Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Riboflavin Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of riboflavin from two molecules of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine, utilizing a four-carbon fragment from one molecule which is transferred to the second molecule. EC 2.5.1.9.Bacteriophage PRD1: Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Bacteriophage P22: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.Webcasts as Topic: Transmission of live or pre-recorded audio or video content via connection or download from the INTERNET.Laboratory Animal Science: The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Epstein-Barr Virus Infections: Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).Infectious Mononucleosis: A common, acute infection usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN). There is an increase in mononuclear white blood cells and other atypical lymphocytes, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and occasionally hepatomegaly with hepatitis.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.RNA Phages: Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.Leviviridae: A family of bacteriophages that infects enterobacteria, CAULOBACTER, and PSEUDOMONAS. The genome consists of linear, positive-sense single-stranded RNA.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Levivirus: A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Parvovirus B19, Human: The type species of ERYTHROVIRUS and the etiological agent of ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM, a disease most commonly seen in school-age children.Erythema Infectiosum: Contagious infection with human B19 Parvovirus most commonly seen in school age children and characterized by fever, headache, and rashes of the face, trunk, and extremities. It is often confused with rubella.Parvoviridae Infections: Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.Parvovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, infecting a variety of vertebrates including humans. Parvoviruses are responsible for a number of important diseases but also can be non-pathogenic in certain hosts. The type species is MINUTE VIRUS OF MICE.Parvoviridae: A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Polyproteins: Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Intracranial Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding within the SKULL induced by penetrating and nonpenetrating traumatic injuries, including hemorrhages into the tissues of CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM; as well as into the epidural, subdural and subarachnoid spaces of the MENINGES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Tetranychidae: Family of spider MITES, in the superfamily Tetranychoidea, suborder Trombidiformes.Gastropexy: Surgical fixation of the stomach to the abdominal wall.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.High-Throughput Screening Assays: Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.Dependovirus: A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins: Proteins that form the structure of the NUCLEAR PORE. They are involved in active, facilitated and passive transport of molecules in and out of the CELL NUCLEUS.Nuclear Pore: An opening through the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE formed by the nuclear pore complex which transports nuclear proteins or RNA into or out of the CELL NUCLEUS and which, under some conditions, acts as an ion channel.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.beta Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS in the CYTOSOL and are involved in transport of molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Once inside the CELL NUCLEUS beta karyopherins interact with RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN and dissociate from alpha karyopherins. Beta karyopherins bound to RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN are then re-transported to the cytoplasm where hydrolysis of the GTP of RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN causes release of karyopherin beta.alpha Karyopherins: Nucleocytoplasmic transport molecules that bind to the NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNALS of cytoplasmic molecules destined to be imported into the CELL NUCLEUS. Once attached to their cargo they bind to BETA KARYOPHERINS and are transported through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Inside the CELL NUCLEUS alpha karyopherins dissociate from beta karypherins and their cargo. They then form a complex with CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN and RAN GTP-BINDING PROTEIN which is exported to the CYTOPLASM.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Karyopherins: A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.

CAR-dependent and CAR-independent pathways of adenovirus vector-mediated gene transfer and expression in human fibroblasts. (1/5649)

Primary fibroblasts are not efficiently transduced by subgroup C adenovirus (Ad) vectors because they express low levels of the high-affinity Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). In the present study, we have used primary human dermal fibroblasts as a model to explore strategies by which Ad vectors can be designed to enter cells deficient in CAR. Using an Ad vector expressing the human CAR cDNA (AdCAR) at high multiplicity of infection, primary fibroblasts were converted from being CAR deficient to CAR sufficient. Efficiency of subsequent gene transfer by standard Ad5-based vectors and Ad5-based vectors with alterations in penton and fiber was evaluated. Marked enhancement of binding and transgene expression by standard Ad5 vectors was achieved in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Expression by AdDeltaRGDbetagal, an Ad5-based vector lacking the arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) alphaV integrin recognition site from its penton base, was achieved in CAR-sufficient, but not CAR-deficient, cells. Fiber-altered Ad5-based vectors, including (a) AdF(pK7)betagal (bearing seven lysines on the end of fiber) (b) AdF(RGD)betagal (bearing a high-affinity RGD sequence on the end of fiber), and (c) AdF9sK betagal (bearing a short fiber and Ad9 knob), demonstrated enhanced gene transfer in CAR-deficient fibroblasts, with no further enhancement in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Together, these observations demonstrate that CAR deficiency on Ad targets can be circumvented either by supplying CAR or by modifying the Ad fiber to bind to other cell-surface receptors.  (+info)

Maturation-induced conformational changes of HIV-1 capsid protein and identification of two high affinity sites for cyclophilins in the C-terminal domain. (2/5649)

