An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
Drugs that act on neuronal sensory receptors resulting in an increase, decrease, or modification of afferent nerve activity. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p367)
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.
Agents, usually topical, that relieve itching (pruritus).
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ B with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the BRONCHI.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
An inorganic dye used in microscopy for differential staining and as a diagnostic reagent. In research this compound is used to study changes in cytoplasmic concentrations of calcium. Ruthenium red inhibits calcium transport through membrane channels.
Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.
Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
Amides composed of unsaturated aliphatic FATTY ACIDS linked with AMINES by an amide bond. They are most prominent in ASTERACEAE; PIPERACEAE; and RUTACEAE; and also found in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE; BRASSICACEAE; CONVOLVULACEAE; EUPHORBIACEAE; MENISPERMACEAE; POACEAE; and SOLANACEAE. They are recognized by their pungent taste and for causing numbing and salivation.
Inflammation caused by an injurious stimulus of peripheral neurons and resulting in release of neuropeptides which affect vascular permeability and help initiate proinflammatory and immune reactions at the site of injury.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin A; (NKA, substance K, neurokinin alpha, neuromedin L), neuropeptide K; (NPK); or neuropeptide gamma over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-2 (NK-2) receptors have been cloned and are similar to other G-protein coupled receptors.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
Rapidly decreasing response to a drug or physiologically active agent after administration of a few doses. In immunology, it is the rapid immunization against the effect of toxic doses of an extract or serum by previous injection of small doses. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of NEUROKININ-1 RECEPTORS.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is the source of mucuna gum.
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Cell surface proteins that bind TACHYKININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Three classes of tachykinin receptors have been characterized, the NK-1; NK-2; and NK-3; which prefer, respectively, SUBSTANCE P; NEUROKININ A; and NEUROKININ B.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A class of cell surface receptors for TACHYKININS with a preference for SUBSTANCE P. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G protein coupled receptor superfamily. They are found on many cell types including central and peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, acinar cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells.
Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The interruption or removal of any part of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. Vagotomy may be performed for research or for therapeutic purposes.
Intense chronic itching in the anal area.
Fatty acid derivatives that have specificity for CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. They are structurally distinct from CANNABINOIDS and were originally discovered as a group of endogenous CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
The caudal portion of the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), a nucleus involved with pain and temperature sensation.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number two carbon, in contrast to INDOLES which have the nitrogen adjacent to the six-membered ring.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

The posterior nasal nerve plays an important role on cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin, distilled water and l-menthol in anesthetized dogs. (1/2233)

The sensory innervation of the cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin (CAPS), distilled water (DW) and l-menthol (LM) was studied in anesthetized dogs breathing through tracheostomy. A marked cardiopulmonary reflex was observed by CAPS and DW into the nasal cavity, while a prolongation of expiration was induced by LM. All these reflexes were significantly decreased by bilateral section of the posterior nasal nerve (PNN) and completely abolished by topical nasal anesthesia with lidocaine. Responses of the whole nerve activity of the PNN to these substances corresponded to the magnitude of the reflexes. These results indicate that PNN afferents play an important role on the reflex elicitation of the noxious, water and cold stimuli from the nasal cavity.  (+info)

C-fiber depletion alters response properties of neurons in trigeminal nucleus principalis. (2/2233)

The effects of C-fiber depletion induced by neonatal capsaicin treatment on the functional properties of vibrissa-sensitive low-threshold mechanoreceptive (LTM) neurons in the rat trigeminal nucleus principalis were examined in adult rats. Neonatal rats were injected either with capsaicin or its vehicle within 48 h of birth. The depletion of unmyelinated afferents was confirmed by the significant decrease in plasma extravasation of Evan's blue dye induced in the hindlimb skin of capsaicin-treated rats by cutaneous application of mustard oil and by the significant decrease of unmyelinated fibers in both the sciatic and infraorbital nerves. The mechanoreceptive field (RF) and response properties of 31 vibrissa-sensitive neurons in capsaicin-treated rats were compared with those of 32 vibrissa-sensitive neurons in control (untreated or vehicle-treated) rats. The use of electronically controlled mechanical stimuli allowed quantitative analysis of response properties of vibrissa-sensitive neurons; these included the number of center- and surround-RF vibrissae within the RF (i.e., those vibrissae which when stimulated elicited >/=1 and <1 action potential per stimulus, respectively), the response magnitude and latency, and the selectivity of responses to stimulation of vibrissae in different directions with emphasis on combining both the response magnitude and direction of vibrissal deflection in a vector analysis. Neonatal capsaicin treatment was associated with significant increases in the total number of vibrissae, in the number of center-RF vibrissae per neuronal RF, and in the percentage of vibrissa-sensitive neurons that also responded to stimulation of other types of orofacial tissues. Compared with control rats, capsaicin-treated rats showed significant increases in the response magnitude to stimulation of surround-RF vibrissae as well as in response latency variability to stimulation of both center- and surround-RF vibrissae. C-fiber depletion also significantly altered the directional selectivity of responses to stimulation of vibrissae. For neurons with multiple center-RF vibrissae, the proportion of center-RF vibrissae with net vector responses oriented toward the same quadrant was significantly less in capsaicin-treated compared with control rats. These changes in the functional properties of principalis vibrissa-sensitive neurons associated with marked depletion of C-fiber afferents are consistent with similarly induced alterations in LTM neurons studied at other levels of the rodent somatosensory system, and indeed may contribute to alterations previously described in the somatosensory cortex of adult rodents. Furthermore, these results provide additional support to the view that C fibers may have an important role in shaping the functional properties of LTM neurons in central somatosensory pathways.  (+info)

Mechanisms of capsaicin- and lactic acid-induced bronchoconstriction in the newborn dog. (3/2233)

1. Capsaicin activation of the pulmonary C fibre vanilloid receptor (VR1) evokes the pulmonary chemoreflex and reflex bronchoconstriction. Among potential endogenous ligands of C fibre afferents, lactic acid has been suggested as a promising candidate. We tested the hypotheses that (a) lactic acid behaves as a stimulant of C fibre receptors in the newborn dog to cause reflex bronchoconstriction, and (b) lactic acid causes reflex bronchoconstriction via the same pulmonary C fibre receptor mechanism as capsaicin using the competitive capsaicin/VR1 receptor antagonist capsazepine. 2. Right heart injection of lactic acid caused a significant increase (47 +/- 8.0 %) in lung resistance (RL) that was atropine sensitive (reduced by 75 %; P < 0.05), consistent with reflex activation of muscarinic efferents by stimulation of C fibre afferents. 3. Infusion of the competitive capsaicin antagonist capsazepine caused an 80 % reduction (P < 0.01) in the control bronchoconstrictor response (41 +/- 8.5 % increase in RL) to right heart injections of capsaicin. The effects of capsazepine are consistent with reversible blockade of the VR1 receptor to abolish C fibre-mediated reflex bronchoconstriction. 4. Lactic acid-evoked increases in RL were unaffected by VR1 blockade with capsazepine, consistent with a separate lactic acid-induced reflex mechanism. 5. We conclude that (a) putative stimulation of C fibres with lactic acid causes reflex bronchoconstriction in the newborn dog, (b) capsazepine reversibly antagonizes reflex bronchoconstriction elicited by right heart injection of capsaicin, presumably by attenuating capsaicin-induced activation of the C fibre 'capsaicin' receptor (VR1), and (c) capsazepine resistance of lactic acid-induced bronchoconstriction indicates that lactic acid evokes reflex bronchoconstriction by a separate mechanism, possibly via the acid-sensing ionic channel.  (+info)

The role of capsaicin-sensitive muscle afferents in fatigue-induced modulation of the monosynaptic reflex in the rat. (4/2233)

1. The role of group III and IV afferent fibres of the lateral gastrocnemious muscle (LG) in modulating the homonymous monosynaptic reflex was investigated during muscle fatigue in spinalized rats. 2. Muscle fatigue was induced by a series of increasing tetanic electrical stimuli (85 Hz, 600 ms) delivered to the LG muscle nerve. Series consisted of increasing train numbers from 1 to 60. 3. Potentials from the spinal cord LG motor pool and from the ventral root were recorded in response to proprioceptive afferent stimulation and analysed before and during tetanic muscle activations. Both the pre- and postsynaptic waves showed an initial enhancement and, after a '12-train' series, an increasing inhibition. 4. The enhancement of the responses to muscle fatiguing stimulation disappeared after L3-L6 dorsal root section, while a partial reflex inhibition was still present. Conversely, after section of the corresponding ventral root, there was only a reduction in the inhibitory effect. 5. The monosynaptic reflex was also studied in animals in which a large number of group III and IV muscle afferents were eliminated by injecting capsaicin (10 mM) into the LG muscle. As a result of capsaicin treatment, the fatigue-induced inhibition of the pre- and postsynaptic waves disappeared, while the response enhancement remained. 6. We concluded that the monosynaptic reflex inhibition, but not the enhancement, was mediated by those group III and IV muscle afferents that are sensitive to the toxic action of capsaicin. The afferents that are responsible for the response enhancement enter the spinal cord through the dorsal root, while those responsible for the inhibition enter the spinal cord through both the ventral and dorsal roots.  (+info)

The effects of inflammation and inflammatory mediators on nociceptive behaviour induced by ATP analogues in the rat. (5/2233)

1. We have studied the behavioural effects of intraplantar injections of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and related compounds in freely moving rats and investigated whether these nociceptive effects are augmented in the presence of inflammatory mediators. 2. We find that in normal animals ATP and analogues produce dose-dependent nocifensive behaviour (seen as bursts of elevation of the treated hindpaw), and localized thermal hyperalgesia. The rank order of potency was: alpha,beta-methyleneadenosine 5'-triphosphate (alpha,beta-methylene ATP) > 2-methylthioadenosine triphosphate (2-methylthio ATP) > ATP. After neonatal treatment with capsaicin, to destroy small calibre primary sensory neurones, nocifensive behaviour was largely absent. 3. The effects of ATP analogues were assessed in three models of peripheral sensitization: 2 h after dilute intraplantar carrageenan (0.25% w v(-1)); 24 h after irradiation of the hindpaw with ultraviolet (U.V.) B; immediately following prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) treatment. In all models the effect of alpha,beta-methylene ATP was greatly augmented. After carrageenan, significant hindpaw-lifting behaviour activity was induced by injection of only 0.05 nmol of alpha,beta-methylene ATP, some 100 times less than necessary in normal skin. 4. Our data suggest that it is much more likely that endogenous levels of ATP will reach levels capable of exciting nociceptors in inflamed versus normal skin. Our data also suggest the involvement of P2X3 receptor subunits in ATP-induced nociception.  (+info)

Capsaicin-sensitive C-fiber-mediated protective responses in ozone inhalation in rats. (6/2233)

To assess the role of lung sensory C fibers during and after inhalation of 1 part/million ozone for 8 h, we compared breathing pattern responses and epithelial injury-inflammation-repair in rats depleted of C fibers by systemic administration of capsaicin as neonates and in vehicle-treated control animals. Capsaicin-treated rats did not develop ozone-induced rapid, shallow breathing. Capsaicin-treated rats showed more severe necrosis in the nasal cavity and greater inflammation throughout the respiratory tract than did control rats exposed to ozone. Incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (a marker of DNA synthesis associated with proliferation) into terminal bronchiolar epithelial cells was not significantly affected by capsaicin treatment in rats exposed to ozone. However, when normalized to the degree of epithelial necrosis present in each rat studied, there was less 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling in the terminal bronchioles of capsaicin-treated rats. These observations suggest that the ozone-induced release of neuropeptides does not measurably contribute to airway inflammation but may play a role in modulating basal and reparative airway epithelial cell proliferation.  (+info)

Impact of development and chronic hypoxia on NE release from adrenergic nerves in sheep arteries. (7/2233)

