Long term immunity in African cattle vaccinated with a recombinant capripox-rinderpest virus vaccine. (1/31)Cattle were vaccinated with a recombinant capripox-rinderpest vaccine designed to protect cattle from infection with either rinderpest virus (RPV) or lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). Vaccination did not induce any adverse clinical responses or show evidence of transmission of the vaccine virus to in-contact control animals. Approximately 50% of the cattle were solidly protected from challenge with a lethal dose of virulent RPV 2 years after vaccination while at 3 years approx. 30% were fully protected. In the case of LSDV, all of 4 vaccinated cattle challenged with virulent LSDV at 2 years were completely protected from clinical disease while 2 of 5 vaccinated cattle were completely protected at 3 years. The recombinant vaccine showed no loss of potency when stored lyophylized at 4 degrees C for up to 1 year. These results indicate that capripoxvirus is a suitable vector for the development of safe, effective and stable recombinant vaccines for cattle. (+info)
The genomes of sheeppox and goatpox viruses. (2/31)Sheeppox virus (SPPV) and goatpox virus (GTPV), members of the Capripoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae, are etiologic agents of important diseases of sheep and goats in northern and central Africa, southwest and central Asia, and the Indian subcontinent. Here we report the genomic sequence and comparative analysis of five SPPV and GTPV isolates, including three pathogenic field isolates and two attenuated vaccine viruses. SPPV and GTPV genomes are approximately 150 kbp and are strikingly similar to each other, exhibiting 96% nucleotide identity over their entire length. Wild-type genomes share at least 147 putative genes, including conserved poxvirus replicative and structural genes and genes likely involved in virulence and host range. SPPV and GTPV genomes are very similar to that of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), sharing 97% nucleotide identity. All SPPV and GTPV genes are present in LSDV. Notably in both SPPV and GTPV genomes, nine LSDV genes with likely virulence and host range functions are disrupted, including a gene unique to LSDV (LSDV132) and genes similar to those coding for interleukin-1 receptor, myxoma virus M003.2 and M004.1 genes (two copies each), and vaccinia virus F11L, N2L, and K7L genes. The absence of these genes in SPPV and GTPV suggests a significant role for them in the bovine host range. SPPV and GTPV genomes contain specific nucleotide differences, suggesting they are phylogenetically distinct. Relatively few genomic changes in SPPV and GTPV vaccine viruses account for viral attenuation, because they contain 71 and 7 genomic changes compared to their respective field strains. Notable genetic changes include mutation or disruption of genes with predicted functions involving virulence and host range, including two ankyrin repeat proteins in SPPV and three kelch-like proteins in GTPV. These comparative genomic data indicate the close genetic relationship among capripoxviruses, and they suggest that SPPV and GTPV are distinct and likely derived from an LSDV-like ancestor. (+info)
Development of a dual recombinant vaccine to protect small ruminants against peste-des-petits-ruminants virus and capripoxvirus infections. (3/31)A recombinant capripoxvirus vaccine containing a cDNA of the peste-des-petits-ruminants virus (PPRV) fusion protein gene was constructed. A quick and efficient method was used to select a highly purified recombinant virus clone. A trial showed that a dose of this recombinant as low as 0.1 PFU protected goats against challenge with a virulent PPRV strain. (+info)
Evaluation of lumpy skin disease virus, a capripoxvirus, as a replication-deficient vaccine vector. (4/31)Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), a capripoxvirus with a host range limited to ruminants, was evaluated as a replication-deficient vaccine vector for use in non-ruminant hosts. By using the rabies virus glycoprotein (RG) as a model antigen, it was demonstrated that recombinant LSDV encoding the rabies glycoprotein (rLSDV-RG) was able to express RG in both permissive (ruminant) and non-permissive (non-ruminant) cells. The recombinant LSDV, however, replicated to maturity only in permissive but not in non-permissive cells. Recombinant LSDV-RG was assessed for its ability to generate immunity against RG in non-ruminant hosts (rabbits and mice). Rabbits inoculated with rLSDV-RG produced rabies virus (RV) neutralizing antibodies at levels twofold higher than those reported by the WHO to be protective. BALB/c mice immunized with rLSDV-RG elicited levels of RV-specific cellular immunity (T-cell proliferation) comparable with those of mice immunized with a commercial inactivated rabies vaccine (Verorab; Pasteur Merieux). Most importantly, mice immunized with rLSDV-RG were protected from an aggressive intracranial rabies virus challenge. (+info)