Viral incorporation of cyclophilin A (CyPA) during the assembly of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is crucial for efficient viral replication. CyPA binds to the previously identified Gly-Pro90 site of the capsid protein p24, but its role remained unclear. Here we report two new interaction sites between cyclophilins and p24. Both are located in the C-terminal domain of p24 around Gly-Pro157 and Gly-Pro224. Peptides corresponding to these regions showed higher affinities (Kd approximately 0.3 microM) for both CyPA and cyclophilin B than the best peptide derived from the Gly-Pro90 site ( approximately 8 microM) and thus revealed new sequence motifs flanking Gly-Pro that are important for tight interaction of peptide ligands with cyclophilins. Between CyPA and an immature (unprocessed) form of p24, a Kd of approximately 8 microM was measured, which corresponded with the Kd of the best of the Gly-Pro90 peptides, indicating an association via this site. Processing of immature p24 by the viral protease, yielding mature p24, elicited a conformational change in its C-terminal domain that was signaled by the covalently attached fluorescence label acrylodan. Consequently, CyPA and cyclophilin B bound with much higher affinities ( approximately 0.6 and 0.25 microM) to the new, i.e. maturation-generated sites. Since this domain is essential for p24 oligomerization and capsid cone formation, CyPA bound to the new sites might impair the regularity of the capsid cone and thus facilitate in vivo core disassembly after host infection.  (+info)

Low temperature and pressure stability of picornaviruses: implications for virus uncoating. (3/5649)

The family Picornaviridae includes several viruses of great economic and medical importance. Poliovirus replicates in the human digestive tract, causing disease that may range in severity from a mild infection to a fatal paralysis. The human rhinovirus is the most important etiologic agent of the common cold in adults and children. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. These viruses have in common a capsid structure composed of 60 copies of four different proteins, VP1 to VP4, and their 3D structures show similar general features. In this study we describe the differences in stability against high pressure and cold denaturation of these viruses. Both poliovirus and rhinovirus are stable to high pressure at room temperature, because pressures up to 2.4 kbar are not enough to promote viral disassembly and inactivation. Within the same pressure range, FMDV particles are dramatically affected by pressure, with a loss of infectivity of more than 4 log units observed. The dissociation of polio and rhino viruses can be observed only under pressure (2.4 kbar) at low temperatures in the presence of subdenaturing concentrations of urea (1-2 M). The pressure and low temperature data reveal clear differences in stability among the three picornaviruses, FMDV being the most sensitive, polio being the most resistant, and rhino having intermediate stability. Whereas rhino and poliovirus differ little in stability (less than 10 kcal/mol at 0 degrees C), the difference in free energy between these two viruses and FMDV was remarkable (more than 200 kcal/mol of particle). These differences are crucial to understanding the different factors that control the assembly and disassembly of the virus particles during their life cycle. The inactivation of these viruses by pressure (combined or not with low temperature) has potential as a method for producing vaccines.  (+info)

Time-resolved fluorescence investigation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein: influence of the binding of nucleic acids. (4/5649)

Depending on the HIV-1 isolate, MN or BH10, the nucleocapsid protein, NCp7, corresponds to a 55- or 71-amino acid length product, respectively. The MN NCp7 contains a single Trp residue at position 37 in the distal zinc finger motif, and the BH10 NCp7 contains an additional Trp, at position 61 in the C-terminal chain. The time-resolved intensity decay parameters of the zinc-saturated BH10 NCp7 were determined and compared to those of single-Trp-containing derivatives. The fluorescence decay of BH10 NCp7 could be clearly represented as a linear combination (with respect to both lifetimes and fractional intensities) of the individual emitting Trp residues. This suggested the absence of interactions between the two Trp residues, a feature that was confirmed by molecular modeling and fluorescence energy transfer studies. In the presence of tRNAPhe, taken as a RNA model, the same conclusions hold true despite the large fluorescence decrease induced by the binding of tRNAPhe. Indeed, the fluorescence of Trp37 appears almost fully quenched, in keeping with a stacking of this residue with the bases of tRNAPhe. Despite the multiple binding sites in tRNAPhe, the large prevalence of ultrashort lifetimes, associated with the stacking of Trp37, suggests that this stacking constitutes a major feature in the binding process of NCp7 to nucleic acids. In contrast, Trp61 only stacked to a small extent with tRNAPhe. The behavior of this residue in the tRNAPhe-NCp7 complexes appeared to be rather heterogeneous, suggesting that it does not constitute a major determinant in the binding process. Finally, our data suggested that the binding of NCp7 proteins from the two HIV-1 strains to nonspecific nucleic acid sequences was largely similar.  (+info)

The haplotype distribution of two genes of citrus tristeza virus is altered after host change or aphid transmission. (5/5649)

Genetic variability of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was studied using the haplotypes detected by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of genes p18 and p20 in six virus populations of two origins. The Spanish group included a CTV isolate and subisolates obtained by graft-transmission to different host species. The other included two subisolates aphid-transmitted from a single Japanese isolate. The homozygosity observed for gene p20 was always significantly higher than that expected under neutral evolution, whereas only three populations showed high homozygosity for p18, suggesting stronger host constraints for p20 than for p18. Sequential transmissions of a Spanish isolate to new host species increased the difference between its population and that of the successive subisolates for gene p18, as estimated by the F statistic. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that variation between both groups of populations was not statistically significant, whereas variations between populations of the same group or within populations were significant for both genes studied. Our data indicate that selection affects the haplotype distribution and that adaptation to a new host can be as important or more as the geographical origin. Variation of the CTV populations after host change or aphid transmission may explain in part the wide biological variability observed among CTV isolates.  (+info)

