Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Capital Financing: Institutional funding for facilities and for equipment which becomes a part of the assets of the institution.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphyses: A developmental deformity in which the metaphysis of the FEMUR moves proximally and anteriorly away from FEMUR HEAD (epiphysis) at the upper GROWTH PLATE. It is most common in male adolescents and is associated with a greater risk of early OSTEOARTHRITIS of the hip.Epiphyses, SlippedCalorimetry, Indirect: Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Economic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Skiing: A snow sport which uses skis to glide over the snow. It does not include water-skiing.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Life Tables: Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Data Mining: Use of sophisticated analysis tools to sort through, organize, examine, and combine large sets of information.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Inflation, Economic: An increase in the volume of money and credit relative to available goods resulting in a substantial and continuing rise in the general price level.LuxembourgAustralian Capital Territory: A territory of Australia consisting of Canberra, the national capital and surrounding land. It lies geographically within NEW SOUTH WALES and was established by law in 1988.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Interior Design and Furnishings: The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.Mongolia: The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.Clothing: Fabric or other material used to cover the body.PhiladelphiaTacrolimus Binding Protein 1A: A 12-KDa tacrolimus binding protein that is found associated with and may modulate the function of calcium release channels. It is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase which is inhibited by both tacrolimus (commonly called FK506) and SIROLIMUS.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Philadelphia Chromosome: An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).Encephalitis, St. Louis: A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)

Cost of malaria control in Sri Lanka. (1/31)

The study provides estimates of the cost of various malaria control measures in an area of North-Central Province of Sri Lanka where the disease is endemic. We assumed that each measure was equally effective. In these terms, impregnating privately purchased bednets with insecticide was estimated to cost Rs 48 (US(40.87) per individual protected per year, less than half the cost of spraying houses with residual insecticides. Larviciding of vector breeding sites and especially the elimination of breeding habitats by flushing streams through seasonal release of water from upstream reservoirs was estimated to be cheaper than other preventive measures (Rs 27 (US$ 0.49) and Rs 13 (US$ 0.24) per individual protected, respectively). Inclusion of both operational and capital costs of treatment indicates that the most cost-effective intervention for the government was a centrally located hospital with a relatively large catchment area (Rs 71 (US$ 1.29) per malaria case treated). Mobile clinics (Rs 153 (US$ 2.78) per malaria case treated) and a village treatment centre (Rs 112 (US$ 2.04)) per malaria case treated) were more expensive options for the government, but were considerably cheaper for households than the traditional hospital facilities. This information can guide health planners and government decision-makers in choosing the most appropriate combination of curative and preventive measures to control malaria. However, the option that is cheapest for the government may not be so for the householders, and further studies are needed to estimate the effectiveness of the various preventive measures.  (+info)

The economics of for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals. (2/31)

This paper examines the economics of for-profit and not-for-profit hospitals through the prism of capital acquisitions. The exercise suggests that of two hospitals that are equally efficient in producing health care, the for-profit hospital would have to charge higher prices than the not-for-profit hospital would, to break even on capital acquisitions. The reasons for this divergence are (1) the typically higher cost of equity capital that for-profit hospitals face; and (2) the income taxes they must pay. The paper recommends holding tax-exempt hospitals more formally accountable for the social obligation they shoulder, in return for their tax preference.  (+info)

The value of the Ecological Station of Jatai's ecosystem services and natural capital. (3/31)

The capacity of a given natural ecosystem to provide certain goods and services that satisfy human needs depends on its environmental characteristics (natural processes and components). It was described the availability of these goods and services (environmental functions) controlled and sustained by ecological processes operating in Ecological Station of Jatai (Luiz Antonio, SP). The environmental functions identified were grouped in four main categories. To make environmental values an integrated factor in planning and decision making it was assessed their socio-economic importance in qualitative terms and, if possible their monetary value. The combined potential annual return from identified functions of Ecological Station of Jatai is at least US$ 708.83/ha/year. In comparison to calculations made for other natural ecosystems this is a rather moderate estimate. The Ecological Station of Jatai is poorly protected and managed, it too is still threatened by human activity (agriculture) and many development plans. Although present day market economics do not recognize the monetary value of most environmental functions, such calculations do provide a revealing insight into the great socio-economic importance of Ecological Station of Jatai. More awareness of these values may provide an important incentive for their preservation and sustainable use.  (+info)

The impact of ageing on expenditures in the National Health Service. (4/31)