Modulation of macrophage functions by sheeppox virus provides clues to understand interaction of the virus with host immune system. (5/31)BACKGROUND: Poxviruses encode a range of immunomodulatory genes to subvert or evade the challenges posed by the innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the inactivated poxviruses possessed immunostimulating capacity and were used as a prophylactic or metaphylactic application that efficiently reduced susceptibility to infectious diseases in different species. This fact is intensively studied in different genera of poxviruses. However, little is known about the basic mechanisms adopted by sheeppox virus (SPPV). SPPV causes an acute disease of sheep that recently, has been observed to reinfect its host in spite of vaccination. RESULTS: By injecting inactivated or attenuated sheeppox virus SPPV vaccine in adult male Swiss mice, SPPV was found to reduce macrophages' functions in a local event that occurs at the site of application 12 h after vaccine administration as indicated by increased level of IL-10 and decreased level of SOD from cultured peritoneal macrophages. In contrast increased levels of IL-12, and SOD activity from cultured splenic macrophages, lymphocyte response to PHA-P, and in-vivo response to T-dependant Ag were detected. These effects were observed in both attenuated and inactivated SPPV, but more prominent in attenuated one. CONCLUSION: The results of this study help to elucidate, the phenomenon of existence natural SPPV infections in sheep instead of vaccination and the basic mechanisms responsible for the immunostimulating capacity of sheeppox virus. Locally, SPPV shows evidence for an immune escape mechanism that alleviates the host's immune response. Later and systemically, the virus protects the host from any fatal consequences of the immune system suppression. (+info)
Immunohistochemical evaluation of inflammatory infiltrate in the skin and lung of lambs naturally infected with sheeppox virus. (6/31)The present study describes immunophenotypic characteristics of inflammatory infiltrate in the skin and lung of lambs naturally infected with sheeppox virus (SPV). Three lambs revealed typical cutaneous and pulmonary lesions of sheeppox. Histologically, cutaneous and pulmonary lesions consisted of hyperplastic and/or degenerative changes in the epithelium with mononuclear cells, neutrophils, and typical sheeppox cells (SPCs), which had a vacuolated nucleus and marginated chromatin with occasional granular intracytoplasmic inclusions. The inflammatory infiltrate in pox lesions in both skin and lung was characterized by the presence of MHC II+ dendritic cells, CD4+, CD8+, gammadelta+ T cells, IgM+ cells, and CD21+ cells. Loss of expression of MHC I and MHC II antigens was observed in the affected areas of skin and lung. SPCs, stained with anti-SPV antibody, were also positive for CD14 and CD172A, antigens expressed on monocytes and macrophages. CD14 and CD172A negative SPCs were considered to be SPV infected degenerated epithelial cells or fibroblasts. (+info)
Genome Annotation Transfer Utility (GATU): rapid annotation of viral genomes using a closely related reference genome. (7/31)BACKGROUND: Since DNA sequencing has become easier and cheaper, an increasing number of closely related viral genomes have been sequenced. However, many of these have been deposited in GenBank without annotations, severely limiting their value to researchers. While maintaining comprehensive genomic databases for a set of virus families at the Viral Bioinformatics Resource Center http://www.biovirus.org and Viral Bioinformatics - Canada http://www.virology.ca, we found that researchers were unnecessarily spending time annotating viral genomes that were close relatives of already annotated viruses. We have therefore designed and implemented a novel tool, Genome Annotation Transfer Utility (GATU), to transfer annotations from a previously annotated reference genome to a new target genome, thereby greatly reducing this laborious task. RESULTS: GATU transfers annotations from a reference genome to a closely related target genome, while still giving the user final control over which annotations should be included. GATU also detects open reading frames present in the target but not the reference genome and provides the user with a variety of bioinformatics tools to quickly determine if these ORFs should also be included in the annotation. After this process is complete, GATU saves the newly annotated genome as a GenBank, EMBL or XML-format file. The software is coded in Java and runs on a variety of computer platforms. Its user-friendly Graphical User Interface is specifically designed for users trained in the biological sciences. CONCLUSION: GATU greatly simplifies the initial stages of genome annotation by using a closely related genome as a reference. It is not intended to be a gene prediction tool or a "complete" annotation system, but we have found that it significantly reduces the time required for annotation of genes and mature peptides as well as helping to standardize gene names between related organisms by transferring reference genome annotations to the target genome. The program is freely available under the General Public License and can be accessed along with documentation and tutorial from http://www.virology.ca/gatu. (+info)