To examine effects of development and chronic high-altitude hypoxia on sympathetic nerve function in sheep, norepinephrine release was measured in vitro from middle cerebral and facial arteries. Capsaicin was used to test the role of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves; norepinephrine release was not altered by capsaicin treatment. Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NO synthase, decreased stimulation-evoked norepinephrine release in middle cerebral arteries from normoxic sheep with no effect in hypoxic arteries or facial arteries. Thus NO-releasing nerves augmented norepinephrine release. Furthermore, the function of NO-releasing nerves declined after chronic hypoxia. Despite loss of the augmenting effects of NO, stimulation-evoked fractional norepinephrine release was unchanged after chronic hypoxia, suggesting that middle cerebral arteries adapt to hypoxia by increasing stimulation-evoked norepinephrine release. In fetal facial arteries, chronic hypoxia resulted in a decline in stimulation-evoked norepinephrine release, but there was an increase in the adult facial artery. In the adult, adaptation to chronic hypoxia is similar in both cerebral and facial arteries. However, differential adaptation in fetal adrenergic nerves may reflect differences in fetal redistribution of blood flow in the face of chronic hypoxia but could also possibly contribute to increased incidence of fetal morbidity.  (+info)

Cell type-specific ATP-activated responses in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. (8/2233)

1. The aim of our study is to clarify the relationship between expression pattern of P2X receptors and the cell type of male adult rat (Wistar) dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We identified the nociceptive cells of acutely dissociated DRG neurons from adult rats type using capsaicin sensitivity. 2. Two types of ATP-activated currents, one with fast, the other with slow desensitization, were found under voltage-clamp conditions. In addition, cells with fast but not slow desensitization responded to capsaicin, indicating that there was a relationship between current kinetics and capsaicin-sensitivity. 3. Both types of neurons were responsive to ATP and alpha, beta methylene-ATP (alpha,betameATP). The concentration of alpha,(beta)meATP producing half-maximal activation (EC50) of neurons with fast desensitization was less (11 microM) than that of neurons with slow desensitization (63 microM), while the Hill coefficients were similar. Suramin and pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid tetrasodium (PPADS) antagonized alpha,betameATP-induced currents in both types of neurons. 4. In situ hybridization revealed that small cells of the DRG predominantly expressed mRNAs of P2X3 and medium-sized cells expressed mRNAs of P2X2 and P2X3. In contrast, both of mRNAs were not detected in large cells of the DRG. 5. These results suggest that capsaicin-sensitive, small-sized DRG neurons expressed mainly the homomeric P2X3 subunit and that capsaicin-insensitive, medium-sized DRG neurons expressed the heteromultimeric receptor with P2X2 and P2X3.  (+info)

Capsaicin is defined in medical terms as the active component of chili peppers (genus Capsicum) that produces a burning sensation when it comes into contact with mucous membranes or skin. It is a potent irritant and is used topically as a counterirritant in some creams and patches to relieve pain. Capsaicin works by depleting substance P, a neurotransmitter that relays pain signals to the brain, from nerve endings.

Here is the medical definition of capsaicin from the Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary:

caпсаісіn : an alkaloid (C18H27NO3) that is the active principle of red peppers and is used in topical preparations as a counterirritant and analgesic.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sensory System Agents" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. Sensory systems refer to the parts of the nervous system that process and transmit information about the world around us, including the senses of sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. However, there are no specific "agents" that are generally recognized as being solely dedicated to affecting these systems in a medical context.

If you're referring to specific pharmaceutical agents or drugs that affect sensory systems, these would be more accurately described using terms related to the specific system (like "ophthalmic agents" for vision, or "anesthetics" for touch/pain) and the specific drug class or mechanism of action.

If you have a more specific context in mind, I'd be happy to try to provide a more targeted answer!

Transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) cation channels are a subfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, which are non-selective cation channels that play important roles in various physiological processes such as nociception, thermosensation, and mechanosensation. TRPV channels are activated by a variety of stimuli including temperature, chemical ligands, and mechanical forces.

TRPV channels are composed of six transmembrane domains with intracellular N- and C-termini. The TRPV subfamily includes six members: TRPV1 to TRPV6. Among them, TRPV1 is also known as the vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) and is activated by capsaicin, the active component of hot chili peppers, as well as noxious heat. TRPV2 is activated by noxious heat and mechanical stimuli, while TRPV3 and TRPV4 are activated by warm temperatures and various chemical ligands. TRPV5 and TRPV6 are primarily involved in calcium transport and are activated by low pH and divalent cations.

TRPV channels play important roles in pain sensation, neurogenic inflammation, and temperature perception. Dysfunction of these channels has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as chronic pain, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. Therefore, TRPV channels are considered promising targets for the development of novel therapeutics for these conditions.

Afferent neurons, also known as sensory neurons, are a type of nerve cell that conducts impulses or signals from peripheral receptors towards the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord. These neurons are responsible for transmitting sensory information such as touch, temperature, pain, sound, and light to the CNS for processing and interpretation. Afferent neurons have specialized receptor endings that detect changes in the environment and convert them into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the CNS via synapses with other neurons. Once the signals reach the CNS, they are processed and integrated with other information to produce a response or reaction to the stimulus.

Nociceptors are specialized peripheral sensory neurons that detect and transmit signals indicating potentially harmful stimuli in the form of pain. They are activated by various noxious stimuli such as extreme temperatures, intense pressure, or chemical irritants. Once activated, nociceptors transmit these signals to the central nervous system (spinal cord and brain) where they are interpreted as painful sensations, leading to protective responses like withdrawing from the harmful stimulus or seeking medical attention. Nociceptors play a crucial role in our perception of pain and help protect the body from further harm.

Substance P is an undecapeptide neurotransmitter and neuromodulator, belonging to the tachykinin family of peptides. It is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and is primarily found in sensory neurons. Substance P plays a crucial role in pain transmission, inflammation, and various autonomic functions. It exerts its effects by binding to neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptors, which are expressed on the surface of target cells. Apart from nociception and inflammation, Substance P is also involved in regulating emotional behaviors, smooth muscle contraction, and fluid balance.

Drug receptors are specific protein molecules found on the surface of cells, to which drugs can bind. These receptors are part of the cell's communication system and are responsible for responding to neurotransmitters, hormones, and other signaling molecules in the body. When a drug binds to its corresponding receptor, it can alter the receptor's function and trigger a cascade of intracellular events that ultimately lead to a biological response.

Drug receptors can be classified into several types based on their function, including:

1. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): These are the largest family of drug receptors and are involved in various physiological processes such as vision, olfaction, neurotransmission, and hormone signaling. They activate intracellular signaling pathways through heterotrimeric G proteins.
2. Ion channel receptors: These receptors form ion channels that allow the flow of ions across the cell membrane when activated. They are involved in rapid signal transduction and can be directly gated by ligands or indirectly through G protein-coupled receptors.
3. Enzyme-linked receptors: These receptors have an intracellular domain that functions as an enzyme, activating intracellular signaling pathways when bound to a ligand. Examples include receptor tyrosine kinases and receptor serine/threonine kinases.
4. Nuclear receptors: These receptors are located in the nucleus and function as transcription factors, regulating gene expression upon binding to their ligands.

Understanding drug receptors is crucial for developing new drugs and predicting their potential therapeutic and adverse effects. By targeting specific receptors, drugs can modulate cellular responses and produce desired pharmacological actions.

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neurotransmitter and vasodilator peptide that is widely distributed in the nervous system. It is encoded by the calcitonin gene, which also encodes calcitonin and catestatin. CGRP is produced and released by sensory nerves and plays important roles in pain transmission, modulation of inflammation, and regulation of blood flow.

CGRP exists as two forms, α-CGRP and β-CGRP, which differ slightly in their amino acid sequences but have similar biological activities. α-CGRP is found primarily in the central and peripheral nervous systems, while β-CGRP is expressed mainly in the gastrointestinal tract.

CGRP exerts its effects by binding to specific G protein-coupled receptors, which are widely distributed in various tissues, including blood vessels, smooth muscles, and sensory neurons. Activation of CGRP receptors leads to increased intracellular cyclic AMP levels, activation of protein kinase A, and subsequent relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, resulting in vasodilation.

CGRP has been implicated in several clinical conditions, including migraine, cluster headache, and inflammatory pain. Inhibition of CGRP signaling has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these disorders.

A cough is a reflex action that helps to clear the airways of irritants, foreign particles, or excess mucus or phlegm. It is characterized by a sudden, forceful expulsion of air from the lungs through the mouth and nose. A cough can be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term), and it can be accompanied by other symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or fever. Coughing can be caused by various factors, including respiratory infections, allergies, asthma, environmental pollutants, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchitis. In some cases, a cough may be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, such as heart failure or lung cancer.

Irritants, in a medical context, refer to substances or factors that cause irritation or inflammation when they come into contact with bodily tissues. These substances can cause a range of reactions depending on the type and duration of exposure, as well as individual sensitivity. Common examples include chemicals found in household products, pollutants, allergens, and environmental factors like extreme temperatures or friction.

When irritants come into contact with the skin, eyes, respiratory system, or mucous membranes, they can cause symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, pain, coughing, sneezing, or difficulty breathing. In some cases, prolonged exposure to irritants can lead to more serious health problems, including chronic inflammation, tissue damage, and disease.

It's important to note that irritants are different from allergens, which trigger an immune response in sensitive individuals. While both can cause similar symptoms, the underlying mechanisms are different: allergens cause a specific immune reaction, while irritants directly affect the affected tissues without involving the immune system.

Antipruritics are a class of medications or substances that are used to relieve or prevent itching (pruritus). They work by reducing the sensation of itchiness and can be applied topically to the skin, taken orally, or administered intravenously. Some common antipruritics include diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine, and corticosteroids.

'Capsicum' is the medical term for a genus of plants that are commonly known as peppers or chili peppers. These plants belong to the nightshade family (Solanaceae) and are native to Central and South America. The fruits of these plants are used extensively in cooking and medicine, and they vary widely in shape, size, color, and pungency.

The active components of capsicum fruits are a group of compounds called capsaicinoids, which give the fruit its spicy or hot taste. The most common capsaicinoid is capsaicin, which is responsible for the majority of the heat sensation experienced when consuming chili peppers.

Capsicum fruits have been used in traditional medicine for centuries to treat a variety of conditions, including pain relief, inflammation, and digestive disorders. Modern research has supported some of these uses, and capsaicin is now available as an over-the-counter topical cream or patch for the treatment of pain associated with arthritis, nerve damage, and muscle strain.

It's important to note that while capsicum fruits have many potential health benefits, they can also cause adverse reactions in some people, particularly if consumed in large quantities. These reactions can include stomach upset, skin irritation, and respiratory problems. It's always best to consult with a healthcare provider before using capsicum or any other herbal remedy for medicinal purposes.

Unmyelinated nerve fibers, also known as unmyelinated axons or non-myelinated fibers, are nerve cells that lack a myelin sheath. Myelin is a fatty, insulating substance that surrounds the axon of many nerve cells and helps to increase the speed of electrical impulses traveling along the nerve fiber.

In unmyelinated nerve fibers, the axons are surrounded by a thin layer of Schwann cell processes called the endoneurium, but there is no continuous myelin sheath. Instead, the axons are packed closely together in bundles, with several axons lying within the same Schwann cell.

Unmyelinated nerve fibers tend to be smaller in diameter than myelinated fibers and conduct electrical impulses more slowly. They are commonly found in the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion, as well as in sensory nerves that transmit pain and temperature signals.

Diterpenes are a class of naturally occurring compounds that are composed of four isoprene units, which is a type of hydrocarbon. They are synthesized by a wide variety of plants and animals, and are found in many different types of organisms, including fungi, insects, and marine organisms.

Diterpenes have a variety of biological activities and are used in medicine for their therapeutic effects. Some diterpenes have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral properties, and are used to treat a range of conditions, including respiratory infections, skin disorders, and cancer.

Diterpenes can be further classified into different subgroups based on their chemical structure and biological activity. Some examples of diterpenes include the phytocannabinoids found in cannabis plants, such as THC and CBD, and the paclitaxel, a diterpene found in the bark of the Pacific yew tree that is used to treat cancer.

It's important to note that while some diterpenes have therapeutic potential, others may be toxic or have adverse effects, so it is essential to use them under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare professional.

