The vascular resistance to the flow of BLOOD through the CAPILLARIES portions of the peripheral vascular bed.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
A phenomenon in which the surface of a liquid where it contacts a solid is elevated or depressed, because of the relative attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.

Capillary refill and core-peripheral temperature gap as indicators of haemodynamic status in paediatric intensive care patients. (1/47)

OBJECTIVES: Capillary refill time is an important diagnostic adjunct in the acute resuscitation phase of the shocked child. This study assesses its relation to commonly measured haemodynamic parameters in the postresuscitation phase when the child has reached the intensive care unit, and compares this with core-peripheral temperature gap. METHODS: Ninety standardised measurements of capillary refill time were made on 55 patients, who were divided into postcardiac surgery (n = 27), and general (n = 28), most of whom had septic shock (n = 24). A normal capillary refill time was defined as < or = 2 seconds. Measured haemodynamic variables included: cardiac index, central venous pressure, systemic vascular resistance index, stroke volume index (SVI), and blood lactate. Seventy measurements were made on patients while being treated with inotropes or vasodilators. RESULTS: Capillary refill time and temperature gap both correlated poorly with all haemodynamic variables among post-cardiac surgery children. For general patients, capillary refill time was related to SVI and lactate; temperature gap correlated poorly with all variables. General patients with a prolonged capillary refill time had a lower median SVI (28 v 38 ml/m2) but not a higher lactate (1.7 v 1.1 mmol/l). A capillary refill time of > or = 6 seconds had the best predictive value for a reduced SVI. CONCLUSION: Among ventilated, general intensive care patients, capillary refill time is related weakly to blood lactate and SVI. A normal value for capillary refill time of < or = 2 seconds has little predictive value and might be too conservative for this population; septic shock.  (+info)

Vascular and stromal features in the skin of the lower limb in patients with chronic critical limb ischaemia (CLI) and oedema. (2/47)

OBJECTIVE: peripheral oedema is often observed in limbs affected by chronic critical limb ischaemia (CLI) and is mainly subcutaneous in distribution. Previous work has shown that capillary filtration coefficient (CFC) in limbs with CLI and oedema was twice as great as that in the contralateral limb. These changes might be due to morphological changes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to examine the morphological features of the capillary walls and surrounding stromal tissues in the skin of these limbs. MATERIAL AND METHODS: eight patients with unilateral CLI and peripheral pitting oedema (four men, four women, a mean age of 81+/-6.9 years) was studied. Skin biopsies were taken from the pulp of the first toe, interdigital space between the first and second digits and dorsal part of forefoot just prior to amputation. RESULTS: stromal oedema and dilated capillaries were most prominent in the distal part of the foot. Some of the capillaries were filled with blood cells and some were empty. The endothelium of the dilated vessels was elongated and distended. In some patients a number of capillaries were collapsed with degenerate endothelial cells. <<<>>>, i.e. large openings, were found between the elongated oedematous endothelial cells. The basal lamina was thickened in all patients. Stromal haemorrhage and degeneration were seen in approximately 50% of patients. CONCLUSION: CLI causes ultrastructural changes in the capillary endothelium and surrounding stroma. The presence of large gaps between endothelial cells as well as an increased capillary pressure may enhance transcapillary transudation, and are most likely the causative factors in the formation of the ischaemic oedema. The stromal haemorrhage as well as degeneration probably signifies a terminal stage of CLI.  (+info)

Fluid flow induces upregulation of synthesis and release of tissue factor pathway inhibitor in vitro. (3/47)

Fluid flow modulates the synthesis and secretion by endothelial cells (ECs) of several proteins that control the hemostatic properties of the vessel wall. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), also synthesized by ECs, is the main downregulator of tissue factor-dependent procoagulant activity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of physiological shear stress on the expression, distribution, and release of TFPI in cultured ECs. The EA.hy926 cell line was grown in a hollow-fiber perfusion system and exposed for variable times to different shear values: 0.27 dyne/cm(2) (minimal flow), 4.1 dyne/cm(2) (venous flow), and 19 dyne/cm(2) (moderate arterial flow). Step increase of the shear stress from 0.27 to 19 dyne/cm(2) induced a sharp increase of TFPI released into the medium and a parallel decrease and redistribution of cell-associated TFPI, which suggests that an acute release of TFPI occurred from the cellular pools. During 24 hours of high shear stress, cell-associated TFPI antigen and mRNA increased time-dependently. Subjecting ECs to steady shear stress for 72 hours also upregulated the expression and production of TFPI, in direct correlation with the degree of the shear. The secretion of TFPI was enhanced 1.9-fold under venous flow and 2.4-fold under arterial flow compared with minimal flow. Equally, cell-associated TFPI antigen and cell surface TFPI activity increased proportionally with the shear stress. The expression of TFPI mRNA, as determined by Northern blotting, increased up to 2-fold in ECs under venous flow and up to 3-fold under arterial flow. These results suggest that shear forces regulate TFPI by modulating its release and gene expression in ECs in vitro.  (+info)

Decrease in coronary blood flow reserve during hyperlipidemia is secondary to an increase in blood viscosity. (4/47)

BACKGROUND: During maximal hyperemia, capillaries provide the greatest resistance to flow. A major determinant of capillary resistance is viscosity. We, therefore, hypothesized that abnormal coronary blood flow (CBF) reserve observed during hyperlipidemia is secondary to increased blood viscosity and not abnormal coronary vasomotion. METHODS AND RESULTS: Maximal hyperemia was induced in 9 dogs using adenosine. Serum triglyceride levels were increased by incremental doses of Intralipid. A good correlation was noted between serum triglyceride levels and blood viscosity (r=0.82). Neither total coronary blood volume nor myocardial blood volume changed with increasing serum triglyceride levels, indicating lack of vasomotion. Myocardial vascular resistance (MVR) increased with increasing triglyceride levels (r=0.84), while hyperemic myocardial blood flow (MBF) decreased (r=-0.64). The decrease in hyperemic MBF was associated with a decrease in blood velocity (r=-0.56). These findings were confirmed with direct intravital microscopic observations in the mice cremaster muscle. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing lipid levels in a fully dilated normal coronary bed causes no change in large or small vessel dimensions. Instead, the increase in blood viscosity causes capillary resistance to rise, which attenuates hyperemic CBF. Therefore, the abnormal CBF reserve associated with hyperlipidemia is due to increase blood viscosity and not abnormal vascular function.  (+info)

Capillary and cell wall permeability to potassium in isolated dog hearts. (5/47)