Sheeppox virus kelch-like gene SPPV-019 affects virus virulence. (8/31)Sheeppox virus (SPPV), a member of the Capripoxvirus genus of the Poxviridae, is the etiologic agent of a significant disease of sheep in the developing world. Genomic analysis of pathogenic and vaccine capripoxviruses identified genes with potential roles in virulence and host range, including three genes with similarity to kelch-like genes of other poxviruses and eukaryotes. Here, a mutant SPPV with a deletion in the SPPV-019 kelch-like gene, DeltaKLP, was derived from the pathogenic strain SPPV-SA. DeltaKLP exhibited in vitro growth characteristics similar to those of SPPV-SA and revertant virus (RvKLP). DeltaKLP-infected cells exhibited a reduction in Ca(2+)-independent cell adhesion, suggesting that SPPV-019 may modulate cellular adhesion. When inoculated in sheep by the intranasal or intradermal routes, DeltaKLP was markedly attenuated, since all DeltaKLP-infected lambs survived infection. In contrast, SPPV-SA and RvKLP induced mortality approaching 100%. Lambs inoculated with DeltaKLP exhibited marked reduction or delay in fever response, gross lesions, viremia, and virus shedding compared to parental and revertant viruses. Together, these findings indicate that SPPV-019 is a significant SPPV virulence determinant in sheep. (+info)
Capripoxvirus is a genus of viruses in the family Poxviridae, subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. This genus includes three species of poxviruses that primarily infect members of the Artiodactyla order (even-toed ungulates), such as sheep, goats, and cattle. The three species are:
1. Sheeppox virus (SPPV) - causes sheeppox in sheep and goatpox in goats
2. Goatpox virus (GTPV) - causes goatpox in goats and sometimes in sheep
3. Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) - causes lumpy skin disease in cattle
These viruses are large, complex, enveloped double-stranded DNA viruses with a linear genome of approximately 150 kilobases. They replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells and can cause severe diseases in their respective hosts, characterized by fever, lesions on the skin and mucous membranes, and secondary bacterial infections. Vaccination is an important control strategy for capripoxviruses.
Lumpy Skin Disease Virus (LSDV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the Poxviridae family and Capripoxvirus genus. It is the causative agent of Lumpy Skine Disease (LSD), a severe vector-borne viral disease affecting cattle. The virus is transmitted through blood-sucking insects, such as mosquitoes and ticks, or through direct contact with infected animals.
The clinical signs of LSD include the development of nodules or lumps on the skin, particularly on the head, neck, and limbs, which can vary in size from small papules to large tumors. Other symptoms may include fever, loss of appetite, nasal discharge, excessive salivation, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, LSD can lead to death due to secondary bacterial infections or complications related to the respiratory system.
LSDV is a significant concern for the global cattle industry, as it can cause significant economic losses due to reduced milk production, weight loss, decreased fertility, and increased mortality rates. It is endemic in many African countries, but has also been reported in several countries in the Middle East, Asia, and Eastern Europe. Vaccination is an effective strategy for controlling LSD, and several vaccines are available for use in affected regions.
Poxviridae infections refer to diseases caused by the Poxviridae family of viruses, which are large, complex viruses with a double-stranded DNA genome. This family includes several pathogens that can infect humans, such as Variola virus (which causes smallpox), Vaccinia virus (used in the smallpox vaccine and can rarely cause infection), Monkeypox virus, and Cowpox virus.
These viruses typically cause skin lesions or pocks, hence the name "Poxviridae." The severity of the disease can vary depending on the specific virus and the immune status of the host. Smallpox, once a major global health threat, was declared eradicated by the World Health Organization in 1980 thanks to a successful vaccination campaign. However, other Poxviridae infections continue to pose public health concerns, particularly in regions with lower vaccination rates and where animal reservoirs exist.