Neurokinin A (NKA) is a neuropeptide belonging to the tachykinin family, which also includes substance P and neurokinin B. It is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and plays a role in various physiological functions such as pain transmission, smooth muscle contraction, and immune response regulation. NKA exerts its effects by binding to neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptors, although it has lower affinity for these receptors compared to substance P. It is involved in several pathological conditions, including inflammation, neurogenic pain, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Spinal ganglia, also known as dorsal root ganglia, are clusters of nerve cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system. They are situated along the length of the spinal cord and are responsible for transmitting sensory information from the body to the brain. Each spinal ganglion contains numerous neurons, or nerve cells, with long processes called axons that extend into the periphery and innervate various tissues and organs. The cell bodies within the spinal ganglia receive sensory input from these axons and transmit this information to the central nervous system via the dorsal roots of the spinal nerves. This allows the brain to interpret and respond to a wide range of sensory stimuli, including touch, temperature, pain, and proprioception (the sense of the position and movement of one's body).

An "injection, intradermal" refers to a type of injection where a small quantity of a substance is introduced into the layer of skin between the epidermis and dermis, using a thin gauge needle. This technique is often used for diagnostic or research purposes, such as conducting allergy tests or administering immunizations in a way that stimulates a strong immune response. The injection site typically produces a small, raised bump (wheal) that disappears within a few hours. It's important to note that intradermal injections should be performed by trained medical professionals to minimize the risk of complications.

A reflex is an automatic, involuntary and rapid response to a stimulus that occurs without conscious intention. In the context of physiology and neurology, it's a basic mechanism that involves the transmission of nerve impulses between neurons, resulting in a muscle contraction or glandular secretion.

Reflexes are important for maintaining homeostasis, protecting the body from harm, and coordinating movements. They can be tested clinically to assess the integrity of the nervous system, such as the knee-j jerk reflex, which tests the function of the L3-L4 spinal nerve roots and the sensitivity of the stretch reflex arc.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

Nerve fibers are specialized structures that constitute the long, slender processes (axons) of neurons (nerve cells). They are responsible for conducting electrical impulses, known as action potentials, away from the cell body and transmitting them to other neurons or effector organs such as muscles and glands. Nerve fibers are often surrounded by supportive cells called glial cells and are grouped together to form nerve bundles or nerves. These fibers can be myelinated (covered with a fatty insulating sheath called myelin) or unmyelinated, which influences the speed of impulse transmission.

Hyperalgesia is a medical term that describes an increased sensitivity to pain. It occurs when the nervous system, specifically the nociceptors (pain receptors), become excessively sensitive to stimuli. This means that a person experiences pain from a stimulus that normally wouldn't cause pain or experiences pain that is more intense than usual. Hyperalgesia can be a result of various conditions such as nerve damage, inflammation, or certain medications. It's an important symptom to monitor in patients with chronic pain conditions, as it may indicate the development of tolerance or addiction to pain medication.

Ruthenium Red is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical compound that has been used in some medical research and procedures. Ruthenium Red is a dye that is used as a marker in electron microscopy to stain and highlight cellular structures, particularly mitochondria, the energy-producing organelles of cells. It can also be used in experimental treatments for conditions such as heart failure and neurodegenerative diseases.

In summary, Ruthenium Red is a chemical compound with potential medical applications as a research tool and experimental treatment, rather than a standalone medical condition or diagnosis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mustard Plant" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Mustard plants are actually a type of crop plant from the Brassicaceae family, which also includes vegetables like broccoli and cabbage. The seeds from these plants are often ground to make mustard condiments and spices. If you're looking for information related to potential medicinal uses or health effects of mustard plants or their derivatives, I would be happy to help with that.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Tachykinins are a group of neuropeptides that share a common carboxy-terminal sequence and bind to G protein-coupled receptors, called tachykinin receptors. They are widely distributed in the nervous system and play important roles as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in various physiological functions, such as pain transmission, smooth muscle contraction, and inflammation. The most well-known tachykinins include substance P, neurokinin A, and neuropeptide K. They are involved in many pathological conditions, including chronic pain, neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Antitussive agents are medications that are used to suppress cough. They work by numbing the throat and interrupting the cough reflex. Some common antitussives include dextromethorphan, codeine, and hydrocodone. These medications can be found in various over-the-counter and prescription cough and cold products. It is important to use antitussives only as directed, as they can have side effects such as drowsiness, constipation, and slowed breathing. Additionally, it's important to note that long term use of opioid antitussive like codeine and hydrocodone are not recommended due to the risk of addiction and other serious side effects.

Afferent pathways, also known as sensory pathways, refer to the neural connections that transmit sensory information from the peripheral nervous system to the central nervous system (CNS), specifically to the brain and spinal cord. These pathways are responsible for carrying various types of sensory information, such as touch, temperature, pain, pressure, vibration, hearing, vision, and taste, to the CNS for processing and interpretation.

The afferent pathways begin with sensory receptors located throughout the body, which detect changes in the environment and convert them into electrical signals. These signals are then transmitted via afferent neurons, also known as sensory neurons, to the spinal cord or brainstem. Within the CNS, the information is further processed and integrated with other neural inputs before being relayed to higher cognitive centers for conscious awareness and response.

Understanding the anatomy and physiology of afferent pathways is essential for diagnosing and treating various neurological conditions that affect sensory function, such as neuropathies, spinal cord injuries, and brain disorders.

The vagus nerve, also known as the 10th cranial nerve (CN X), is the longest of the cranial nerves and extends from the brainstem to the abdomen. It has both sensory and motor functions and plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, speech, and sweating, among others.

The vagus nerve is responsible for carrying sensory information from the internal organs to the brain, and it also sends motor signals from the brain to the muscles of the throat and voice box, as well as to the heart, lungs, and digestive tract. The vagus nerve helps regulate the body's involuntary responses, such as controlling heart rate and blood pressure, promoting relaxation, and reducing inflammation.

Dysfunction in the vagus nerve can lead to various medical conditions, including gastroparesis, chronic pain, and autonomic nervous system disorders. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a therapeutic intervention that involves delivering electrical impulses to the vagus nerve to treat conditions such as epilepsy, depression, and migraine headaches.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyunsaturated Alkamides" is not a widely recognized medical term or concept. It seems to be a combination of two different terms: "polyunsaturated" which relates to fatty acid chemistry, and "alkamides" which are a type of compound found in certain plants.

1. Polyunsaturated: This term refers to fatty acids that have multiple double bonds in their carbon chain. These fatty acids are essential to the human diet and are commonly found in foods like fish, nuts, and seeds. They are often referred to as Omega-3 or Omega-6 fatty acids.

2. Alkamides: These are a type of compound found in some plants, including Echinacea species. They have been studied for their potential biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects.

Without more context, it's difficult to provide a precise definition or medical interpretation of "Polyunsaturated Alkamides." If you have more information about how these terms are being used together, I'd be happy to try to provide a more specific answer.

Neurogenic inflammation is a type of inflammatory response that is initiated by the nervous system and involves the release of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and nitric oxide. These substances cause vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, and recruitment of immune cells to the site of injury or damage.

Neurogenic inflammation can occur in response to a variety of stimuli, including tissue injury, infection, and chemical or physical irritants. It is thought to play a role in the development and maintenance of various clinical conditions, such as migraine headaches, neuropathic pain, asthma, and allergies.

In contrast to classical inflammation, which is mediated by the immune system, neurogenic inflammation is primarily driven by the nervous system and can occur independently of traditional immune responses. However, the two processes often interact and amplify each other, leading to a more robust and prolonged inflammatory response.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Menthol is a compound obtained from the crystals of the mint plant (Mentha arvensis). It is a white, crystalline substance that is solid at room temperature but becomes a clear, colorless, oily liquid when heated. Menthol has a cooling and soothing effect on mucous membranes, which makes it a common ingredient in over-the-counter products used to relieve symptoms of congestion, coughs, and sore throats. It is also used as a topical analgesic for its pain-relieving properties and as a flavoring agent in various products such as toothpaste, mouthwashes, and candies.

Topical administration refers to a route of administering a medication or treatment directly to a specific area of the body, such as the skin, mucous membranes, or eyes. This method allows the drug to be applied directly to the site where it is needed, which can increase its effectiveness and reduce potential side effects compared to systemic administration (taking the medication by mouth or injecting it into a vein or muscle).

Topical medications come in various forms, including creams, ointments, gels, lotions, solutions, sprays, and patches. They may be used to treat localized conditions such as skin infections, rashes, inflammation, or pain, or to deliver medication to the eyes or mucous membranes for local or systemic effects.

When applying topical medications, it is important to follow the instructions carefully to ensure proper absorption and avoid irritation or other adverse reactions. This may include cleaning the area before application, covering the treated area with a dressing, or avoiding exposure to sunlight or water after application, depending on the specific medication and its intended use.

Neurokinin-2 (NK-2) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to and is activated by the neuropeptide substance P, which is a member of the tachykinin family. These receptors are widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and play important roles in various physiological functions, including pain transmission, smooth muscle contraction, and neuroinflammation.

NK-2 receptors are involved in the development of hyperalgesia (an increased sensitivity to pain) and allodynia (pain caused by a stimulus that does not normally provoke pain). They have also been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and neurodegenerative disorders.

NK-2 receptor antagonists have been developed and investigated for their potential therapeutic use in the treatment of various pain disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, and other medical conditions.

Sensory receptor cells are specialized structures that convert physical stimuli from our environment into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the brain for interpretation. These receptors can be found in various tissues throughout the body and are responsible for detecting sensations such as touch, pressure, temperature, taste, and smell. They can be classified into two main types: exteroceptors, which respond to stimuli from the external environment, and interoceptors, which react to internal conditions within the body. Examples of sensory receptor cells include hair cells in the inner ear, photoreceptors in the eye, and taste buds on the tongue.

Tachyphylaxis is a medical term that refers to the rapid and temporary loss of response to a drug after its repeated administration, especially when administered in quick succession. This occurs due to the decreased sensitivity or responsiveness of the body's receptors to the drug, resulting in a reduced therapeutic effect over time.

In simpler terms, tachyphylaxis is when the body becomes quickly desensitized to a medication after taking it multiple times in a short period, causing the drug to become less effective or ineffective at achieving the desired outcome. This phenomenon can occur with various medications, including those used for treating pain, allergies, and psychiatric conditions.

It's important to note that tachyphylaxis should not be confused with tolerance, which is a similar but distinct concept where the body gradually becomes less responsive to a drug after prolonged use over time.

Physical stimulation, in a medical context, refers to the application of external forces or agents to the body or its tissues to elicit a response. This can include various forms of touch, pressure, temperature, vibration, or electrical currents. The purpose of physical stimulation may be therapeutic, as in the case of massage or physical therapy, or diagnostic, as in the use of reflex tests. It is also used in research settings to study physiological responses and mechanisms.

In a broader sense, physical stimulation can also refer to the body's exposure to physical activity or exercise, which can have numerous health benefits, including improving cardiovascular function, increasing muscle strength and flexibility, and reducing the risk of chronic diseases.

In medical terms, the tongue is a muscular organ in the oral cavity that plays a crucial role in various functions such as taste, swallowing, and speech. It's covered with a mucous membrane and contains papillae, which are tiny projections that contain taste buds to help us perceive different tastes - sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. The tongue also assists in the initial process of digestion by moving food around in the mouth for chewing and mixing with saliva. Additionally, it helps in forming words and speaking clearly by shaping the sounds produced in the mouth.

Bradykinin is a naturally occurring peptide in the human body, consisting of nine amino acids. It is a potent vasodilator and increases the permeability of blood vessels, causing a local inflammatory response. Bradykinin is formed from the breakdown of certain proteins, such as kininogen, by enzymes called kininases or proteases, including kallikrein. It plays a role in several physiological processes, including pain transmission, blood pressure regulation, and the immune response. In some pathological conditions, such as hereditary angioedema, bradykinin levels can increase excessively, leading to symptoms like swelling, redness, and pain.

Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of substance P, a neuropeptide involved in pain transmission and inflammation. These drugs work by binding to NK-1 receptors found on nerve cells, preventing substance P from activating them and transmitting pain signals. NK-1 receptor antagonists have been studied for their potential use in treating various conditions associated with pain and inflammation, such as migraine headaches, depression, and irritable bowel syndrome. Some examples of NK-1 receptor antagonists include aprepitant, fosaprepitant, and rolapitant.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

Analgesics are a class of drugs that are used to relieve pain. They work by blocking the transmission of pain signals in the nervous system, allowing individuals to manage their pain levels more effectively. There are many different types of analgesics available, including both prescription and over-the-counter options. Some common examples include acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil or Motrin), and opioids such as morphine or oxycodone.

The choice of analgesic will depend on several factors, including the type and severity of pain being experienced, any underlying medical conditions, potential drug interactions, and individual patient preferences. It is important to use these medications as directed by a healthcare provider, as misuse or overuse can lead to serious side effects and potential addiction.

In addition to their pain-relieving properties, some analgesics may also have additional benefits such as reducing inflammation (like in the case of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs) or causing sedation (as with certain opioids). However, it is essential to weigh these potential benefits against the risks and side effects associated with each medication.

When used appropriately, analgesics can significantly improve a person's quality of life by helping them manage their pain effectively and allowing them to engage in daily activities more comfortably.

Mucuna is a genus of tropical leguminous plants, and the term is often used in a medical context to refer to one specific species: Mucuna pruriens. This plant, also known as velvet bean, has been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, including the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

Mucuna pruriens contains high levels of L-dopa, a precursor to dopamine, which is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in regulating movement and mood. As such, Mucuna has been studied as a potential alternative treatment for Parkinson's disease, which is characterized by low levels of dopamine in the brain.

It's worth noting that while some studies have suggested that Mucuna may be effective in reducing symptoms of Parkinson's disease, more research is needed to fully understand its safety and efficacy. Additionally, Mucuna can contain other compounds that may have negative effects, so it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

The trigeminal ganglion, also known as the semilunar or Gasserian ganglion, is a sensory ganglion (a cluster of nerve cell bodies) located near the base of the skull. It is a part of the trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve), which is responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing.

The trigeminal ganglion contains the cell bodies of sensory neurons that carry information from three major branches of the trigeminal nerve: the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular divisions. These divisions provide sensation to different areas of the face, head, and oral cavity, including the skin, mucous membranes, muscles, and teeth.

Damage to the trigeminal ganglion or its nerve branches can result in various sensory disturbances, such as pain, numbness, or tingling in the affected areas. Conditions like trigeminal neuralgia, a disorder characterized by intense, stabbing facial pain, may involve the trigeminal ganglion and its associated nerves.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

Tachykinin receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that bind and respond to tachykinins, which are neuropeptides involved in various physiological functions such as neurotransmission, smooth muscle contraction, vasodilation, and pain perception. There are three main subtypes of tachykinin receptors: NK1, NK2, and NK3.

NK1 receptors primarily bind substance P, a neuropeptide that plays a role in neurotransmission, inflammation, and pain signaling. NK2 receptors mainly bind neurokinin A (NKA) and are involved in smooth muscle contraction, particularly in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. NK3 receptors primarily bind neurokinin B (NKB) and are found in the central nervous system, where they play a role in regulating body temperature, feeding behavior, and sexual function.

Tachykinin receptors have been implicated in various pathological conditions such as chronic pain, inflammation, asthma, and neurodegenerative disorders. As a result, tachykinin receptor antagonists are being developed as potential therapeutic agents for these conditions.

Denervation is a medical term that refers to the loss or removal of nerve supply to an organ or body part. This can occur as a result of surgical intervention, injury, or disease processes that damage the nerves leading to the affected area. The consequences of denervation depend on the specific organ or tissue involved, but generally, it can lead to changes in function, sensation, and muscle tone. For example, denervation of a skeletal muscle can cause weakness, atrophy, and altered reflexes. Similarly, denervation of an organ such as the heart can lead to abnormalities in heart rate and rhythm. In some cases, denervation may be intentional, such as during surgical procedures aimed at treating chronic pain or spasticity.

Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to the neuropeptide substance P, which is a member of the tachykinin family. These receptors are widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and play important roles in various physiological functions, including pain transmission, neuroinflammation, and emesis (vomiting).

NK-1 receptors are activated by substance P, which binds to the receptor's extracellular domain and triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of various intracellular signaling pathways. This activation can ultimately result in the modulation of neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter release, and gene expression.

In addition to their role in normal physiological processes, NK-1 receptors have also been implicated in a number of pathological conditions, including pain, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders. As such, NK-1 receptor antagonists have been developed as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of these conditions.

Pain threshold is a term used in medicine and research to describe the point at which a stimulus begins to be perceived as painful. It is an individual's subjective response and can vary from person to person based on factors such as their pain tolerance, mood, expectations, and cultural background.

The pain threshold is typically determined through a series of tests where gradually increasing levels of stimuli are applied until the individual reports feeling pain. This is often used in research settings to study pain perception and analgesic efficacy. However, it's important to note that the pain threshold should not be confused with pain tolerance, which refers to the maximum level of pain a person can endure.

I must clarify that the term "Guinea Pigs" is not typically used in medical definitions. However, in colloquial or informal language, it may refer to people who are used as the first to try out a new medical treatment or drug. This is known as being a "test subject" or "in a clinical trial."

In the field of scientific research, particularly in studies involving animals, guinea pigs are small rodents that are often used as experimental subjects due to their size, cost-effectiveness, and ease of handling. They are not actually pigs from Guinea, despite their name's origins being unclear. However, they do not exactly fit the description of being used in human medical experiments.

A vagotomy is a surgical procedure that involves cutting or blocking the vagus nerve, which is a parasympathetic nerve that runs from the brainstem to the abdomen and helps regulate many bodily functions such as heart rate, gastrointestinal motility, and digestion. In particular, vagotomy is often performed as a treatment for peptic ulcers, as it can help reduce gastric acid secretion.

There are several types of vagotomy procedures, including:

1. Truncal vagotomy: This involves cutting the main trunks of the vagus nerve as they enter the abdomen. It is a more extensive procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion significantly but can also lead to side effects such as delayed gastric emptying and diarrhea.
2. Selective vagotomy: This involves cutting only the branches of the vagus nerve that supply the stomach, leaving the rest of the nerve intact. It is a less extensive procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion while minimizing side effects.
3. Highly selective vagotomy (HSV): Also known as parietal cell vagotomy, this involves cutting only the branches of the vagus nerve that supply the acid-secreting cells in the stomach. It is a highly targeted procedure that reduces gastric acid secretion while minimizing side effects such as delayed gastric emptying and diarrhea.

Vagotomy is typically performed using laparoscopic or open surgical techniques, depending on the patient's individual needs and the surgeon's preference. While vagotomy can be effective in treating peptic ulcers, it is not commonly performed today due to the development of less invasive treatments such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) that reduce gastric acid secretion without surgery.

Pruritus ani is a medical condition characterized by intense itching around the anal area. The term "pruritus" means itching, and "ani" refers to the anus. It can cause significant discomfort and affect a person's quality of life due to the constant urge to scratch the affected area.

Pruritus ani can have several causes, including:

1. Skin conditions: Dermatitis (inflammation of the skin), psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, or contact dermatitis may lead to pruritus ani.
2. Infections: Bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infections like candidiasis, pinworms, or threadworms can cause itching in the anal region.
3. Hygiene issues: Excessive cleaning or using harsh soaps, perfumed wipes, or toilet paper may irritate the skin and result in pruritus ani.
4. Moisture: Perspiration or moisture from feces can lead to maceration (softening of the skin) and itching.
5. Systemic diseases: Conditions like diabetes mellitus, liver disease, or kidney failure may cause pruritus ani as a secondary symptom.
6. Medications: Certain medications, such as some chemotherapy drugs, can lead to pruritus ani as a side effect.
7. Dietary factors: Consuming spicy foods, caffeine, or alcohol may exacerbate symptoms of pruritus ani in some individuals.

Treatment for pruritus ani typically involves addressing the underlying cause and implementing good hygiene practices. This may include using gentle, fragrance-free soaps, avoiding scratching, wearing breathable underwear, and making dietary changes if necessary. Topical treatments like corticosteroid creams or antihistamines may also be recommended to alleviate symptoms.

Endocannabinoids are naturally occurring compounds in the body that bind to cannabinoid receptors, which are found in various tissues and organs throughout the body. These compounds play a role in regulating many physiological processes, including appetite, mood, pain sensation, and memory. They are similar in structure to the active components of cannabis (marijuana), called phytocannabinoids, such as THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol). However, endocannabinoids are produced by the body itself, whereas phytocannabinoids come from the cannabis plant. The two most well-known endocannabinoids are anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG).

The Trigeminal Caudal Nucleus, also known as the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract or spinal trigeminal nucleus, is a component of the trigeminal nerve sensory nuclear complex located in the brainstem. It is responsible for receiving and processing pain and temperature information from the face and head, particularly from the areas innervated by the ophthalmic (V1) and maxillary (V2) divisions of the trigeminal nerve. The neurons within this nucleus then project to other brainstem regions and ultimately to the thalamus, which relays this information to the cerebral cortex for conscious perception.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

The nodose ganglion is a part of the human autonomic nervous system. It is a collection of nerve cell bodies that are located in the upper neck, near the junction of the skull and the first vertebra (C1). The nodose ganglion is a component of the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X), which is a mixed nerve that carries both sensory and motor fibers.

The sensory fibers in the vagus nerve provide information about the state of the internal organs to the brain, including information about the heart, lungs, and digestive system. The cell bodies of these sensory fibers are located in the nodose ganglion.

The nodose ganglion contains neurons that have cell bodies with long processes called dendrites that extend into the mucous membranes of the respiratory and digestive tracts. These dendrites detect various stimuli, such as mechanical deformation (e.g., stretch), chemical changes (e.g., pH, osmolarity), and temperature changes in the internal environment. The information detected by these dendrites is then transmitted to the brain via the sensory fibers of the vagus nerve.

In summary, the nodose ganglion is a collection of nerve cell bodies that are part of the vagus nerve and provide sensory innervation to the internal organs in the thorax and abdomen.

Isoindoles are not typically considered in the context of medical definitions, as they are organic compounds that do not have direct relevance to medical terminology or human disease. However, isoindole is a heterocyclic compound that contains two nitrogen atoms in its structure and can be found in some naturally occurring substances and synthetic drugs.

Isoindoles are aromatic compounds, which means they have a stable ring structure with delocalized electrons. They can form the core structure of various bioactive molecules, including alkaloids, which are nitrogen-containing compounds that occur naturally in plants and animals and can have various pharmacological activities.

Some isoindole derivatives have been synthesized and studied for their potential medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer activities. However, these compounds are still in the early stages of research and development and have not yet been approved for medical use.

Therefore, while isoindoles themselves do not have a specific medical definition, they can be relevant to the study of medicinal chemistry and drug discovery.

The trigeminal nerve, also known as the fifth cranial nerve or CNV, is a paired nerve that carries both sensory and motor information. It has three major branches: ophthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2), and mandibular (V3). The ophthalmic branch provides sensation to the forehead, eyes, and upper portion of the nose; the maxillary branch supplies sensation to the lower eyelid, cheek, nasal cavity, and upper lip; and the mandibular branch is responsible for sensation in the lower lip, chin, and parts of the oral cavity, as well as motor function to the muscles involved in chewing. The trigeminal nerve plays a crucial role in sensations of touch, pain, temperature, and pressure in the face and mouth, and it also contributes to biting, chewing, and swallowing functions.

Rhizotomy is a surgical procedure where the root(s) of a nerve are cut. It is often used to treat chronic pain, spasticity, or other neurological symptoms that have not responded to other treatments. In some cases, only a portion of the nerve root may be severed (selective rhizotomy), while in others the entire root may be cut (root transaction). The specific nerves targeted during a rhizotomy depend on the individual patient's condition and symptoms.

This procedure is typically performed by a neurosurgeon, and it can be done through an open surgical approach or using minimally invasive techniques such as endoscopic or percutaneous approaches. After the surgery, patients may require physical therapy to help regain strength and mobility in the affected area. Potential risks of rhizotomy include numbness, weakness, and loss of reflexes in the areas served by the severed nerves.