From venous tracer-dilution curves recorded after 36 pulse injections of 42KCl and 131I-labeled albumin into the coronary artery inflow of 15 isolated canine heart preparations, we calculated maximal fractional extractions (Emax) and capillary permeability-surface area products (PScap) for 42K+ over a range of plasma flows (FP) from 0.3 to 1.7 ml min-1 g-u. At low FP (less than 1.0), Emax was 0.60 +/- 0.0l (mean +/- SD) and PScap was 0.72 +/- 0.20 ml min-1 g-1; at high FP (greater than 1.0), Emax decreased to 0.49 +/- 0.05 and PScap increased to 1.06 +/- 0.18. Continuous recording (gamma detector) of residual myocardial 42K+ in seven hearts showed that the mean fractional escape rate of tracer between 30 and 60 min after injection was 0.011-0.023 min-1; higher rates were observed at high FP, when the residue of 42K+ decreased to less than 10% of the injected dose by 60 min. Using PScap measured at high FP and considering the virtual intracellular volume of distribution for K+ to be 20 ml/g, we calculated the permeability-surface area product for sarcolemma (PScw) as 0.54-0.73 ml min-1 g-1, or about 50% of PScap. Considering sarcolemmal surface area (Scw) as 4,200 cm2/g and capillary surface area (Scap) as 500 cm2/g, cell permeability is low, with Pcw:Pcap being less than 0.08.  (+info)

Postural changes in capillary pressure in the hallux of healthy volunteers. (6/47)

Capillary circulation is delicately regulated by microvascular constriction mechanisms, thereby controlling capillary perfusion and transmural pressure. The influence of posture on capillary flow has been investigated in both diseased and healthy people. However, its influence on capillary pressure has rarely been investigated. We measured capillary pressures in the supine and sitting positions in the hallux of healthy volunteers. The capillaries in the eponychium of the hallux were punctured by using a micropipette connected to a micropressure system (900A, WPI). Also, peripheral arterial and venous pressures were measured in both positions. The rise in systolic capillary pressure from supine to sitting position (32 mmHg; from 39 to 71 mmHg, respectively) was significantly (P < 0.001) smaller than the rise in systolic arterial toe pressure (57 mmHg, from 87 to 144 mmHg, respectively) and venous pressure (41 mmHg, from 26 mmHg to 67 mmHg, respectively). This study shows that the postural rise in precapillary arteriolar pressure is not completely transmitted to the capillaries, probably because of activation of peripheral vasoconstriction mechanisms.  (+info)

Effect of captopril on the release of the components of the renin-angiotensin system into plasma and lymph. (7/47)

The effects of captopril on the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system were assessed from measurements in arterial plasma, renal venous plasma, and renal lymph from salt-depleted dogs. In the basal state, immunoreactive angiotensin II (Ang II) in renal venous plasma averaged only 60 +/- 12% (P less than 0.01) of arterial plasma, although the concentration of Ang II in renal lymph was 2.0 +/- 0.4-fold (P less than 0.05) greater. The Ang II concentration of renal lymph incubated ex vivo at 37 degrees C doubled in 10 to 15 min, which was the time taken to collect renal lymph samples. Compared with arterial plasma, renal lymph contained lower concentrations (P less than 0.01) of renin substrate and angiotensin-converting enzyme but higher concentrations of active (5.3 +/- 2.1-fold) and inactive (8.9 +/- 3.2-fold) renin. Although captopril increased the secretion of active renin into renal venous plasma by six-fold, the secretion of total renin was unchanged because of a reciprocal fall in the secretion of inactive renin. The percent reduction in renal vascular resistance with captopril correlated with the percent fall in Ang II in renal lymph (r = 0.70). IN CONCLUSION: (1) all components of the renin-angiotensin system are represented in the renal interstitium, as reflected in lymph; (2) Ang II concentrations in renal lymph in vivo approximate arterial levels; (3) increased secretion of active renin into plasma during intrarenal infusion of captopril into denervated kidneys is due predominantly to renin activation; and (4) renal vascular resistance may depend on the concentration of Ang II in the renal interstitium.  (+info)

A novel application of myocardial contrast echocardiography to evaluate angiogenesis by autologous bone marrow cell transplantation in chronic ischemic pig model. (8/47)

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the feasibility of myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) to evaluate regional perfusion after bone marrow cell transplantation. BACKGROUND: The myocardial microvessels improved by cell transplantation are too small to visualize with conventional angiography. METHODS: Fourteen mini-pigs from the Nippon Institute for Biological Science were used. The proximal left anterior descending coronary artery was ligated. One month later, nine pigs survived. Six pigs received autologous cell transplantation into the left ventricular anterior wall: bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) (n = 3) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) (n = 3). The other three pigs received saline (control group, n = 3). The pigs were sacrificed one month later. Myocardial contrast intensity (MCI) with a contrast agent was measured using the SONOS 5500 system (Philips). Capillary density (CD) and MCI were measured at four areas: anteroseptum (nontransplanted infarct area), anterior wall (transplanted infarct area), septum (border zone), and lateral wall (normal). We compared the anteroseptum with the anterior wall by MCI and CD. RESULTS: In the BMMNC and BMSC subsets, the CD of the anterior wall was higher than that of the anteroseptum (p < 0.001). There was a linear relation between MCI and CD (acoustic unit [AU2] = 0.234 CD + 0.010, r = 0.92, p < 0.001). At one month after cell transplantation, MCI of the anterior wall increased in the BMMNC and BMSC subsets (p < 0.05), although it did not change in the control group. The ratio of wall thickness (systole/diastole) in the transplanted infarct area was larger than that in the nontransplanted infarct area (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial contrast echocardiography is useful to evaluate regional perfusion, which was enhanced by bone marrow cell transplantation.  (+info)

Capillary resistance, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to the resistance to blood flow that is offered by the small capillaries in the circulatory system. Capillaries are tiny blood vessels that connect the arteries and veins, and they play a critical role in the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste products between the blood and the body's tissues.

The resistance provided by the capillaries is determined by several factors, including the diameter and length of the capillaries, as well as the viscosity of the blood that flows through them. Capillary resistance is an important factor in regulating blood flow and blood pressure throughout the body. In general, an increase in capillary resistance can lead to a decrease in blood flow and an increase in blood pressure, while a decrease in capillary resistance can have the opposite effect.

It's worth noting that the term "capillary resistance" is not commonly used in medical literature or clinical practice. Instead, physicians and researchers may use more specific terms to describe the resistance provided by different parts of the circulatory system, such as "total peripheral resistance," which refers to the resistance provided by all of the body's blood vessels excluding the heart and lungs.

Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels in the body, with diameters that range from 5 to 10 micrometers. They form a network of tiny tubes that connect the arterioles (small branches of arteries) and venules (small branches of veins), allowing for the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste products between the blood and the surrounding tissues.

Capillaries are composed of a single layer of endothelial cells that surround a hollow lumen through which blood flows. The walls of capillaries are extremely thin, allowing for easy diffusion of molecules between the blood and the surrounding tissue. This is essential for maintaining the health and function of all body tissues.