A new picornavirus isolated from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). (6/5649)

A previously unknown picornavirus was isolated from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). Electron microscopy images and sequence data of the prototype isolate, named Ljungan virus, showed that it is a picornavirus. The amino acid sequences of predicted Ljungan virus capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 were closely related to the human pathogen echovirus 22 (approximately 70% similarity). A partial 5' noncoding region sequence of Ljungan virus showed the highest degree of relatedness to cardioviruses. Two additional isolates were serologically and molecularly related to the prototype.  (+info)

The cleavable carboxyl-terminus of the small coat protein of cowpea mosaic virus is involved in RNA encapsidation. (7/5649)

The site of cleavage of the small coat protein of cowpea mosaic virus has been precisely mapped and the proteolysis has been shown to result in the loss of 24 amino acids from the carboxyl-terminus of the protein. A series of premature termination and deletion mutants was constructed to investigate the role or roles of these carboxyl-terminal amino acids in the viral replication cycle. Mutants containing premature termination codons at or downstream of the cleavage site were viable but reverted to wild-type after a single passage through cowpea plants, indicating that the carboxyl-terminal amino acids are important. Mutants with the equivalent deletions were genetically stable and shown to be debilitated with respect to virus accumulation. The specific infectivity of preparations of a deletion mutant (DM4) lacking all 24 amino acids was 6-fold less than that of a wild-type preparation. This was shown to be a result of DM4 preparations containing a much increased percentage (73%) of empty (RNA-free) particles, a finding that implicates the cleavable carboxyl-terminal residues in the packaging of the virion RNAs.  (+info)

Induction of autoantibodies to mouse CCR5 with recombinant papillomavirus particles. (8/5649)

The vertebrate immune system has evolved to respond vigorously to microbial infection but to ignore self-antigens. Evidence has emerged that B cell responses to viruses are initiated by immune recognition of ordered arrays of antigen on the viral surface. To test whether autoantibodies against a self-antigen can be induced by placing it in a context that mimics the ordered surface of a viral particle, a peptide representing an extracellular loop of the mouse chemokine receptor CCR5 was incorporated into an immunodominant site of the bovine papillomavirus virus L1 coat protein, which self-assembles into virus-like particles. Mice inoculated with chimeric L1-CCR5 particles generated autoantibodies that bound to native mouse CCR5, inhibited binding of its ligand RANTES, and blocked HIV-1 infection of an indicator cell line expressing a human-mouse CCR5 chimera. These results suggest a general method for inducing autoantibodies against self-antigens, with diverse potential basic research and clinical applications.  (+info)

