The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
One of the HISTAMINE H1 ANTAGONISTS with little sedative action. It is used in treatment of hay fever, rhinitis, allergic dermatoses, and pruritus.
A condition characterized by recurring episodes of fluid leaking from capillaries into extra-vascular compartments causing hematocrit to rise precipitously. If not treated, generalized vascular leak can lead to generalized EDEMA; SHOCK; cardiovascular collapse; and MULTIPLE ORGAN FAILURE.
Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)
The widespread involvement of the skin by a scaly, erythematous dermatitis occurring either as a secondary or reactive process to an underlying cutaneous disorder (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, etc.), or as a primary or idiopathic disease. It is often associated with the loss of hair and nails, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, and pruritus. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of corticosteroids. It has been used by mouth in the treatment of all conditions in which corticosteroid therapy is indicated except adrenal-deficiency states for which its lack of sodium-retaining properties makes it less suitable than HYDROCORTISONE with supplementary FLUDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p737)
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A complication of OVULATION INDUCTION in infertility treatment. It is graded by the severity of symptoms which include OVARY enlargement, multiple OVARIAN FOLLICLES; OVARIAN CYSTS; ASCITES; and generalized EDEMA. The full-blown syndrome may lead to RENAL FAILURE, respiratory distress, and even DEATH. Increased capillary permeability is caused by the vasoactive substances, such as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS, secreted by the overly-stimulated OVARIES.
Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A phenomenon in which the surface of a liquid where it contacts a solid is elevated or depressed, because of the relative attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The vascular resistance to the flow of BLOOD through the CAPILLARIES portions of the peripheral vascular bed.
A dull red, firm, dome-shaped hemangioma, sharply demarcated from surrounding skin, usually located on the head and neck, which grows rapidly and generally undergoes regression and involution without scarring. It is caused by proliferation of immature capillary vessels in active stroma, and is usually present at birth or occurs within the first two or three months of life. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A separation technique which combines LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY and CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS.
Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.
Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.
Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A complex of gadolinium with a chelating agent, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA see PENTETIC ACID), that is given to enhance the image in cranial and spinal MRIs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Soft tissue formed mainly by the pelvic diaphragm, which is composed of the two levator ani and two coccygeus muscles. The pelvic diaphragm lies just below the pelvic aperture (outlet) and separates the pelvic cavity from the PERINEUM. It extends between the PUBIC BONE anteriorly and the COCCYX posteriorly.
A highly toxic gas that has been used as a chemical warfare agent. It is an insidious poison as it is not irritating immediately, even when fatal concentrations are inhaled. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p7304)
A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).
The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.

Potent mast cell degranulation and vascular permeability triggered by urocortin through activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors. (1/3442)

Urocortin (Ucn) is related to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and both are released in the brain under stress where they stimulate CRH 1 and 2 receptors (CRHR). Outside the brain, they may have proinflammatory actions through activation of mast cells, which are located perivascularly close to nerve endings and degranulate in response to acute psychological stress. Here, we report that a concentration of intradermal Ucn as low as 10 nM induced dose-dependent rat skin mast cell degranulation and increased vascular permeability. This effect appeared to be equipotent to that of calcitonin gene-related peptide and neurotensin. Ucn-induced skin vasodilation was inhibited by pretreatment with the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate (cromolyn) and was absent in the mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice. The selective nonpeptide CRH receptor 1 antagonist, antalarmin and the nonselective peptide antagonist astressin both reduced vascular permeability triggered by Ucn but not that by Substance P or histamine. In contrast, the peptide antagonist alpha-helical CRH-(9-41) reduced the effect of all three. The vasodilatory effect of Ucn was largely inhibited by pretreatment with H1 receptor antagonists, suggesting that histamine is the major mediator involved in vitro. Neuropeptide depletion of sensory neurons, treatment with the ganglionic blocker hexamethonium, or in situ skin infiltration with the local anesthetic lidocaine did not affect Ucn-induced vascular permeability, indicating that its in situ effect was not mediated through the peripheral nervous system. These results indicate that Ucn is one of the most potent triggers of rat mast cell degranulation and skin vascular permeability. This effect of Ucn may explain stress-induced disorders, such as atopic dermatitis or psoriasis, and may lead to new forms of treatment.  (+info)

Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists. (2/3442)

1. Subcutaneous injection of sodium deoxycholic acid into the anterior of the back of male ddY mice elicited dose-dependent scratching of the injected site with the forepaws and hindpaws. 2. Up to 100 microg of sodium deoxycholic acid induced no significant increase in vascular permeability at the injection site as assessed by a dye leakage method. 3. Bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor antagonists, FR173657 and Hoe140, significantly decreased the frequency of scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. 4. Treatment with aprotinin to inhibit tissue kallikrein reduced the scratching behaviour induced by sodium deoxycholic acid, whereas treatment with soybean trypsin inhibitor to inhibit plasma kallikrein did not. 5. Although injection of kininase II inhibitor, lisinopril together with sodium deoxycholic acid did not alter the scratching behaviour, phosphoramidon, a neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, significantly increased the frequency of scratching. 6. Homogenates of the skin excised from the backs of mice were subjected to gel-filtration column chromatography followed by an assay of kinin release by trypsin from each fraction separated. Less kinin release from the fractions containing kininogen of low molecular weight was observed in the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid than in normal skin. 7. The frequency of scratching after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid in plasma kininogen-deficient Brown Norway Katholiek rats was significantly lower than that in normal rats of the same strain, Brown Norway Kitasato rats. 8. These results indicate that BK released from low-molecular-weight kininogen by tissue kallikrein, but not from high-molecular-weight kininogen by plasma kallikrein, may be involved in the scratching behaviour induced by the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid in the rodent.  (+info)

Role for nitric oxide in the hyperpermeability and hemodynamic changes induced by intravenous VEGF. (3/3442)

PURPOSE: To explore the effects of brief intravenous (IV) infusion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on vascular albumin permeability, blood flow, and vascular conductance (blood flow normalized to arterial blood pressure) in ocular tissues and brain and to assess the role of nitric oxide in mediating these changes. METHODS: A quantitative, double-tracer, radiolabeled albumin permeation method was combined with radiolabeled microspheres for assessment of changes in vascular permeability and blood flow, respectively, induced in ocular tissues by IV infusion of recombinant human VEGF165 for 20 minutes (80-450 picomoles/kg body weight). An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; 50 micromoles/kg body weight infused simultaneously with VEGF), was used to explore the role of nitric oxide in mediating the vascular changes induced by VEGF. RESULTS: Infusion of VEGF165 in thiopental-anesthetized rats dose-dependently increased 125I albumin permeation in the retina, anterior uvea, and choroid/sclera and in brain, aorta, lung, kidney, small intestine, and peripheral nerve. Mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, and stroke volume were decreased only at the highest dose of VEGF, whereas heart rate remained unchanged. Blood flow was increased in the anterior uvea, and vascular conductance was increased in retina, anterior uvea, choroid/sclera, and brain at the highest dose of VEGF. The NOS inhibitor, L-NMMA, blocked VEGF-induced vascular hyperpermeability in all ocular and nonocular tissues, prevented the increase in vascular conductance in all ocular tissues, and blocked the decrease in mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, and stroke volume. Infusion of L-NMMA alone decreased vascular conductance in choroid/sclera and kidney, slightly increased mean arterial blood pressure, and in general, did not affect 125I-albumin permeation. (L-NMMA slightly decreased albumin permeation in the retina and increased it in the brain.) CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous infusion of VEGF can acutely impair endothelial cell barrier functional integrity and relax resistance arterioles in ocular tissues and brain through a mechanism involving activation of NOS.  (+info)

Strain-dependent induction of allergic sensitization caused by peanut allergen DNA immunization in mice. (4/3442)

To investigate the potential application of allergen gene immunization in the modulation of food allergy, C3H/HeSn (C3H) mice received i.m. injections of pAra h2 plasmid DNA encoding one of the major peanut allergens, Ara h2. Three weeks following pDNA immunization, serum Ara h2-specific IgG2a, IgG1, but not IgE, were increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. IgG1 was 30-fold higher in multiply compared with singly immunized mice. Ara h2 or peanut protein injection of immunized mice induced anaphylactic reactions, which were more severe in multiply immunized mice. Heat-inactivated immune serum induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, suggesting that anaphylaxis in C3H mice was mediated by IgG1. IgG1 responses were also induced by intradermal injection of pAra h2, and by i.m. injection of pOMC, the plasmid DNA encoding the major egg allergen protein, ovomucoid. To elucidate whether the pDNA immunization-induced anaphylaxis was a strain-dependent phenomenon, AKR/J and BALB/c mice also received multiple i.m. pAra h2 immunizations. Injection of peanut protein into these strains at weeks 3 or 5 following immunization did not induce reactions. Although IgG2a was increased significantly from week 2 in AKR/J mice and from week 4 in BALB/c mice and remained elevated for at least 6 wk, no IgG1 or IgE was detected. These results indicate that the type of immune responses to pDNA immunization in mice is strain dependent. Consequently, models for studying human allergen gene immunization require careful selection of suitable strains. In addition, this suggests that similar interindividual variation is likely in humans.  (+info)

Antipsoriatic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects of an extract of red propolis. (5/3442)

AIM: To study the antipsoriatic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects of ethanolic extract of red propolis. METHODS AND RESULTS: This extract induced the formation of granular layer in the mouse tail test used as a model of psoriasis. Propolis 50 mg.kg-1 i.g. showed anti-inflammatory activity in the cotton-pellet granuloma assay in rats, in croton oil-induced edema in mice at a dose of 25% (2.5 microL), and in the peritoneal capillary permeability test in mice at a dose of 10 mg.kg-1. The extract (25 mg.kg-1 i.g.) showed analgesic effect in the model of acetic acid-induced writhings, whereas 40 mg.kg-1 was effective in the hot plate test in mice. CONCLUSION: Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipsoriatric properties of Cuban red propolis were evident.  (+info)

Endogenous nitric oxide in the maintenance of rat microvascular integrity against widespread plasma leakage following abdominal laparotomy. (6/3442)

1. The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the maintenance of microvascular integrity during minor surgical manipulation has been evaluated in the rat. 2. The NO synthase inhibitors, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 5 mg kg(-1), s.c.) and N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 50 mg kg(-1), s.c.) had no effect on microvascular leakage of radiolabelled albumin over 1 h in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, colon, lung and kidney in the un-operated conscious or pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rat. 3. In contrast, in anaesthetized rats with a midline abdominal laparotomy (5 cm), L-NAME (1-5 mg kg(-1), s.c.) or L-NMMA (12.5-50 mg kg(-1), s.c.) dose-dependently increased gastrointestinal, renal and pulmonary vascular leakage, effects reversed by L-arginine pretreatment (300 mg kg(-1), s.c., 15 min). These actions were not observed in anaesthetized rats that had only received a midline abdominal skin incision (5 cm). 4. Pretreatment with a rabbit anti-rat neutrophil serum (0.4 ml kg(-1), i.p.), 4 h before laparotomy, abolished the plasma leakage induced by L-NAME in all the organs investigated. 5. These results indicate that the following abdominal laparotomy, inhibition of constitutive NO synthase provokes vascular leakage in the general microcirculation, by a process that may involve neutrophils. Such effects could thus confound studies on the microvascular actions of NO synthase inhibitors using acute surgically prepared in vivo models. The findings thus suggest that constitutively-formed NO has a crucial role in the maintenance of acute microvascular integrity following abdominal surgical intervention.  (+info)

Neurogenic plasma leakage in mouse airways. (7/3442)

1. This study sought to determine whether neurogenic inflammation occurs in the airways by examining the effects of capsaicin or substance P on microvascular plasma leakage in the trachea and lungs of male pathogen-free C57BL/6 mice. 2. Single bolus intravenous injections of capsaicin (0.5 and 1 micromol kg(-1), i.v.) or substance P (1, 10 and 37 nmol kg(-10, i.v.) failed to induce significant leakage in the trachea, assessed as extravasation of Evans blue dye, but did induce leakage in the urinary bladder and skin. 3. Pretreatment with captopril (2.5 mg kg(-1), i.v.), a selective inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), either alone or in combination with phosphoramidon (2.5 mg kg(-1), i.v.), a selective inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase (NEP), increased baseline leakage of Evans blue in the absence of any exogenous inflammatory mediator. The increase was reversed by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist Hoe 140 (0.1 mg kg(-1), i.v.). 4. After pretreatment with phosphoramidon and captopril, capsaicin increased the Evans blue leakage above the baseline in the trachea, but not in the lung. This increase was reversed by the tachykinin (NK1) receptor antagonist SR 140333 (0.7 mg kg(-1), i.v.), but not by the NK2 receptor antagonist SR 48968 (1 mg kg(-1), i.v.). 5. Experiments using Monastral blue pigment as a tracer localized the leakage to postcapillary venules in the trachea and intrapulmonary bronchi, although the labelled vessels were less numerous in mice than in comparably treated rats. Blood vessels of the pulmonary circulation were not labelled. 6. We conclude that neurogenic inflammation can occur in airways of pathogen-free mice, but only after the inhibition of enzymes that normally degrade inflammatory peptides. Neurogenic inflammation does not involve the pulmonary microvasculature.  (+info)

Enhancement of fluid filtration across tumor vessels: implication for delivery of macromolecules. (8/3442)