Capillaries can be classified into three types based on their structure and function: continuous, fenestrated, and sinusoidal. Continuous capillaries have a continuous layer of endothelial cells with tight junctions that restrict the passage of large molecules. Fenestrated capillaries have small pores or "fenestrae" in the endothelial cell walls that allow for the passage of larger molecules, such as proteins and lipids. Sinusoidal capillaries are found in organs with high metabolic activity, such as the liver and spleen, and have large, irregular spaces between the endothelial cells that allow for the exchange of even larger molecules.

Overall, capillaries play a critical role in maintaining the health and function of all body tissues by allowing for the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between the blood and surrounding tissues.

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze charged particles such as proteins, nucleic acids, and other molecules based on their size and charge. In CE, the sample is introduced into a narrow capillary tube filled with a buffer solution, and an electric field is applied. The charged particles in the sample migrate through the capillary towards the electrode with the opposite charge, and the different particles become separated as they migrate based on their size and charge.

The separation process in CE is monitored by detecting the changes in the optical properties of the particles as they pass through a detector, typically located at the end of the capillary. The resulting data can be used to identify and quantify the individual components in the sample. Capillary electrophoresis has many applications in research and clinical settings, including the analysis of DNA fragments, protein identification and characterization, and the detection of genetic variations.

Drug resistance, also known as antimicrobial resistance, is the ability of a microorganism (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand the effects of a drug that was originally designed to inhibit or kill it. This occurs when the microorganism undergoes genetic changes that allow it to survive in the presence of the drug. As a result, the drug becomes less effective or even completely ineffective at treating infections caused by these resistant organisms.

Drug resistance can develop through various mechanisms, including mutations in the genes responsible for producing the target protein of the drug, alteration of the drug's target site, modification or destruction of the drug by enzymes produced by the microorganism, and active efflux of the drug from the cell.

The emergence and spread of drug-resistant microorganisms pose significant challenges in medical treatment, as they can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents, as well as poor infection control practices, contribute to the development and dissemination of drug-resistant strains. To address this issue, it is crucial to promote prudent use of antimicrobials, enhance surveillance and monitoring of resistance patterns, invest in research and development of new antimicrobial agents, and strengthen infection prevention and control measures.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

Drug resistance in neoplasms (also known as cancer drug resistance) refers to the ability of cancer cells to withstand the effects of chemotherapeutic agents or medications designed to kill or inhibit the growth of cancer cells. This can occur due to various mechanisms, including changes in the cancer cell's genetic makeup, alterations in drug targets, increased activity of drug efflux pumps, and activation of survival pathways.

Drug resistance can be intrinsic (present at the beginning of treatment) or acquired (developed during the course of treatment). It is a significant challenge in cancer therapy as it often leads to reduced treatment effectiveness, disease progression, and poor patient outcomes. Strategies to overcome drug resistance include the use of combination therapies, development of new drugs that target different mechanisms, and personalized medicine approaches that consider individual patient and tumor characteristics.

Capillary action, also known as capillarity, is the ability of a liquid to rise or get drawn into narrow spaces, such as small tubes or gaps between particles, against gravity. This phenomenon occurs due to the attractive forces between the molecules of the liquid and the solid surface of the narrow space.

The height to which a liquid will rise in a capillary tube is determined by several factors, including the surface tension of the liquid, the radius of the capillary tube, and the adhesive forces between the liquid and the tube's material. In general, liquids with higher surface tension and stronger adhesion to the tube's material will rise higher than those with lower surface tension and weaker adhesion.

Capillary action plays an essential role in many natural and industrial processes, such as water absorption by plants, fluid transport in biological systems, and ink movement in fountain pens.

"Multiple drug resistance" (MDR) is a term used in medicine to describe the condition where a patient's infection becomes resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs. This means that the bacteria, virus, fungus or parasite that is causing the infection has developed the ability to survive and multiply despite being exposed to medications that were originally designed to kill or inhibit its growth.

In particular, MDR occurs when an organism becomes resistant to at least one drug in three or more antimicrobial categories. This can happen due to genetic changes in the microorganism that allow it to survive in the presence of these drugs. The development of MDR is a significant concern for public health because it limits treatment options and can make infections harder, if not impossible, to treat.

MDR can develop through several mechanisms, including mutations in the genes that encode drug targets or enzymes involved in drug metabolism, as well as the acquisition of genetic elements such as plasmids and transposons that carry resistance genes. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial drugs are major drivers of MDR, as they create selective pressure for the emergence and spread of resistant strains.

MDR infections can occur in various settings, including hospitals, long-term care facilities, and communities. They can affect people of all ages and backgrounds, although certain populations may be at higher risk, such as those with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions. Preventing the spread of MDR requires a multifaceted approach that includes surveillance, infection control, antimicrobial stewardship, and research into new therapies and diagnostics.

Vascular resistance is a measure of the opposition to blood flow within a vessel or a group of vessels, typically expressed in units of mmHg/(mL/min) or sometimes as dynes*sec/cm^5. It is determined by the diameter and length of the vessels, as well as the viscosity of the blood flowing through them. In general, a decrease in vessel diameter, an increase in vessel length, or an increase in blood viscosity will result in an increase in vascular resistance, while an increase in vessel diameter, a decrease in vessel length, or a decrease in blood viscosity will result in a decrease in vascular resistance. Vascular resistance is an important concept in the study of circulation and cardiovascular physiology because it plays a key role in determining blood pressure and blood flow within the body.

Disease resistance, in a medical context, refers to the inherent or acquired ability of an organism to withstand or limit infection by a pathogen, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. This resistance can be due to various factors including the presence of physical barriers (e.g., intact skin), chemical barriers (e.g., stomach acid), and immune responses that recognize and eliminate the pathogen.

Inherited disease resistance is often determined by genetics, where certain genetic variations can make an individual more or less susceptible to a particular infection. For example, some people are naturally resistant to certain diseases due to genetic factors that prevent the pathogen from infecting their cells or replicating within them.

Acquired disease resistance can occur through exposure to a pathogen, which triggers an immune response that confers immunity or resistance to future infections by the same pathogen. This is the basis of vaccination, where a weakened or dead form of a pathogen is introduced into the body to stimulate an immune response without causing disease.

Overall, disease resistance is an important factor in maintaining health and preventing the spread of infectious diseases.