  • Self-assembly of viruses seems to obey the principles of thermodynamically reversible self-assembly but assembled shells ('capsids') strongly resist disassembly. (asknature.org)
  • Here, we utilize crystal structures of the capsid protein from the smallest and simplest known viruses capable of autonomously replicating in animal cells, circoviruses, to establish structural and mechanistic insights into capsid morphogenesis and regulation. (edu.au)
  • with the support of Stuart Turville from the Kirby Institute team developed special viruses with fluorescent labels to monitor the life of the capsid. (life4me.plus)
  • In these cases, the genome is usually inserted, after capsid assembly has been completed, by the action of a rotary molecular motor imbedded in the capsid. (asknature.org)
  • However, we do not understand how key nuclear processes, including capsid assembly, genome replication, capsid packaging, and nuclear egress, are dynamically connected in space and time. (asm.org)
  • We show that assembly of these complexes is regulated by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), and provide a structural basis of capsid assembly around single-stranded DNA, highlighting novel binding interfaces distinct from the highly positively charged N-terminal ARM domain. (edu.au)
  • Moreover, no direct link between nuclear capsid motility and a molecular motor has been established. (asm.org)
  • Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism of nucleotide import into the capsid remains unknown. (udel.edu)
  • Employing all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, we established that cooperative binding between nucleotides inside a CA hexamer cavity results in energetically-favorable conditions for passive translocation of dNTPs into the HIV-1 capsid. (udel.edu)
  • We further examined the variation of the PPI indices as a function of the molecular weight of the coat protein subunit and the capsid diameter. (scripps.edu)
  • Our results suggest that the PPI indices in T=1 and pseudo-T=3 capsids vary linearly with the molecular weight of the subunit and capsid size. (scripps.edu)
  • The striking outcome of this analysis is the distinctive clustering of the "T=2" capsids, which are distinguished by higher subunit molecular weights and a much lower degree of protein-protein interactions. (scripps.edu)
  • A group of British specialists, using a new method of unimolecular microscopy, developed at the Faculty of Molecular Science of UNSW at the Medical Faculty, found that HIV, creating a shield against immunity, to strengthen its capsid includes a specific molecule of the host cell, inositol-hexakisphosphate. (life4me.plus)
  • The HIV Capsid has been studied extensively for a long time, but the question of its stability and balance at the time of the" merger "has so far been one of the key in HIV biology," commented Dr. Leo James, head of the research group at the Laboratory molecular biology Research Council in Cambridge. (life4me.plus)
  • Scientists from the University of New South Wales (UNSW, UK) found that the special protein capsid envelope created by HIV at the time of entry into the human body uses a specific host cell molecule, inositol-hexakisphosphate, as a shield from immunity. (life4me.plus)
  • When you bind this molecule, you stabilize the capsid and open the path to the cell to penetrate it", explains Becking. (life4me.plus)
  • Only latrunculin A treatment stalled nuclear capsids but did so by an unexpected effect: the drug induced actin rods in the nucleus. (asm.org)
  • The latter gives the capsid stability and allows unhindered to carry the genetic material of the virus to the nucleus of the cell. (life4me.plus)
  • The diffusive way out: Herpesviruses remodel the host nucleus, enabling capsids to access the inner nuclear membrane. (princeton.edu)
  • Collectively, our results provide an atomistic description of the permeability of the HIV-1 capsid to small molecules and reveal a novel mechanism for the involvement of metabolites in HIV-1 capsid stabilization, nucleotide import and reverse transcription. (udel.edu)
  • Now we can see the influence of different molecules on the capsid and accurately determine when it starts to break down," Bucking said. (life4me.plus)
  • While there are methods for sequencing RNA molecules, these methods are not applicable to Fig. 11.6 The famous Kleinschmidt electron micrograph of phage T4 DNA extruded from the capsid. (americorpshealth.biz)
  • The scientists found that inositol-hexakisphosphate, which is present in large numbers inside mammalian cells, makes the capsid much stronger, stabilizing it for 10-20 hours. (life4me.plus)
  • These resilient proteinaceous packets self-assemble in response to a variety of weak forces that, in concert, provide the capsid with a great deal of stability. (asknature.org)
  • To extend RNAi to the in vivo applications, we here demonstrated that the siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes could have tumor-specific targeting ability in vivo as well as the increased stability of siRNA during body circulation. (elsevier.com)
  • The weak forces at work include attraction or repulsion between electrostatic charges, water solubility, and constituent amino acid structures in various parts of the capsid. (asknature.org)
  • The capsid protein forms distinct macromolecular assemblies during replication and here we elucidate these structures at high resolution, showing that these complexes reverse the exposure of the N-terminal arginine rich domain responsible for DNA binding and nuclear localization. (edu.au)
  • Immobile capsids accumulated around actin rods, and immunoprecipitation experiments suggested that capsid motility stopped because latrunculin-induced actin rods nonspecifically bind nuclear capsids. (asm.org)
  • We show for representative members of all three herpesvirus subfamilies that nuclear capsid motility is not dependent on nuclear F-actin and that herpesvirus infection does not induce nuclear F-actin in primary fibroblasts. (asm.org)
  • Capsids should be much more stable inside the cell, because the process of infection takes several hours, not minutes. (life4me.plus)
  • The enhanced longevity of siRNA in vivo could be explained by shielding effect derived from the capsid shell, where the encapsulated siRNAs are protected from nucleases in plasma. (elsevier.com)
  • Moreover, the prolonged in vivo circulation time of our siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes increased the potential to serve as siRNA carriers for optimal in vivo RNAi. (elsevier.com)
  • Recently, we reported that a chimeric capsid protein assembled into a macromolecular container-like structure with capsid shell and the resulting siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes efficiently suppressed RFP gene expression in the cell culture system. (elsevier.com)