Cancer therapies using genes and other macromolecules might realize their full clinical potential if they could be delivered to tumor tissue in optimal quantities. Unfortunately, the compromised circulation within tumors poses a formidable resistance to adequate and uniform penetration of these agents. Previously, we have proposed elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) as a major physiological barrier to delivery of macromolecules. Here we postulate that modulation of tumor microvascular pressure (MVP) and associated changes in IFP would enhance macromolecular delivery into a solid tumor. To test our hypothesis, we altered tumor MVP by either periodic injection or continuous infusion of angiotensin II (AII) and measured the resulting changes in IFP and uptake of macromolecules. We used the nicotinyl hydrazine derivative of human polyclonal IgG (HYNIC-IgG) as a nonspecific macromolecule and CC49 antibody as a specific macromolecule. We found that both chronic and periodic modulation of tumor MVP enhances transvascular fluid filtration, leading to a 40% increase in total uptake of the specific antibody within 4 hr of its administration. Conversely, neither continuous nor periodic infusion of AII induced any increase in uptake of nonspecific antibodies. Strategies to improve delivery of macromolecules and limitations of this approach are identified.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Magnitude-dependent regulation of pulmonary endothelial cell barrier function by cyclic stretch. AU - Birukov, Konstantin G.. AU - Jacobson, Jeffrey R.. AU - Flores, Alejandro A.. AU - Ye, Shui Q.. AU - Birukova, Anna A.. AU - Verin, Alexander D.. AU - Garcia, Joe G.N.. PY - 2003/10/1. Y1 - 2003/10/1. N2 - Ventilator-induced lung injury syndromes are characterized by profound increases in vascular leakiness and activation of inflammatory processes. To explore whether excessive cyclic stretch (CS) directly causes vascular barrier disruption or enhances endothelial cell sensitivity to edemagenic agents, human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC) were exposed to physiologically (5% elongation) or pathologically (18% elongation) relevant levels of strain. CS produced rapid (10 min) increases in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, activation of p38 and extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 MAP kinases, and actomyosin remodeling. Acute (15 min) and chronic (48 h) CS ...
Capillary permeability factor definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rapid calcium-dependent reduction of intraendothelial cAMP. T2 - A trigger to increase vascular permeability?. AU - Adamson, Roger H.. AU - Curry, Fitz Roy E. PY - 2009/8/15. Y1 - 2009/8/15. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=68949098205&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=68949098205&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1113/jphysiol.2009.177816. DO - 10.1113/jphysiol.2009.177816. M3 - Article. C2 - 19684224. AN - SCOPUS:68949098205. VL - 587. SP - 3975. JO - Journal of Physiology. JF - Journal of Physiology. SN - 0022-3751. IS - 16. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fibrinogen-γ C-Terminal fragments induce endothelial barrier dysfunction and microvascular leak via integrin-mediated and RhoA-dependent mechanism. AU - Guo, Mingzhang. AU - Daines, Dayle. AU - Tang, Jing. AU - Shen, Qiang. AU - Perrin, Rachel M.. AU - Takada, Yoshikazu. AU - Yuan, Sarah Y.. AU - Wu, Mack H.. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - Objectives - The purposes of this study were to characterize the direct effect of the C-terminal fragment of fibrinogen γ chain (γC) on microvascular endothelial permeability and to examine its molecular mechanism of action. Methods and Results-Intravital microscopy was performed to measure albumin extravasation in intact mesenteric microvasculature, followed by quantification of hydraulic conductivity in single perfused micro vessels. Transendothelial electric resistance was measured in microvascular endothelial cells in combination with immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. The results show that γC induced time- and ...
A simple, linear kinetic model has been developed for the noninvasive assessment of capillary permeability to macromolecules in the rat by dynamic magnetic resonance imaging using albumin-Gd-DTPA. Data required by the model are signal intensity responses from a target tissue and a venous structure s …
Inhibitory effects of sasanquasaponin on over-expression of ICAM-1 and on enhancement of capillary permeability induced by burns in rats. - Qiren Huang, Lijian Shao, Ming He, Heping Chen, Dan Liu, Yongming Luo, Yucheng Dai
Vascular permeability factor (VPF) is a 40-kilodalton disulfide-linked dimeric glycoprotein that is active in increasing blood vessel permeability, endothelial cell growth, and angiogenesis. These properties suggest that the expression of VPF by tumor cells could contribute to the increased neovascularization and vessel permeability that are associated with tumor vasculature. The cDNA sequence of VPF from human U937 cells was shown to code for a 189-amino acid polypeptide that is similar in structure to the B chain of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-B) and other PDGF-B-related proteins. The overall identity with PDGF-B is 18%. However, all eight of the cysteines in PDGF-B were found to be conserved in human VPF, an indication that the folding of the two proteins is probably similar. Clusters of basic amino acids in the COOH-terminal halves of human VPF and PDGF-B are also prevalent. Thus, VPF appears to be related to the PDGF/v-sis family of proteins.
Our finding that short-term treatment with imatinib protects against endothelial barrier dysfunction and edema formation provides first mechanistic insight regarding previous case reports on patients in whom initiation of imatinib treatment was followed by fast resolution of pulmonary edema.5,11 Combining in vitro and in vivo measurements of endothelial barrier dysfunction and vascular leakage, we found that imatinib protects against edema formation by enforcing the endothelial barrier. Although edema formation and vascular leakage may also be affected by changes in blood pressure, microvascular perfusion, or vascular remodeling, these factors are less likely to underlie the protective effect of imatinib. Alteration of blood pressure and microvascular perfusion as explanation for edema resolution was excluded in this study, because (1) imatinib did not affect systemic blood pressure in an experimental set-up similar to the Miles assay or Kfc measurements, (2) the pressure and the flow in the ...
Background and Objective: Impairment of the regulation of tissue fluid homeostasis and migration of blood cells across the endothelial barrier are crucial factors in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Thus, a goal for treatment of ALI is to target the pathways that lead to profound dysregulation of the restrictive endothelial barrier, and thereby restore lung microvascular endothelial barrier function and inhibit protein-rich tissue fluid accumulation. Here we test the hypothesis that epigenetic modifiers TSA (Trichostatin-A, a HDAC inhibitor) and Aza (5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, a DNA methyl transferase inhibitor) together inhibit the LPS/thrombin induced eNOS/RhoA signaling and restore AJ integrity and diminished endothelial hyperpermeability.. Methods and Results: The signaling, AJ integrity and endothelial permeability were assessed by RT-PCR and western blot analysis; transendothelial resistance (TER) and lung endothelial permeability were measured by capillary filtration coefficient ...
The control of fluid introduction into and out of body conduits such as vessels, is of great concern in medicine. As the development of more particular treatments to vessels and organs continues it is apparent that controlled introduction and removal of fluids is necessary. Fluid delivery and removal from such sites, usually referred to as irrigation and aspiration, using fluid exchange devices that control also need to be considerate of potential volume and/or pressure in the vessel or organ are described together with catheter and lumen configurations to achieve the fluid exchange. The devices include several electrically or mechanically controlled embodiments and produce both controlled and localized flow with defined volume exchange ratios for fluid management. The applications in medicine include diagnostic, therapeutic, imaging, and uses for the introduction or removal of concentrations of emboli within body cavities.
Dr. Garcia is an authority on the genetic basis of inflammatory lung disease (with an emphasis on health disparities) and on the mechanistic basis of lung vascular permeability. Using bench-to-bedside approaches, his lab has explored novel methods to prevent vascular leak and to restore endothelial cell barrier function and vascular integrity. This expertise in lung inflammation and vascular permeability provides a natural linkage to interrogation of lung vascular contribution to the development of lung metastases.. Leveraging their genomic expertise, in recent years, Dr. Garcias lab has identified vascular genes whose products are key participants in inflammatory lung injury that also play a role in cancer development. They have developed lung endothelial inflammatory gene expression profiles as well as diagnostic gene signatures influenced by MYLK and NAMPT that impact lung and breast cancer prognosis. This work with NAMPT led to development of a therapeutic NAMPT neutralizing antibody that ...
AJs disassemble and reassemble in endothelial monolayers in response to proinflammatory mediators such as thrombin.29 AJ reassembly precedes the restoration of vascular endothelial barrier integrity.29-31 However, the signals responsible for recovery of endothelial barrier function are incompletely understood. Herein, we addressed the basis for the reformation of AJs and the subsequent recovery of endothelial barrier function. Reassembly of AJs in epithelial cells has been linked to activation of Rho GTPases.32 The Rho family of proteins, known to translocate to membranes on activation, is responsible for actin cytoskeleton rearrangements affecting chemotaxis, cell motility, vesicular trafficking, and cell-cell adhesion.22 We assessed the time course of activation of Rho GTPases after thrombin and found that Cdc42 was activated during the phase of AJ reformation. This finding is consistent with evidence that Cdc42 was not involved in signaling the increase in endothelial permeability induced by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A potential role for CD8+ T-cells as regulators of CNS vascular permeability. AU - Suidan, Georgette L.. AU - Pirko, Istvan. AU - Johnson, Aaron J.. PY - 2006/4/1. Y1 - 2006/4/1. N2 - The role of immune cells in promoting central nervous system (CNS) vascular permeability is poorly understood. In recent years, there is a growing body of literature that suggests CD8+ T-cells are potent mediators of vascular permeability in peripheral viral infections as well as in immune mediated neurological diseases. This review outlines the recent advances in tissue culture and animal models used to study vascular permeability. In addition, we put forth our hypothesis that CD8+ T-cells promote the opening of tight junctions between cerebral endothelial cells, enabling the infiltration of white blood cells and in certain models even leading to microhemorrhages in the CNS. Determining the mechanism by which CD8+ T-cells and other immune cells promote CNS vascular permeability in animal models ...
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These studies are the first to show that the anti-angiogenic VEGF-A165b does not disturb the junctional occupancy of VE-cadherin or induce paracellular tracer leakage in the human placental microvascular bed and HUVEC monolayers. Indeed, VEGF-A165b (at a 2-fold concentration) can block/reverse VEGF-A165a-mediated increases in feto-placental endothelial permeability to macromolecules (75 kDa) and loss of VE-cadherin from AJs. In these experiments, PlGF did not affect endothelial integrity, VE-cadherin localization and permeability when added singly; however, it could prevent the rescue of VEGF-A165a-mediated effects by VEGF-A165b.. The similarities between the observed induced changes in both fetal endothelial cell cultures and the more physiological and complex perfused microvascular bed are re-assuring. Placental microvessels showed a robust response to a 30 min perfusion of exogenous VEGF-A165a, with loss of VE-cadherin and increased vascular leak of 76 kDa dextrans. These changes were not ...
A role for NRP1 in driving the effects of VEGF on vascular permeability was revealed in experiments in which NRP1 and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) were cotransfected (23), and was recently confirmed with the use of NRP1 inhibitors (24). The capacity of VEGF to promote tumor vessel leakiness (25) is actually the first property that led to the identification of this factor [initially described as the vascular permeability factor (26)]. A VEGF-like effect of CendR through its binding to NRP1 could therefore account for an increase in the tumor vessel surface of exchange and for a global elevation in vascular permeability, which is beneficial for the penetration of small drugs and macromolecules. The limitation of the number and capacity of receptors for targeted ligands is also less acute, because generic drug transport pathways are made available through paracellular permeability (passage between endothelial cells that involves localized disruption of cell junctions) or transcytosis (transport through ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The ARP 2/3 complex mediates endothelial barrier function and recovery. AU - Belvitch, Patrick. AU - Brown, Mary E.. AU - Brinley, Brittany N.. AU - Letsiou, Eleftheria. AU - Rizzo, Alicia N.. AU - Garcia, Joe G.N.. AU - Dudek, Steven M.. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Pulmonary endothelial cell (EC) barrier dysfunction and recovery is critical to the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Cytoskeletal and subsequent cell membrane dynamics play a key mechanistic role in determination of EC barrier integrity. Here, we characterizAQe the actin related protein 2/3 (Arp 2/3) complex, a regulator of peripheral branched actin polymerization, in human pulmonary EC barrier function through studies of transendothelial electrical resistance (TER), intercellular gap formation, peripheral cytoskeletal structures and lamellipodia. Compared to control, Arp 2/3 inhibition with the small molecule inhibitor CK-666 results in a reduction of baseline barrier function (1,241±53 ...
Increased microvascular permeability to plasma proteins and neutrophil emigration are hallmarks of innate immunity and key features of numerous inflammatory disorders. Although neutrophils can promote microvascular leakage, the impact of vascular permeability on neutrophil trafficking is unknown. Here, through the application of confocal intravital microscopy, we report that vascular permeability-enhancing stimuli caused a significant frequency of neutrophil reverse transendothelial cell migration (rTEM). Furthermore, mice with a selective defect in microvascular permeability enhancement (VEC-Y685F-ki) showed reduced incidence of neutrophil rTEM. Mechanistically, elevated vascular leakage promoted movement of interstitial chemokines into the bloodstream, a response that supported abluminal-to-luminal neutrophil TEM. Through development of an in vivo cell labeling method we provide direct evidence for the systemic dissemination of rTEM neutrophils, and showed them to exhibit an activated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine and nicotine on blood flow and vascular permeability at the implantation site in the rat. AU - Hammer, Robert E. AU - Goldman, H.. AU - Mitchell, J. A.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019429590&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0019429590&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0019429590. VL - 199. SP - 104A. JO - Anatomical Record - Part A Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology. JF - Anatomical Record - Part A Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology. SN - 0003-276X. IS - 3. ER - ...
Drug distribution is the process by which a drug reversibly leaves the bloodstream and enters the interstitium (extracellular fluid) and the tissues
The research focus of Rolf Reeds group is on the how the extracellular matrix participates in determining the properties of the tumors and how this in turn is reflected in growth and metastasis. Additional foci have been on how collagen binding integrins influence these properties and also how tumor hypoxia does the same.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nuclear targeting of beta-catenin and p120ctn during thrombin-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction. AU - Beckers, C.M.L.. AU - Garcia Vallejo, J.J.. AU - van Hinsbergh, V.W.M.. AU - van Nieuw Amerongen, G.P.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. U2 - 10.1093/cvr/cvn127. DO - 10.1093/cvr/cvn127. M3 - Article. C2 - 18490349. VL - 79. SP - 679. EP - 688. JO - Cardiovascular Research. JF - Cardiovascular Research. SN - 0008-6363. IS - 4. ER - ...
The endothelial barrier function maintains vascular and tissue homeostasis, and therefore modulates many cardinal physiological processes such as angiogenesis, immune responses, and dynamic fluid exchanges throughout organs.
Purpose: Before metastasis, primary tumor can create a premetastatic niche in distant organ to facilitate the dissemination of tumor cells. In the premetastatic phase, the permeability of pulmonary vasculatures is increased to accelerate the extravasation of circulating tumor cells. However, it is not clear whether local miRNAs contribute to the vascular hyperpermeability of the premetastatic niche. Experimental Design: The expression of total miRNAs was determined using microarray in series of premetastatic lungs from tumor-bearing mice. Significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and validated with qRT-PCR. Vascular permeability assays, vascular mimic systems, and orthotopic tumor models were used to investigate roles of selected miRNAs and target genes in premetastatic hyperpermeability. Results: We identified a miRNA signature in premetastatic lungs. Among these miRNAs, miR-30a, b, c, d and e were significantly attenuated. Subsequent investigations elucidated that lung ...