Poxviridae is a family of large, complex, double-stranded DNA viruses that includes many significant pathogens affecting humans and animals. The most well-known member of this family is the Variola virus, which causes smallpox in humans, a highly contagious and deadly disease that has been eradicated through global vaccination efforts. Other important human pathogens in this family include the Monkeypox virus, which can cause a smallpox-like illness, and the Molluscum contagiosum virus, which causes benign skin tumors.
Poxviruses have a unique ability to replicate in the cytoplasm of host cells, rather than in the nucleus like many other DNA viruses. They also have a complex structure, with a large, brick-shaped virion that contains a lateral body, a core, and an outer envelope. The genome of poxviruses is relatively large, ranging from 130 to 375 kilobases in length, and encodes many genes involved in viral replication, host immune evasion, and modulation of host cell processes.
Poxviridae is further divided into two subfamilies: Chordopoxvirinae, which includes viruses that infect vertebrates, and Entomopoxvirinae, which includes viruses that infect insects. The Chordopoxvirinae subfamily is divided into several genera, including Orthopoxvirus (which includes Variola, Monkeypox, and Vaccinia viruses), Parapoxvirus (which includes Orf virus and Bovine papular stomatitis virus), and Yatapoxvirus (which includes Yaba monkey tumor virus and Tanapox virus).
Overall, Poxviridae is a diverse family of viruses that pose significant public health and agricultural threats, and continue to be the subject of ongoing research and development efforts aimed at understanding their biology and developing new vaccines and therapies.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "goats" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is a common noun referring to the domesticated animal species Capra aegagrus hircus. If you have any questions about a specific medical condition or term, please provide that and I would be happy to help.
Deoxyribonuclease (DNase) HindIII is a type of enzyme that cleaves, or cuts, DNA at specific sequences. The name "HindIII" refers to the fact that this particular enzyme was first isolated from the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae strain Rd (Hin) and it cuts at the restriction site 5'-A/AGCTT-3'.
DNase HindIII recognizes and binds to the palindromic sequence "AAGCTT" in double-stranded DNA, and then cleaves each strand of the DNA molecule at specific points within that sequence. This results in the production of two fragments of DNA with sticky ends: 5'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl groups. These sticky ends can then be joined together by another enzyme, DNA ligase, to form new combinations of DNA molecules.
DNase HindIII is widely used in molecular biology research for various purposes, such as restriction mapping, cloning, and genetic engineering. It is also used in diagnostic tests to detect specific sequences of DNA in clinical samples.
I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Goat diseases" refers to illnesses that affect goats specifically. It does not mean diseases that are caused by goats or related to them in some way. Here are some examples of goat diseases:
1. Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE): A viral disease that affects goats, causing arthritis, pneumonia, and sometimes encephalitis.
2. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL): A bacterial disease that causes abscesses in the lymph nodes of goats.
3. Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP): A contagious respiratory disease caused by mycoplasma bacteria.
4. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by a type of bacterium called Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.
5. Pasteurellosis: A bacterial disease that can cause pneumonia, septicemia, and other infections in goats.
6. Salmonellosis: A bacterial disease caused by Salmonella bacteria, which can cause diarrhea, fever, and septicemia in goats.
7. Soremouth (Orf): A viral disease that causes sores and scabs around the mouth and nose of goats.
These are just a few examples of diseases that can affect goats. If you have any specific questions about goat health or diseases, I would recommend consulting with a veterinarian who specializes in small ruminants.
I'm happy to help, but I want to clarify that the term "sheep diseases" refers to a wide range of health issues that can affect sheep populations. It's not a single medical condition with a specific definition. Here are some examples of common diseases that can affect sheep:
1. Ovine Johne's Disease (OJD): A chronic, infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It affects the intestines and can cause weight loss, diarrhea, and death.
2. Footrot: A highly contagious bacterial infection that affects the feet of sheep, causing lameness, swelling, and pain. It's caused by the bacteria Dichelobacter nodosus.
3. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL): A chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. It affects the lymph nodes and can cause abscesses, weight loss, and death.
4. Contagious Ecthyma (Orf): A highly contagious viral infection that affects the skin and mucous membranes of sheep, causing sores and lesions.