  • Interestingly, capsid motility was unaffected in cells that do not induce actin rods. (asm.org)
  • The capsid faces may consist of one or more proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid has faces consisting of three proteins named VP1-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The capsid of spherical viruses is built from a limited number of proteins and often displays icosahedral symmetry. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The proteins forming the capsid are VP2 (internal layer, with triangulation T = 1 and an asymmetric dimer in the icosahedral repeating unit), VP6 (intermediate layer, T = 13 symmetry), VP7 (external layer, T = 13) and VP4, which forms a spike inserted in the outermost two layers. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Extensive antigenic mimicry by retrovirus capsid proteins. (nih.gov)
  • The viral capsid of Picornaviruses is composed of 60 icosahedral copies of four capsid proteins, VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4, enclosing the viral positive-strand RNA genome. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • VP4 lies on the inner surface of the protein shell formed by the major capsid proteins, VP1, VP2 and VP3. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The three major capsid proteins have a conserved beta-barrel fold, while VP4 has little regular secondary structure. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The organisation of the three major capsid proteins leads to surface depressions, or pits, thought to be involved in receptor binding, while the variable outer rim is involved in antibody recognition. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Water-soluble Au 102 ( para -mercaptobenzoic acid) 44 clusters, functionalized by maleimide linkers to target cysteines of viral capsid proteins, were synthesized and conjugated to enteroviruses echovirus 1 and coxsackievirus B3. (pnas.org)
  • TaV particles have a buoyant density of 1.296 g/cm3 in CsCl and consist of two capsid proteins of 56 and 6 kDa. (nih.gov)
  • The N-terminal sequences of the capsid proteins were compared with the nucleotide sequence of the capsid open reading frame. (nih.gov)
  • The sequences indicate that the pre-protein is cleaved at two positions to produce the 56 and 6 kDa capsid proteins as well as a predicted third protein that was not detected in the mature virion. (nih.gov)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the capsid proteins indicated that TaV is more closely related to NbetaV than to the Nudaurelia omega-like viruses. (nih.gov)
  • These capsids show structural variations of the same framework, with 60 asymmetric or symmetric homodimers for ScV-L-A and PsV-F, respectively, monomers with a duplicated similar domain for PcV, and heterodimers of two different proteins for RnQV1. (mdpi.com)
  • Mycovirus capsid proteins (CP) share a conserved α-helical domain, although the latter may carry different peptides inserted at preferential hotspots. (mdpi.com)
  • Infectivity of these mutants ranged from 5 to 100% of that of the wild-type, demonstrating for the first time the ability to alter capsid proteins without interfering with infectivity. (nih.gov)
  • Picornaviruses are non-enveloped plus-strand ssRNA animal viruses with icosahedral capsids composed of 60 copies each of 4 virus encoded proteins. (abcam.com)
  • The core is surrounded by a protective coat of proteins called the capsid. (jove.com)
  • Some viruses have capsids that are enclosed by an envelope of lipids and proteins outside of the capsid. (jove.com)
  • In the strain UCD 67-385, these both proteins were identified as viral capsid protein (CP), allow to confirm the gag predicted ORFs in XdV-L1A, XdV-L1B, and XdV-L2, with CPs of 76.6, 76.2, and 38.8 kDa, respectively. (springer.com)
  • Dai and Zhou used electron microscopy to determine a high-resolution structure of the HSV-1 capsid bound to the tegument proteins that occupy the space between the capsid and the nuclear envelope. (sciencemag.org)
  • By using cryo-electron microscopy, we obtained an atomic model of the HSV-1 capsid with CATC, comprising multiple conformers of the capsid proteins VP5, VP19c, VP23, and VP26 and tegument proteins pUL17, pUL25, and pUL36. (sciencemag.org)
  • The single C-terminal helix of pUL36 resolved in the CATC links the capsid to the outer tegument and envelope: As the largest tegument protein in all herpesviruses and essential for virion formation, pUL36 has been shown to interact extensively with other tegument proteins, which in turn interact with envelope glycoproteins. (sciencemag.org)
  • The HIV-1 Gag consists of four domains-matrix (MA), capsid (CA), nucleocapsid (NC) and p6-and two short peptides, SP1 and SP2, that are cleaved into distinct proteins by the viral protease during maturation. (springer.com)
  • Bluetongue virus outer capsid proteins are sufficient to trigger apoptosis in mammalian cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In vitro recoating of reovirus cores with baculovirus-expressed outer-capsid proteins mu1 and sigma3. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Immature or B capsids of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) are composed of seven proteins encoded by six viral genes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These modifications were achieved by chemical coupling of a ligand by the formation of a thiourea functionality between the amino group of the capsid proteins and the reactive isothiocyanate motif incorporated into the ligand. (rsc.org)
  • Gilead's tool compound, GS-CA1 (light green, right), binds between two capsid proteins in the pinwheel-like hexamer. (acs.org)
  • But when Gilead began the project, not much was known about the capsid, which is made up of 1,500 capsid proteins that organize themselves into hexamers and pentamers to form an eggplant-shaped shell. (acs.org)
  • A major focus has been on the use of systems that express the structural proteins of the virus that self-assemble to generate "empty capsid" particles which share many features with the intact virus but lack the ribonucleic acid genome and are therefore non-infectious. (dovepress.com)
  • Pre-clinical immunogenicity of human papillomavirus alpha-7 and alpha-9 major capsid proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Phylogenetic relationship between the major capsid proteins of the Alpha-7 and Alpha-9 genotypes. (nih.gov)
  • A) Amino acid sequences of the L1 major capsid proteins representing both VLP and pseudoviruses of the Alpha-7 (HPV18, HPV39, HPV45, HPV59, HPV68) and Alpha-9 (HPV16, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV52, HPV58) genotypes and the control BPV . (nih.gov)