W.C. Sangren and C.W. Sheppard. A mathematical derivation of the exchange of a labelled substance between a liquid flowing in a vessel and an external compartment. Bull Math BioPhys, 15, 387-394, 1953. C.A. Goresky, W.H. Ziegler, and G.G. Bach. Capillary exchange modeling: Barrier-limited and flow-limited distribution. Circ Res 27: 739-764, 1970. J.B. Bassingthwaighte. A concurrent flow model for extraction during transcapillary passage. Circ Res 35:483-503, 1974. B. Guller, T. Yipintsoi, A.L. Orvis, and J.B. Bassingthwaighte. Myocardial sodium extraction at varied coronary flows in the dog: Estimation of capillary permeability by residue and outflow detection. Circ Res 37: 359-378, 1975. C.P. Rose, C.A. Goresky, and G.G. Bach. The capillary and sarcolemmal barriers in the heart--an exploration of labelled water permeability. Circ Res 41: 515, 1977. J.B. Bassingthwaighte, C.Y. Wang, and I.S. Chan. Blood-tissue exchange via transport and transformation by endothelial cells. Circ. Res. ...
This study provides compelling evidence that in marmoset EAE, which forms lesions strongly resembling those of MS, early changes in vascular permeability are associated with perivascular inflammatory cuffing and parenchymal microglial activation but precede the arrival of blood-derived monocytes tha …
The endothelium is the simple squamous epithelium that lines the innermost layer of the cardiovascular and lymphatic vessels and is continuous with the endocardial lining of the heart. Endothelial cells are active participants in a variety of vessel-related activities, including mechanical influences on blood flow, regulation of the transport of macromolecules and blood components from the interstitium to the lumen of the vessel, secretion of chemical mediators that influence the contractile state of the overlying smooth muscle, and contribution to capillary permeability. In addition, their smooth luminal surface facilitates efficient blood flow by reducing surface friction. The vascular endothelium is divided into arterial and venous endothelia, with additional differences between larger and smaller vessels.. The fenestrated endothelium, present in organs, such as the kidney and liver, that reabsorb water and small molecules or hormones, is characterized by the presence of circular windows in ...
Keywords: Thiazolidinediones, Rosiglitazone, Endothelial cells, Vascular permeability, Edema, Akt Background Cardiovascular disease is normally a leading trigger of loss of life related to atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis takes place from a series of proinflammatory, proliferative, and procoagulatory procedures [1, 2]. Affected endothelial cell function has a vital function in the development of atherosclerosis [3]. Endothelial disorder can become characterized as an modification in cell migration and permeability. Endothelial cell migration entails the neovascularization of atherosclerotic plaques and causes plaques to become vulnerable. In addition, newly created small ships can provide an access for inflammatory cells [4]. Under physiological conditions, endothelial cells provide a buffer between blood ships and cells [5, 6]. However, inflammatory stimuli can increase endothelial permeability [6, 7] and enable the movement of macromolecules such as vascular endothelial growth element (VEGF), ...
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Capillary filtration utilizes cross flow as opposed to dead end feed flow, but feature smaller feed channels vs. tubular membranes.
Antigen combine with antibody. Mast cells & basophils release chemotactic agents. Histamine release causes vessel dilation and. Contraction of smooth muscles Result in increased capillary permeability and constriction of bronchioles ...
Optimal control of diabetes should achieve not only euglycemia and normal levels of glycosylated hemoglobin but also absence of the reversible concomitants of diabetes such as red cell rigidity, hyperlipidemia, increased capillary permeability, enlargement of the kidneys, proteinuria, etc. Unfortunately, in most patients consistent euglycemia cannot be assured even with two daily injections of insulin. However, self-measurement of blood glucose as a guide to insulin taken before each meal and at bedtime can, in selected patients, increase the frequency of normal glucose levels without undue hypoglycemia.. ...
My last post lead me to discover that resveratrol (RES) impacts the microbiome as shown in the diagram below. In particular, reduced unclassified bacteria. I had cover this in Resveratrol Revisited in 2015 suggested dosage 500-1000 mg/day strong antioxidant activity, antibacterial, antiviral, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, and vasodilatory actions, inhibit lipid peroxidation, platelet aggregation, capillary permeability and fragility [2000]…
Blood Separators separate platelets from blood. A bearing is used to to provide rotary fluid exchange between the collection tray & the separator unit.
Blood Separators separate platelets from blood. A bearing is used to to provide rotary fluid exchange between the collection tray & the separator unit.
Capillary leak syndrome is characterized by the escape of blood plasma through capillary walls, from the blood circulatory system to surrounding tissues, muscle compartments, organs or body cavities. It is a phenomenon most commonly witnessed in sepsis, and less frequently in autoimmune diseases, differentiation syndrome, engraftment syndrome, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, viral hemorrhagic fevers, and snakebite and ricin poisoning. Pharmaceuticals, including the chemotherapy medication gemcitabine, as well as certain interleukins and monoclonal antibodies, can also cause capillary leaks. These conditions and factors are sources of secondary capillary leak syndrome. Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS, or Clarksons disease), or primary capillary leak syndrome, is a rare, grave and episodic medical condition observed largely in otherwise healthy individuals mostly in middle age. It is characterized by self-reversing episodes during which the ...
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Abstract: : Purpose: Previously, we demonstrated that Pigment Epithelial Derived Factor (PEDF) blocks VEGF-induced retinal vascular permeability in vivo in a dose dependent manner. Since an increase in VEGF expression and retinal vascular leakage is associated with diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema, we investigated whether exogenously added PEDF could inhibit diabetes-induced retinal vascular permeability. Methods: Retinal vascular leakage in non-diabetic and STZ-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats was measured by the Evans Blue albumin permeation technique. At days 11 and 13 after induction of diabetes, 10 ul of PEDF (200 ng/eye, 40nM final) was injected into one eye and vehicle (0.1% BSA in PBS) was injected into the contralateral eye under sterile conditions. The intact condition of each eye and retina was assessed 24 hours after each injection. At day 14, the animals were sacrificed and retinal vascular permeability was determined. Results: Vascular leakage was increased by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Microvascular permeability changes in ischemia/reperfusion injury in the ascending colon of horses.. AU - Henninger, D. D.. AU - Snyder, J. R.. AU - Pascoe, John. AU - Dilling, G. W.. PY - 1992/10/15. Y1 - 1992/10/15. N2 - The normal microvascular permeability of the ascending colon in horses and the microvascular permeability of that segment after ischemia and reperfusion were investigated. Microvascular permeability was estimated by the ratio of lymphatic protein to plasma protein concentration (Cl/Cp) at high lymph flow rates in 8 adult horses in 2 equal groups: normal and ischemic (2-hour period). Lymphatic flow rates and lymph and plasma protein concentrations were determined. Intestinal biopsy specimens were obtained at the end of each experiment. Flow independent values were selected and compared by one-way ANOVA, and the mean and SEM of these values were determined. The mean Cl/Cp ratios for the flow independent part of each data set were as follows: normal = 0.36 +/- ...
Vascular endothelial growth factor is an important signaling protein involved in both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. As its name implies, VEGF activity has been mostly studied on cells of the vascular endothelium, although it does have effects on a number of other cell types (e.g. stimulation monocyte/macrophage migration, neurons, cancer cells, kidney epithelial cells). VEGF mediates increased vascular permeability, induces angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and endothelial cell growth, promotes cell migration, and inhibits apoptosis. In vitro, VEGF has been shown to stimulate endothelial cell mitogenesis and cell migration. VEGF is also a vasodilator and increases microvascular permeability and was originally referred to as vascular permeability factor. Elevated levels of this protein is linked to POEMS syndrome, also known as Crow-Fukase syndrome. Mutations in this gene have been associated with proliferative and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. Human recombinant VEGF-165 produced in yeast ...
in Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (The) (1994), 270(1), 30-6. The effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) (6 x 10(-8) M) on hemodynamics and on pulmonary microvascular permeability were investigated in isolated, perfused rabbit lungs by measuring the ... [more ▼]. The effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) (6 x 10(-8) M) on hemodynamics and on pulmonary microvascular permeability were investigated in isolated, perfused rabbit lungs by measuring the arterial, capillary and venous pressures and the capillary filtration coefficient (Kf,c). CGRP was administered alone or in combination with capsaicin (10(-4) M), acetylcholine (ACh) (10(-11) M to 10(-7) M), substance P (SP) (10(-10) M to 10(-6) M) and serotonin (10(-4) M). The influence of a specific antagonist of CGRP receptors, CGRP8-37 (10(-8) M), on the pulmonary edema induced by these mediators was also considered. CGRP had no direct effect on the vascular pressures or on Kf,c. Capsaicin and ...
Brain and retinal vasculatures exhibit restricted vascular permeability known as blood-brain barrier and blood-retina barrier. Vascular permeability can be evaluated by perfusion of the amine reactive ester derivatives of biotin such as sulfo-NHS-LC-biotin. This protocol describes experimental procedures of sulfo-NHS-LC-biotin perfusion to evaluate retinal vascular permeability. Perfused sulfo-NHS-LC-biotin remained within vessels in wild-type postnatal day 15 (P15) retinas, confirming an intact blood-retina barrier. In contrast, sulfo-NHS-LC-biotin was occasionally detected in extravascular spaces in perfused Eogt−/− retinas suggesting a partly impaired vascular integrity in the absence of Eogt (Sawaguchi et al., 2017).
Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) is a method for obtaining information about quantities and binding properties of adsorbed species on a surface. A microfabricated flow system for TPD with an integrated capillary leak to a mass spectrometer is presented. The use of an integrated capillary leak minimizes dead volumes in the system, resulting in increased sensitivity and reduced response time. These properties make the system ideal for TPD experiments in a carrier gas. With CO desorbing from platinum as model system, it is shown that CO desorbing in 105 Pa of argon from as little as 0.5 cm2 of platinum foil gives a clear desorption peak. By using the microfabricated flow system, TPD experiments can be performed in a carrier gas with a sensitivity approaching that of TPD experiments in vacuum. ©2004 American Institute of Physics ...
Trypsin-induced acute inflammation was studied in hamster cheek pouch using intravital microscopy, correlative histology, and electron microscopy. Vascular permeability changes were monitored with intravital fluoroscopy, after intravenous injection of FITC-dextran (Mw 150,000), by counting the number of FITC-dextran leakages around the vessels. The number of extravasated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) was calculated by a histological technique. A dose-dependent increase in the number of FITC-dextran leakages, as well as the number of accumulated PMNLs, was found when trypsin was locally deposited in concentrations of 0.25-2.5 microM (15 microliters during 5 min). Local deposition of autologous serum treated with trypsin at final concentrations of 0.25-2.5 microM caused an increase in vascular permeability as equally pronounced as that of pure trypsin, but only a moderate PMNL accumulation which was not dose dependent. Trypsin at a 25 microM concentration resulted in numerous microbleedings ...
A recent article published in Molecular Autism has offered some controversial suggestions that the blood brain barrier in autism is disrupted and that this may be somehow related to gastrointestinal symptoms. The article, whose lead author was Maria Fiorentino, was entitled,
This unit describes various protocols for the in vivo quantitation of drug permeability across the rodent blood ‐ brain barrier
The very interesting review on the systemic capillary leakage of circulating macromolecules (1) suggests capillary dysfunction. An analogous and more common case is renal proteinuria. The heparan sulfate proteoglycan of the glomerular basement membrane is thought to be a key element to retain erythrocytes and plasma protein in circulation. This may be achieved by the negative net charge of the proteoglycans, which repels cells and other protein species ...
BACKGROUND: Blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption is accompanied by edema in the surrounding areas of the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The aim of the study was to clarify the correlation between BBB breakdown and outcome in ICH. PATIENTS: Twenty-se
The endothelial glycocalyx forms a continuous coat over the luminal surface of all vessels, and regulates multiple vascular functions. The contribution of individual components of the endothelial glycocalyx to one critical vascular function, microvascular permeability, remains unclear. We developed novel, real time, paired methodologies to study the contribution of sialic acids within the endothelial glycocalyx to the structural and functional permeability properties of the same microvessel in vivo. Single perfused rat mesenteric microvessels were perfused with fluorescent endothelial cell membrane and glycocalyx labels, and imaged with confocal microscopy. A broad range of glycocalyx depth measurements (0.17-3.02μm) were obtained with different labels, imaging techniques and analysis methods. The distance between peak cell membrane and peak glycocalyx label provided the most reliable measure of endothelial glycocalyx anatomy, correlating with paired, numerically smaller values of endothelial ...
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of CAGB surgery-induced alterations in ANG1, ANG2 and TIE2 levels on post-surgical SIRS and to evaluate potential mechanisms inducing capillary leakage. Our results indicate that CABG induced profound changes in the ANG2/ANG1 balance with loss of the barrier-protective ANG1 and an increase in the barrier-disruptive ANG2 contents in the patients serum. This imbalance was observed in adult patients with systemic pro-inflammatory response characterized by elevated IL-6 levels. The molecular changes correlated with clinical surrogate parameters of an impaired endothelial barrier function, such as fluid balance, application of vasoconstrictors, and prolonged ventilation.. In healthy individuals, constitutive expression of ANG1 results in much higher serum concentrations than ANG2, which is mainly secreted upon endothelial stimulation; therefore, an increased ratio between ANG2 and ANG1 (in healthy adults a numerical value below 1) serves as marker ...
Quantitative MRI reveals the elderly ischemic brain is susceptible to increased early blood-brain barrier permeability following tissue plasminogen activator related to claudin 5 and occludin disassembly
A characteristic of endothelial dysfunction, which is observed in the beginning stages of type 2 diabetes, is the alteration of the microvascular barrier, affecting the microvascular permeability. We measured the venular leakage and clearance of albumin in response to suffusion with high-dose insulin (10-7M) in the autoperfused mesentery in the adult male (AM), adult female (AF), and juvenile male (JM) rats. Insulin suffusion lead to increased venular albumin leakage by 63% in AM rats. Albumin and total protein clearance decreased with insulin treatment. In the JM rats, venular albumin leakage was increased by 103% with insulin suffusion. The total protein clearance in JM was unchanged, while the albumin clearance increased with insulin suffusion. In the AF rats, venular albumin leakage was unchanged with insulin suffusion. Insulin decreased the total protein clearance, but not the albumin clearance. We demonstrated novel data that not only can insulin result in changes in macromolecule exchange ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Hydraulic permeability and electro-kinetic properties of charged-hydrated tissues during permeation. AU - Gu, W. Y.. AU - Lai, W. M.. AU - Mow, V. C.. PY - 1992/12/1. Y1 - 1992/12/1. N2 - The functional dependences of hydraulic permeability and electrokinetic properties on the composition and material properties of charged hydrated tissues (e.g., articular cartilage) during a one dimensional steady permeation experiment have been derived using the recently developed triphasic theory [Lai et al., 1991]. The results showed that these properties vary within the tissue due to physical interactions between the flowing fluid (including the flowing ions) and the charged porous-permeable solid matrix. Fundamental relationships governing these effects depend on the tissue water content, fixed charge density, solid matrix elastic moduli (i.e., strain-dependent permeability) and the frictional coefficients between the porous-permeable solid matrix and the interstitial fluid. In addition, a ...
A patient had fatal hypovolemic shock and edema. As in previously reported cases, the mechanism of shock appears to be loss of protein and fluid from the vascul
The Caco-2 permeability assay provides a measure of the permeability of a test compound across the intestinal barrier and its potential for interactions with drug transporters. We provide permeability assays for small molecule formulations such as pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and consumer products.