... otherwise known as capsaicin. Capsaicin evolved similarly across species of chilies that produce capsaicin. Its evolution over ... "capsaicin" in 1876. Karl Micko isolated capsaicin in its pure form in 1898. Capsaicin's chemical composition was first ... Capsaicin is soluble in alcohol, which can be used to clean contaminated items. When capsaicin is ingested, cold milk is an ... Capsaicin is a potent defense mechanism for chilies, but it does come at a cost. Varying levels of capsaicin in chilies ...
Conversely, pure capsaicin is pungent, yet it is not naturally accompanied by a hot temperature or spices. As the Oxford, ... Pungent substances, like capsaicin, are used in topical analgesics and pepper sprays. Pungency is sensed via chemesthesis, the ... "Capsaicin". PubChem, US National Library of Medicine. 29 April 2023. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 2 ... The Scoville scale measures the pungency of chili peppers, as defined by the amount of capsaicin they contain. Pungency is not ...
"Capsaicin". WebMD.com. Retrieved 4 August 2015. "Capsaicin Material Safety Data Sheet". sciencelab.com. Archived from the ... All of the capsaicin and related compounds are concentrated in vesicles found in the placenta membrane surrounding the seeds; ... Effects of salt stress on capsaicin content, growth, and fluorescence in a jalapeño cultivar of Capsicum annuum (Solanaceae)". ...
Elsannour, Mohammad (2021). Capsaicin. Stockholm: The Arab Book Digitization House. ISBN 9789189288058. He participated in many ...
Capsaicin did not receive a licence for treatment, but Botox did. Fowler is credited with creating the subspecialty of uro- ... "Capsaicin Archives". BJUI. Retrieved 19 February 2021. "BSHP - British Society for the History of Pharmacy". www.bshp.org. ... Her work has also included looking at capsaicin instillation into the bladder in managing urinary incontinence due to an ... ISBN 978-1-4419-8889-8. Dasgupta, Prokar (2015). "Capsaicin, resiniferatoxin and botulinum toxin-A - a trip down memory lane". ...
Capsaicin in the study of pain. London, England: Academic Press. pp. 27-44. Anand P, Bley K (October 2011). "Topical capsaicin ... Capsaicin is able to excite and desensitize C-fibers. As such, it is not only able to cause pain, but also exhibit analgesic ... It is thought that the short-term desensitization is related to capsaicin's ability to block the intra-axonal transport of NGF ... Eur J Pharmacol 2013;716:61-76 Papoiu AD, Yosipovitch G (June 2010). "Topical capsaicin. The fire of a 'hot' medicine is ...
Capsaicin chilli peppers. Gingerol ginger. Alkylresorcinols wholegrain wheat, rye and barley. Piperine black pepper. Sinigrin ( ...
Capsaicin has been used as an analgesic for decades, but the therapeutic potential of capsaicin was first recognized as early ... When capsaicin was found to have analgesic effects in preclinical studies much emphasis was put into the research of the ... The discovery that the pungency of capsaicin is mediated through TRPV1 set the stage for further research of the function of ... Besides being activated by capsaicin, TRPV1 also responds to a wide range of exogenous and endogenous chemical ligands as well ...
The lack of capsaicin in bell peppers is due to a recessive gene that eliminates capsaicin and, consequently, the hot taste ... The seeds themselves do not produce any capsaicin, although the highest concentration of capsaicin can be found in the white ... Most of the capsaicin in a pungent (hot) pepper is concentrated in blisters on the epidermis of the interior ribs (septa) that ... A study on capsaicin production in fruits of C. chinense showed that capsaicinoids are produced only in the epidermal cells of ...
... is a capsaicinoid and analog and congener of capsaicin in chili peppers (Capsicum). Like capsaicin it is ... Homodihydrocapsaicin accounts for about 1% of the total capsaicinoids mixture and has about half the pungency of capsaicin. ... Bennett DJ, Kirby GW (1968). "Constitution and biosynthesis of capsaicin". J. Chem. Soc. C: 442. doi:10.1039/j39680000442. ... On the Scoville scale it has 8,600,000 SHU (Scoville heat units). Capsaicin Dihydrocapsaicin Nordihydrocapsaicin Homocapsaicin ...
Gevorgyan A, Segboer C, Gorissen R, van Drunen CM, Fokkens W (July 2015). "Capsaicin for non-allergic rhinitis". The Cochrane ... A systematic review on non-allergic rhinitis reports improvement of overall function after treatment with capsaicin (the active ...
... is a capsaicinoid and analog and congener of capsaicin in chili peppers (Capsicum). Like capsaicin it is an ... Homocapsaicin accounts for about 1% of the total capsaicinoids mixture and has about half the pungency of capsaicin. Pure ... Bennett DJ, Kirby GW (1968). "Constitution and biosynthesis of capsaicin". J. Chem. Soc. C: 442. doi:10.1039/j39680000442. ...
Capsaicin extracted from chilies is used in pepper sprays and some tear gas formulations as a chemical irritant, for use as ... Capsaicin is produced by the plant as a defense against mammalian predators and microbes, in particular a fusarium fungus ... Capsaicin, the pungent chemical in chili peppers, is used as an analgesic in topical ointments, nasal sprays, and dermal ... The quantity of capsaicin varies by variety, and on growing conditions. Water-stressed peppers usually produce stronger pods. ...
... is a capsaicinoid and analog and congener of capsaicin in chili peppers (Capsicum). Like capsaicin, it is an ... It accounts for about 22% of the total capsaicinoid mixture and has the same pungency as capsaicin. Pure dihydrocapsaicin is a ... Bennett DJ, Kirby GW (1968). "Constitution and biosynthesis of capsaicin". J. Chem. Soc. C: 442. doi:10.1039/j39680000442. ... Capsaicin Nordihydrocapsaicin Homocapsaicin Homodihydrocapsaicin Nonivamide Scoville scale Pepper spray Hot sauce Govindarajan ...
... because of structural differences from capsaicin. On the other hand, both capsaicin and capsinoids activate TRPV1 receptors in ... Capsaicin feels hot in the mouth because it activates sensory receptors on the tongue otherwise used to detect thermal heat. ... Like capsaicin, capsinoids activate TRPV1 receptors, although they are not hot in the mouth. Capsinoids cannot reach the TRPV1 ... Vanilloid (Capsaicin) receptors and mechanisms. Pharmacology Reviews 51, 159-212. Nagy L. et al., Eur J Pharmacol 500: 351-369 ...
... capsaicin also is used topically. Lidocaine, an anesthetic, and steroids may be injected into joints for longer-term pain ...
"Capsaicin Material Safety Data Sheet". sciencelab.com. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-07- ...
... is a capsaicinoid and analog and congener of capsaicin in chili peppers (Capsicum). Like capsaicin, it is ... Bennett DJ, Kirby GW (1968). "Constitution and biosynthesis of capsaicin". J. Chem. Soc. C: 442. doi:10.1039/j39680000442. v t ... Nordihydrocapsaicin accounts for about 7% of the total capsaicinoids mixture and has about half the pungency of capsaicin. Pure ... Capsaicin Dihydrocapsaicin Homocapsaicin Homodihydrocapsaicin Nonivamide Scoville scale Pepper spray Spice Govindarajan, ...
In 1998, his paper on the topic showed that in people treated with capsaicin instillation, bladder biopsies were normal after ... Dasgupta's research has included looking at the role and safety of the chilli component capsaicin. In this field, he ... Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang (15 April 2011). "The Two Faces of Capsaicin" (PDF). Cancer Research. 71 (8): 2809-2814. doi:10.1158 ... Dasgupta, Prokar (2000). Towards an understanding of the role of intravesical capsaicin in the treatment of detrusor ...
Capsaicin: Capsaicin (IUPAC nomenclature 8-methyl-N-vanillyl-trans-6-nonenamide) is structurally different from nicotine and ... When capsaicin comes into contact with these mucosae, it causes a burning sensation little different from a burn caused by fire ... Capsaicin affects only mammals, not birds. Pepper seeds can survive the digestive tracts of birds; their fruit becomes brightly ... Capsaicin extract is used to make pepper spray, a useful deterrent against aggressive and peaceful mammals. Even though members ...
Herbivores such as caterpillars show decreased development when fed a diet high in capsaicin. Allelochemicals are a useful tool ... Kato-Noguchi, H.; Tanaka, Y. (2003-07-01). "Effects of Capsaicin on Plant Growth". Biologia Plantarum. 47 (1): 157-159. doi: ... Chabaane, Yosra; Marques Arce, Carla; Glauser, Gaëtan; Benrey, Betty (2022-03-01). "Altered capsaicin levels in domesticated ... Capsaicin is an allelochemical found in many peppers that are cultivated by humans as a spice/food source. It is considered an ...
Retrieved 9 March 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link) Fitzgerald, Maria (1983). "Capsaicin ...
The content of Capsaicin is about 0.226%. This chili is rich in vitamin C (185 mg/100 g) and protein (11.98 g/100 g). Guntur ... Capsaicin values of some of the well-known and accepted varieties of Indian chilis are: Byadagi chilli List of Capsicum ... and is mainly used for its pungency and the extraction and derivation of capsaicin, which is an active component in chilies ...
A limited number of treatment options exist, including regular application of capsaicin cream, and prolonged relief may be ... Marksjr, J (1989). "Treatment of apocrine chromhidrosis with topical capsaicin". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology ...
A number of vanilloids, most notably capsaicin, bind to the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor, an ... Pingle, SC; Matta, JA; Ahern, GP (2007). Capsaicin receptor: TRPV1 a promiscuous TRP channel. Handbook of Experimental ... They include vanillyl alcohol, vanillin, vanillic acid, acetovanillon, vanillylmandelic acid, homovanillic acid, capsaicin, etc ...
... is a synthetic antagonist of capsaicin. It is used as a biochemical tool in the study of TRPV ion channels. ... It was found by modification of the chemical backbone of capsaicin. By incorporation of an azobenzene unit, a photoswitchable ... Capsazepine blocks the painful sensation of heat caused by capsaicin (the active ingredient of chilli pepper) which activates ... a competitive antagonist of the sensory neurone excitant capsaicin". British Journal of Pharmacology. 107 (2): 544-52. doi: ...
Some formulations also contain capsaicin and triethanolamine. Currently, RUB A535 has been released in a variety of products: ...
Numerous capsaicin-containing creams are available over the counter, containing low concentrations of capsaicin (0.025 - 0.075 ... In rat brain slices, activation of TRPV1 with heat or capsaicin induced LTD while capsazepine blocked capsaicin's ability to ... Novel preparations containing higher capsaicin concentration (up to 10%) are under clinical trials. Eight percent capsaicin ... Capsaicin reduces the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and it also promotes activation of p53, a tumour-suppressor ...
Mammalian TRPV1 is activated by heat and capsaicin, but the avian form is insensitive to capsaicin. Nonivamide is used (under ... and in the pharmaceutical industry in some formulations as a cheaper alternative to capsaicin. Like capsaicin, it can deter ... It is more heat-stable than capsaicin. Nonivamide is used as a food additive to add pungency to seasonings, flavorings, and ... "Capsaicin, nonivamide and trans-pellitorine decrease free fatty acid uptake without TRPV1 activation and increase acetyl- ...
Capsaicin is not soluble in water, and even large volumes of water will not wash it off, only dilute it. In general, victims ... Restricted to no more than 0.67% capsaicin content. It must be purchased in person (i.e., cannot be purchased by mail-order or ... The active ingredient in pepper spray is capsaicin, which is derived from the fruit of plants in the genus Capsicum, including ... The solvent is then evaporated, and the remaining waxlike resin is the oleoresin capsaicin. An emulsifier such as propylene ...
... otherwise known as capsaicin. Capsaicin evolved similarly across species of chilies that produce capsaicin. Its evolution over ... "capsaicin" in 1876. Karl Micko isolated capsaicin in its pure form in 1898. Capsaicins chemical composition was first ... Capsaicin is soluble in alcohol, which can be used to clean contaminated items. When capsaicin is ingested, cold milk is an ... Capsaicin is a potent defense mechanism for chilies, but it does come at a cost. Varying levels of capsaicin in chilies ...
Capsaicin Topical: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Avoid applying topical capsaicin into folds of skin.. Do not apply topical capsaicin to skin that is broken, damaged, cut, ... Topical capsaicin may make your skin sensitive to sunlight.. *you should know that topical capsaicin may cause burning at the ... Before using topical capsaicin,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to capsaicin, any other medications, ...
Read the side effects of Capsaicin as described in the medical literature. In case of any doubt consult your doctor or ... Drug Name : Capsaicin. Capsaicin(Qutenza) generic is synthetic capsaicinoid equivalent to chili peppers, prescribed for ... Trade Names for Capsaicin. India : Voveran Thermagel (1% w/w /0.025% w/w /5% w/w /5% w/w ) , ACE-Proxyvon Gel (1.5% w/w /3% w/w ... Review the side-effects of Capsaicin as documented in medical literature. The term "side effects" refers to unintended effects ...