  • This communication describes the in vitro assembly of genetically recombinant Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) viral capsid proteins (CPs) into biological nanotubes, several micrometres long yet with a diameter of only 17 nm, triggered by double-stranded DNAs of different lengths. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Here, we provide electron microscopy-based data demonstrating the association of both nuclear capsids and NEC proteins at nuclear lamina budding sites. (mdpi.com)
  • Rubella virus is an enveloped positive-strand RNA virus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE: Virions are composed of three structural proteins: a capsid and two membrane-spanning glycoproteins, E2 and E1. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Proteins of the fungal virus capsid (RnQV1) with the different domains and insertions highlighted in different colours. (csic.es)
  • Evolution has allowed modifications in very specific domains of the proteins that form the capsid. (csic.es)
  • To reach this conclusion, the authors studied the atomic structure of the proteins that form the viral capsid and identified two domains with enzyme activity. (csic.es)
  • Impact of Naturally Occurring Variation in the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 58 Capsid Proteins on Recognition by Type-Specific Neutralizing Antibodies. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We investigate the impact of variation within the major (L1) and minor (L2) capsid proteins of HPV58 on susceptibility to neutralizing antibodies. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Impact of naturally occurring variation in the human papillomavirus 52 capsid proteins on recognition by type-specific neutralising antibodies. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We investigated the impact of naturally occurring variation within the major (L1) and minor (L2) capsid proteins on the antigenicity of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 52 (HPV52). (bioportfolio.com)
  • They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A vaccine containing L1 capsid proteins from four types of HPV (ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS), types 6, 11, 16 and 18 that is used to prevent infections from HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUSES of these subtypes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Rotaviruses have a segmented double-stranded RNA genome enclosed in a complex capsid formed by three concentric protein layers. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Viral protein that forms an icosahedral capsid with a T=25 symmetry to protect the viral genome. (uniprot.org)
  • These capsids, which remain structurally undisturbed throughout the viral cycle, nevertheless, are dynamic particles involved in the organization of the viral genome and the viral polymerase necessary for RNA synthesis. (mdpi.com)
  • Within the capsid, fungal dsRNA viruses show a low degree of genome compaction compared to reoviruses, and contain one to two copies of the RNA-polymerase complex per virion. (mdpi.com)
  • The capsid and genome-containing core are together known as the nucleocapsid. (jove.com)
  • The nucleic acid genome fits inside the grooves of the helical capsid. (jove.com)
  • The viral capsid not only protects the virus's genome, but it also plays a critical role in interactions with host cells. (jove.com)
  • In these cases, the genome is usually inserted, after capsid assembly has been completed, by the action of a rotary molecular motor imbedded in the capsid. (asknature.org)
  • Herpesviruses comprise a large DNA genome enclosed in a large and complex protein cage called a capsid (see the Perspective by Heldwein). (sciencemag.org)
  • As an HBV inhibitor, NZ-4 leads to the formation of genome-free capsids, including a new population of capsid that runs faster on agarose gels. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In this regard, successful viral spread relies on the capability of viral capsids to (i) shelter the viral genome, (ii) display molecular determinants for cell receptor recognition, (iii) facilitate efficient genome delivery, and (iv) escape from the immune system. (frontiersin.org)
  • The outer capsid protein of rice dwarf virus is encoded by genome segment S8. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, we do not understand how key nuclear processes, including capsid assembly, genome replication, capsid packaging, and nuclear egress, are dynamically connected in space and time. (asm.org)
  • The HIV capsid (left) protects the viral genome so it can be delivered into host cells. (acs.org)
  • Aside from its obvious appeal as a vital shield for the viral genome, the capsid offers a potential solution to the resistance problem that plagues HIV treatment. (acs.org)
  • The region of the viral genome that encodes for the capsid protein is among its most unchanged stretches, explains Vanderbilt University virologist Christopher Aiken. (acs.org)
  • genome is 16µm and it is stored in a 58 nm diameter spherical capsid (primary source). (harvard.edu)
  • genome takes up a volume of roughly 50,000nm^3 which should be compared to 100,000nm^3, the approximate volume available within the capsid. (harvard.edu)
  • A point mutation in the core protein in which a phenylalanine at position 97 is exchanged for a smaller leucine leads to premature envelopment of the capsid before the genome maturation is fully completed. (pdbj.org)
  • Upon membrane insertion, L2 recruits the cytosolic retromer, which enables the L2 viral genome complex to enter the retrograde transport pathway and traffic to the Golgi en route for infection. (rupress.org)
  • To hide from components of our immune system that are active inside the cell, HIV uses a protein shell called a capsid, which protects its genome from detection and destruction. (elifesciences.org)
  • This is because the capsid must be strong enough to survive for hours inside the cell but not so strong that it cannot quickly open when the virus needs to release its genome. (elifesciences.org)
  • This allows HIV to copy its genome inside the capsid, meaning it remains protected while the virus prepares to produce new viruses. (elifesciences.org)
  • Before the virus can integrate its genes into the host genome, it must reverse transcribe its RNA into DNA, travel to the nucleus, remove its protective capsid (uncoating) and target actively transcribing chromatin. (elifesciences.org)
  • Here, we use timeresolved small-angle X-ray scattering to uncover the nonequilibrium self-assembly dynamics of icosahedral viral capsids packaging their full RNA genome. (cea.fr)