Caveolin-1 is a key regulator of pulmonary endothelial barrier function. interleukin-6, and promoted BAL neutrophilia in WT mice. Lung injury by these criteria was significantly reduced in Cav-1-/- mice but fully restored by i.v. injection of liposome/Cav-1 cDNA complexes that rescued expression of Cav-1 in lung microvessels. As thrombin is known to play a significant role in mediating stretch-induced vascular injury, we observed in cultured mouse lung microvascular endothelial cells (MLECs) thrombin-induced albumin hyperpermeability and phosphorylation of p44/42 MAP kinase in WT but not in Cav-1-/- MLECs. Thus, caveolin-1 expression is required for mechanical stretch-induced lung inflammation and endothelial hyperpermeability in vitro and in vivo. was measured in isolated lung preparations explanted from mice after two hours of injurious or control ventilation. The procedure is usually described in detail by Gorovoy in WT and Cav-1-/- mice (Fig. 2). For 125I-BSA determination, mice were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Airway extravasation induced by increasing airway temperature in ovalbumin-sensitized rats. AU - Hsu, Chun-Chun. AU - Tapia, Reyno J.. AU - Lee, Lu-Yuan. N1 - Export Date: 11 May 2016 CODEN: RPNEA 通訊地址: Lee, L.-Y.; Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky Medical Center, 800 Rose St., MS511A, United States 化學物質/CAS: Evans blue, 314-13-6; formoterol, 73573-87-2; ovalbumin, 77466-29-6 參考文獻: Baluk, P., Bolton, P., Hirata, A., Thurston, G., McDonald, D.M., Endothelial gaps and adherent leukocytes in allergen-induced early- and late-phase plasma leakage in rat airways (1998) Am. J. Pathol., 152, pp. 1463-1476; Baluk, P., McDonald, D.M., The beta 2-adrenergic receptor agonist formoterol reduces microvascular leakage by inhibiting endothelial gap formation (1994) Am. J. Physiol., 266, pp. L461-L468; Evans, T.W., Rogers, D.F., Aursudkij, B., Chung, K.F., Barnes, P.J., Inflammatory mediators involved in antigen-induced airway microvascular leakage in guinea ...
Endothelial junctions have been described as key regulators of blood vessel permeability. Consistent with their distribution at endothelial cell junctions, PVR and Nectin-2 may thus participate in the events that regulate leukocyte extravasation through the endothelium. Having demonstrated that PVR is the major ligand of DNAM-1 on endothelial cells, we investigated the potential role of the PVR-DNAM-1 interaction during the TEM of monocytes. We controlled that anti-PVR mAbs readily access to the junctions of live HUVECs (not depicted), and we showed that anti-PVR mAbs do not modify the endothelial permeability (not depicted) and the endothelial integrity (see Fig. 7). Their ability to block monocyte transmigration in an in vitro TEM model was explored. Anti-PVR mAbs induced a significant blocking in monocyte transmigration when compared with isotype-matched irrelevant antibodies (Fig. 6 a, anti-CD34 and anti-Nectin-4 mAbs). Inhibition of monocyte transmigration was observed with five different ...
Principal Investigator:SHIMADA Yasuhiro, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Anesthesiology/Resuscitation studies
Edema can be caused by increased hydrostatic pressure (eg due to venous stasis in the case of varicose veins of the lower limbs), or colloid osmotic pressure reduction (for example due to any disease that results in hypoalbuminemia) significant enough not allow more than the lymphatic vessels to drain fluid that accumulates in the interstitial spaces, inflated. It can be caused by obstruction of the lymphatic vessels, which can no longer drain the interstitial fluid (lymphedema) and excessive sodium retention. In these cases, the liquid that accumulates in the interstitial spaces is called transudate as it has a lower specific gravity was 1.012 kg / m 3, is low in protein and contains no inflammatory cells. Finally, you can have swelling in case of inflammation (inflammatory edema) because it increases vascular permeability. In this case the liquid exudate has accumulated since it has high specific gravity, greater than 1.020kg / m 3, is rich in proteins and inflammatory cells. The swelling ...
Compositions, methods, kits, and apparatus are provided for delivering a macromolecular assembly such as a plasmid, virus vector, or other gene vector, to an extravascular tissue such as muscle tissue. The composition comprises the macromolecular assembly and a vascular permeability-enhancing agent. In another embodiment, the composition further comprises a vasodilating agent. The method of the invention comprises proving a vascular permeability-enhancing agent to a blood vessel and providing a macromolecular assembly to the vessel. An oxygenator useful for providing oxygen to a fluid extracorporeally prior to providing the fluid to a blood vessel of a mammal is included in the invention. Kits, apparatus, and methods for using the catheters described herein for isolating cardiac circulation, diverting caval blood flow from the right atrium, and for other purposes, are also described.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Effect of rhamnolipids on permeability across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
These methods are sensitive to two different types of signals: electric signals and water-soil pressure disturbances, respectively. The advantages of the SP technique lie in the high rate of data acquisition,which allows assessment of long dykes, and direct diagnosis in terms of leakage area delimitation and quantification. Coupled with punctual hydro-acoustic cartography, a leakage position can be precisely located, therefore allowing specific remediation decisions with regard to the results of the geophysical investigation. Here, the precise localization of leakage from an earth dyke has been identified using SP and hydro-acoustic signals, with the permeability of the preferential fluid flow area estimated by forward SP modeling. Moreover, we propose a general abacus diagram for the estimation of hydraulic permeability of dyke leakage according to the magnitude of over water SP anomalies and the associated uncertainty. ...
Capillary endothelium Endothelial basement membrane Interstitial space Epithelial basement membrane Alveolar epithelium ( type I pneumocyte) (thick , upper - fluid & gas  On one side of alveolar septum  On the other side exchanging side) there is connective tissue and interstitial space (thin , down- gas exchange only) basement membranes are fused and there is a greatly restricted interstitial space 55 .    There are tight junctions on the epithelium of the upper side (passage of fluid from interstitial space to alveolus) There are loose junction on the endothelium of the upper side (passage of fluid from intravascular space to interstitial space) Pulmonary capillary permeability depends on the size & number of loose junctions 56 . 1. 2. Interstitial space is between periarteriolar and peribronchial connective tissue shit and between epithelium & endothelium basement membrane in alveolar septum The space has a progressively negative distal to proximal ΔP Negative ΔP increases ...
It had been long been believed that water could not pass through the membrane due to the hydrophobic property of the lipid bilayer in the membrane. However, it has been recently found that a 28 kD protein family on the membrane, namely, the AQP protein, that has a structure like other channel proteins, can adjust the transcellular permeability of water. The basic function of AQP is to mediate the transcellular transport of free water molecules. The major difference from other ion channels is that the osmotic pressure gradient only regulates the transport of water (i.e., the water molecules could be diffused through the AQP along the osmotic pressure gradient) instead of the so-called turn-on or turn-off phases. Thus, water molecules could be directly allowed into and out of the cells. Once the endothelial cells are injured, the expression of AQP increases, which augments capillary permeability and is believed to be closely associated with the onset of hydrocephalus. To date, there are 13 ...
Itll bring download speed up to 10 Gigabits per second. This would let us have an entire building of people send each other data in close to no time, thus improving productivity.. Now, electricsense.com takes us into the disaster of 5G:. 5G will utilize smaller cell stations (and the technology of beamforming) thatll scramble/unscramble and redirect packets of data on a no-interference path back to us. This could mean wireless antennas on every lamp post, utility pole, home and business throughout entire neighborhoods, towns and cities.. Thousands of studies link low-level wireless radio frequency radiation exposures to a long list of adverse biological effects, including:. • DNA single and double strand breaks. • oxidative damage. • disruption of cell metabolism. • increased blood brain barrier permeability. • melatonin reduction. • disruption to brain glucose metabolism. • generation of stress proteins. Given that 5G is set to utilize frequencies above and below existing ...
Treatment of a fully developed SCLS episode requires recognition that there are two phases. The first phase, which often lasts a couple of days, is called the resuscitation phase because the dual aim of the emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU) treatment is to stop or control the capillary leak and to raise the patients blood pressure from near zero. In this initial phase, an albumin and fluid leak from the capillaries into the tissue spaces causes swelling, especially into the extremities rather than the abdomen or organs (such as the lungs). The blood pressure falls and the red cells concentrate. This loss of fluid has similar effects on the circulation as dehydration, slowing both the flow of oxygen carrying blood to tissues and the output of urine.. Glucocorticoids (steroids like methylprednisolone) are recommended to reduce or stop the capillary leak, and albumin and colloids usually help to increase the remaining blood flow to vital organs like the kidneys. Keeping up with the ...
The pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin is discussed in the tutorial as an example of a typical extracellular solute for which the tissue/blood partition can be predicted from in vitro measurements of plasma binding. This drug class is selected by clicking the Extracellular box which activates 3 other input boxes (see Figure 2): 1) the free plasma fraction, 2) A factor that adjusts the default extracellular volume of each organ; and 3) A capillary permeability factor (= 1.0 for amoxicillin which is flow limited). In addition, a value needs to be entered in the renal clearance box (Figure 3).. Two high fat soluble drug classes are discussed in the tutorial as examples of drugs whose tissue/partition coefficient can be predicted from in vitro measurements of fat/water partition. The first are the volatile anesthetics, represented by modeling the experimental desflurane pharmacokinetics [12]. Since the metabolism of most volatile anesthetics is negligible, their elimination rate is completely ...
In 1933, Hückel was still thinking about his molecular orbital electronic theory of benzene, but for ~15 years, there remained little need for the rule we now know as 4n+2, because n was invariably equal to 1 for most known aromatic molecules! It was only the discovery of so-called non-benzenoid aromatics in the 1940s (e.g. Dewars tropolone structure) that propelled chemists to identify aromatic molecules with other values of n. And Monastral blue is a prime example of n=4 (although it would be of interest to find out when it became so associated with the Hückel rule). If you count the red bonds above, there are eight, along with one lone pair of electrons located on the highlighted (blue) nitrogen atom. This makes 18 π-electrons in the ring, or 4×4+2 (there are paths other than the one shown, but they give the same count). Part of the reason for the remarkable thermal stability of this molecule must be its aromaticity.. So what about the colour? The visible spectrum is shown below, with ...
Factors driving the progression of heart failure (HF) are diverse. Immunological and inflammatory processes probably play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of HF (1,2). Tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, interleukin-2, interleukin-6, transforming growth factor, and C-reactive protein are all elevated in patients with HF. However, it is unclear whether the inflammatory stimulus is driven by diseased myocardium; the activation of inflammatory pathways by factors, such as galectin (3), derived from the heart, liver, or kidney; low-grade infection of the respiratory, oropharyngeal, or gastrointestinal tract; or absorption of endotoxins from the gut (1,2,4).. The development of peripheral edema is a bad sign in patients with HF (5), reflecting to varying degrees increases in right atrial pressure, increased capillary permeability, and reduced lymphatic drainage. Although gravity may make fluid accumulation most obvious in dependent regions, venous congestion will affect all ...
Levitt DG. 2002. PKQuest: a general physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. Introduction and application to propranolol. BMC Clin Pharmacol 2(1):5.Levitt DG. 2002. PKQuest: capillary permeability limitation and plasma protein binding - application to
Studies of the inheritance of C3 types and partial deficiency of C3 in over 100 relatives of a previously reported Afrikaner child with virtually no serum C3 revealed that she was homozygous for a C3 gene producing little or no C3, C3-. Metabolic studies with purified radiolabeled C3 in this patient showed a mildly elevated fractional catabolic rate and a markedly reduced synthesis rate for C3. There was also a mild increase in the rate of conversion in vitro of labeled C3 added to her serum and incubated at 37°C for 1 hr. The intradermal injection of C1̄s, which produces a marked increase in vasopermeability in the skin of normal subjects, produced no definite change in the patient, possibly implicating C3 or a protein in the alternative pathway as the normal mediator of this response. On incubating the patients serum with purified cobra venom factor in the presence of unsensitized guinea pig erythrocytes, C5 inactivation and normal lysis of the red cells occurred, consistent with the venom ...
This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms that complete diapedesis and restore endothelial barrier integrity. Although providing an answer to this question, our findings unveil basic mechanisms for tissue homeostasis with potentially broad relevance. We reveal VL as a novel type of actin remodeling in endothelia and epithelia that is distinct from known lamellipodia or dorsal ruffles (Chhabra and Higgs, 2007) and serves to close diapedesis pores/gaps. VL are nucleated from preexisting actin filaments and exhibit the unique ability to propagate under cells independently of radial axes of cell symmetry and to dynamically change direction in response to additional discontinuities. These findings raise important new questions about fundamental mechanisms for nucleation of actin assemblies and coordination of their propagation, which point toward interesting roles for mechanotransduction.. We hypothesized that transcellular diapedesis micro-wounds might be healed by purse strings that ...
Tumor vasculature, as in wounded vasculature, is typically leaky and hyperpermeable, mainly because of the influence of VEGF, which leads to the escape of plasma proteins such as fibrinogen (57). Although multiple cell types, extracellular matrix (ECM) components, and soluble factors contribute to the wound-healing-like response observed in tumors, seminal observations by Dvorak describe the near-ubiquitous presence of fibrin(ogen) in solid tumors, and later studies demonstrated that fibrin itself is directly proangiogenic (1, 6, 58-60). Biomechanical forces, driven by thickened sheets of cross-linked ECM in tumors, may also compress the endothelium, leading to vascular injury and plasma leakage (61). The perivascular accumulation of fibrin, along with matrix proteins such as fibronectin, provides scaffolds for new blood vessels (and for cancer cells) and is suggested to be a principal instigator of many of the sequential steps that typify the wound healing-like response observed in solid tumors ...
In this study, we have demonstrated that the acute anti-inflammatory activity of antisense ODN targeted against murine ICAM-1 mRNA is dramatically enhanced after encapsulation in LUV. In general, liposomes enhance the therapeutic index of conventional drugs by reducing drug toxicity, increasing residency time in the plasma, and delivering more active drug to disease tissue by extravasation of the carriers through hyperpermeable vasculature associated with tumor and inflammation sites (Mayer et al., 1990; Jain et al., 1997). All of these positive attributes of drug delivery are shown to be present in the model described herein. For example, the clinical concerns most commonly associated with rapid systemic administration of PS ODN are complement activation and prolonged blood clotting times (Galbraith et al., 1994; Henry et al., 1997a,b). Disruption of normal hematological homeostasis in this way is related to the polyanionic nature and stability of the PS backbone and is considered a class ...
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A series of arylketo-containing P1-P3 linked macrocyclic BACE-1 inhibitors were designed, synthesized, and compared with compounds with a previously known and extensively studied corresponding P2 isophthalamide moiety with the aim to improve on permeability whilst retaining the enzyme- and cell-based activities. Several inhibitors displayed substantial increases in Caco-2 cell-based permeability compared to earlier synthesized inhibitors and notably also with retained activities, showing that this approach might yield BACE-1 inhibitors with improved properties.. ...
The glycocalyx of the endothelium is an intravascular compartment that creates a barrier between circulating blood and the vessel wall. The glycocalyx is suggested to play an important role in numerous physiological processes including the regulation of vascular permeability, the prevention of the margination of blood cells to the vessel wall, and the transmission of shear stress. Various theoretical models and experimental approaches provide data about changes to the structure and functions of the glycocalyx under various types of inflammatory conditions. These alterations are suggested to promote inflammatory processes in vessels and contribute to the pathogenesis of number of diseases. In this review we summarize current knowledge about the modulation of the glycocalyx under inflammatory conditions and the consequences for the course of inflammation in vessels. The structure and functions of endothelial glycocalyx are briefly discussed in the context of methodological approaches regarding the ...