BACKGROUND: health policy makers in many countries have expressed concern over the pressures that increased numbers of older people will exert on health care costs. Previous studies have shown that, in addition to increasing size of older populations, per capita expenditures have risen disproportionately among the old compared to the middle age groups. Documentation of such trends is essential for more accurate projection of health expenditures. OBJECTIVE: we examined detailed national age-specific expenditure trends for England and Wales, comparing findings with Canada, Japan, and Australia. METHODS: we obtained total health expenditures for each age group from the UK Department of Health for time periods 1985-87 to 1996-99. We examined changes in age-specific per capita expenditure, population demographics, and the allocation of national expenditures to the different age groups. We then determined the association of changes in population, age structure, and age-specific per capita expenditure to increases in national health care expenditure for England and Wales, comparing results to Canada, Japan, and Australia. RESULTS: per capita health expenditures in England and Wales increased by 8% for ages 65 and over, compared to 31% for ages 5-64. Hence the proportion of total expenditures allocated to the population aged 65 and over decreased from 40% to 35%, a trend most noticeable for non-acute hospital costs. Demographic shifts and population growth accounted for only 18% of the observed increases in health care expenditures in England and Wales, compared to 68%, 44%, and 34% in Japan, Canada, and Australia respectively. CONCLUSIONS: in contrast to other countries, England and Wales had slower rises in per capita costs and a decreasing proportion of national expenditures allocated to older people. These differences invite future research into the actual demand drivers of these costs.  (+info)

Cost savings of home nocturnal versus conventional in-center hemodialysis. (5/31)

BACKGROUND: Home nocturnal hemodialysis (HNHD) can improve clinical and biochemical factors in people with renal failure, but its cost-effectiveness relative to conventional in-center hemodialysis (IHD) is uncertain. We hypothesized that HNHD would provide more dialysis treatments at a lower total cost than IHD. METHODS: A prospective one-year descriptive costing study was performed at two centers in Toronto, Canada, involving patients enrolled from a HNHD program (N = 33), and a matched cohort from an IHD program (N = 23). All costs are expressed as mean weekly amount in Canadian year 2000 dollars. A projected mean annual cost (PMA) was calculated also. RESULTS: The mean number of treatments per week was much higher with HNHD (5.7 vs. 3.0, P = 0.004). Cost categories found to be less expensive for HNHD were staffing (weekly $210 vs. $423, P < 0.001, PMA $10,932 vs. $22,056) and overhead and support (weekly $80 vs. $238, P < 0.001, PMA $4179 vs. $12,393). There was a trend toward lower costs for hospital admissions and procedures (weekly $23 vs. $134, P = 0.355, PMA $1173 vs. $6997) and for medications ($172 vs. $231, P = 0.082, PMA $8989 vs. $12,029). Costs found to be more expensive for HNHD were the cost of direct hemodialysis materials (weekly $318 vs. $126, P < 0.001, PMA $16,587 vs. $6575) and capital costs (weekly $118 vs. $17, P < 0.001, PMA $6139 vs. $871), with a trend toward higher cost for laboratory tests (weekly $33 vs. $26, P = 0.094, PMA $1744 vs. $1364). Physician costs were the same at $128 per week (PMA $6650). The weekly mean total cost for health care delivery was 20% less for HNHD ($1082 vs. $1322, P = 0.006), with projected mean annual costs more than $10,000 lower ($56,394 vs. $68,935). CONCLUSIONS: HNHD provides about three times as many treatment hours at nearly a one-fifth lower cost, with savings evident even when only program and funding-specific costs are considered.  (+info)

Social capital, poverty, and income inequality as predictors of gonorrhoea, syphilis, chlamydia and AIDS case rates in the United States. (6/31)

BACKGROUND: Social capital has been related to a number of important public health variables such as child welfare, mortality, and health status. However, the relation of social capital to infectious diseases has received relatively little attention. The relation of social capital to health measures is often posited to be related to the key societal variables of poverty and income inequality. Therefore, any exploration of the correlation between social capital and infectious diseases should also include examination of the association with poverty and income inequality. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the state level association between social capital, poverty, income inequality, and four infectious diseases that have important public health implications given their long term sequelae: gonorrhoea, syphilis, chlamydia, and AIDS. METHOD: A state level, correlational analysis (including bivariate linear correlational analysis, and multivariate linear stepwise regression analysis) was carried out. 1999 state level rates of gonorrhoea, syphilis, chlamydia, and AIDS were the main outcome measures. RESULTS: In bivariate analyses, poverty was significantly correlated with chlamydia; income inequality was significantly correlated with chlamydia and AIDS case rates; and social capital was significantly correlated with all outcome measures. In stepwise multiple regression analyses, social capital was always the strongest predictor variable. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that social capital is highly predictive of at least some infectious diseases. The results indicate the need for further research into this relation, and suggest the potential need for structural interventions designed to increase social capital in communities.  (+info)