  • The binding energy of capsid subunits on the genome is moderate (~7k B T 0 , with k B the Boltzmann constant and T 0 = 298 K, the room temperature), while the energy barrier separating the complexes and the virions is high (~ 20k B T 0 ). (cea.fr)
  • Effect of a hepatitis B virus inhibitor, NZ-4, on capsid formation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In 2017, GS-CA1, a highly potent capsid inhibitor, was described that holds promise for clinical development. (ovid.com)
  • FOSTER CITY, Calif.--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Gilead Sciences, Inc. (NASDAQ:GILD) today announced data on GS-6207, an investigational, novel, selective, first-in-class inhibitor of HIV-1 capsid function, that support its further development and potential role as a component in long-acting HIV combination therapy. (businesswire.com)
  • This is an ongoing double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept Phase 1b study in people living with HIV who are capsid inhibitor-naïve. (businesswire.com)
  • By 2018, Gilead expects to begin human studies of a capsid inhibitor with the potential to be dosed once a month or less frequently. (acs.org)
  • It will be the first time a capsid inhibitor makes it to the clinic. (acs.org)
  • Enteroviruses belong to a large family of picornaviridae, which are about 30- to 35-nm icosahedral bionanoparticles consisting of a protein capsid without a lipid envelope ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus-1 capsid (HIV-1 CA) is involved in different stages of the viral replication cycle. (springer.com)
  • CAMs also inhibit formation of HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), probably by interfering with capsid disassembly, an early step in viral replication. (worldhepatitisalliance.org)
  • Our previous work established that little, if any, wild type AAV replication occurs in mouse tissues whether a mouse or human adenovirus is used as the helper virus (1), thus preventing the cross-selection for mouse cell transduction by AAV capsids. (cavd.org)
  • Johnson, John E. 2009-02-08 00:00:00 Lambda-like double-stranded (ds) DNA bacteriophage undergo massive conformational changes in their capsid shell during the packaging of their viral genomes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Although various mature capsids have been characterized at atomic resolution, no such procapsid structure is available for a dsDNA virus or bacteriophage. (deepdyve.com)
  • The relative transduction of the new capsid serotypes will be compared with standard AAV vector serotypes currently used in, or being considered for, clinical trials. (cavd.org)
  • Selection approaches that use replicating AAVs have the potential to lessen problems of cross-packaging (a phenomenon whereby capsids package gene sequences that are unrelated to the capsid utilized for transduction) after multiple rounds of passaging. (cavd.org)
  • Perhaps even more importantly, it has become clear that capsid-mediated cellular AAV binding and uptake are not the only parameters that influence the efficiency, cell-type and species-specific transduction properties. (cavd.org)
  • In this report, we describe the development of a modified adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid and promoter for transduction of retinal ON-bipolar cells. (harvard.edu)
  • Avidin-dependent redirection of transduction through a variety of biotinylated ligands is greatly dependent on the nature of the biotinylated capsid protein. (rice.edu)
  • The weak forces at work include attraction or repulsion between electrostatic charges, water solubility, and constituent amino acid structures in various parts of the capsid. (asknature.org)
  • Here, the rates at which chloride and sodium ions do so differ substantially, and the two ions also bind to different parts of the capsid. (thebodypro.com)
  • We have used electron cryo-microscopy and image processing to investigate how the point mutation affects the structure of the capsid at 2.6- to 2.8 Å-resolution. (pdbj.org)
  • Ke, Y.Y. & Lin, T.H. Modeling the ligand-receptor interaction for a series of inhibitors of the capsid protein of enterovirus 71 using several three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship techniques. (nature.com)
  • To summarize recent advances in the discovery of chemical inhibitors targeting the HIV capsid and research on their mechanisms of action. (ovid.com)
  • Inhibitors may bind to several different positions on the capsid protein, including sites in both protein domains. (ovid.com)
  • However, the antiviral activity of many reported capsid-targeting inhibitors has not been definitively linked to capsid binding. (ovid.com)
  • Until recently, the low-to-moderate potency of reported capsid-targeting inhibitors has precluded their further clinical development. (ovid.com)
  • Small molecules that bind to the viral capsid protein can be potent inhibitors of HIV infection. (ovid.com)
  • CAPSID (2018-19) incorporated 250 artworks, and was the result of a collaboration between the artist and molecular virologist Professor Greg Towers of University College London. (artscouncilcollection.org.uk)
  • Once the virus has infected a cell and begins replicating itself, new capsid subunits are synthesized according to the genetic material of the virus, using the protein biosynthesis mechanism of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers report that they have determined the precise chemical structure of the HIV capsid, a protein shell that protects the virus' genetic material and is a key to its virulence. (nsf.gov)
  • One of the functions of the capsid is to aid the transmission of the viral genetic material into host cells. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Viral determinants of this restriction map to the virus capsid protein, however despite strong genetic ev idence, no direct interaction has been shown between capsid and restriction factor using a variety of biochemical approaches. (bl.uk)
  • This strategy does not require genetic engineering of the capsid sequence. (rsc.org)
  • HIV's capsid is a complex, protein-rich shell that protects the genetic payload the virus is trying to sneak into the cells of its host. (acs.org)
  • BOSTON & WALTHAM, Mass.--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (Nasdaq:VRTX) and Affinia Therapeutics announced today that the two companies have entered into a strategic research collaboration to engineer novel adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsids to deliver transformative genetic therapies to people with serious diseases. (businesswire.com)
  • The collaboration will leverage Affinia Therapeutics' capsid engineering expertise and Vertex's scientific, clinical and regulatory capabilities to accelerate the development of genetic therapies for people affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and cystic fibrosis (CF). (businesswire.com)