This allows blood flow to increase while resistance decreases.[citation needed] Extreme exercise can make capillaries ... Sinusoidal capillaries or discontinuous capillaries are a special type of open-pore capillary, also known as a sinusoid, that ... Individual capillaries are part of the capillary bed, an interweaving network of capillaries supplying tissues and organs. The ... While capillary is usually used as a noun, the word also is used as an adjective, as in "capillary action", in which a liquid ...
... called the diffuse double layer or the electrical double layer) on the capillary wall as shown in figure 4. The first layer is ... Other capillaries including Teflon capillaries also exhibit electroosmotic flow. The EOF of these capillaries is probably the ... Sample is introduced into the capillary via capillary action, pressure, siphoning, or electrokinetically, and the capillary is ... Detection occurs via fluorescence through a window etched in the capillary. Both single-capillary and capillary-array ...
... may increase pulmonary capillary resistance.[citation needed] A high arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide ( ...
This most constricted part is the most challenging one and it offers the highest resistance to remove the wetting liquid. This ... In capillary flow porometry an inert gas is used to displace a liquid, which is in the pores. The pressure required to empty ... Capillary flow porometry, also known as porometry, is a characterization technique based on the displacement of a wetting ... In order to measure the pore size by capillary flow porometry it is necessary to impregnate the samples with a wetting liquid. ...
... through the vascular resistance, sometimes termed total peripheral resistance. An increase in the tunica media to luminal ... This induces gas and nutrients to move from the blood to the cells, due to the lower osmotic pressure outside the capillary. ... This decreases the resistance to flow into peripheral vascular beds, lowering overall systemic pressure. A "metarteriole" is an ... The opposite process occurs when the blood leaves the capillaries and enters the venules, where the blood pressure drops due to ...
Another determinant of vascular resistance is the pre-capillary arterioles. These arterioles are less than 100 μm in diameter. ... and vascular resistance is analogous to electrical resistance. The systemic vascular resistance can therefore be calculated in ... Vascular resistance is the resistance that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system and create blood flow ... The resistance offered by the systemic circulation is known as the systemic vascular resistance (SVR) or may sometimes be ...
... is the modulation of blood flow by capillaries through vasomotion, either opening (dilating) and ... Capillary Metarteriole Precapillary sphincter Sakai T, Hosoyamada Y (September 2013). "Are the precapillary sphincters and ... Precapillary sphincters are smooth muscle structures that mediate the precapillary resistance in the mesenteric ... It is not entirely clear how precapillary resistance is created in many parts of the body. ...
This layer therefore acts to reduce flow resistance within the capillary. This has the net effect that the effective viscosity ... They forced blood through fine glass capillary tubes connecting two reservoirs. Capillary diameters were less than 250 μm, and ... is the pressure drop across the capillary L {\displaystyle L} is the length of capillary μ e {\displaystyle \mu _{e}} is the ... This means that, on average, there will be more red blood cells near the center of the capillary than very near the wall. Cell- ...
Capillary tubes may also be used. A small sample of bacteria is collected on the end of the capillary tube, without blocking ... it can aid identification when combined with other tests such as antibiotic resistance. The presence of catalase in bacterial ... The opposite end is then dipped into hydrogen peroxide, which is drawn into the tube through capillary action, and turned ... that is required for resistance to H2O2 and phagocyte-mediated killing in Edwardsiella tarda". Microbiology. 149 (Pt 9): 2635- ...
This dissipates the capillary pressure and returns to the start of the cycle. Flow here is sometimes compared to a starling ... There is no external resistance to blood flow and blood flow is continuous throughout the cardiac cycle. Flow is determined by ... At first there is no flow because of obstruction at the venous end of the capillary bed. Pressure from the arterial side builds ... thereby increasing resistance to flow. The Pa/Pv difference remains unchanged since Pi is applied over both vessels. The ...
... low resistance) AV fistula over traversing (high resistance) capillary beds). Use native blood vessels, which, when compared to ... as blood takes the path of least resistance; it prefers the ( ...
To determine the systemic vascular resistance (SVR) the formula for calculating all resistance is used. R = ( Δ p r e s s u r e ... Though the radii of the capillaries are very small, the network of capillaries has the largest surface area in the vascular ... The pressure drop of the arterioles is the product of flow rate and resistance: ∆P=Q xresistance. The high resistance observed ... The blood resistance law appears as R adapted to blood flow profile : R = c L η ( δ ) ( π δ r 3 ) {\displaystyle R={\frac {cL\ ...
Decreased resistance reduces the airway forces across the pulmonary capillary membrane, reducing the EIPH. Use of the strip is ... Pulmonary capillary transmural pressure is determined by pulmonary capillary pressure and airway pressure. The horse has very ... Resistance to breathing doubles during intense or long-duration endurance exercise, with >50% of the total resistance ... EIPH occurs when blood enters the air passages of a horse's lung, due to fractured capillaries. A variety of causes have been ...
A candle wick works by capillary action, conveying ("wicking") the fuel to the flame. When the liquid fuel, typically melted ... Important characteristics of the wick include diameter, stiffness, fire-resistance, and tethering. Candle wicks are normally ...
The 3He then enters the main impedance, a capillary with a large flow resistance. It is cooled by the still (described below) ...
Unlike most capillary beds, the glomerular capillaries exit into efferent arterioles rather than venules. The resistance of the ... Unlike most capillary beds, the glomerular capillaries exit into efferent arterioles rather than venules. The resistance of the ... Unlike systemic capillaries, which receive blood from high-resistance arterioles and drain to low-resistance venules, ... It is outside the capillary lumen but surrounded by capillaries. It is in the middle (meso) between the capillaries (angis). It ...
With sizing, the strength-abrasion resistance-of the yarn will improve and the hairiness of yarn will decrease. The degree of ... This is achieved by curbing the paper fibers' tendency to absorb liquids by capillary action. In addition, sizing affects ... Mutton tallow is an animal fat, used to improve abrasion resistance of yarns during weaving. The sizing liquor is applied on ... Sizing improves the surface strength, printability, and water resistance of the paper or material to which it is applied. In ...
When blood vessels dilate, the flow of blood is increased due to a decrease in vascular resistance and increase in cardiac ... Some physiologists have suggested that it is the lack of oxygen itself that causes capillary beds to vasodilate by the smooth ... The latter is the most important variable in determining resistance, with the TPR changing by the fourth power of the radius. ... This latter hypothesis is posited due to the presence of precapillary sphincters in capillary beds. These approaches to the ...
The increased peripheral resistance and greater blood volume place further strain on the heart and accelerates the process of ... Vasoconstriction and fluid retention produce an increased hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries. This shifts the balance of ... This helps restore blood pressure but also increases the total peripheral resistance, increasing the workload of the heart. ... this means that a small increase in pulmonary vascular resistance causes a large increase in amount of work the right ventricle ...