Find out how capsaicin creams and patches can give you pain relief from arthritis, fibromyalgia, shingles, and other conditions ... How Is Capsaicin Used?. Capsaicin comes in two main forms:. Capsaicin cream. For most types of pain relief, your doctor may ... When you put capsaicin on your skin, you help block pain messages to your nerves. Studies show capsaicin creams and patches can ... Capsaicin patches. They have higher levels of capsaicin than creams. Your doctor may suggest it for postherpetic neuralgia or ...
Capsaicin, the active component of chili peppers, is a member of the vanilloid family, binds to a receptor called the vanilloid ... Capsaicin, the active component of chili peppers, is a member of the vanilloid family, binds to a receptor called the vanilloid ... After the addition of capsaicin, the levels of reactive oxygen species were reduced slightly in the earlier stage of treatment ... synergistic induction of morphological alternation was observed when A172 cells were treated with capsaicin [2]. ...
... capsaicin. The present study shows the capsazepine acts as a competitive antagonist of capsaicin. 2. Capsazepine (10 microM) ... reversibly reduced or abolished the current response to capsaicin (500 nM) of voltage-clamped dorsal … ... Ruthenium Red was also tested for antagonism against capsaicin evoked [4C]-guanidinium release from vague nerves and capsaicin ... Capsazepine: a competitive antagonist of the sensory neurone excitant capsaicin Br J Pharmacol. 1992 Oct;107(2):544-52. doi: ...
Capsaicin, a component in chili peppers that produces the heat sensation, is created by the pepper plant to stop animals from ... Capsaicin, a component in chili peppers that produces the heat sensation, is created by the pepper plant to stop animals from ... Capsaicin, a component in chili peppers that produces the heat sensation, is created by the pepper plant to stop animals from ...
Posts Tagged capsaicin How to do your potato right!. The Fox News Health Blog featured a post on the keys to… ...
Edwards School of Medicine provides the first published in-depth description of the anti-cancer activity of capsaicin sustained ... Capsaicin is naturally found in chili peppers and is the agent that provides a hot and spicy taste when eating chili peppers. ... "Oral use of capsaicin is associated with unfavorable side effects such as stomach cramps, nausea, a burning sensation in the ... The nutritional agent capsaicin displayed robust growth-inhibitory activity in a diverse array of human cancers. However, the ...
Vanilloid (Capsaicin) Receptors and Mechanisms Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Pharmacological ...
Capsaicin - Einführung in ein unterschätztes Heilkraut https://btgh.vonabisw.de/cayenne-extrakt-mit-500-000-scoville https:// ... Cayenne-Extrakt - Capsaicin - Einführung in ein unterschätztes Heilkraut. https://btgh.vonabisw.de/cayenne-extrakt-mit-500-000- ... Cayenne-Extrakt - Capsaicin - Einführung in ein unterschätztes Heilkraut. https://btgh.vonabisw.de/cayenne-extrakt-mit-500-000- ...
This study will examine whether or not capsaicin can inhibit the spread of small cell lung cancer to distant organs, as well as ... Emerging evidence shows that capsaicin, found in chili peppers, can suppress the growth of small cell lung cancer and other ...
... diligent work on researching the world market of capsaicin. The report helps to build up a clear view... ... 2. CAPSAICIN APPLICATIONS3. CAPSAICIN MANUFACTURING METHODS4. CAPSAICIN PATENTS. 5. CAPSAICIN MARKET WORLDWIDE ... Manufacturers of capsaicin. Europe. Asia. North America. 5.3. Suppliers of capsaicin. Europe. Asia. North America. 5.4. ... The capsaicin global market report key points:. *capsaicin description, applications and related patterns ...
AMDs GDC Capsaicin event unveils Radeon Rx Vega. AMD has been doling out news with a big ladle these days. The company is ...
This is the compression sleeve infused with capsaicin—the same ingredient in over-the-counter pain creams. ... The Pain Relieving Capsaicin Infused Leg Sleeve. Item 56323. This is the compression sleeve infused with capsaicin-the same ... This is the compression sleeve infused with capsaicin-the same ingredient in over-the-counter pain creams. It is made from a ... proprietary material woven with capsaicin that releases its unique pain-relieving benefits when activated by ones natural body ...
Acapulcos explains where the heat in capsaicin comes from when indulging! ... The capsaicin in peppers causes the heat you experience while eating hot peppers. ... Capsaicin. Capsaicin is the chemical in chili peppers that makes them spicy. Specifically, capsaicin occurs in the fruits of ... The more capsaicin in the pepper, the hotter it is. When consuming capsaicin you endure pain because your body is fighting the ...
Basal and capsaicin-evoked release of CGRP by IL-1β. Basal CGRP release (A) (fmol/10 min fraction) and capsaicin-evoked (0.1 μm ... Basal and capsaicin-evoked release of CGRP by TNF-α. Basal CGRP release (A) (fmol/10 min fraction) and capsaicin-evoked (0.1 μm ... CGRP level in capsaicin-stimulated fraction: 178 ± 25 fmol/fraction,n = 10) (Fig. 2A). The capsaicin-evoked CGRP release was ... Application of capsaicin (0.1 μm) to an intraluminally perfused in vitro rat trachea induced an increase in CGRP outflow in ...
Berger P Capsaicin, an active ingredient in pepper sprays, increases the lethality of cocaine Forensic Toxicol 2010 28:33-37 ... Capsaicin at 10 mg/kg increased the lethality of cocaine in mice dosed at 60 mg/ kg from 13% to 53% (P , 0.01) and for cocaine ... Capsaicin is a primary ingredient in OC spray. From January 1993 to June 1995, at least 20 deaths in California were associated ... One thing of note, the paper points out that the capsaicin (pepper spray) weapons were not treated as drugs when they were ...
Capsaicin and dietary fiber are effective natural food ingredients to control the obesity and metabolic diseases. The aim of ... of capsaicin (HBM), and high fiber diet with low dose (0.005 %) of capsaicin (HBL). The ingredient composition of experimental ... especially with the addition of 0.1 mg/kg capsaicin. At the same time, the combination of capsaicin and fiber was more ... Capsaicin can also increase the BA content and glucose metabolism[14].. Therefore, both CAP and dietary fiber are effective ...
In this study properties of the nutraceutical capsaicin were assessed in order to determine its effects on several stress bio- ... A cluster based analysis using WEKA data mining software confirmed the findings that at 0.02% of the diet, capsaicin produced ... Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were fed a diet supplemented with capsaicin for 8 weeks ... The results of ANOVA comparison indicated that capsaicin produced no statistically significant differences between fish ...
Chung woo Capsaicin Sauce 19.4 fl.oz(550ml), 청우 캡사이신 매운맛소스 19.4 fl.oz(550ml)
Because of the laxative effect of capsaicin, we examined the effect of that agent on the electromyogram of the isolated cat ... This effect of capsaicin is like that reported previously with other laxative agents. ... Effect of capsaicin on electrical slow waves in the isolated cat colon. ... Effect of capsaicin on electrical slow waves in the isolated cat colon. ...
Annuum Baccatum Bhut Jolokia Bhuts Brazilian Capsaicin Cream Capsicum Praetermissum Chilli jam Chilli Puree Chinense Easy to ...
Capsaicin on sale of Shaanxi Yongyuan Bio-Tech Co., Ltd. from China. ... Capsaicin is a Natural product which is isolated from the Capsicum Annum (i.e. Red Chillies). Capsaicin is in the form of White ... Capsaicin is currently used in topical ointments, as well as a high-dose dermal patch, to relieve the pain of peripheral ... Pharmaceutical Grade Arthritis and Analgesic chilli powder, Capsicum Powder 95% Capsaicin Pharmaceutical Grade Arthritis and ...
Capsaicin: 0.44% * Related Capsaicinoids: 0.37% Label Capsaicin: 0.44% Related Capsaicinoids: 0.37% *values listed are for ... Capsaicin: 12.06% * Dihydrocapsaicin: 8.64% Nordihydrocapsaicin: 1.44% Label Capsaicin: 12.06% Related Capsaicinoids: 10.08% ... Capsaicin Guarantee Declaration Requirement. The guarantee declaration on the SPSF and label for products containing capsaicin ... ARCHIVED - Memorandum to Registrants, Applicants and their Representatives for Capsaicin Products - Capsaicin Statement of ...
Pretreatment with 50 micrograms capsaicin for 7 to 11 days (which reduced substance P immunoreactivity in the superficial ... The effects of intrathecal pretreatment with the neurotoxins capsaicin, 6-hydroxydopamine and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine on spinal ... Spinal antinociception by adenosine analogs and morphine after intrathecal administration of the neurotoxins capsaicin, 6- ... Spinal antinociception by adenosine analogs and morphine after intrathecal administration of the neurotoxins capsaicin, 6- ...
... a capsaicin 8% patch (n = 332)--or a low-dose capsaicin (0.04%) control patch (n = 162). The primary endpoint was the mean ... A randomized, double-blind, controlled study of NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% dermal patch, for the treatment of painful HIV- ... A randomized, double-blind, controlled study of NGX-4010, a capsaicin 8% dermal patch, for the treat... ...
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When significant capsaicin exposures occur, patients may present to the emergency department; thus, providers should be ... In this case report we discuss an unusual exposure of capsaicin to the vaginal mucosa with successful treatment. ... Capsaicin, the active component of chili peppers, is an alkaloid that causes tissue irritation and burning especially upon ... Capsaicin, the active component of chili peppers, is an alkaloid that causes tissue irritation and burning especially upon ...
  • Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) (/kæpˈseɪsɪn/ or /kæpˈseɪəsɪn/) is an active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capsaicin is present in large quantities in the placental tissue (which holds the seeds), the internal membranes and, to a lesser extent, the other fleshy parts of the fruits of plants in the genus Capsicum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, capsaicin occurs in the fruits of plants in the Capsicum family, including bell peppers, jalapeño peppers, cayenne peppers and other chili peppers. (acapulcos.net)
  • Bell peppers are the only member of the capsicum family that don't contain capsaicin, and thus register zero Scoville units. (acapulcos.net)
  • Capsaicin in capsicum also has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect. (chinacsw.com)
  • Capsaicin is a Natural product which is isolated from the Capsicum Annum (i.e. (chinacsw.com)
  • The only plants containing capsaicin are in the genus Capsicum, but this genus contains a lot of familiar names, including jalapenos, paprika, Tabasco, bell, and habanero. (healthblogs.org)
  • Capsaicin exists in the Solanaceae plant Capsicum annuum and its varieties in nature, and it is a monoclinic crystal, rectangular flakes, with a melting point of 64-68 °C and boiling point of 210 ~ 220 ℃ (1.33Pa). (lypharhealth.com)
  • Capsaicin is a white crystalline powder and is the active ingredient of red peppers of the Capsicum genus. (lypharhealth.com)
  • Capsaicin is a potent agonist of the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channel and is a common component found in the fruits of the genus Capsicum plants , which have been known to humanity and consumed in food for approximately 7000-9000 years. (bvsalud.org)
  • A capsaicin transdermal patch (Qutenza) for the management of this particular therapeutic indication (pain due to post-herpetic neuralgia) was approved in 2009, as a therapeutic by both the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capsaicin(Qutenza) generic is synthetic capsaicinoid equivalent to chili peppers, prescribed for neuropathic pain associated with postherpetic neuralgia. (medindia.net)
  • National Health Service: "Capsaicin patch (Qutenza) for peripheral diabetic neuropathy. (webmd.com)
  • Effect of capsaicin on electrical slow waves in the isolated cat colon. (bmj.com)
  • Because of the laxative effect of capsaicin, we examined the effect of that agent on the electromyogram of the isolated cat colon. (bmj.com)
  • This effect of capsaicin is like that reported previously with other laxative agents. (bmj.com)
  • A study published in Cancer Research in 2004 examined the effect of capsaicin on leukemic cells, in vitro and in vivo (=mice). (healthblogs.org)
  • Many other studies have shown that capsaicin can be a powerful cancer fighter and that many types of cancer cells actually destroy themselves when the substance is applied. (wise-geek.com)
  • The mechanism of inhibition of Ca2+ - triggered phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity and respiratory burst in macrophages by shown that capsaicin inhibits calcium-ionophore stimulated pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages such as generation of superoxide anion, PLA(2) activity (IC50 = 20 uM) and membrane liquid peroxidation (IC50 = 10 uM). (uni-mysore.ac.in)
  • The second chapter focuses on capsaicin end-uses. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Its February 2007 issue focuses on capsaicin, which, by the way, has been used for its medicinal properties for centuries. (healthblogs.org)
  • A study by a team of researchers at the Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine provides the first published in-depth description of the anti-cancer activity of capsaicin sustained-release formulations. (worldhealth.net)
  • This is the first publication to provide an in-depth description of the anti-cancer activity of capsaicin sustained-release formulations. (worldhealth.net)