Asthma is an inflammatory disease characterized by the recruitment of inflammatory cells, vascular congestion, increased vascular permeability, increased tissue volume, and the presence of an exudate.... more
How many times does this have to happen before we all stop going to KFC? Hopefully twice is the answer. Three weeks ago a teenager in the UK thought he had
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Schnitzer, J. E.; Oh, P. (1994). "Albondin-mediated capillary permeability to albumin. Differential role of receptors in ...
A hydrodynamic capillary effect can be used to manipulate cell permeability. In plants the DNA is often inserted using ...
Farquhar, M G; Wissig S L; Palade G E (December 1999). "Glomerular permeability I. Ferritin transfer across the normal ... glomerular capillary wall. 1961". Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 10 (12): 2645-62. ISSN 1046-6673. PMID ...
The most interesting are: Capillary bed permeability, which varies between tissues. Blood-brain barrier: this is located ... The distribution of a drug between tissues is dependent on vascular permeability, regional blood flow, cardiac output and ...
Histamine causes dilation and increased permeability of capillaries close to the basophil. Injured basophils and other ... Increased permeability of the inflamed tissue also allows for more phagocyte migration to the site of infection so that they ...
The injection of IP activators into the skin of rodents increases local capillary permeability and swelling; IP(-/-) mice fail ... IP antagonists likewise reduce experimentally-induced capillary permeability and swelling in rats. This actions is also ... to show this increased capillary permeability and swelling in response not only to IP activators but also in a model of ...
Also, the damage on the blood vessels resulted in increased capillary permeability. This increased permeability lead to a ...
In the acute phase of ALI, there is increased permeability of this barrier and protein rich fluid leaks out of the capillaries ... The direct toxicity to the cells leads to an increase in capillary permeability. Furthermore, when phosgene hydrolyzes it forms ... The core pathology is disruption of the capillary-endothelial interface: this actually refers to two separate barriers - the ...
It is a densely vascularized structure with subregional capillary specializations for high permeability for circulating blood ... A tanycyte barrier partially compensates for high capillary permeability in the area postrema. Physiological subregional ... whereas medial and dorsal area postrema capillaries had microscopic characteristics of high permeability, a characteristic ... Capillary blood flow appears to be uniquely slow in the area postrema, prolonging the contact time for blood-borne hormones to ...
PDGF and VEGF have growth promoting properties and cause connective tissue hypertrophy and capillary permeability. When ... They are then trapped within the capillary beds within the extremities, such as the digits, and release platelet-derived growth ... megakaryocytes that arise from the bone marrow are trapped in the pulmonary capillary bed and broken down before they enter the ...
High protein (> 2.5 mg/dL) suggests increased capillary permeability associated with peritonitis, intestinal compromise, or ... Capillary refill time (CRT) may be decreased early in the colic, but generally prolongs as the disease progresses and ... The poor blood supply also has effects on the vascular endothelium, leading to an increased permeability which first leaks ... Inflammation of the bowel may lead to increased permeability and subsequent endotoxemia. The underlying cause of inflammation ...
In addition, brodifacoum (as with other anticoagulants in toxic doses) increases permeability of blood capillaries; the blood ...
It is a synthetic molecule with the ability to reduce capillary permeability in the body. In Switzerland the drug is sold by ... In fact, it reduces capillary permeability both by stabilizing the basement membrane for an action on the collagen chains that ... Calcium dobesilate is indicated in states of fragility and altered capillary permeability, e.g. diabetic retinopathy, chronic ... constitute it, and by interacting with different biochemical mediators that favor endothelial permeability itself. In this way ...
Reverses capillary permeability and lysosomal stabilization at the cellular level to prevent or control inflammation. Has a ...
Capillary Permeability: The Transfer of Molecules and Ions Between Capillary Blood and Tissue (C. ed.). Munksgaard: Copenhagen ... Betz, A.L.; Goldstein, G.W. "Brain capillaries: structure and function". In Lajtha, A. (ed.). Structural Elements of the ... Smith, Q.R. (1989). "Quantitation of blood-brain barrier permeability". In Neuwelt, E.A. (ed.). Implications of the Blood-Brain ...
Concerning two-phase flows an important problem is to estimate the relative permeabilities and the capillary pressures. The ... Chavent, Guy; Cohen, Gary; Espy, M. (1980). "Determination of relative permeabilities and capillary pressures by an automatic ... see for an application to the determination of permeabilities that match the existing permeability data), neural networks, ... Tahmasebi, Pejman; Javadpour, Farzam; Sahimi, Muhammad (August 2016). "Stochastic shale permeability matching: Three- ...
Capillary pressure Permeability (fluid) Relative permeability Darcy's law S.E. Buckley and M.C. Leverett (1942). "Mechanism of ... k r w ( S w ) {\displaystyle k_{rw}(S_{w})} and k r n ( S w ) {\displaystyle k_{rn}(S_{w})} denote the relative permeability ... Flow is linear and horizontal Both wetting and non-wetting phases are incompressible Immiscible phases Negligible capillary ...
The higher the specific gravity, the greater the likelihood of capillary permeability changes in relation to body cavities. For ...
The events preceding OM are acute inflammatory changes such as hyperemia, increased capillary permeability and infiltration of ...
It also inhibits the effects of the prostaglandin mediated vasodilatation and increased capillary permeability, thereby ... Etamsylate was also thought to stabilise capillaries, reinforcing capillary membranes by polymerising hyaluronic acid. ... vasodilation and increased capillary permeability. Prophylaxis and control of haemorrhages from small blood vessels, neonatal ... Etamsylate limits capillary bleeding through its action on hyaluronic acid and initial studies showed a reduction in ...
These changes are due to increased capillary permeability and an influx of inflammatory cells into the gingival tissues. When ...
IgE with Aspergillus antigens results in mast cell degranulation with bronchoconstriction and increased capillary permeability ...
Fluid from the bloodstream leaks through the wall of small blood vessels into body cavities due to capillary permeability. As a ... Severe disease is marked by the problems of capillary permeability (an allowance of fluid and protein normally contained within ... Leaky capillaries (and the critical phase) are thought to be caused by an immune system response. Other processes of interest ... Some petechiae (small red spots that do not disappear when the skin is pressed, which are caused by broken capillaries) can ...
... involves fluid accumulation in the outer plexiform layer secondary to abnormal perifoveal retinal capillary permeability. The ... causing the capillaries in the retina to dilate and leak fluid into the retina. Less common today with modern lens replacement ... is similarly caused by leaking macular capillaries. DME is the most common cause of visual loss in both proliferative, and non- ...
... water vapor permeability and capillary. They are lightweight , soft, flexible and silky texture. They are disposable and ...
... e increases the blood vessel's permeability and dilates capillaries, enabling a faster distribution of the venom. ... The dilation of capillaries is the cause of the hypotension. At first, it was thought that the impairment of the respiratory ... The formation of pores in capillaries, for example, is the cause of hypotension caused by stonefish envenomation. The venom of ...
Vasodilation and increased permeability of capillaries are a result of both H1 and H2 receptor types. Stimulation of histamine ... and vascular permeability in brain tumours. The mast cell is very similar in both appearance and function to the basophil, ... and increases blood vessel permeability. This leads to local edema (swelling), warmth, redness, and the attraction of other ... such as eosinophil chemotactic factor reactive oxygen species Histamine dilates post-capillary venules, activates the ...
... acts upon blood vessels and capillaries of the salivary gland to generate vasodilation and increased capillary permeability, ...
The permeability of a capillary wall is determined by the type of capillary and the surface of the endothelial cells. A ... Diffusion between the cells changes depending upon the type of capillary. There are three different types of capillaries: ... making it easier for the fluid to flow through the capillary. Heat also effects the viscosity of a fluid inside a capillary. An ... the body will open precapillary sphincter to increase the number of capillary beds. This increases the overall capillary ...
... proliferation and increased capillary permeability. When mustard oil is adulterated deliberately (as in most cases) or ... as oedema is mainly due to increased capillary permeability. Cardiac failure is managed by bed rest, salt restriction, ... The haemodynamic consequences of this vascular dilatation and permeability lead to a state of relative hypovolemia with a ... Sanguinarine and dihydrosanguinarine are two major toxic alkaloids of argemone oil, which cause widespread capillary dilatation ...
Farquhar, M G; Wissig S L, Palade G E (December 1999). "Glomerular permeability I. Ferritin transfer across the normal ... glomerular capillary wall. 1961". J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (United States) 10 (12): 2645-62. ISSN 1046-6673. PMID 10589706. ...
Osmotic diuretics (e.g. mannitol) are substances that increase osmolarity but have limited tubular epithelial cell permeability ... particularly the peritubular capillaries. This reduces medullary osmolality and thus impairs the concentration of urine in the ... the limited tubular epithelial cell permeability increases osmolality and thus water retention in the filtrate.[10] ...
... with continuous being the least porous of the three and discontinuous capillaries being extremely high in permeability. ... Continuous blood capillaries have the smallest intercellular clefts, with discontinuous blood capillaries having the largest ... However, most of this fluid returns into the capillary at the venous end, creating capillary fluid dynamics. Two opposing ... Most notably, intercellular clefts are described in capillary blood vessels. The three types of capillary blood vessels are ...
... which are able to move outside of the vascular system by migrating through the walls of capillary vessels and entering the ... of the coagulation system can contribute to the non-specific defenses by their ability to increase vascular permeability and ...
For allergic conjunctivitis, cool water poured over the face with the head inclined downward constricts capillaries, and ...
The lipid composition is important as it defines many physical properties such as membrane permeability and fluidity. ... is transported back to the pulmonary capillaries of the lungs as bicarbonate (HCO3−) dissolved in the blood plasma. Myoglobin, ... larger than capillary diameter, and it has been hypothesized that this improves the oxygen transfer from red blood cells to ... and shows the red blood cell deforming as it enters capillaries, as well as the bars changing color as the cell alternates in ...
These changes are due to increased capillary permeability and an influx of inflammatory cells into the gingival tissues. When ...
Histamine causes dilation and increased permeability of capillaries close to the basophil. Injured basophils and other ... Increased permeability of the inflamed tissue also allows for more phagocyte migration to the site of infection so that they ...
When the pulmonary capillary pressure remains elevated chronically (for at least 2 weeks), the lungs become even more resistant ... Therefore, in patients with chronic mitral stenosis, pulmonary capillary pressures of 40 to 45 mm Hg have been measured without ... Varying Permeability Model. *Equivalent air depth. *Equivalent narcotic depth. *Maximum operating depth ...
Increased permeability of the lung vessels causes leaking of fluids into alveoli, which results in pulmonary edema and acute ... Glucose levels taken from capillary blood should be interpreted with care because such measurements may not be accurate. If a ... In the gastrointestinal tract, increased permeability of the mucosa alters the microflora, causing mucosal bleeding and ...
Permeability of the endothelium is pivotal in the release of nutrients to the tissue. It is also increased in inflammation in ... It also contains nerves that supply the vessel as well as nutrient capillaries (vasa vasorum) in the larger blood vessels. ... Blood vessel permeability is increased in inflammation. Damage, due to trauma or spontaneously, may lead to hemorrhage due to ... Left heart → Aorta → Arteries → Arterioles → Capillaries → Venules → Veins → Vena cava → (Right heart) ...
Vascular endothelial cells line the entire circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest capillaries. These cells have ... Excessive or prolonged increases in permeability of the endothelial monolayer, as in cases of chronic inflammation, may lead to ... Left heart → Aorta → Arteries → Arterioles → Capillaries → Venules → Veins → Vena cava → (Right heart) ... Both blood and lymphatic capillaries are composed of a single layer of endothelial cells called a monolayer. In straight ...
Light dye damaged the glycocalyx minimally, but that small change increased capillary hematocrit. Thus, fluorescence light ... In microvascular tissue, the glycocalyx serves as a vascular permeability barrier by inhibiting coagulation and leukocyte ... capillaries) and macrovessels (arteries and veins). The glycocalyx also consists of a wide range of enzymes and proteins that ... increase in vascular permeability. Vascular walls being permeable is disadvantageous, since that would enable passage of some ...
Most water leakage occurs in capillaries or post capillary venules, which have a semi-permeable membrane wall that allows water ... Thus the resulting increase in permeability that leads to protein in the urine can explain the edema if all other vessels are ... Most forms of nephrotic syndrome are due to biochemical and structural changes in the basement membrane of capillaries in the ... If the gaps between the cells of the vessel wall open up then permeability to water is increased first, but as the gaps ...
The capillary or loop is mounted on a goniometer, which allows it to be positioned accurately within the X-ray beam and rotated ... Different oils have different evaporation permeabilities, therefore yielding changes in concentration rates from different ... In the past, crystals were loaded into glass capillaries with the crystallization solution (the mother liquor). Nowadays, ... the φ angle about the loop/capillary axis. When the κ angle is zero, the ω and φ axes are aligned. The κ rotation allows for ...
Controlling Capillary Flow, an application of Darcy's law, at iMechanica *^ "CalcTool: Porosity and permeability calculator". ... Absolute permeability (aka intrinsic or specific permeability)Edit. Absolute permeability denotes the permeability in a porous ... Tensor permeabilityEdit. To model permeability in anisotropic media, a permeability tensor is needed. Pressure can be applied ... PermeabilityEdit. Permeability is the property of rocks that is an indication of the ability for fluids (gas or liquid) to flow ...
This makes the capillaries in the nail bed below visible, resulting in a pink color.[7][unreliable source?] ... Permeability[edit]. The nail is often considered an impermeable barrier, but this is not true. In fact, it is much more ... a b K. A. Walters and G. L. Flynn, Permeability characteristics of the human nail plate, International Journal of Cosmetic ... Schriger DL, Baraff LJ (Jun 1991). "Capillary refill - is it a useful predictor of hypovolemic states?". Ann Emerg Med. 20 (6 ...
If recanalization proceeds it provides capillary-sized channels through the thrombus for continuity of blood flow through the ... potentially affecting permeability of the blood-brain barrier,[10] and may even cause cerebral hemorrhaging.[11] ...
The process is also known as hydrostatic filtration due to the hydrostatic pressure exerted on the capillary walls. ... water and ion permeability in the descending limb of the loop, water impermeability in the ascending loop, and active ion ... Reabsorption is the transport of molecules from this ultrafiltrate and into the peritubular capillary. It is accomplished via ... Secretion is the reverse of reabsorption: molecules are transported from the peritubular capillary through the interstitial ...
Also serves as part of the filtration system in capillaries and the glomeruli of nephron in the kidney.. COL4A1, COL4A2, COL4A3 ... Collagen has the correct properties for tissue regeneration such as pore structure, permeability, hydrophilicity, and being ... A collagen wound dressing might serve as a guide for orienting new collagen deposition and capillary growth. ...
If recanalization proceeds it provides capillary-sized channels through the thrombus for continuity of blood flow through the ... potentially affecting permeability of the blood-brain barrier,[9] and causing cerebral hemorrhage.[10] ...
Permeability[edit]. Human skin has a low permeability; that is, most foreign substances are unable to penetrate and diffuse ... Blood capillaries are found beneath the epidermis and are linked to an arteriole and a venule. Arterial shunt vessels may ... and oleic acid to the surface of the skin to increase permeability;[43][44] electroporation increases skin permeability by the ... because of the limitations in permeability of the skin. Development of techniques that increase skin permeability has led to ...
