 250 artworks, and was the result of a collaboration between the artist and molecular virologist Professor Greg Towers of University College London. (artscouncilcollection.org.uk)
  • phenixbb at phenix-online.org Sent: Thu, October 22, 2009 11:08:40 AM Subject: [phenixbb] AutoMR and capsids Dear all, I am currently trying to use AutoMR to do molecular replacement on an icosahedral virus capsid. (phenix-online.org)
  • Capsid-targeting drugs are predicted to exhibit high barriers to viral resistance, and ongoing work in this area is contributing to an understanding of the molecular biology of HIV uncoating and maturation. (ovid.com)
  • Moreover, no direct link between nuclear capsid motility and a molecular motor has been established. (asm.org)
  • The thousands of monomer structures used to build these models, provide a large set of different conformations which could be used to investigate the flexible behaviour of the capsid structure. (scripps.edu)
  • X-Ray Structures of Native HIV-1 Capsid Protein Reveal Conformational Variability. (scripps.edu)
  • A total of 36 different structures of the HIV-1 capsid protein are used for the computations. (scripps.edu)
  • DCV capsid polyprotein (DCVgp2) includes rhv_like or Picornavirus capsid protein domain_like and CRPV_capsid domains. (abcam.com)
  • To address this limitation, we globally define the effects of mutations across the capsid of a human picornavirus. (elifesciences.org)
  • Capsids are protein shells contained within viruses that help protect and deliver viruses to host cells during infection. (artscouncilcollection.org.uk)
  • We model such capsids as linearly elastic shells, whose response at any point is transversely isotropic with respect to the radial direction through that point (the simplest and most important subcase, isotropic response, is almost invariably considered in literature). (matematicamente.it)
  • We showed that the intact virion and a recombinant capsid protein (CaP) from a plant-infecting nonenveloped icosahedral RNA virus, Brome mosaic virus (BMV), can penetrate the membranes of plant protoplasts but are trapped by the extracellular matrix. (apsnet.org)
  • Unique region of the minor capsid protein of human parvovirus B19 is exposed on the virion surface. (jci.org)
  • Enteroviruses belong to a large family of picornaviridae, which are about 30- to 35-nm icosahedral bionanoparticles consisting of a protein capsid without a lipid envelope ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Complement C4 Prevents Viral Infection through Capsid Inactivation. (harvard.edu)
  • HIV infection is critically dependent on functions of the viral capsid. (ovid.com)
  • Small molecules that bind to the viral capsid protein can be potent inhibitors of HIV infection. (ovid.com)
  • The host humoral response against the capsid protein represents the most active immune pressure and primary weapon to control the infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • We show for representative members of all three herpesvirus subfamilies that nuclear capsid motility is not dependent on nuclear F-actin and that herpesvirus infection does not induce nuclear F-actin in primary fibroblasts. (asm.org)
  • The triglyceride-synthesizing enzyme acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) plays a critical role in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection by recruiting the HCV capsid protein core onto the surface of cellular lipid droplets (LDs). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A video of the process that the atoms in the capsid go through during the early stages of infection provides a visual representation of the research. (thebodypro.com)
  • Perilla thinks that this property may be a promising point of attack for countering HIV infection: "I believe that the ability to design novel drugs that alter the physical properties of the capsid opens a new avenue for the development of therapeutics, for instance, by altering the delicate electrostatic balance of the capsid. (thebodypro.com)
  • The pUL17 monomer in each CATC bridges over triplexes Ta and Tc on the capsid surface and supports a coiled-coil helix bundle of a pUL25 dimer and a pUL36 dimer, thus positioning their flexible domains for potential involvement in nuclear egress and axonal transport of the capsid. (sciencemag.org)
  • To summarize recent advances in the discovery of chemical inhibitors targeting the HIV capsid and research on their mechanisms of action. (ovid.com)
  • Inhibitors may bind to several different positions on the capsid protein, including sites in both protein domains. (ovid.com)
  • However, the antiviral activity of many reported capsid-targeting inhibitors has not been definitively linked to capsid binding. (ovid.com)
  • Until recently, the low-to-moderate potency of reported capsid-targeting inhibitors has precluded their further clinical development. (ovid.com)
  • it shows that pp150, a β-herpesvirus subfamily-specific tegument protein, forms a " △ "-shaped group-of-three structure on each of the 320 triplexes in a capsid, leading to a net that encloses the capsid. (nature.com)
  • In this report, we reinvestigate the involvement of F-actin in nuclear herpesvirus capsid transport. (asm.org)
  • Based on these data, we conclude that herpesvirus nuclear capsid motility is not dependent on F-actin. (asm.org)
  • Pepscan was performed with a panel of thirty-four 12-mer synthetic peptides that mimicked the entire betanodavirus capsid protein. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to C terminal residues of Drosophila C virus DCV capsid polyprotein. (abcam.com)