  • There are several reports on the antimicrobial and anti-dysbiosis property of capsaicin by mediating the beneficial alteration of microbiota many studies also found that capsaicin can prevent the onset or development of diseases like obesity, diabetes, or inflammatory bowel diseases[ 7 , 12 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Finally, the antioxidant property of capsaicin was comparable to that of butylated hydroxy toludine (BHT). (uni-mysore.ac.in)
  • Capsaicin is currently used in topical ointments, as well as a high-dose dermal patch, to relieve the pain of peripheral neuropathy such as post-herpestic neuralgia caused by shingles. (chinacsw.com)
  • In birds, the TRPV1 channel does not respond to capsaicin or related chemicals but mammalian TRPV1 is very sensitive to it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capsaicin and TRPV1 Channels in the Cardiovascular System: The Role of Inflammation. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, a growing body of evidence reveals a vasoconstrictory potential of capsaicin acting via the vascular TRPV1 channel and suggests that unnecessary high consumption of capsaicin may cause severe consequences, including vasospasm and myocardial infarction in people with underlying inflammatory conditions. (bvsalud.org)
  • This review focuses on vascular TRPV1 channels that are endogenously expressed in both vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells and emphasizes the role of inflammation in sensitizing the TRPV1 channel to capsaicin activation. (bvsalud.org)
  • CGRP release was induced by either 60 mM K + (for depolarization-induced stimulation) or 100 nM capsaicin (for transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) -induced stimulation) and measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (lu.se)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to capsaicin, any other medications, chili peppers, or any of the other ingredients in topical capsaicin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Capsaicin and several related amides (capsaicinoids) are produced as secondary metabolites by chili peppers, probably as deterrents against certain mammals and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore the label should list both the capsaicin and related capsaicinoids to accurately reflect the true strength of the pest control product. (canada.ca)
  • The guarantee declaration on the SPSF and label for products containing capsaicin must include the capsaicin and the related capsaicinoids. (canada.ca)
  • The main active compounds of peppers include capsaicinoids, such as capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, which produce a hot sensation when eaten. (lypharhealth.com)
  • This is the compression sleeve infused with capsaicin-the same ingredient in over-the-counter pain creams. (hammacher.com)
  • Capsaicin has a number of non-culinary applications, including as a pain reliever and as the active ingredient in pepper spray. (acapulcos.net)
  • Capsaicin is a primary ingredient in OC spray. (erowid.org)
  • Capsaicin (CAP) is a key ingredient in natural chili peppers. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The purpose of this memo is to communicate Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency's ( PMRA ) policy with respect to standardizing the guarantee statement for capsaicin on the Statement of Product Specification Form ( SPSF ) and the labels of pest control products containing this active ingredient. (canada.ca)
  • Although capsaicin creams have been used to treat psoriasis for reduction of itching, a review of six clinical trials involving topical capsaicin for treatment of pruritus concluded there was insufficient evidence of effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • They have higher levels of capsaicin than creams. (webmd.com)
  • Capsaicin creams are used to treat peoriasis as an effective way to reduce itching and inflammation. (chinacsw.com)
  • Capsaicin, the active component of chili peppers, is an alkaloid that causes tissue irritation and burning especially upon contact with mucous membranes. (escholarship.org)
  • Background: Capsaicin (CAP), a frequently occurring alkaloid component found in spicy peppers, has demonstrated therapeutic potential against tumors, metabolic disease, and cardiovascular disorders. (aging-us.com)
  • 2500). Capsaicin powder is an extremely spicy vanillamide alkaloid. (lypharhealth.com)
  • Capsaicin is in the form of White Crystalline Powder and it isused in many medical formulations totreat ailments Causing severe pain, Anti-inflammatory and self protection spray. (chinacsw.com)
  • Capsaicin is naturally found in chili peppers and is the agent that provides a hot and spicy taste when eating chili peppers. (worldhealth.net)
  • However, the clinical applications of capsaicin as a viable anti-cancer agent were hindered by three factors-poor solubility, low bioavailability, and spicy flavor. (worldhealth.net)
  • Those that can't get enough of spicy foods can't get enough of capsaicin. (acapulcos.net)
  • Capsaicin is the chemical in chili peppers that makes them spicy. (acapulcos.net)
  • Capsaicin may also stimulate the production of endorphins, which is why some people report experiencing a sense of euphoria when eating spicy foods. (acapulcos.net)
  • Capsaicin extract , the active compound in chili peppers that makes them spicy, may support weight loss and improve health. (dongyuanbiotech.com)
  • Bellepine is also a substance naturally present in peppers (it is a non-spicy capsaicin analogue, such as capsaicinol, dihydrocapsaicinol and nordihydrocapsaicinol). (lypharhealth.com)
  • Capsaicin Cookie is named after the compound that gives chillies their heat and brings an exciting, spicy twist to the Cookie Run universe. (custom-cursor.com)
  • Topical capsaicin is used to relieve minor pain in muscles and joints caused by arthritis, backaches, muscle strains, bruises, cramps, and sprains. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Arthritis Foundation: "Supplement Guide: Capsaicin. (webmd.com)
  • Capsaicin is used for medical conditions such as arthritis pain, neuropathic pain, dermatologic conditions, even skin conditions. (acapulcos.net)
  • When you put capsaicin on your skin , you help block pain messages to your nerves. (webmd.com)
  • Ruthenium Red was also tested for antagonism against capsaicin evoked ['4C]-guanidinium release from vague nerves and capsaicin induced 45Ca2" uptake in cultures of DRG neurones. (nih.gov)
  • The results of cystometry with capsaicin in liposomes and capsaicin in 30% ethanol correlated with a significant decrease in calcitonin gene-related peptide staining of afferent nerves in the bladder wall. (duke.edu)
  • A 2006 study, published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, found that capsaicin induces the apoptosis of MM cells, which means that it kills MM cells. (healthblogs.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether sensitizing healthy muscle using capsaicin induces a regional change in image texture variables within the specific and surrounding muscles, as well as the motor unit frequency and amplitude changes that accompany them. (researchsquare.com)
  • Capsaicin and dietary fiber are effective natural food ingredients to control the obesity and metabolic diseases. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Pure capsaicin extract, however, is about as hot as it gets-about 16,000,000 Scoville Units.1 Capsaicin can be ingested through food or dietary supplements. (dongyuanbiotech.com)
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  • Capsaicin comes as an ointment, cream, gel, oil, and a topical solution in various strengths to apply to the skin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • To use topical capsaicin, apply a small amount of ointment, cream, oil, or topical solution to cover the affected area of skin with a thin layer and rub it in gently. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Capsaicin cream. (webmd.com)
  • Why do they put capsaicin in your muscle cream? (tuscanyskinspa.com)
  • These she places in a cream base and delivers her homemade capsaicin muscle cream to the head cook. (tuscanyskinspa.com)
  • Did you know that we'll apply your capsaicin muscle cream to your shoulders or back after your body massage? (tuscanyskinspa.com)
  • PS: DO NOT apply muscle cream with capsaicin anywhere near your private regions (avoid the genitals and anus) or near your eyes and nose. (tuscanyskinspa.com)
  • Capsaicin is an oil-like compound in the sense that it repels water. (acapulcos.net)
  • Capsaicin is the odorless, tasteless compound that sets your mouth and throat on fire after you eat a hot chili dish. (healthblogs.org)
  • Capsaicin or cayenne pepper supplements can be purchased from most health food stores or online from specialty retailers. (wise-geek.com)
  • Capsaicin - Hot Cayenne Pepper is Good for you Cayenne pepper, made from the dried pods of chili peppers, has been a stimulant and rejuvenate for thousands of years. (biophytopharm.com)
  • The 45Ca2+ uptake evoked by resiniferatoxin (RTX), a potent capsaicin-like agonist was also inhibited. (nih.gov)
  • The inhibition appeared to be competitive and Schild plots yielded apparent Kd estimates of 148 nM (95% confidence limits, 30-332 nM) with capsaicin as the agonist and 107 nM (95% confidence limits, 49-162 nM) with RTX as agonist. (nih.gov)
  • The effects of intrathecal pretreatment with the neurotoxins capsaicin, 6-hydroxydopamine and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine on spinal antinociception by adenosine analogs (NECA, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine and CHA, N6-cyclohexyl adenosine) and morphine were examined using the rat tail flick and hot plate tests. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Pretreatment with 50 micrograms capsaicin for 7 to 11 days (which reduced substance P immunoreactivity in the superficial layers of the dorsal spinal cord) produced a slight increase in the action of NECA and CHA, and reduced the action on morphine in the hot plate test but not in the tail flick test. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The effect of pretreatment with capsaicin was also assessed. (cdc.gov)
  • Pretreatment with capsaicin enhanced the effects of both early and late paper dust extract. (cdc.gov)
  • The capsaicin patch may help relieve pain for up to 3 months. (webmd.com)
  • One 2017 review of clinical studies having limited quality found that high-dose topical capsaicin (8%) compared with control (0.4% capsaicin) provided moderate to substantial pain relief from post-herpetic neuralgia, HIV-neuropathy, and diabetic neuropathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spinal antinociception by adenosine analogs and morphine after intrathecal administration of the neurotoxins capsaicin, 6-hydroxydopamine and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These results suggest that spinal antinociception by adenosine analogs: 1) occurs primarily at a postsynaptic site of action (capsaicin results), and 2) is dependent on release of endogenous noradrenaline and activation of spinal adrenergic receptors (6-hydroxydopamine and phentolamine results). (aspetjournals.org)
  • This study will examine whether or not capsaicin can inhibit the spread of small cell lung cancer to distant organs, as well as how it works. (aicr.org)
  • Capsaicin can inhibit the proliferation and induce apoptosis of lung cancer, colorectal cancer, breast cancer, myeloid leukemia cells, etc., and inhibit the migration of melanoma cells. (lypharhealth.com)
  • Since they also may provide a wide range of other health benefits, there is typically no harm in taking capsaicin pills as part of one's daily supplements. (wise-geek.com)
  • Capsaicin supplements may boost your metabolism, enabling you to more easily lose weight and burn fat.Capsaicin works by increasing oxygen consumption and body temperature, which leads to a slight increase in calories burned. (dongyuanbiotech.com)
  • Free radicals promote chronic inflammation, which may increase your risk of conditions like cancer, autoimmune disorders, and heart disease.Thus, capsaicin supplements may lower your risk of these ailments.While fresh peppers boast more antioxidants, the dried supplement form contains a fair amount. (dongyuanbiotech.com)
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  • Capsaicin is a substance that is found in chili peppers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some research has indicated that capsaicin, a common substance in chili peppers, may increase the risk of skin cancer . (wise-geek.com)
  • Capsaicin and cancer treatment studies have primarily linked the use of this substance to the treatment of prostate cancer , although liver cancer and some others may also be halted with treatment. (wise-geek.com)
  • Capsaicin is currently not recommended by most mainstream medical establishments to use as a cancer treatment, although researchers are working to find a way to develop medications containing the substance or to mimic its results. (wise-geek.com)
  • Capsaicin works by decreasing a certain natural substance in your body (substance P) that helps pass pain signals to the brain. (webmd.com)
  • Because of the burning sensation caused by capsaicin when it comes in contact with mucous membranes, it is commonly used in food products to provide added spiciness or "heat" (piquancy), usually in the form of spices such as chili powder and paprika. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capsaicin, a component in chili peppers that produces the heat sensation, is created by the pepper plant to stop animals from eating its fruit. (nutritionaloutlook.com)