New frontier, new power: the retail environment in Australia's dark market. (7/31)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of the retail environment in cigarette marketing in Australia, one of the "darkest" markets in the world. DESIGN: Analysis of 172 tobacco industry documents; and articles and advertisements found by hand searching Australia's three leading retail trade journals. RESULTS: As Australian cigarette marketing was increasingly restricted, the retail environment became the primary communication vehicle for building cigarette brands. When retail marketing was restricted, the industry conceded only incrementally and under duress, and at times continues to break the law. The tobacco industry targets retailers via trade promotional expenditure, financial and practical assistance with point of sale marketing, alliance building, brand advertising, and distribution. Cigarette brand advertising in retail magazines are designed to build brand identities. Philip Morris and British American Tobacco are now competing to control distribution of all products to retailers, placing themselves at the heart of retail business. CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette companies prize retail marketing in Australia's dark market. Stringent point of sale marketing restrictions should be included in any comprehensive tobacco control measures. Relationships between retailers and the industry will be more difficult to regulate. Retail press advertising and trade promotional expenditure could be banned. In-store marketing assistance, retail-tobacco industry alliance building, and new electronic retail distribution systems may be less amenable to regulation. Alliances between the health and retail sectors and financial support for a move away from retail dependence on tobacco may be necessary to effect cultural change.  (+info)

Cost analysis of the built environment: the case of bike and pedestrian trials in Lincoln, Neb. (8/31)

We estimated the annual cost of bike and pedestrian trails in Lincoln, Neb, using construction and maintenance costs provided by the Department of Parks and Recreation of Nebraska. We obtained the number of users of 5 trails from a 1998 census report. The annual construction cost of each trail was calculated by using 3%, 5%, and 10% discount rates for a period of useful life of 10, 30, and 50 years. The average cost per mile and per user was calculated. Trail length averaged 3.6 miles (range = 1.6-4.6 miles). Annual cost in 2002 dollars ranged from 25,762 to 248,479 (mean = 124,927; median = 171,064). The cost per mile ranged from 5735 to 54,017 (mean = 35,355; median = 37,994). The annual cost per user was 235 (range = 83-592), whereas per capita annual medical cost of inactivity was 622. Construction of trails fits a wide range of budgets and may be a viable health amenity for most communities. To increase trail cost-effectiveness, efforts to decrease cost and increase the number of users should be considered.  (+info)