  • Phosphorylation of serine residues in the unresolved C-terminal domain of the mutant leaves the structure of the ordered capsid largely unchanged. (pdbj.org)
  • These residues pack against the neighboring subunits and increase the inter-dimer contact suggesting that the C-termini play an important role in capsid stabilization and provide a much larger interaction interface than previously observed. (pdbj.org)
  • The study also enabled the Robert Koch Institute to examine the antiviral potential of phage capsids against many current influenza virus strains, and even against avian flu viruses. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Noting that there was a limited increase in antiviral activity at higher doses, Jordan Feld of University Health Network in Toronto, who presented a 'debrief' of viral hepatitis studies at The Liver Meeting, suggested that a higher dose may be needed to disrupt formed capsids and prevent replenishment of cccDNA. (worldhepatitisalliance.org)
  • A capsid is the protein shell of a virus, enclosing its genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers report that they have determined the precise chemical structure of the HIV capsid, a protein shell that protects the virus' genetic material and is a key to its virulence. (nsf.gov)
  • In viruses, the capsid is the protein shell that encloses the genetic material. (sciencephoto.com)
  • One of the functions of the capsid is to aid the transmission of the viral genetic material into host cells. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Viral determinants of this restriction map to the virus capsid protein, however despite strong genetic ev idence, no direct interaction has been shown between capsid and restriction factor using a variety of biochemical approaches. (bl.uk)
  • This strategy does not require genetic engineering of the capsid sequence. (rsc.org)
  • HIV's capsid is a complex, protein-rich shell that protects the genetic payload the virus is trying to sneak into the cells of its host. (acs.org)
  • A virus is made up of genetic material that is encased with a protective protein coat called the capsid. (elifesciences.org)
  • The collaboration will leverage Affinia Therapeutics' capsid engineering expertise and Vertex's scientific, clinical and regulatory capabilities to accelerate the development of genetic therapies for people affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and cystic fibrosis (CF). (businesswire.com)
  • Affinia Therapeutics' innovative approach to the discovery and design of AAV capsids brings yet another tool to our Vertex Cell and Genetic Therapies toolkit, and we're excited to partner with them to bring together their technology platform with our research and development expertise. (businesswire.com)
  • Vertex will be responsible for and will fund the design and manufacturing of genetic therapies incorporating the selected capsids, preclinical and clinical development efforts, and commercialization of any approved products in the licensed diseases. (businesswire.com)
  • The capsid gene of TaV is carried on both the genomic and subgenomic RNA molecules, while the RNA polymerase gene is present only on the genomic RNA. (nih.gov)
  • Cloning and sequencing of the TaV capsid gene identified an open reading frame that could potentially encode a capsid precursor protein of up to 82.5 kDa. (nih.gov)
  • Comprehensive AAV capsid fitness landscape reveals a viral gene and enables machine-guided design. (harvard.edu)
  • Capsid gene delivery into the striatum of mouse brain or interskeletal muscle resulted in cell death and inflammation, likely through capsid-induced apoptosis in vivo. (cdc.gov)
  • Here we report that HIV-1 capsid (CA) binds directly to the cyclophilin domain of Nup358/RanBP2. (nih.gov)
  • Capsid" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • The number and arrangement of capsomeres in an icosahedral capsid can be classified using the "quasi-equivalence principle" proposed by Donald Caspar and Aaron Klug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their analysis identified capsid changes that enhanced "homing" potential to specific organs in mice and virus viability, as well as a new protein hidden in the capsid-encoding DNA sequence. (harvard.edu)
  • Previous studies have suggested that nuclear capsid motility is directed and dependent on actin filaments (F-actin), possibly using a myosin-based, ATP-dependent mechanism. (asm.org)
  • They either relied on the effects of F-actin depolymerizing drugs to deduce an F-actin dependency or they visualized nuclear F-actin but failed to show a direct link to capsid motility. (asm.org)
  • Only latrunculin A treatment stalled nuclear capsids but did so by an unexpected effect: the drug induced actin rods in the nucleus. (asm.org)
  • Immobile capsids accumulated around actin rods, and immunoprecipitation experiments suggested that capsid motility stopped because latrunculin-induced actin rods nonspecifically bind nuclear capsids. (asm.org)
  • We report that the WNV-capsid (Cp) by itself induces rapid nuclear condensation and cell death in tissue culture. (cdc.gov)
  • To date, the mechanism of the association of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) capsids with the NEC, which in turn initiates the specific steps of nuclear capsid budding, remains undefined. (mdpi.com)
  • Data strongly suggest that nuclear capsids interact with pUL53 and pUL97. (mdpi.com)
  • Combined, the findings support a refined concept of HCMV nuclear trafficking and NEC-capsid interaction. (mdpi.com)