  • Oral use of capsaicin is associated with unfavorable side effects such as stomach cramps, nausea, a burning sensation in the gut, and gastrointestinal irritation," said Valentovic, a senior author of the publication. (worldhealth.net)
  • Besides being the source of the heat, or pungency, in chili peppers, capsaicin will cause a burning sensation in any part of the skin or other tissues it contacts. (acapulcos.net)
  • Capsaicin produces a burning sensation when it comes in contact with skin or mucous membranes. (canada.ca)
  • We observed that capsaicin-induced (0.1 μ m ) tracheal CGRP release was significantly enhanced in the LPS-treated animals after 5 hr. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, 140 nM ACEA did not significantly modify neither K + - nor capsaicin-induced CGRP release. (lu.se)
  • Bell peppers contain little to no capsaicin, while some varieties of habanero contain so much it would cause your skin to blister. (healthblogs.org)
  • Capsaicin is also used as FineChemicals and Phytochemicals. (chinacsw.com)
  • A 2004 study done at the MD Anderson Cancer Research Center, University of Texas, shows that many phytochemicals, including curcumin, capsaicin, gingerol, and ellagic acid, can block the infamous NF-kappaB transcription factor. (healthblogs.org)
  • Capsaicin extract may have anti-inflammatory properties.Foods that contain high amounts of antioxidants, such as hot peppers, may combat free radicals in your body. (dongyuanbiotech.com)
  • The nutritional agent capsaicin displayed robust growth-inhibitory activity in a diverse array of human cancers. (worldhealth.net)
  • Emerging evidence shows that capsaicin, found in chili peppers, can suppress the growth of small cell lung cancer and other cancers. (aicr.org)
  • Capsaicin powder, the chemical name is trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide, and the chemical formula is C18H27NO3. (lypharhealth.com)
  • Capsaicin Powder's anti-cancer effect has gradually attracted people's attention with the continuous deepening of the pharmacological effects of capsaicin powder. (lypharhealth.com)
  • Lyphar' s Capsaicin powder alone or in combination with other pesticides has attracted more and more attention as a new type of biological pesticide. (lypharhealth.com)
  • It is common for people to experience pleasurable and even euphoric effects from ingesting capsaicin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Topical capsaicin may cause side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Review the side-effects of Capsaicin as documented in medical literature. (medindia.net)
  • Interestingly, while all mammals are sensitive to capsaicin, making it unappealing to rabbits and other such garden pests, birds are immune to its effects. (acapulcos.net)
  • The lethal effects of capsaicin administered with cocaine (both compounds administered intraperitoneally) were assessed in 14 groups of 20 40 male mice. (erowid.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the improved anti-obesity effects by adding capsaicin to a high-fiber diet. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Results from our study indicated that the addition of capsaicin have better effects to reduce the weight, insulin and fasting blood glucose, and the possibly mechanism can be due to the changes in bile acid composition, microbial abundance and shortchain fatty acids. (ijpsonline.com)
  • In this study properties of the nutraceutical capsaicin were assessed in order to determine its effects on several stress bio-markers in two species of teleost fish. (purdue.edu)
  • Prof. Aggarwal recently co-authored a study concerning the effects of capsaicin on the STAT3 pathway in human MM cells. (healthblogs.org)
  • Capsaicin also significantly potentiated the apoptotic effects of Velcade and thalidomide in multiple myeloma cells. (healthblogs.org)
  • Note that, when applied to your skin, capsaicin may produce burning effects similar to those caused by eating it. (dongyuanbiotech.com)
  • Tilting the balance between the beneficial vasodilatory action of capsaicin and its unwanted vasoconstrictive effects may precipitate adverse outcomes such as vasospasm and myocardial infarction , especially in the presence of proinflammatory mediators. (bvsalud.org)
  • Mengdie was shocked, and hurriedly plunged her hands into Capsaicin pills for weight loss. (edu.ng)
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  • Well, it wasn't so popular capsaicin weight loss pills at the beginning, but then there were more people and more markets, and the districts began to manage and divide into districts, this one is small commodities, that one is bedding, that one is non-staple food for tea, and the front is clothing. (art-makia.de)
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  • Madam, who thought everything would be fine, did not become suspicious when he received the phone calls from his father and elder brother, but this incident reminded him Opening the mask and holding the phone, he said My hometown needs to re-divide the fields, and I think I will do capsaicin weight loss pills the same here I will ask Xiaoqin to go to the village tomorrow to ask. (art-makia.de)
  • Thinking of China's strict requirements on the private capsaicin weight loss pills life of government officials, Hart smiled slyly You can also think of other ways, such as women. (art-makia.de)
  • Recently published in Pharmacology & Therapeutics , a leading medical review journal in the field of pharmacology, the article chronicles the growth-suppressive activity of sustained-release capsaicin drugs, including solid dispersion systems, liposomes, phospholipid complexes, and nanoparticles. (worldhealth.net)
  • Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with high fiber diet, and different doses of capsaicin. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Since so little is known about long-term use of capsaicin in high doses, it is best to avoid taking excessive amounts unless under the supervision of a doctor or holistic medical practitioner. (wise-geek.com)
  • Repeated intranasal capsaicin applications to treat chronic migraine," "Topical capsaicin for pain management: therapeutic potential and mechanisms of action of the new high-concentration 8% patch. (webmd.com)
  • The fungal pathogen Fusarium, which is known to infect wild chilies and thereby reduce seed viability, is deterred by capsaicin, which thus limits this form of predispersal seed mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capsaicin in chili peppers is measured on the Scoville Scale and expressed in terms of Scoville Heat Units. (acapulcos.net)
  • Folklore among self-described "chiliheads" attribute this to pain-stimulated release of endorphins, a different mechanism from the local receptor overload that makes capsaicin effective as a topical analgesic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wang L , Liu Y , Li S , Zha Z , Chen Y , Wang Q , Zhou S , Huang X , Xu M , . Capsaicin alleviates doxorubicin-induced acute myocardial injury by regulating iron homeostasis and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. (aging-us.com)
  • If your doctor has told you to use topical capsaicin regularly, apply the missed dose as soon as you remember it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In this randomized, double-blind, controlled study, patients with pain due to HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy received a single 30-minute or 60-minute application of NGX-4010--a capsaicin 8% patch (n = 332)--or a low-dose capsaicin (0.04%) control patch (n = 162). (edu.au)
  • these researchers found that low-dose capsaicin combined with Thalidomide and Bortezomib triggered synergistic cytotoxicity. (healthblogs.org)
  • This proposed study is a single centered, factorial, randomized placebo-controlled trial with two independent variables, depth of capsaicin application and dose of capsaicin, for a total of six treatment arms and three control treatment groups. (researchsquare.com)
  • Both capsaicin and PLA(2) and dose dependent manner. (uni-mysore.ac.in)
  • 2. Capsazepine (10 microM) reversibly reduced or abolished the current response to capsaicin (500 nM) of voltage-clamped dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones from rats. (nih.gov)
  • We sought to overcome the delivery of this hydrophobic neurotoxin by entrapping it in a lipid bilayer of positively charged multilamellar lipid vesicles (liposomes) or in a hydrophobic polymer matrix of thermosensitive hydrogel.Liposomes, hydrogel and 30% ethanol/normal saline were prepared with or without 1 mM capsaicin (0.5 ml) and administered intravesically for 30 minutes to 7 groups of age matched, normal female adult Sprague-Dawley rats under halothane anesthesia. (duke.edu)
  • The animals were subsequently sacrificed and whole bladders were harvested for histology and immunohistochemistry.In normal urethane anaesthetized rats capsaicin in 30% ethanol and liposomes completely blocked micturition reflexes. (duke.edu)
  • The seeds themselves do not produce any capsaicin, although the highest concentration of capsaicin can be found in the white pith of the inner wall, where the seeds are attached. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sectioning of the colon into segments reduced the frequency of the slow waves in the proximal half of the colon, and capsaicin, in a concentration of 10(-4)M, further reduced the frequency in the segments representing the proximal 30% of the colon. (bmj.com)
  • Inhibition of PLA(2) activity by capsaicin is independent of Ca2+ and substrate concentration. (uni-mysore.ac.in)
  • There has long been a demand for capsaicin-spiced products like chili pepper, and hot sauces such as Tabasco sauce and Mexican salsa. (wikipedia.org)
  • In high concentrations, capsaicin will also cause a burning effect on other sensitive areas, such as skin or eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avoid applying topical capsaicin into folds of skin. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Do not apply topical capsaicin to skin that is broken, damaged, cut, infected, or covered by a rash. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Topical capsaicin may make your skin sensitive to sunlight. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Capsaicin can also make your skin more sensitive to the sun and heat, so use sunscreen every time you head outdoors. (webmd.com)
  • PubMed Health: "Capsaicin (On the Skin). (webmd.com)
  • I read that pure capsaicin can blister your skin! (healthblogs.org)
  • When applied to the skin, capsaicin blocks the pain messages to the nerve endings. (tuscanyskinspa.com)
  • 1. Capsazepine is a synthetic analogue of the sensory neurone excitotoxin, capsaicin. (nih.gov)
  • Capsaicin is generally considered safe for use, as it has also been shown beneficial in boosting metabolism and preventing certain brain disorders in many studies. (wise-geek.com)
  • Capsaicin in hydrogel did not completely block the micturition reflex but it significantly decreased bladder contraction frequency compared with vehicle controls. (duke.edu)
  • Capsaicin and known PLA(2) inhibitors, dexamethasone and indomethacin, inhibited Ca2+-dependent PLA(2) activity in vitro from macrophages. (uni-mysore.ac.in)
  • So a sip of cold milk, or to a lesser extent, a cold alcoholic beverage, can soothe the burning feeling from capsaicin. (acapulcos.net)
  • Finally, capsaicin induced the accumulation of cells in G(1) phase, inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis, as indicated by caspase activation. (healthblogs.org)
  • Recent studies have found that capsaicin exerts its anti-cancer effect by inhibiting the proliferation and migration of cancer cells and inducing apoptosis of cancer cells. (lypharhealth.com)
  • http://tinyurl.com/36qzrk Using lung and pancreatic cancer cells, a team of researchers from the United Kingdom, led by Dr. Timothy Bates, found that capsaicin disrupts the major energy source of a cancer cell: the mitochondria. (healthblogs.org)
  • The more capsaicin in the pepper, the hotter it is. (acapulcos.net)
  • Capsaicin down-regulated the expression of the STAT3-regulated gene products, such as cyclin D1, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, survivin, and vascular endothelial growth factor. (healthblogs.org)
  • There is insufficient clinical evidence to determine the role of ingested capsaicin on several human disorders, including obesity, diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taken together these results show that capsaicin an antiinflammatory agent with potential clinical application. (uni-mysore.ac.in)
  • The results showed that the addition of capsaicin further decreased the fasting blood glucose and insulin, and increased beta-muricholic acid, deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and 3 beta-ursodeoxycholic acid when compared to only high fiber diet. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Administration of 0.05 g/kg capsaicin showed the highest of tauro-alpha-muricholic acid sodium salt and tauro-beta-muricholic acid sodium salt and 0.1 g/kg capsaicin resulted in the highest of lithocholic acid, cholic acid and hyodeoxycholic acid. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Arachidonic acid, linoleic acid and SDS restored capsaicin inhibited respiratory burst. (uni-mysore.ac.in)