Permeability of the endothelium is pivotal in the release of nutrients to the tissue. It is also increased in inflammation in ... The capillaries are responsible for allowing the blood to receive oxygen through tiny air sacs in the lungs. This is also the ... Blood vessel permeability is increased in inflammation. Damage, due to trauma or spontaneously, may lead to hemorrhage due to ... It also contains nerves that supply the vessel as well as nutrient capillaries (vasa vasorum) in the larger blood vessels. ...
... 1 (permeability glycoprotein, abbreviated as P-gp or Pgp) also known as multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) or ... and in the capillary endothelial cells composing the blood-brain barrier and blood-testis barrier, where it pumps them back ... Juliano RL, Ling V (November 1976). "A surface glycoprotein modulating drug permeability in Chinese hamster ovary cell mutants ... into the capillaries. P-gp is a glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by the ABCB1 gene.[4] P-gp is a well-characterized ABC- ...
IP antagonists likewise reduce experimentally-induced capillary permeability and swelling in rats. This actions is also ... mice fail to show this increased capillary permeability and swelling in response not only to IP activators but also in a model ... The injection of IP activators into the skin of rodents increases local capillary permeability and swelling; IP(-/-) ...
Histamine increases the permeability of the capillaries to white blood cells and some proteins. The cells get through the walls ...
"Heterogeneity of cerebral capillary flow in man and its consequences for estimation of blood-brain barrier permeability". J ...
Increased permeability of the lung vessels causes leaking of fluids into alveoli, which results in pulmonary edema and acute ... Glucose levels taken from capillary blood should be interpreted with care because such measurements may not be accurate. If a ... In the gastrointestinal tract, increased permeability of the mucosa alters the microflora, causing mucosal bleeding and ...
Definition of capillary permeability factor. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ...
What determines glomerular capillary permeability?. William M. Deen Department of Chemical Engineering and Division of ... Effects of other structures on glomerular permeability. How does the rest of the glomerular capillary wall influence its ... Thus, in considering the determinants of glomerular capillary permeability, one should avoid the temptation to focus ... In other words, for the intact capillary wall in vivo, it is calculated that Θbm ≅ 1 (8). Consistent with this prediction is ...
Capillary permeability factor definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and ... capillary permeability factor in Medicine Expand. capillary permeability factor n. See vitamin P. ...
... but it is an ongoing challenge to accurately describe the relationship between capillary... ... A sizable oil reserves are held in a thick oil/water capillary transition zones in the carbonate reservoirs, ... capillary pressure and relative permeability and saturation to obtain typical capillary pressure and relative permeability ... 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, there is a change in shapes of capillary pressure curves. This is due to change in capillary pressure with ...
... Olugbenga ... Olugbenga Falode and Edo Manuel, "Wettability Effects on Capillary Pressure, Relative Permeability, and Irredcucible Saturation ...
... much tighter control of permeability was achieved. Relative to the EC-fibroblast co-cultures, permeabilities were reduced 41% ... Quantitatively, permeability dropped from initial levels of 61% to 39% after 7 days, and to 7% after 2 weeks. When ECs were co- ... The purpose of this study was to test the resistance to permeability of these networks in vitro, grown with different stromal ... Our lab has developed a 3D co-culture method to grow interconnected networks of pericyte-invested capillaries, which can ...
... linear kinetic model has been developed for the noninvasive assessment of capillary permeability to macromolecules in the rat ... Measurement of capillary permeability to macromolecules by dynamic magnetic resonance imaging: a quantitative noninvasive ... A simple, linear kinetic model has been developed for the noninvasive assessment of capillary permeability to macromolecules in ... The technique may be generally applicable to the study of abnormal capillary permeability in humans as well as animals. ...
Use of Capillary Pressure to Estimate Permeability in a Drill Cutting Sample Lansing "C" Zone, Ashley #1, NE/4 Section 5 T17S ... Analysis included routine porosity, mercury capillary pressure analysis and permeability calculation from principal pore throat ... were submitted for analysis to determine permeability from principal pore throat diameter as measured by mercury capillary ...
Changes were measured in the permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane and lavage surfactant concentrations following ... Colchicine inhibits elevations in both alveolar-capillary membrane permeability and lavage surfactant after exposure of the rat ... Changes were measured in the permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane and lavage surfactant concentrations following ... Permeability was elevated immediately but returned to normal values one day after inhalation. Values of total phospholipid in ...
A wide variation in the air and water permeabilities was obtained for each type of coal. Overburden pressure has the most ... G0122006), gas and water permeabilities of a large number of samples from the Pittsburgh and Pocahontas coals were measured at ... significant effect on the single-phase permeability. Considerable hysteretic ... Development of Techniques and the Measurement of Relative Permeability and Capillary Pressure Relationships in Coal.. ...
The study of changes in cardiac permeability with chemotherapy could enhance the understanding of mechanisms behind cardiac ... Crone, C. The permeability of capillaries in various organs as determined by use of the indicator diffusion method. Acta ... Myocardial capillary permeability after regional ischemia and reperfusion in the in vivo canine heart. Effect of superoxide ... Application of a fluorescent multiple indicator dilution method to study changes in cardiac capillary permeability with ...
What is capillary permeability? Meaning of capillary permeability as a finance term. What does capillary permeability mean in ... Definition of capillary permeability in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Related to capillary permeability: blood capillary, fenestrated capillaries, continuous capillaries. permeability. The measure ... permeability. (redirected from capillary permeability). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. ...
We examined ultrastructural findings of capillaries of these tumors and discussed the causes of cerebral edema as compared with ... Ultrastructure of capillary permeability in human brain tumor--Part 6: Metastatic brain tumor with brain edema] No Shinkei Geka ... Among these, an appearance of capillary fenestration was the most conspicuous features and observed in almost all capillaries. ... We examined ultrastructural findings of capillaries of these tumors and discussed the causes of cerebral edema as compared with ...
The glomerular capillary wall is an exquisitely well-engineered barrier, which is normally very permeable to water and yet able ... The first step in urine formation is the ultrafiltration of blood in renal glomerular capillaries. ... Structural Basis for Glomerular Capillary Permeability. Wednesday, February 10, 1999 - 2:00pm - 2:45pm ... The first step in urine formation is the ultrafiltration of blood in renal glomerular capillaries. The glomerular capillary ...
List of treatments and remedies for Edema due to increased capillary permeability in children and treatments for any causes of ... Edema due to increased capillary permeability in children. ... Deaths and Edema due to increased capillary permeability in ... Symptom Checker for Edema due to increased capillary permeability in Symptoms » Edema due to increased capillary permeability ... Edema due to increased capillary permeability in children *Common causes of Edema due to increased capillary permeability in ...
Permeability of retinal capillaries in rats with inherited retinal degeneration. You will receive an email whenever this ... The permeability of retinal capillaries in RCS rats with inherited retinal degeneration was investigated with horseradish ... The RCS rat may be a useful model for studying the morphological basis of changes in capillary permeability associated with ... E Essner, R M Pino, R A Griewski; Permeability of retinal capillaries in rats with inherited retinal degeneration.. Invest. ...
RITODRINE DOES NOT INCREASE LUNG CAPILLARY PERMEABILITY IN SHEEP F. G. Zavisca, M. D.; R. E. Drake, Ph.D.; E. Abouleish, M. D. ... RITODRINE DOES NOT INCREASE LUNG CAPILLARY PERMEABILITY IN SHEEP You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, ... RITODRINE DOES NOT INCREASE LUNG CAPILLARY PERMEABILITY IN SHEEP. Anesthesiology 9 1984, Vol.61, A399. doi: ... RITODRINE DOES NOT INCREASE LUNG CAPILLARY PERMEABILITY IN SHEEP. Anesthesiology 1984;61(3):A399. ...
Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Immunotoxin Uptake in Solid Tumors: Role of Plasma Kinetics, Capillary Permeability, and Binding. ... However, despite the lower capillary permeability of the larger molecular weight toxin, the cumulative tumor exposure to ... This study illustrates the interrelationship of plasma kinetics, capillary permeability, and binding and their effects on toxin ... Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Immunotoxin Uptake in Solid Tumors: Role of Plasma Kinetics, Capillary Permeability, and Binding ...
Capillary Pressure, multi-frequency electric measurements, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Directional Permeability, Hydrocarbon ... We verified that the estimates of permeability, saturation-dependent capillary pressure, and throat-size distribution obtained ... directional permeability, saturation-dependent capillary pressure), and fluid distribution. However, techniques for reliable ... and tortuosity are used to calculate directional permeability and saturation-dependent capillary pressure. We test the ...
Title: On the capillary pressure function in porous media based on relative permeabilities of two immiscible fluids: ... Publishers Accepted Manuscript: On the capillary pressure function in porous media based on relative permeabilities of two ... immiscible fluids: Application of capillary bundle models and validation using experimental data ...
The wetting phase (oil) will tend to accumulate at the outlet where the capillary pressure is zero and leave a highly remaining ... Summary In preferentially oil-wet porous media, laboratory waterflooding experiments are prone to capillary end effects. ... capillary end effects, alternative determination of relative permeability and capillary pressure, capillary pressure from core ... Capillary Pressures-Their Measurement Using Mercury and the Calculation of Permeability Therefrom. J Pet Technol 1 (2): 39-48. ...
Effect of temperature change on the permeability of eel rete capillaries.. E A Rasio, M Bendayan, C A Goresky ... The changes in the permeability properties of the rete capillaries of the eel in response to temperature shifts were studied ... From the ratio of end concentrations of arterial to venous capillaries divided by surface area, calculated from rete weight, a ... Because flow and surface area are constant, this provides an index of how permeability varies with time. A group of ...
We also compare primary drainage capillary pressure (Pc) calculated by four DRP vendors on quarter plugs with centrifuge-based ... We cleaned the plugs, measured porosity (φ) and absolute permeability (kabs), and then split the plugs into four quarter plugs ... DRP predictions for porosity ranged from 33 to 96% of the measured values, whereas permeability ranged within a factor of 0.3 ... Four commercial DRP labs conducted blind porosity and permeability predictions on those quarter plugs using (a) only micro-CT ...
During the krmeasurements of low-permeability rocks, high capillary... ... Relative permeability ( kr) data are the key factors for describing the behaviour of the multi-phase flow in porous media. ... During the kr measurements of low-permeability rocks, high capillary pressure can cause a significant liquid hold-up at the ... Steady-State Relative Permeability Measurements of Tight and Shale Rocks Considering Capillary End Effect. ...
relative permeability. dc.title. Prediction of Capillary Pressure and Relative Permeability Curves using Conventional Pore- ... Prediction of Capillary Pressure and Relative Permeability Curves using Conventional Pore-scale Displacements and Artificial ... and two-phase capillary pressure and relative permeability curves. These parameters are then used as input to train an ANN. ANN ... In the beginning, we assume that capillary tubes are fully saturated with water and that they are strongly water-wet. Then, oil ...
Secondly, a grain size based work flow, developed by Daza, 2012 at TNO, to calculate permeability and capillary seal capacity ... Clay formations have a high permeability which is highly preferred with nuclear waste storage. The issues with the devices is ... They established equations relating pressure coefficients to porosity and permeability, based on the clay fraction of the ... developed in his PhD thesis several equations relating effective stress to porosity and eventually porosity to permeability. ...
Inhibitory effects of sasanquasaponin on over-expression of ICAM-1 and on enhancement of capillary permeability induced by ... The capillary permeability was determined spectrophotometrically. The results showed that SQS markedly lowered the levels of ... Inhibitory effects of sasanquasaponin on over-expression of ICAM-1 and on enhancement of capillary permeability induced by ... In addition, SQS dramatically inhibited the enhancement of dermal capillary permeability induced by burns in a dose-dependent ...
The characteristic functions relating relative permeabilities and capillary pressures to fluid saturations (kr-S-Pc models) are ... Comparison of relative permeability-fluid saturation-capillary pressure relations in the modelling of non-aqueous phase liquid ... Different models for the capillary pressure (Pc) - fluid saturation (S) - relative permeability (kr) constitutive relations ... Relative permeability, Capillary pressure, Constitutive relations, Multi-phase flow, Modelling, NAPL, Tortuosity, Scaling ...
Nature of glomerular capillary permeability changes following acute renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.. @article{ ... mTOR inhibition with temsirolimus causes acute increases in glomerular permeability, but inhibits the dynamic permeability ... Nature of glomerular capillary permeability changes following acute renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.}, author={ ... renal ischaemia in rats induces a rapid secretion of inflammatory markers to renal lymph and increased capillary permeability. ...
... on the pulmonary capillary permeability in rats with acute lung injury induced by intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide ( ... OBJECTIVE To observe the effects of tetrandrine (Tet) on the pulmonary capillary permeability in rats with acute lung injury ... Effects of tetrandrine on pulmonary capillary permeability in rats with acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide].. @ ... article{Han2007EffectsOT, title={[Effects of tetrandrine on pulmonary capillary permeability in rats with acute lung injury ...
  • In preferentially oil-wet porous media, laboratory waterflooding experiments are prone to capillary end effects. (onepetro.org)
  • Relative permeability ( k r ) data are the key factors for describing the behaviour of the multi-phase flow in porous media. (springer.com)
  • In theories of multiphase flow through porous media, capillary pressure-saturation and relative permeability-saturation curves are assumed to be intrinsic properties of the medium. (edu.au)
  • Loss of circulating volume in anaphylaxis is due to a combination of increased capillary permeability with fluid extravasation into the interstitial space and sequestration in grossly dilated vascular beds leading to a profound reduction in venous return. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Extensive studies of all patients have revealed no cause for this extraordinary vascular permeability. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Intraperitoneal injection of melatonin resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in vascular permeability. (who.int)
  • Also, melatonin [20 ug] caused insignificant change in the increased vascular permeability due to local injection of histamine and serotonin. (who.int)
  • It was concluded that melatonin suppressed the local vascular permeability in part skin. (who.int)
  • Our purpose was to quantitate the permeability change in these vascular beds during the postburn (PB) period in order to define the pathophysiology and determine optimum use of colloid solutions. (utmb.edu)
  • Vitamin K reduces the permeability of vascular walls and prevents capillary breakage and permanent redness. (pharmaceris.com)
  • Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and even a release of secondary mediators may directly increase pulmonary vascular permeability. (medscape.com)
  • After 4 h, total leukocyte and differential cell counts (neutrophils and mononuclear), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, vascular permeability and cytokine levels were evaluated. (hindawi.com)
  • The SP6 and DEXA treatments inhibited the inflammatory cell infiltration, vascular permeability and MPO activity in carrageenan-injected mice. (hindawi.com)
  • High volume ventilation causes pulmonary vascular injury and increased pulmonary capillary permeability. (wustl.edu)
  • The current study was designed to examine the effects of hyperinflation and hypoinflation during preservation on pulmonary vascular permeability. (wustl.edu)