5. Mastitis: An inflammation of the mammary gland in sheep, usually caused by a bacterial infection. It can cause decreased milk production, fever, and loss of appetite.
6. Pneumonia: A respiratory infection that can affect sheep, causing coughing, difficulty breathing, and fever. It can be caused by various bacteria or viruses.
7. Enterotoxemia: A potentially fatal disease caused by the overproduction of toxins in the intestines of sheep, usually due to a bacterial infection with Clostridium perfringens.
8. Polioencephalomalacia (PEM): A neurological disorder that affects the brain of sheep, causing symptoms such as blindness, circling, and seizures. It's often caused by a thiamine deficiency or excessive sulfur intake.
9. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection that can affect sheep, causing abortion, stillbirth, and neurological symptoms.
10. Blue tongue: A viral disease that affects sheep, causing fever, respiratory distress, and mouth ulcers. It's transmitted by insect vectors and is often associated with climate change.
I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.
Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.
Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.
Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.
Lumpy skin disease
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List of MeSH codes (B04)
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- Capripoxvirus is a genus of viruses in the subfamily Chordopoxvirinae and the family Poxviridae. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] The genus contains the following species: Goatpox virus Lumpy skin disease virus Sheeppox virus Viruses in Capripoxvirus are enveloped, with brick-shaped geometries. (wikipedia.org)
- Sheeppox virus (SPPV) is a member of the Capripoxvirus (CaPV) genus of the Poxviridae family. (usda.gov)
- Disease is caused by a virus in the genus Capripoxvirus of the family Poxviridae. (fusabil.org)
- The Lumpy Skin Disease is caused by the LSD virus (LSDV), a poxvirus of the genus capripoxvirus. (believersias.com)
- Lumpy skin disease is caused by the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), which belongs to the genus capripoxvirus, a part of the poxviridae family (smallpox and monkeypox viruses are also a part of the same family). (thesecondangle.com)
- The lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), a member of the poxviridae family and the genus capripoxvirus, is the cause behind lumpy skin disease (smallpox and monkeypox viruses are also a part of the same family). (currentaffairsreview.com)
- Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) is caused by the lumpy skin disease virus ( i.e. capripoxvirus, poxviridae). (farmlinkkenya.com)
- A third disease caused by a capripoxvirus, lumpy skin disease of cattle, can also elicit protective immunity against sheep- and goatpox in sheep and goats, as illustrated by the Kenyan sheep- and goatpox vaccine which is derived from a lumpy skin disease virus that was isolated from sheep. (anipedia.org)
- Capripoxvirus strains are often recognized by how the main target host responds. (wikipedia.org)
- The diseases in sheep and goats are caused by strains of capripoxvirus which are indistinguishable serologically, and although strains derived from sheep may show genomic differences from those derived from goats, there are isolates with characteristics of both sheep and goat isolates. (anipedia.org)
- In addition, there is evidence for recombination events occurring between strains of capripoxvirus in the field, as has also been seen in vitro , and this could result in changes in host range or virulence. (anipedia.org)
- Differential diagnoses included dermatophilosis, dermatophytosis, parasitism (ticks, fleas, Besnoitia), and viral dermatitis caused by parapoxvirus (contagious pustular dermatitis) and capripoxvirus (lumpy skin disease, caused by a pathogen exotic to Australia). (flockandherd.net.au)
- Blood and skin samples were collected for histopathology, as well as other diagnostic tests including culture and PCR to detect parapoxvirus, capripoxvirus, and pestivirus. (flockandherd.net.au)
- In addition, the samples were negative for parapoxvirus and capripoxvirus on PCR, and negative for pestivirus on PCR. (flockandherd.net.au)
- Capripoxvirus (CaPV) contains three viruses that have caused massive losses in the livestock and dairy industries . (bvsalud.org)
- Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD) is an infectious disease induced by the Capripoxvirus, causing epidemics in Turkey and several countries worldwide and inducing significant economic losses. (biomedcentral.com)
- Capripoxvirus (CaPVs) is one of the eight genera inside the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily of the Poxviridae and is comprised of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus (LSDV), Goat Pox Virus (GTPV) and Sheep Pox Virus (SPPV). (rroij.com)
- Multiple accurate and sensitive arrays for Capripoxvirus (CaPV) differentiation. (bvsalud.org)