Reductions in capillary density, termed capillary rarefaction, may also contribute to increased resistance in some ... resistance∝1/radius4). Hence, the smaller the radius, the higher the resistance. Other physical factors that affect resistance ... The presence of a severe arterial stenosis increases resistance to flow, however this increase in resistance rarely increases ... the higher the resistance) and the number of vessels, particularly the smaller numerous, arterioles and capillaries. ...
The fenestrated capillaries of the pituitary, adrenal cortex and pancreatic isle have also been known to regress as an effect ... They are less likely to lead to drug resistance than selective inhibitors, which increases life expectancy. 4-quinazolinamine ... VEGFR-2 can be found on the glomerular capillary endothelial cells and is activated by VEGF. Proteinuria is in most cases ... Hyperthyroidism is one such, since thyroid function can be damaged by capillary regression around the follicles of the thyroid ...
R a {\displaystyle R_{a}} is the afferent arteriole resistance. R e {\displaystyle R_{e}} is the efferent arteriole resistance ... More precisely, GFR is the fluid flow rate between the glomerular capillaries and the Bowman's capsule: Q = d ⁡ V d ⁡ t = K f ... And, R d {\displaystyle R_{d}} is the resistance of the descending tubule. Blood plasma has a good many proteins in it and they ... P G {\displaystyle P_{G}} is the hydrostatic pressure within the glomerular capillaries. P B {\displaystyle P_{B}} is the ...
Narrow capillaries allow rapid permeation by mono- or bilayer water. Multilayer laminates have a structure similar to nacre, ... One of the most intriguing and unique properties of GO is that its electrical and optical properties can be tuned dynamically ... The films consist of millions of randomly stacked flakes, leaving nano-sized capillaries between them. Closing these ... Jung, Inhwa (November 1, 2008). "Tunable Electrical Conductivity of Individual Graphene Oxide Sheets Reduced at "Low" ...
Levcowich, T.; Batchelder, E. L. (1942). "Ascorbic acid excretion at known levels of intake as related to capillary resistance ...
A candle wick works by capillary action, drawing ("wicking") the melted wax or fuel up to the flame. When the liquid fuel ... Important characteristics of the wick include diameter, stiffness, fire resistance, and tethering. A candle wick is a piece of ... the liquefied fuel then moves upward through the wick via capillary action; the liquefied fuel finally vaporizes to burn within ... for emergency lighting during electrical power failures, and for religious or ritual purposes. In the 21st century, there has ...
... where chloroquine resistance is common (up to 20% resistance). Chloroquine resistance is an increasing problem in other parts ... Infected red blood cells may also stick to each other and to walls of capillaries. Vessels plug up and deprive tissues of ... When chloroquine resistance is common or when chloroquine is contraindicated, then artesunate is the drug of choice, except in ... Several key vector species have yet to be grown in the lab for closer study, and insecticide resistance is unquantified. ...
... abnormal capillary proliferation and venous fibrous intimal thickening result in progressive increase in vascular resistance. ... Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH) is a disease affecting the blood vessels of the lungs, where ... Case Rep Cardiol 2016:9384126 Ma L, Bao R (2015) Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis: a focus on the EIF2AK4 mutation in onset ... Masur Y, Remberger K, Hoefer M (1996). "Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis as a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension". Pathol ...
Cabric, M.; Appell, H.-J.; Resic, A. (2008). "Stereological Analysis of Capillaries in Electrostimulated Human Muscles". ... Electroacupuncture Functional electrical stimulation Microcurrent electrical neuromuscular stimulator Transcutaneous electrical ... Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS), also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or electromyostimulation, is the ... Electrical muscle stimulation can be used as a training, therapeutic, or cosmetic tool. In medicine, EMS is used for ...
The ratio of the resistance of the electrolyte-filled separator to the resistance of the electrolyte alone is called the ... The distribution and structure of pores can be analyzed using a Capillary Flow Porometer or a Scanning Electron Microscope. ... To prevent electrical shorting (battery failure), the separator must not yield to stresses applied by particles or structures ... The main function of a separator is to keep the two electrodes apart to prevent electrical short circuits while also allowing ...
The BBB has high electrical resistance. Some diseases can damage this barrier and cause leakage. It is crucial to maintain ... It is formed by the tight junctions between endothelial cells, astrocytes, and pericytes in the capillaries. ...
This allows blood flow to increase while resistance decreases.[citation needed] Extreme exercise can make capillaries ... Sinusoidal capillaries or discontinuous capillaries are a special type of open-pore capillary, also known as a sinusoid, that ... Individual capillaries are part of the capillary bed, an interweaving network of capillaries supplying tissues and organs. The ... While capillary is usually used as a noun, the word also is used as an adjective, as in "capillary action", in which a liquid ...
An electrical charge of the same polarity occurs on the inner side of a blood vessels surface. Therefore, the particles and ... Capillaries were called in Greek - erythrocytes - i.e. red blood cells. Erythrocytes contain red pigment hemoglobin, the ... The structure of a cell enables it to change its shape while moving along the narrow capillaries, which are narrower than the ... A liquid membrane does not produce any hydrodynamic resistance. As a result, the viscosity of blood is a lot lower than it ...
The direct connection between the arterial and venous systems supplies a low-resistance shunt for arterial blood and exposes ... Capillary Telangiectasia. Introduction and pathology. The presence of capillary vessels with saccular or fusiform dilations ... Brain capillary telangiectasias are slow-flow vascular malformations composed of dilated capillary-like vessels, are ... Most capillary telangiectasias are clinically silent and are found on autopsy. Generally, no treatment is indicated. [9, 10, 11 ...
Lagrue, G., Olivier-Martin, F., and Grillot, A. [A study of the effects of procyanidol oligomers on capillary resistance in ... Dartenuc P, Marache P, and Choussat H. [Capillary resistance in geriatry. Study of a microangioprotector: endotelon.]. Bordeaux ... Fromantin M. [OPC in the treatment of capillary weakness and retinopathy in diabetics. A propos of 26 cases]. Med Int 1982;16: ... The effect of Endotelon on the capillary fragility index of a specified controlled group: cirrhosis patients]. Gazette Medicale ...
... increased peripheral vascular resistance, and increased left ventricular stroke work index. Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ... Lack of agreement between central venous pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure in preeclampsia. Hypertens Pregnancy. ...
Lowered "capillary resistance" after iontophoresis of lysergic acid di... Nature. 1955. Levine A, Abramson HA, Ka.... Lysergic ...
enterica serovar Typhimurium using PCR multiplexing and multicolor capillary electrophoresis. J Microbiol Methods. 2004;59:163- ... Weill FX, Guesnier F, Guibert V, Timinouni M, Demartin M, Polomack L, Multidrug resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype ... The 5 resistance genes are found in a multidrug resistance (MDR) region that is located on the chromosome in a region termed ... Variation in Antimicrobial Resistance in Sporadic and Outbreak-related Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium On This Page ...
Categories: Capillary Resistance Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Capillary Resistance in Rheumatoid Arthritis (1 September, 1957) J. L. Potter, F. W. Wigzell ...