  • The function of the mural components involved in vascular exchange (pinocytotic vesicles, fenestrations, intercellular junctions, and the basal lamina) was assessed by intravascular injection of tracers (carbon, carbon plus histamine, ferritin, hemoglobin, and myoglobin) on separate gestational days in fetal and neonatal rat intestinal capillaries. (elsevier.com)
  • The partial sequence of the increasing capillary permeability protein (ICPP) purified from Vipera lebetina venom revealed a strong homology to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A. We now report its complete amino acid sequence determined by Edman degradation and its biological effects on mouse and human vascular endothelial cells. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Basal fractional vascular volume (FVV) was similar among the groups, but its response to adenosine was significantly attenuated in HTN, whereas microvascular permeability (MP) and response to adenosine were greater than normal. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A process which is the result of capillary permeability changes, where the bacteria from the intestinal area of the body migrate to the blood vascular system and is spread throughout the body. (brainscape.com)
  • Abstract To study the effect of hyperlipidemia on vascular permeability, serial anterior chamber fluorophotometric examinations were carried out on 33 control rabbits (group 1) and 32 diet-induced hypercholesterolemic (group 2) rabbits. (ahajournals.org)
  • The vascular endothelium forms a highly selective permeability barrier. (ahajournals.org)
  • This anterior chamber fluorophotometric study on detecting early changes in vascular permeability provides a good "window" for monitoring the pathological or pharmacological effects of various factors on systemic arterioles. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study (Contract No. G0122006), gas and water permeabilities of a large number of samples from the Pittsburgh and Pocahontas coals were measured at various overburden and mean flow pressures. (cdc.gov)
  • Gas permeabilities are affected to a lesser degree by mean flow pressures above atmospheric. (cdc.gov)
  • However at subatmospheric mean pressures, appreciable increase in permeability occurs for low permeability samples. (cdc.gov)
  • Plotting these values against inverse rate reveals linear trends at high rates, with slopes and intercepts that directly quantify the saturation functions in the range of negative capillary pressures. (onepetro.org)
  • Capillary pressures as well as relative permeabilities were determined by Chavent et al. (onepetro.org)
  • The model calculates threshold capillary pressures for all randomly generated geometries using Mayer-Stowe-Princen (MS-P) method and the minimization of Helmholtz free energy for every pore-scale displacement event. (ku.edu)
  • Specifically, we are interested in the training of ANNs to predict threshold capillary pressures and multi-phase flowrates as a function of cross-sectional shapes and wettabilities given for each capillary tube of the bundle. (ku.edu)
  • The characteristic functions relating relative permeabilities and capillary pressures to fluid saturations ( k r - S - P c models) are of great importance for the modelling of sub-surface multi-phase flow and transport. (diva-portal.org)
  • This study is to correlate permeability with porosity to predict permeability and capillary pressures. (tamu.edu)
  • Pulmonary venoconstriction occurs with sympathetic stimulation, which may increase the capillary hydrostatic pressure and produce pulmonary edema without affecting left atrial or pulmonary capillary wedge pressures. (medscape.com)
  • Based on a predetermined water-hydrocarbon contact and using the difference between the density gradients of the fluids, the capillary pressures of the two media are converted to theoretical water saturation profiles as a function of TVD. (nitecllc.com)
  • In situ determination of relative permeability and capillary pressure curves using multiphase flow rates and pressures of wireline formation testers. (hw.ac.uk)
  • These findings, combined with data on the permeability of the basement membrane and evidence that the endothelium may be a more important barrier than often supposed, are allowing a clearer understanding to emerge of how the 3 parts of the glomerular capillary wall jointly determine its functional properties. (jci.org)
  • The glomerular capillary wall is a living ultrafiltration membrane. (jci.org)
  • As shown in Figure 1 , the glomerular capillary wall consists of a fenestrated endothelium, the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), and the interdigitated foot processes of epithelial cells (podocytes). (jci.org)
  • Glomerular capillary wall, consisting principally of a fenestrated endothelium, a basement membrane, and epithelial foot processes. (jci.org)
  • The glomerular capillary wall is an exquisitely well-engineered barrier, which is normally very permeable to water and yet able to prevent all but very minute losses from the circulation of major plasma proteins such as albumin. (umn.edu)
  • 2017 ). It is crucial to express the relationship between capillary pressure and relative permeability and saturation to obtain typical capillary pressure and relative permeability curves for reservoir modeling and simulation. (springer.com)
  • An automated history matching approach is proposed to determine relative permeability and capillary pressure curves consistent with a core flood reservoir model performance. (onepetro.org)
  • A large-scale 'Trust Region Method' that minimizes the objective function is implemented for the adjustment of parameters controlling the relative permeability and capillary pressure curves. (onepetro.org)
  • The results indicate that the proposed approach successfully predicts relative permeability and capillary pressure curves of a fractured core sample which provides a foundation for field-scale history matching with simultaneous estimation of transport properties. (onepetro.org)
  • In order to develop powerful numerical models which are used for estimating the productivity, injectivity and ultimate recovery from hydrocarbon reservoirs, the determination of the correct set of relative permeability and capillary pressure curves become important. (onepetro.org)
  • Knowing pore fluid occupancies, we calculate saturations, phase conductances, and two-phase capillary pressure and relative permeability curves. (ku.edu)
  • Three consecutive injection, fall off, and production well tests are performed on a predefined synthetic reservoir through simulation, and an optimization algorithm is used to find the parameters of relative permeability and capillary pressure curves as well as the value of residual oil saturation. (begellhouse.com)
  • The result shows successful application of an optimization technique using the well testing data for determination of relative permeability, capillary pressure, and PSD curves. (begellhouse.com)
  • A numerical multiphase flow model is used to simulate the procedures that are commonly used in the laboratory for the measurement of capillary pressure and relative permeability curves. (edu.au)
  • Both drainage and imbibition capillary pressure curves are found to be strongly affected by heterogeneities and boundary conditions. (edu.au)
  • The following investigation focuses on the impact of capillary pressure on estimation of two phases relative permeability curves. (utp.edu.my)
  • The limitations in the JBN method create an error in relative permeability curves and make it unrepresentative of a typical core flooding test results. (utp.edu.my)
  • Ignoring of capillary pressure by JBN method will influence the calculation of relative permeability curves and final saturation levels. (utp.edu.my)
  • The results obtained have shown the influence of capillary pressure on estimating relative permeability curves. (utp.edu.my)
  • Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the water flooding curves differ greatly in shape and position according to the corresponding values of capillary pressure. (utp.edu.my)
  • Comparisons of relative permeability curves have shown that the capillary pressure dominates the displacement process. (utp.edu.my)
  • Furthermore, different relative permeability curves were obtained when the k r data were measured at different effective stresses. (hw.ac.uk)
  • Estimation of relative permeability and capillary pressure curves at reservoir conditions is also an important task for successful planning of waterflooding and enhanced oil recovery. (halliburtonblog.com)
  • This paper proposes a new method to obtain relative permeability and capillary pressure curves with downhole pressure-transient analysis (PTA) of mini-drillstem tests (miniDSTs) and well log-derived saturations. (halliburtonblog.com)
  • Combining these downhole measurements provided the relative permeability and capillary pressure curves. (halliburtonblog.com)
  • Relative permeability and capillary pressure curves are crucial inputs for reservoir modeling and simulation. (hw.ac.uk)
  • The study shows that the most important parameters are the curvatures of relative permeability and capillary pressure curves during the processes. (hw.ac.uk)
  • A sizable oil reserves are held in a thick oil/water capillary transition zones in the carbonate reservoirs, but it is an ongoing challenge to accurately describe the relationship between capillary pressure, relative permeability and oil/water saturation due to the complex wettability variation, pore geometry and heterogeneity throughout the reservoir column. (springer.com)
  • The petroleum reserves and oil recovery depend heavily on several geological and petrophysical properties based on special core analysis (SCAL) such as capillary pressure and relative permeability as a function of saturation (Spearing et al. (springer.com)
  • For water-wet reservoirs, a number of models have been proposed to correlate capillary pressure and relative permeability with water saturation (Masalmeh et al. (springer.com)
  • Capillary transition zones in carbonate reservoirs have a variety of wettability states, whereas it is more water wet at the OWC where initial oil saturation ( S oi ) equals to residual oil saturation up vertically to oil wet at the irreducible water saturation level. (springer.com)
  • Cost-effective exploitation of heterogeneous/anisotropic reservoirs (e.g., carbonate formations) reckons on accurate description of pore structure, dynamic petrophysical properties (e.g., directional permeability, saturation-dependent capillary pressure), and fluid distribution. (onepetro.org)
  • However, techniques for reliable quantification of permeability and hydrocarbon saturation still rely on model calibration using core measurements. (onepetro.org)
  • Furthermore, assessment of saturation-dependent capillary pressure has been limited to experimental measurements, such as mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP). (onepetro.org)
  • Finally, throat-size distribution, porosity, and tortuosity are used to calculate directional permeability and saturation-dependent capillary pressure. (onepetro.org)
  • Moreover, this new method enables real-time well-log-based assessment of saturation-dependent capillary pressure and directional permeability (in presence of directional electrical measurements) in reservoir conditions, which was not possible before. (onepetro.org)
  • The wetting phase (oil) will tend to accumulate at the outlet where the capillary pressure is zero and leave a highly remaining-oil saturation at steady state (defined by a stable pressure drop and a zero oil-production rate) compared to the residual-oil saturation. (onepetro.org)
  • 2017c) derived analytical solutions describing how the capillary pressure and relative permeability of water (the injected phase) could be determined on the basis of pressure drop and average saturation at steady states obtained at different water-injection rates. (onepetro.org)
  • For NAPLs with non-zero spreading coefficients no exact theory currently exists for scaling two-phase capillary pressure-saturation functions to three-phase systems. (diva-portal.org)
  • This work concerns simultaneous determination of relative permeability, capillary pressure, pore size distribution (PSD), and residual oil saturation data by optimization of well testing data, and introduces a new capillary pressure relationship, based on the Weibull distribution function, for direct determination of the PSD function from capillary pressure parameters. (begellhouse.com)
  • This model also has potential extensions to relative permeability (i.e., the Brooks and Corey relative permeability functions) - which should make correlations based on porosity, permeability, and irreducible saturation general tools for reservoir engineering problems where relative permeability data are not available. (tamu.edu)
  • The new capillary-pressure model is applied to evaluate sealing capacity of seals, calculate transition zone thickness and saturation above free water level in reservoirs. (tamu.edu)
  • In this article, it is suggested that the nonuniqueness of capillary pressure-relative permeability-saturation relationships is due to the presence of microheterogeneities within a laboratory sample. (edu.au)
  • Various combinations of boundary conditions and soil heterogeneity are simulated and average capillary pressure, saturation, and relative permeability for the "soil sample" are obtained. (edu.au)
  • the smaller the capillary number, the larger the irreducible water saturation. (edu.au)
  • One dimensional numerical model with uniform initial saturation has been implemented in this study using Eclipse 100 software to understand the relationship between relative permeability and capillary pressure. (utp.edu.my)
  • Capillary pressure gradient will increase the fractional flow of water and this increase in fractional flow of water results in lower frontal water saturation, higher frontal velocity and subsequently leading to a decrease in oil recovery. (utp.edu.my)
  • Reservoir relative permeability and capillary pressure, as a function of saturation, is important for assessing reservoir hydrocarbon recovery, selecting the well completion method, and determining the production strategy because they are fundamental inputs to reservoir simulation for predicting lifetime production of a well. (halliburtonblog.com)
  • and the potential in underwater settings for exertion or panic, which can exacerbate elevated capillary pressure. (diversalertnetwork.org)
  • An increase in capillary permeability can result in neurogenic pulmonary edema without elevation of pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure, because causative hemodynamic alteration is inconsistent. (medscape.com)
  • Whether the capillary leak is produced by pressure-induced mechanical injury because of the elevated capillary hydrostatic pressure or because of some direct nervous system control over the pulmonary capillary permeability remains uncertain. (medscape.com)
  • Pulmonary venous congestion leads to increased pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure, which allows increased water diffusion out of the vasculature into the pulmonary interstitium. (vetstream.com)
  • Four commercial DRP labs conducted blind porosity and permeability predictions on those quarter plugs using (a) only micro-CT based tools, and (b) all the tools accessible to DRP service providers. (onepetro.org)
  • They established equations relating pressure coefficients to porosity and permeability, based on the clay fraction of the sample. (uu.nl)
  • An empirical equation is proposed to calculate displacement pressure from porosity and permeability. (tamu.edu)
  • abstract = "To study the transcapillary exchange of water-soluble substances, the authors tried a new method to measure the capillary permeability surface area product (PS) under a vital microscopic field. (elsevier.com)
  • the capillary endothelium was proliferated, had marked infolding, and an increased number of pinocytotic vesicles and vacuoles. (nih.gov)
  • If inflammation is severe and diffuse, alveolar inflammation extends from the alveolar epithelium through to the pulmonary capillary endothelium, leading to capillary endothelial injury and increased permeability. (vetstream.com)
  • The continuous capillaries present through day 17 of gestation were impermeable, even at junctions, to all the tracers within the maximum circulation time studied (3 minutes). (elsevier.com)
  • Permeability of retinal capillaries in rats with inherited retinal degeneration. (arvojournals.org)
  • The permeability of retinal capillaries in RCS rats with inherited retinal degeneration was investigated with horseradish peroxidase used as a tracer. (arvojournals.org)
  • Five-week-old rats showed typical degeneration of photoreceptor cells and accumulation of outer segment debris, but retinal capillaries were not permeable to peroxidase. (arvojournals.org)
  • Inhibitory effects of sasanquasaponin on over-expression of ICAM-1 and on enhancement of capillary permeability induced by burns in rats. (curehunter.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of sasanquasaponin (SQS) on ICAM-1 expression and capillary permeability induced by burns in rats. (curehunter.com)
  • PDF] Nature of glomerular capillary permeability changes following acute renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Unilateral renal ischaemia in rats induces a rapid secretion of inflammatory markers to renal lymph and increased capillary permeability. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Effects of tetrandrine on pulmonary capillary permeability in rats with acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide]. (semanticscholar.org)
  • OBJECTIVE To observe the effects of tetrandrine (Tet) on the pulmonary capillary permeability in rats with acute lung injury induced by intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (semanticscholar.org)
  • To investigate the effect of retigabine on the blood-brain barrier permeability in rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion and its mechanism. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The PSD function is also determined from capillary pressure relationship parameters. (begellhouse.com)
  • A formulation for the daily care of sensitive skin with dilated capillaries and tendency to periodic hyperactivity occurring due to external factors, such as sudden changes in temperature, strong emotions, alcohol or spicy food. (pharmaceris.com)
  • Recommended for daily use for the sensitive skin with dilated capillaries and the skin which is proneto periodic hyper-reactivity triggered by such external factors as temperature, intense emotions, or the consumption of alcohol or spicy foods. (pharmaceris.com)