  • The challenge of the large Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) required to implement fully functioning, expansive 5G network coverage is directly addressed with this network infrastructure sharing agreement. (
  • Helps organizations with customized large real estate and capital asset portfolios manage their capital expenditures, utilization of space and facilities risk. (
  • These costs are reduced, but remain above those computed by Cooley and Hansen, when a financial intermediary is introduced that engages in asset transformation by creating liquid, interest-bearing deposit accounts and uses the proceeds to finance working capital loans to firms. (
  • Incorporating Timminco's magnesium production and extrusion technology into our recently upgraded Chinese operations will allow us to further extend our technical and quality leadership with minimal capital, making us one of the lowest cost producers in the world,", said Dr. He Xu, Chairman of Winca. (
  • Health care facilities have been forced to cut back severely on their capital expenditures, thus depleting the availability of advanced medical equipment. (
  • Sensitivity analysis indicates that the magnitude of the market response to inflation and the attendant welfare costs of inflation depend strongly on the elasticity of substitution between capital and labor in home production, and to a much lesser degree on the elasticity of substitution between home and market consumption. (
  • When households must also finance their gross investment in home capital by borrowing from the financial intermediary, home production is indirectly taxed by inflation. (
  • Timminco currently expects to recover a significant portion of its investment in working capital as the business is transitioned to AMI. (
  • The current research show necessary heavy funding and capital expenditures will exert a huge restraint on the smart cities market. (
  • Amazon reported its property and equipment acquired under capital leases costs increased 62% in the last quarter, bringing the total for the first nine months of 2017 to US$6.9 billion, against US$3.7 billion in the same period in 2016. (
  • Mayor of Moscow Sergey Sobyanin has signed a decree to increase the funding of individual sections of the government program "Capital health care" for the years 2012-2016. (
  • Of these, it was planned to allocate 226.5 million rubles for the development of specialized medical care in the capital until 2016, 103 million rubles for support of mothers and children and 38 million rubles for medical support of disabled persons. (
  • The increase of expenditures for specialized medical care is expected to reduce cancer mortality from 208 to 185 per 100,000 persons and the level of one-year mortality down to 23.1% until 2016. (
  • Q2 earnings per share view $0.13 -- Thomson Reuters I/B/E/S . Sees 2016 total capital expenditures to be $475 to $550 million .Expect to drill an incremental 17 to 18 net wells and turn-to-sales an additional 10 to 11 net wells on its operated Utica acreage during 2016. (
  • K+S continues to expect the new potash plant to become operational in the summer of 2016, with the total capital expenditure involved amounting to CAN$ 4.1 billion. (
  • Capital expenditure continued to accelerate for the three leading public cloud providers in Q3 2017. (
  • At the October 3, 2017 Board of County Commissioners (Board) meeting, the Board adopted Ordinance 17-73 amending Section 2-8.2.12 of the Miami-Dade County Code related to the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department's Consent Decree and Capital Improvement Programs Acceleration Ordinance. (
  • Examples of capital expenditures include the purchase of a new manufacturing plant, investment in server farms for tech companies, or other purchases of assets expected to help the company earn profits in the future. (
  • Microsoft's capital expenditure, including assets acquired under leases, rose 29% to US$2.7 billion, though it fell 18% on a sequential basis. (
  • Under the U.S. tax code, businesses expenditures can be deducted from the total taxable income when filing income taxes if a taxpayer can show the funds were used for business-related activities, not personal or capital expenses (i.e., long-term, tangible assets, such as property). (
  • Capital expenditures are the funds used to acquire or upgrade a company's fixed assets, such as expenditures towards property, plant, or equipment (PP&E). In the case when a capital expenditure constitutes a major financial decision for a company, the expenditure must be formalized at an annual shareholders meeting or a special meeting of the Board of Directors. (
  • Efforts to replace crossties and rail will be neck-and-neck with the railroad spending 26 percent and 25 percent, respectively, of its capital on those assets. (
  • expenditures in long-term capital assets, including DC real property facilities. (
  • Rather, property, plant and equipment acquired using capital expenditures are usually expensed over time through the use of depreciation. (
  • Fluor's 47,000 employees build a better world by designing, constructing and maintaining safe, well-executed, capital-efficient projects. (
  • The Transparency Report provides a summary of several exhibits showing all project-related procurement activities, project expenditures by funding source, and an update on the County's Consent Decree capital projects. (
  • Required submission of capital expenditure projects. (
  • Relating capital expenditure projects to comprehensive plan. (
  • A plan of capital projects proposed to be undertaken during a six-year period, the priority of their implementation, the estimated cost thereof, and the proposed method of financing. (
  • The Town's official procedure manual, detailing the administrative procedures for requesting, planning, implementing, reporting on and closure of capital projects, and any amendments thereto, as adopted by the Town Board from time to time and filed with the Town Clerk. (
  • A capital reserve fund containing park fees paid in accordance with the Town's subdivision and planned development district regulations, and used to fund parks and recreation capital projects. (
  • The capital program shall consist of those capital projects proposed to be undertaken during the immediately succeeding six-year period and shall include the information specified in § 10-2G below. (
  • All requests for capital projects shall be submitted on forms consistent with the guidelines of the Capital Project Procedure Manual, which are designed to elicit sufficient information for ranking a project. (