Cardiovascular effects - Myocardial dysfunction, capillary leakage, diminished systemic vascular resistance, ventricular ... Association of Low-Moderate Arsenic Exposure and Arsenic Metabolism with Incident Diabetes and Insulin Resistance in the Strong ...
Capillary refill in the nailbeds is good. Pulse oximetry on all the fingers of his left hand demonstrates a good perfusion ... In the pathophysiology of CS, venous outflow resistance is increased, ultimately leading to a cessation in blood flow. CS is ... The increased venous outflow resistance ultimately causes a retrograde blood stasis. Blood ceases to perfuse the cells and the ... Hence, blood has a decreased tendency to flow into the capillaries. The bodys compensatory mechanisms to increase perfusion ...
Strengthen capillary resistance, coronary vasodilation; Have bacteriostasis, chrysanthemum water decoction and water logging ...
Recording electrodes were made from borosilicate glass capillaries and fire-polished. Their resistance was between 4 and 6 MΩ ...
The resistance pattern in RVC, LVC, and RDC samples (with or without FLM exposure) from BWE-treated horses was decreased ... During anesthesia, blood flow; arterial, venous, and capillary pressures; and total, precapillary, and postcapillary ... Postcapillary resistance was significantly decreased following treatment with the ET receptor antagonist but was not altered by ... Colonic mucosal segments were incubated with or without flunixin meglumine (FLM) for 240 minutes; spontaneous electrical ...
With good lighting and appropriate camera positioning, capillary refill distal to the injury can be assessed. The physician can ... 11 Strength can be evaluated against gravity or against resistance with a towel or exercise band. ... can be performed using household items as resistance. ...
... abrasion resistance, chemically combined water, and splitting tensile strength.(85) Abrasion resistance, capillary porosity, ... The onset of capillary continuity varies with water-cement ratio. Table 23 gives times to capillary discontinuity from three ... Curing time to capillary discontinuity.. Water-cement ratio. Powers and Brownyard (1947) (76). Van der Molen (1979) (77). ... But the capillary continuity among pores and with the surface of concrete tends to decrease rapidly in low water-cement ratio ...
In a pathologic state, PH of all forms leads to an increase in resistance to flow across the pulmonary vascular bed. This ... Systemic vasodilation; natriuresis and diuresis; increased capillary permeability. Nitroprusside. 0.2-2 μg/kg/min IV. Increases ... Systemic vasodilation; natriuresis and diuresis; increased capillary permeability. Nitroprusside. 0.2-2 μg/kg/min IV. Increases ... These conditions are forms of distal precapillary disease and result in an increase in resistance of the pulmonary arterial ...
... basic afferent arteriolar resistance [P] --, ,variable name="AARLL" units="mmHg_minute_per_L" initial_value="4" private_ ... Location: Guyton, Capillary, Dynamics, 2008 @ 18a2d9f035fb / parameters.cellml Author:. Tommy Yu ,[email protected],. ... reference value of capillary PO2 in non-muscle tissue [P] --, ,variable name="POZ" units="dimensionless" initial_value="2" ... pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient [P] --, ,variable name="CPK" units="L_per_minute_per_mmHg" initial_value="0.000253" ...
Tribology and Capillary Drag. The science of friction and lubrication-whats called tribology-has focused greatly on snow and ... Maybe youve shaved everything-when youre battling air resistance, you cant leave anything to chance. ... This process, called capillary drag, decreases speeds.. Bitterly cold snow isnt better. When the mercury drops below 14°F, ... In truth, a mildly grainy bottom may help reduce capillary drag in warm conditions, stopping any clingy meltwater from hitching ...
Abrasion Resistance. *Capillary Absorption and Permeability of Water. *Depth of Penetration. *Impact Resistance ...
When the small arteries constricted, and offered high resistance, the blood came to flow slowly through all capillaries. When ... on capillary dilation, and one can bring about dilation of a single capillary, or part of a capillary. Fig. 8 shows such a ... The capillary walls widen so forcefully that they become permeable to blood plasma, so that the capillary is at last filled by ... Here the capillary system is entirely different from that of the tongue. The capillary network is very dense and most ...
These data can be used by strength and conditioning coaches to optimize the prescription of flywheel resistance training ... influence the acute responses during a flywheel resistance session. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the influence of ... This may be due to the wide benefits provided after flywheel resistance training, such as increases in muscular strength, ... Flywheel training is an attractive alternative to traditional resistance exercise because it allows for the loading stimulus to ...
Standard drainboards and root barriers do not have sufficient slip resistance in this scenario. Instead, a GRO Capillary Action ... In addition to slip resistance on the steep slopes, a major concern for these buildings are their location in a hurricane zone ... and then it was hydro-seeded with beneficial grasses that will add even more wind resistance as their roots grow in. The entire ...
Crye Precision V2 FR Combat Shirt combines the permanent flame resistance, moisture wicking, and odor controlling properties of ... Inherent and permanent flame resistance, moisture management, and odor control * Capillary action, and multi-directional ... DRIFIRE / Crye Precision V2 FR Combat Shirt combines the permanent flame resistance, moisture wicking, and odor controlling ... and odor-controlling properties of its permanent flame resistance DRIFIRE fabric with the customizable fit of the Crye ...
Elevated central venous and pulmonary capillary wedge pressures, and pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance are also ... Patients with elevated left ventricular filling pressures and increased systemic vascular resistance in association with a ... Nitroglycerin also produces arteriolar relaxation, thereby reducing peripheral vascular resistance and arterial pressure ( ...
It has the best chemical resistance and electrical properties in known plastics. ... Skived teflon PTFE sheet can work at -180° C ~+260° C and is the best electrical insulator of all known plastics. ... Skived teflon PTFE sheet can work at -180° C ~+260° C and is the best electrical insulator of all known plastics. ... PTFE exhibits astonishing chemical resistance. This self-lubricating material provides a low friction coefficient, and is ...
... associated with reduced capillary density (42.1 [4.3] versus 57.9 [3.3] capillaries/microscopic field*). qRT-PCR revealed a 3.2 ... Conclusion Insulin resistance, without dysglycaemia, is associated with abnormal developmental and pathological angiogenesis, ... it is possible to define the impact of systemic resistance on vascular biology, independent of hyperglycaemia. ... limb perfusion was assessed 21 days later using laser Doppler and gastrocnemius muscle capillary density defined histologically ...
The new Lake Shore Model 372 AC resistance bridge and temperature controller makes it easy to perform multiple tasks at very ... Researchers have developed capillary-controlled robotic flapping fins to create switchable optical and infrared light ... Model 372 AC resistance bridge and temperature controller. The new Lake Shore Model 372 AC resistance bridge and temperature ... Versatile new AC resistance bridge for precise, ultra-low temperature control. 4 September 2014 ...
Initial effects on cardiac output, stroke volume index, and systemic vascular resistance were small and variable. ... There were significant reductions in systemic blood pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, ... In hypertensive patients with normal renal function, therapeutic doses of carvedilol decreased renal vascular resistance with ... reduces peripheral vascular resistance. These effects contribute to the reduction of blood pressure and usually are seen within ...