  • Affinia Therapeutics' innovative approach to the discovery and design of AAV capsids brings yet another tool to our Vertex Cell and Genetic Therapies toolkit, and we're excited to partner with them to bring together their technology platform with our research and development expertise. (businesswire.com)
  • Vertex will be responsible for and will fund the design and manufacturing of genetic therapies incorporating the selected capsids, preclinical and clinical development efforts, and commercialization of any approved products in the licensed diseases. (businesswire.com)
  • In plant, animal and bacterial viruses, the primary function of the virus capsid is to protect the genetic material and identify its hosts, but in fungal viruses these functions are less important. (csic.es)
  • Redirection of Ad vector tropism will require physical modifications of the adenoviral capsid but direct genetic modification of the Ad capsid has so far been limited to small peptides. (rice.edu)
  • The genetic insertion of a biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) into the fiber, protein IX, or hexon components of the Ad capsid has resulted in vectors that are metabolically biotinylated upon production in host cells. (rice.edu)
  • The triangulation number T for the capsid is defined as: T = h 2 + h ⋅ k + k 2 {\displaystyle T=h^{2}+h\cdot k+k^{2}} Icosahedral capsids contain 12 pentamers plus 10(T − 1) hexamers. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is similar to the stochastic model of fullerene growth, but takes into account variations in the composition of pentamers and hexamers that are responsible for the final capsid size. (hindawi.com)
  • An arginine ring within the pore coordinates IP 6 , which strengthens capsid hexamers by almost 10°C. Single molecule measurements demonstrate that this renders native HIV capsids highly stable and protected from spontaneous collapse. (elifesciences.org)
  • whole capsid was built from instances of one capsomere unit, makes the file very small, fast, and easy to use. (turbosquid.com)
  • That leads to a "delicate equilibrium in the whole capsid shell, which we thought could really be its Achilles' heel," Cihlar, who conceived of the capsid program back in 2006, adds. (acs.org)
  • This paper presents evidence that Thosea asigna virus (TaV) has a unique capsid expression strategy and is a member of the Nudaurelia beta-like genus of the Tetraviridae. (nih.gov)
  • Replicating rAAV libraries containing 10e6 to 10e7 unique capsid sequences will be used to serially infect a mouse model containing chimeric human-mouse muscle fibers. (cavd.org)
  • Filling Adeno-Associated Virus Capsids: Estimating Success by Cryo-Electron Microscopy. (harvard.edu)
  • This is a three-dimensional reconstruction of a Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 B-capsid solved by cryo-electron microscopy. (shapeways.com)
  • The pUL17 monomer in each CATC bridges over triplexes Ta and Tc on the capsid surface and supports a coiled-coil helix bundle of a pUL25 dimer and a pUL36 dimer, thus positioning their flexible domains for potential involvement in nuclear egress and axonal transport of the capsid. (sciencemag.org)
  • The capsid gene of TaV is carried on both the genomic and subgenomic RNA molecules, while the RNA polymerase gene is present only on the genomic RNA. (nih.gov)
  • Cloning and sequencing of the TaV capsid gene identified an open reading frame that could potentially encode a capsid precursor protein of up to 82.5 kDa. (nih.gov)
  • Comprehensive AAV capsid fitness landscape reveals a viral gene and enables machine-guided design. (harvard.edu)
  • Noting that there was a limited increase in antiviral activity at higher doses, Jordan Feld of University Health Network in Toronto, who presented a 'debrief' of viral hepatitis studies at The Liver Meeting, suggested that a higher dose may be needed to disrupt formed capsids and prevent replenishment of cccDNA. (worldhepatitisalliance.org)
  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to C terminal residues of Drosophila C virus DCV capsid polyprotein. (abcam.com)
  • Amino acid residues 47-72 in the capsid protein of PCV2a/CL were replaced with the corresponding region of PCV2b/YJ, and the reactivity of mAb 8E4 was lost. (thepigsite.com)
  • Sea bass serum samples reacted strongly with three regions of the capsid protein comprising amino acid residues 1-32, 91-162 and 181-212. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Phosphorylation of serine residues in the unresolved C-terminal domain of the mutant leaves the structure of the ordered capsid largely unchanged. (pdbj.org)
  • These residues pack against the neighboring subunits and increase the inter-dimer contact suggesting that the C-termini play an important role in capsid stabilization and provide a much larger interaction interface than previously observed. (pdbj.org)
  • Previous studies have suggested that nuclear capsid motility is directed and dependent on actin filaments (F-actin), possibly using a myosin-based, ATP-dependent mechanism. (asm.org)
  • They either relied on the effects of F-actin depolymerizing drugs to deduce an F-actin dependency or they visualized nuclear F-actin but failed to show a direct link to capsid motility. (asm.org)
  • Only latrunculin A treatment stalled nuclear capsids but did so by an unexpected effect: the drug induced actin rods in the nucleus. (asm.org)
  • Immobile capsids accumulated around actin rods, and immunoprecipitation experiments suggested that capsid motility stopped because latrunculin-induced actin rods nonspecifically bind nuclear capsids. (asm.org)
  • Based on these data, we conclude that herpesvirus nuclear capsid motility is not dependent on F-actin. (asm.org)
  • To date, the mechanism of the association of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) capsids with the NEC, which in turn initiates the specific steps of nuclear capsid budding, remains undefined. (mdpi.com)
  • Data strongly suggest that nuclear capsids interact with pUL53 and pUL97. (mdpi.com)
  • Combined, the findings support a refined concept of HCMV nuclear trafficking and NEC-capsid interaction. (mdpi.com)
  • Moreover, none of the capsid cofactors required for nuclear entry or integration are necessary for RT. (elifesciences.org)
  • To overcome these limitations, we chemically modified the surface of the capsid of AAV vectors. (rsc.org)
  • We are currently making vectors from the top 10 selected capsids and planning to test their ability to transduce the human chimeric muscle tissue in vivo . (cavd.org)
  • Capsid" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)