  • When all business projects compete for the same pool of capital dollars, how can manufacturing managers and engineers make their request for new equipment stand out? (
  • The capital expenditures budget is expected to generate average daily production of 152,500 boe/d, a nine percent increase over 2014 guidance. (
  • In a hospital, the capital budget is used to purchase beds, buildings, equipment, and other items that are not part of its operating costs. (
  • Choose from cloud or on-premise deployment options to give your organization the flexibility to stay within the framework of your capital or operational budget. (
  • The first year of the capital program, to be incorporated in the annual Town budget, together with the necessary funding through direct budgetary appropriation, bonded loans or reimbursements and grants-in-aid. (
  • Preparedness 2008 budget change request when the amount is substantial to ensure the budget in PERFORMS is representative of your expenditures. (
  • In addition, the government of the capital undertakes to use these funds to provide 100% of all disabled persons with preferential drugs, and children with disabilities with therapeutic nutrition. (
  • Expenditure of funds declared public purpose. (
  • What is more important, besides the development of human resources to boost Indonesia's competitiveness at international level, the allocation of the expenditure capital should also focus on the construction of supporting infrastructures such as irrigation systems and roads connecting main infrastructures and villages in Indonesia. (
  • Looking ahead, First Data is positioned to build on our first half momentum with continued strong performance in the second half of the year and beyond, supported by our market-leading products and services, strong positioning in key global markets, and commitment to driving value through strategic capital allocation," Bisignano added. (
  • Unlike other investments like research and development and marketing spending, capital expenditures are not immediately expensed. (
  • The groundwork that we set forth in 2011 and 2012 through acquisitions, capital investments, and proactive balance sheet management continue to serve as a strong tailwind," commented Thomas J. Baltimore, Jr., President and Chief Executive Officer. (
  • We remain committed to being prudent capital allocators and delivering long-term shareholder value through targeted acquisitions and strategic capital investments. (
  • Without further ado, let's look at why Intel cut its capital expenditure forecast for the year and what this means for the company. (
  • Smith said this ability gives Intel "a much more capital efficient ramp," allowing the company to "generate some savings. (
  • Global aircraft leasing company AerCap Holdings has rescheduled the deliveries of 37 aircraft to reduce cash capital expenditures. (
  • The company is expecting cash capital expenditures of around $1.1bn for the rest of this year and nearly $2.5bn next year. (
  • A low or negative working capital is a boon to a company looking to expand. (
  • The level of working capital is an indication of the strength of the company's strategic position because it reflects the balance of power between the company and its customers and suppliers. (
  • The company continues to expect capital spending of about $350 million for fiscal year 2009. (
  • In the context of continued global economic uncertainty and unique commodity price challenges facing Canadian producers, the Company remains focused on the quality and efficiency of existing operations and the disciplined deployment of capital. (
  • These factories are incredibly expensive to build and operate, which is why Intel has significantly higher capital expenditures than many of its peers that outsource chip production. (
  • Intel also has capital expenditures not related to manufacturing, capital expenditures related to the development of new technologies, as well as the initial spending for the transition to 450-millimeter-wafer factories. (
  • Yet Lear put in a "significant investment" of capital, Scott says, to making its factories safer. (
  • With our prudent focus on balance sheet strength, we maintain flexibility to adjust capital spending and pace of growth commensurate with the business environment while adhering to our long term value creation and profitability objectives. (
  • Meanwhile overall, the state expenditure will be increased from 14.4% to 15.4% of the gross domestic product (GDP). (
  • A committee chaired by the Town Supervisor or his/her designee and comprised of the Comptroller and heads of the General Services, Municipal Works, Highway, Water District and Parks and Recreation Departments, or their designees, who are responsible for recommending capital program policies and project rankings to the Supervisor and the Town Board. (
  • 10-2 Capital program and Capital Program Committee. (
  • On or before July 31 of each year, the head of each administrative unit, department or office within the Town of Southampton shall file with the Capital Program Committee, through the use of a Capital Project Request Form, a written request for the inclusion in the capital program of any capital project within his/her jurisdiction. (
  • APBN is pushed to be healthier, marked by a more optimum level of income, quality expenditure, and also efficient and sustainable funding. (
  • Yet, within countries with higher social spending on sickness/health care, old age and social exclusion, we find that these specific expenditures facilitate intimate contact among people in bad health, retirees and people who are having difficulties living on their present income, respectively. (
  • Detailed tables on the position and related capital and income flows appeared in the August SCB (July in 1993). (
  • Because the taxpayer knew in advance the property had an inadequate drainage system, the costs to accomplish this adaptation of the property were a capital expenditure. (
  • In addition to improving its capital efficiencies, Crescent Point is actively pursuing various initiatives to lower its costs. (
  • Such information shall include, but not be limited to, the projected impact on the current and future operating budgets for any on-going costs, maintenance and staffing requirements in connection with the capital program request. (
  • The Town Board of the Town of Southampton hereby establishes a procedure for the planning and implementation of a capital program, which is to address capital project needs for a six-year planning period and is to be updated annually. (