  • The left ventricle (LV) must generate a relatively high-pressure gradient to overcome the high systemic vascular resistance (SVR), whereas the RV needs to generate a lower pressure gradient to overcome the lower pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). (
  • Baseline hemodynamics: median pulmonary capillary pressure = 22 mm Hg, mean pulmonary artery pressure = 38 mm Hg, and pulmonary vascular resistance = 3.3 Wood units. (
  • Cardiac index, stroke index, rate-pressure product, systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance indices, and left and right ventricular stroke work indices were calculated. (
  • Lesions of the cerebral vasculature develop such that blood flows directly from the arterial system to the venous system without passing through a capillary system. (
  • A small portion of muscle with arterial branches and capillaries. (
  • However, the other important question, as to whether the open capillaries were approximately regularly distributed, or whether perhaps they became empty of blood by groups, when the arterial branch which supplied the group closed, this was not so easy to answer. (
  • Heart rate, arterial pressure, central venous pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, body temperature, cardiac output, and PCV were measured immediately prior to and at selected times after romifidine administration. (
  • Results -Romifidine induced a decrease in heart rate, pulmonary arterial pressure, rate-pressure product, cardiac index, and right ventricular stroke work index and an increase in central venous pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and systemic vascular resistance index. (
  • Capillaries are microvessels and the smallest blood vessels in the body. (
  • Lymph capillaries connect with larger lymph vessels to drain lymphatic fluid collected in microcirculation. (
  • Capillaries and sinusoids are short vessels that directly connect the arterioles and venules at opposite ends of the beds. (
  • Brain capillary telangiectasias are slow-flow vascular malformations composed of dilated capillary-like vessels, are classically located in the pons, and are typically benign and discovered incidentally. (
  • About 50 years later, Malpighi, (and, at about the same time, Leeuwenhoek), discovered that the connection between the smallest branches of the arteries and the veins was not by random cavities between the organs, but by a network of extremely fine vessels - the capillaries, visible only under the microscope. (
  • Unfortunately, when a person sits down or lies down, it's more difficult for the blood vessels to move the blood as effectively to the capillaries due to the increased resistance induced by soft tissue deformation. (
  • Examples include cracking resulting from near-surface drying strains, rate of penetration of water and waterborne salts from the concrete surface, and abrasion resistance. (
  • Sinusoidal capillaries or discontinuous capillaries are a special type of open-pore capillary, also known as a sinusoid, that have wider fenestrations that are 30-40 micrometres (μm) in diameter, with wider openings in the endothelium. (
  • Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a hyperuricemic state, and capillary endothelium is the predominant site of xanthine oxidase in the vasculature. (
  • Given that energy content of nectar increases with sugar concentration, but that flow rate concurrently decreases due to elevated dynamic viscosity, 'capillary feeders' would optimize rates of energy intake at intermediate nectar concentrations (Baker 1975;Heyneman 1983;Kingsolver and Daniel 1983;Nicolson and Thornburg 2007;Kim et al. (
  • This process, called capillary drag, decreases speeds. (
  • 2014). In addition, the mechanical resistance of a soil decreases with its water content (i.e. mass of water on mass of dry solid) which is well known in soil mechanics but it also applies to earth buildings. (
  • In 23 cachectic and 44 noncachectic patients with CHF (age, 62 +/- 1 years, mean +/- SEM) and 10 healthy control subjects (age, 68 +/- 1 years), we assessed leg resting and postischemic peak vascular resistance (calculated from mean blood pressure and leg blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography). (
  • Polymatic Drip-Stop inhibits the capillary action that causes seam leakage. (
  • Ruben Valbuena and Stuart Sopp of Bangor University and SLU have calculated that for hydraulic resistance to work, there comes a point where the 'Rule of Trees' can no longer hold true. (
  • Peripheral capillary blood smears were pre- necessitates the use of alternative antima- pared, stained with Giemsa and examined larial drugs for the treatment of falciparum under oil immersion for parasites. (
  • Diabetes mellitus is impaired insulin secretion and variable degrees of peripheral insulin resistance leading to hyperglycemia. (
  • Back in 1661, Marcello Malpigi discovered the microscopic capillaries, and red blood cells in a specimen of a live tissue. (
  • Variation in antimicrobial resistance and corresponding changes of SGI1 were shown among isolates from a foodborne outbreak. (
  • Individual capillaries are part of the capillary bed, an interweaving network of capillaries supplying tissues and organs. (
  • The resistance pattern in RVC, LVC, and RDC samples (with or without FLM exposure) from BWE-treated horses was decreased overall, compared with control tissues (with or without FLM exposure). (
  • These capillaries lack pinocytotic vesicles, and therefore use gaps present in cell junctions to permit transfer between endothelial cells, and hence across the membrane. (
  • A liquid membrane does not produce any hydrodynamic resistance. (
  • Results indicate that acute exposure to low concentrations of ozone affects the caliber of the airways more than either the transfer of carbon monoxide across the alveolar-capillary membrane or alveolar surface forces (in the absence of pulmonary edema). (
  • Conclusions and Clinical Relevance -Treatment with an ET receptor antagonist and nitroglycerin resulted in significant improvement in vascular resistance in isolated perfused digits of anesthetized horses with CHO-induced laminitis. (
  • We aimed to study the relationship between serum uric acid levels and leg vascular resistance in patients with CHF with and without cachexia and in healthy control subjects. (
  • Hyperuricemia and postischemic leg vascular resistance are highest in cachectic patients with CHF, and both are directly related independent of diuretic dose and kidney function. (
  • There are two types of capillaries: true capillaries, which branch from arterioles and provide exchange between tissue and the capillary blood, and sinusoids, a type of open-pore capillary found in the liver, bone marrow, anterior pituitary gland, and brain circumventricular organs. (
  • These capillaries are a constituent of the blood-brain barrier. (
  • Ginkgo extract improve circulation to the capillaries of the brain, increase resistance and helps to prevent breakage. (
  • Therefore, the plant has to reduce in its volume as it reaches its extremities, causing a higher ratio of capillary to the surrounding plant mass. (
  • A plant reduces in volume as it reaches extremities, so to maintain that pressure, capillaries take up more space. (
  • Conclusion Insulin resistance, without dysglycaemia, is associated with abnormal developmental and pathological angiogenesis, and impaired functional response to the pro-angiogenic growth factor VEGF-A. Further studies are required to define the mechanism. (
  • In order to efficiently transport liquids from roots to leaf-tips, a tree's vascular channels need to maintain a certain dimension to maintain hydraulic resistance. (
  • The team used a model called Metabolic scaling theory to analyze a tree's vascular architecture, focusing on the hydraulic resistance - resistance to liquid flow along a given path - to locate a point in the vascular system that required a vascular width greater than that predicted by the "Rule of Trees. (
  • The vascular channels need to maintain some amount of volume to maintain hydraulic resistance. (
  • In a muscle the capillaries run along the length of the muscle fibres, as shown in Fig. 1, and the oxygen in the blood has to diffuse through the wall of the capillary into the muscle substance. (
  • In general, the data were explained by accepting the control of the gas-side resistance, which has been considered consistent with the high oxygen utilization efficiency of the copper converter. (
  • While capillary is usually used as a noun, the word also is used as an adjective, as in "capillary action", in which a liquid flows without influence of external forces, such as gravity. (
  • Blood flows from the heart through arteries, which branch and narrow into arterioles, and then branch further into capillaries where nutrients and wastes are exchanged. (
  • By direct observation, under the microscope, of living muscle, some from the frog, some from small mammals, it was comparatively easy to determine that the number of visible capillaries, which is the same as the number of capillaries through which blood flows, was rather small in resting muscle, and only increases very appreciably when the muscle has been active for some seconds. (
  • We should take into account that the resistance opposing the movement of a fluid through the pipe is inversely proportional to a third power of its radius. (
  • DRIFIRE / Crye Precision V2 FR Combat Shirt combines the permanent flame resistance, moisture wicking, and odor controlling properties of DRIFIRE fabric with the customizable fit of the Crye Precision design. (
  • The dewatering performance of sludge was evaluated using three common measurements, i.e. capillary suction time, specific resistance to filtration, and moisture content of the filtered sludge cake. (
  • Lymph capillaries have a greater internal oncotic pressure than blood capillaries, due to the greater concentration of plasma proteins in the lymph. (
  • In steady state, the cardiac output through the two systems is equal, and Ohm's law suggests that the pressure gradient required to pump through each system is inversely dependent on its resistance. (
  • This conclusion was rather daring at that stage, because it necessarily implied that the capillaries were not, as had hitherto been supposed by nearly everyone, tubes which quite passively permitted the passage of blood, and whose bore was determined by their internal pressure, but must have independent powers of contraction. (
  • Unfortunately, the balance between capillary pressure and viscous resistance limits the performance of these devices. (
  • The cycle is passive yet generates pressure gradients substantially larger (up to 100-fold) than capillary systems. (
  • Wayne Gretzky CBD Gummies is a healing resource for illnesses such as high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, resistance, prostate, and also joints. (
  • The fluorinated media showed capillary pressure properties that are more suitable for fuel-cell application. (
  • In the known plastic polytetrafluoroethylene has good chemical resistance and dielectric properties. (
  • It has the best chemical resistance and electrical properties in known plastics. (
  • PTFE exhibits astonishing chemical resistance. (
  • These results could be explained assuming a negligible chemical resistance in the bulk of the liquid, and so, only the gas phase and liquid boundary layer would contribute to the overall resistance, the liquid film becoming resistance controlling during the second kinetic stage. (
  • The question is: given the viscosity of blood, how can the heart make it flow throughout all the capillaries, even the narrowest ones? (
  • In isolated digits of anesthetized horses, CHO resulted in a significant decrease in digital blood flow associated with a significant increase in total and postcapillary resistances. (
  • In a pathologic state, PH of all forms leads to an increase in resistance to flow across the pulmonary vascular bed. (
  • When the small arteries constricted, and offered high resistance, the blood came to flow slowly through all capillaries. (
  • A capillary is a small blood vessel, from 5 to 10 micrometres in diameter, and is part of the microcirculation system. (
  • The meaning stems from the tiny, hairlike diameter of a capillary. (
  • Lymphatic capillaries are slightly larger in diameter than blood capillaries, and have closed ends (unlike the blood capillaries open at one end to the arterioles and open at the other end to the venules). (
  • Fenestrated capillaries have pores known as fenestrae (Latin for "windows") in the endothelial cells that are 60-80 nanometres (nm) in diameter. (
  • The structure of a cell enables it to change its shape while moving along the narrow capillaries, which are narrower than the diameter of an erythrocyte. (
  • Continuous capillaries are continuous in the sense that the endothelial cells provide an uninterrupted lining, and they only allow smaller molecules, such as water and ions, to pass through their intercellular clefts. (
  • The pattern provides a smaller surface area for water molecules to grab, decreasing capillary drag. (
  • Their high affinity with water molecules allows capillary condensations or adsorptions phenomena. (
  • Fuel cells with fluorinated materials in the cathodes showed better performance, lower ohmic resistance, and lower liquid water amount in the cathode. (
  • Thus, a cell becomes quasi-liquid, and does not put up a lot or resistance as it moves along. (
  • Due to this property, earthen material is a porous medium with a quite low resistance to the vapor and liquid transfers. (
  • Postcapillary resistance was significantly decreased following treatment with the ET receptor antagonist but was not altered by treatment with nitroglycerin. (
  • Continuous capillaries can be further divided into two subtypes: Those with numerous transport vesicles, which are found primarily in skeletal muscles, fingers, gonads, and skin. (
  • During resistance training sessions, muscular performance is primarily dependent on anaerobic energy metabolism (phosphagen system). (
  • Copper tubes are a preferred choice in HVACR systems due to their exceptional heat transfer properties, corrosion resistance, and durability, making them essential components for efficient heat exchange. (
  • Heat fluxes obtained in this manner exceed those of capillary systems and are ~O(500W/cm^2). (
  • To date, models of hummingbird foraging have been based on the almost two-centuries-old assumption that capillary rise loads nectar into hummingbird tongue grooves. (
  • At first, earth walls are quite thick (30 to 50 cm) and are separated from the ground by a basement which is designed to prevent capillary rise. (
  • The new Lake Shore Model 372 AC resistance bridge and temperature controller makes it easy to perform multiple tasks that were once very difficult to perform reliably at very low temperatures, including temperature measurement, automatic and manual temperature control, and device or sample impedance measurements. (
  • All the capillaries are open, and of about the same width, so that the blood passes through all of them at about the same rate. (
  • Blood capillaries are categorized into three types: continuous, fenestrated, and sinusoidal (also known as discontinuous). (
  • In the mesentery, metarterioles form an additional stage between arterioles and capillaries. (
  • In terms of shape, erythrocytes become more streamlined as they move through the capillaries. (
  • This rate was thought to be regulated by the greater or lesser contraction of the small arteries, which convey blood to the capillaries. (
  • Most capillary telangiectasias are clinically silent and are found on autopsy. (
  • The 5 resistance genes are found in a multidrug resistance (MDR) region that is located on the chromosome in a region termed Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) ( 2 ). (
  • The capillaries then join and widen to become venules, which in turn widen and converge to become veins, which then return blood back to the heart through the venae cavae. (
  • Nevertheless, as has been stated before [ 1 ], the relationship between desulfurization rate and sulfur conversion during the copper blow in PS was incompatible with controlling resistance in the gas phase. (
  • These advancements include innovations in copper alloy compositions, leading to enhanced corrosion resistance and durability, reducing maintenance requirements. (