  • 2014 ). The thickness of a capillary transition zone may vary from a few feet in high-permeability reservoirs to more than 300 feet in low-permeability reservoirs such as carbonate reservoirs, due to its extreme heterogeneity. (springer.com)
  • Finally, we perform a waterflooding experiment in the laboratory on a high-permeability (3 darcies) Bentheimer sandstone core, altered to an oil-wet state. (onepetro.org)
  • Clay formations have a high permeability which is highly preferred with nuclear waste storage. (uu.nl)
  • From the ratio of end concentrations of arterial to venous capillaries divided by surface area, calculated from rete weight, a value for the ratio of permeability to flow, P/F, with dimensions in centimeters-2 was estimated. (ahajournals.org)
  • Forces that decrease the rate of movement of water from the interstitial space into the plasma include decreased serum albumin, right-sided heart failure in which edema occurs as a consequence of increased pressure in the systemic venous circulation, increased capillary permeability, and increased oncotic pressure in the interstitium due to accumulation of protein as occurs with blockage of lymphatic vessels (Ahmad, 1999) (see Figure 1). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A compartmental pharmacokinetic model was developed for the analysis of the in vivo data to provide plasma-to-tissue transport constants (capillary permeability-area products), binding parameters (products of the association constant and the initial binding site concentration), and the interstitial fluid flow rate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The efficiency of hydrocarbon recovery from oil and gas reservoirs is mainly controlled by our ability to understand and define fluid transport properties, such as relative permeability and capillary pressure. (onepetro.org)
  • Specifically, we simulate fluid displacement sequences during a drainage process in bundles of capillary tubes with randomly generated convex polygon cross-sections. (ku.edu)
  • That's because immersion in an upright position causes a significant shift of fluid from the peripheral to the central circulatory system, resulting in higher pressure in the capillaries of the pulmonary system. (diversalertnetwork.org)
  • A central nervous system event produces a dramatic change in Starling forces, which govern the movement of fluid between capillaries and the interstitium. (medscape.com)
  • Examination of these parameters indicate that for the gravity current of CO2 transiting through a heterogeneous siliciclastic formation, the local capillary forces in geologic units, such as mudstone and sandstones, and the relative permeability to the invading fluid control the mass of CO2 that breaches and percolates through each unit, respectively. (coventry.ac.uk)
  • Pulmonary congestion is characterised by increased interstitial and/or alveolar fluid caused by an increased capillary pressure (cardiac) or an increased permeability of the pulmonary vessels [ 1 ]. (smw.ch)
  • We examined ultrastructural findings of capillaries of these tumors and discussed the causes of cerebral edema as compared with those of glioblastoma which were previously reported. (nih.gov)
  • The following list of conditions have ' Edema due to increased capillary permeability in children ' or similar listed as a symptom in our database. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • The result suggested that some factor soluble in media secreted from co-cultured cells changes the permeability of the endothelial monolayer and could explain the pathogenetic mechanism of peritumoral edema in malignant brain tumors. (jkns.or.kr)
  • Impaired capillary integrity after severe thermal injury results in edema formation in both burned and non-burned soft tissue and also in the lung. (utmb.edu)
  • These three fractions were investigated for anti-peritoneal capillary permeability, in vitro nitric oxide scavenging activity, anti-inflammatory and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema method. (mdpi.com)
  • Edema (interstitial and then alveolar) occurs when the pulmonary lymphatic system is overwhelmed and can no longer deal with the increased water movement out of the capillaries. (vetstream.com)
  • Capillary permeability edema ensues. (vetstream.com)
  • A simple, linear kinetic model has been developed for the noninvasive assessment of capillary permeability to macromolecules in the rat by dynamic magnetic resonance imaging using albumin-Gd-DTPA. (nih.gov)
  • We tested the hypothesis that albumin regulates the solute permeability coefficients (P(s)) of individually perfused exchange microvessels of the frog mesentery by mechanisms similar to those described for hydraulic conductivity. (elsevier.com)
  • Huxley, VH & Curry, FE 1991, ' Differential actions of albumin and plasma on capillary solute permeability ', American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology , vol. 260, no. 5 29-5. (elsevier.com)
  • Changes in capillary permeability were quantitated by determining the lymph-to-plasma (L/P) ratios for albumin and globulin. (utmb.edu)
  • The L/P ratio for albumin and globulin decreased indicating no protein permeability change. (utmb.edu)
  • Albondin-mediated capillary permeability to albumin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bankston, Patrick W. / Fetal and neonatal rat intestinal capillaries : Permeability to carbon, ferritin, hemoglobin, and myoglobin . (elsevier.com)
  • Porter, GA & Bankston, PW 1987, ' Functional maturation of the capillary wall in the fetal and neonatal rat heart: Permeability characteristics of developing myocardial capillaries ', American Journal of Anatomy , vol. 180, no. 4, pp. 323-331. (elsevier.com)
  • Bankston, Patrick W. / Functional maturation of the capillary wall in the fetal and neonatal rat heart : Permeability characteristics of developing myocardial capillaries . (elsevier.com)
  • The division of the porosity is based on the assumption that the total porosity of the system is made up from two contributing rock types or lithofacies that have distinct pore size and/or pore size distribution such that they can be represented by different capillary pressure functions. (nitecllc.com)
  • The aim was to evaluate the effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid on myocardial capillary permeability for small hydrophilic molecules after ischaemia and reperfusion. (ku.dk)
  • The develpment of the functional components of the myocardial capillary wall was characterized by time-course studies of transendothelial transport of intravascularly injected probes of graded size from 16 days of gestation in the fetal rat to seven days postpartum. (elsevier.com)
  • It has been shown that a proper interpretation of relative permeability and capillary pressure including hysteresis has a substantial influence on the prediction and optimization of field production, especially for a heterogeneous carbonate reservoir with a thick transition zone. (springer.com)
  • The conventional models, such as Corey method and Leverett J-function, cannot precisely present the behaviors of capillary pressure and relative permeability of transition zones in carbonate reservoirs. (springer.com)
  • In the present work, a study has been conducted to provide an improved understanding of capillary pressure and relative permeability of the transition zones in carbonate reservoirs by implementing and optimizing recently developed models considering mixed-wet property and geological heterogeneity. (springer.com)
  • 2002 ). However, it is difficult to precisely correlate the capillary pressure and relative permeability in the transition zones of carbonate reservoirs due to its high degree of heterogeneity and complex properties of wettability. (springer.com)
  • Development of Techniques and the Measurement of Relative Permeability and Capillary Pressure Relationships in Coal. (cdc.gov)
  • Air and water relative permeabilities were also measured for numerous samples of Pittsburgh and Pocahontas coals. (cdc.gov)
  • Our aim is to demonstrate how pressure drop and oil production at steady state for different water-injection rates can be used to derive relative permeability and capillary pressure from waterflooding. (onepetro.org)
  • The experimental procedure and model demonstrate that only water relative permeability and capillary pressure determine the steady state during waterflooding, and hence can be estimated accurately. (onepetro.org)
  • This study focuses on the development and implementation of a numerical model of multiphase flow in a fractured core sample by establishing a proper physical framework that describes the capillary pressure-relative permeability characteristics. (onepetro.org)
  • After the 1960s, a novel technique, history matching, where relative permeabilities and capillary pressure as well as absolute permeability, and porosity are adapted using a reservoir simulator was introduced to achieve a reservoir representation in an agreement with the observed reservoir performance. (onepetro.org)
  • Archer and Wong (1973) applied similar approach in reservoir characterization and description to obtain relative permeabilities from core flood experiments. (onepetro.org)
  • This liquid hold-up, which is known as capillary end effect (CEE), is the main difficulty for laboratory measurements of relative permeability ( k r ) for tight and shale rocks. (springer.com)
  • In this paper, a novel method is proposed to correct the CEE during the steady-state relative permeability (SS- k r ) measurements. (springer.com)
  • Gupta and Maloney ( 2016 ) proposed the intercept technique to correct CEE during relative permeability measurements. (springer.com)
  • The sensitivity analysis shows more sensitivity of objective function (OF) values for variations encountered with the water exponent in the relative permeability curve (m) and the C parameter of the capillary pressure relationship in comparison to the other parameters. (begellhouse.com)
  • Moreover, relative permeability is assumed to be a scalar property. (edu.au)
  • For example, relative permeability is known to be affected by the flow velocity (or pressure gradient) at which the measurements are carried out. (edu.au)
  • Our results reveal that there is much need for laboratory experiments aimed at investigating the interplay of boundary conditions and microheterogeneities and their effect on capillary pressure and relative permeability. (edu.au)
  • Accurate relative permeability is a crucial parameter for evaluating reservoir performance. (utp.edu.my)
  • The unsteady state core flooding tests, which is considered in this study, is mostly used to measure oil-water relative permeabilities. (utp.edu.my)
  • The Johnson ,Bossler and Neumann (JBN) method is the conventional method for estimating relative permeabilities from field core. (utp.edu.my)
  • Pressure drop and recovery data obtained from 1-D numerical simulations are used to estimate the relative permeabilities by JBN method. (utp.edu.my)
  • It is shown that increase in capillary pressure increases the water relative permeability. (utp.edu.my)
  • You can download and read online Advanced Petrophysics: Volume 2: Dispersion, Interfacial Phenomena/Wettability, Capillarity/Capillary Pressure, Relative Permeability file PDF Book only if you are registered here. (likapelaja.ml)
  • And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Advanced Petrophysics: Volume 2: Dispersion, Interfacial Phenomena/Wettability, Capillarity/Capillary Pressure, Relative Permeability book. (likapelaja.ml)
  • It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Advanced Petrophysics: Volume 2: Dispersion, Interfacial Phenomena/Wettability, Capillarity/Capillary Pressure, Relative Permeability Pocket Guide. (likapelaja.ml)
  • Sorbie, KS , Hua, G & McDougall, SR 1999, Measurement of relative permeability and capillary pressure at the laminaset scale . (hw.ac.uk)
  • Relative permeability (k r ) functions are among the essential data required for the simulation of multiphase flow in hydrocarbon reservoirs. (hw.ac.uk)
  • However, relative permeability measurement of shale rocks is extremely difficult mainly because of the low/ultralow matrix permeability and porosity, dominant capillary pressure and stress-dependent permeability of these formations. (hw.ac.uk)
  • In this study, the impacts of stress and capillary end effects (CEE) on the measured relative permeability data were investigated. (hw.ac.uk)
  • The steady state relative permeability (SS-k r ) measurements were performed on Eagle Ford and Pierre shale samples. (hw.ac.uk)
  • It is evident that the behavior of unconventional reservoirs can be better predicted when more reliable and accurate relative permeability data are available. (hw.ac.uk)
  • The relative permeability and capillary pressure data estimated from core analysis might cause concern regarding representativeness, and adjustments are typically necessary for successful production forecasting. (halliburtonblog.com)
  • Analyses of the miniDST buildup tests provided absolute formation permeability, endpoints of relative permeability to both oil and water, and curvature of the relative permeability data. (halliburtonblog.com)
  • This investigation focussed on two key parameters affecting CO2 migration mobility, namely relative permeability and capillary forces. (coventry.ac.uk)
  • Consequently, the inclusion of heterogeneities in capillary pressure and relative permeability functions, where and when applicable, advances a Darcy modelling approach to history matching and forecasting of reservoir performance. (coventry.ac.uk)
  • This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Onoja, MU & Shariatipour, SM 2019, 'Assessing the impact of relative permeability and capillary heterogeneity on Darcy flow modelling of CO 2 storage in Utsira Formation' Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology, vol. 9, no. 6, https://doi.org/10.1002/ghg.1932, pp. 1221-1246, which has been published in final form at https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ghg.1932. (coventry.ac.uk)
  • Onoja, MU & Shariatipour, SM 2019, ' Assessing the impact of relative permeability and capillary heterogeneity on Darcy flow modelling of CO 2 storage in Utsira Formation ' Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology , vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 1221-1246. (coventry.ac.uk)
  • The proposed methodology estimates multiphase flow properties occurring near the wellbore, such as relative permeability, capillary pressure, damage skin and mud-filtrate invasion by inversion of water-cut and bottomhole pressure recorded during the WFT cleanup. (hw.ac.uk)
  • The results from synthetic and field examples demonstrate that relative permeability and capillary pressure, mud-filtrate invasion, damage skin can be estimated successfully in the inversion process. (hw.ac.uk)
  • We cleaned the plugs, measured porosity ( φ ) and absolute permeability ( k abs ), and then split the plugs into four quarter plugs that are each 1.5-in. (onepetro.org)
  • There were associations between alveolar-capillary permeability and BAL myeloperoxidase (r = 0.4, p = 0.038) and BAL interleukin 8 (r = 0.38, p = 0.033). (bmj.com)
  • Sudden but transient overload of the pulmonary circulation leads to capillary wall stress failure and acute damage to pulmonary capillary endothelial cell tight junctions. (vetstream.com)
  • The increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) induced by ischemia/hypoxia is generally correlated with alteration of tight junctions (TJs). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Curry, FE 1979, ' Antipyrene permeability in single perfused capillaries of frog mesentery ', Federation Proceedings , vol. 38, no. 3 II. (elsevier.com)
  • 1. We have investigated the effects of various potential inhibitors on flow-dependent K + permeability (P(K)) of single perfused mesenteric microvessels in pithed frogs. (elsevier.com)
  • Kajimura, M & Michel, CC 1999, ' Inhibition of effects of flow on potassium permeability in single perfused frog mesenteric capillaries ', Journal of Physiology , 巻. (elsevier.com)
  • This study illustrates the interrelationship of plasma kinetics, capillary permeability, and binding and their effects on toxin concentrations that are achieved in the tissue interstitium. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The rate of blood flow to the tissue capillaries varies widely. (gafacom.website)
  • After changing it to a Cr-EDTA free solution, the rate of the indicator washout from tissue to capillary was recorded with a photocell placed on a VTR monitor connected to the microscope. (elsevier.com)
  • Ability of substances to diffuse through capillary walls into the tissue spaces. (brainscape.com)
  • 4 Besides smooth muscle cell proliferation and accumulation of connective tissue matrix, changes in endothelial permeability are major common pathogenic mechanisms in atherosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
  • The fundamental nature of the clearance curve was studied, including the effect of the local capillary flow. (elsevier.com)
  • Therefore based on the current results routine measurements of microalbuminuria to determine endothelial permeability cannot be recommended in critically ill patients. (cf.ac.uk)
  • The study of changes in cardiac permeability with chemotherapy could enhance the understanding of mechanisms behind cardiac damage, and provide useful information to evaluate anthracycline cardiotoxicity. (springer.com)
  • An isolated heart experiment was done on day 12 to obtain perfused heart pressure values, and to measure cardiac capillary permeability using a Texas Red/sodium fluorescein multiple indicator dilution method. (springer.com)
  • Based on our results, cardiac capillary permeability changes can be detected after in vivo chemotherapy treatment using our fluorescent multiple indicator dilution technique, and may provide valuable information in evaluating cardiotoxicity of novel drugs. (springer.com)
  • The permeability and capillary entry pressure of chalk reservoirs are controlled by their porosity and specific surface area. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • Capillary Permeability" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (wakehealth.edu)
  • Advances in Physiological Sciences, Volume 7: Cardiovascular Physiology: Microcirculation and Capillary Exchange is a collection of papers that tackles the advances in the understanding of microcirculation and capillary exchange. (elsevier.com)
  • We also compare primary drainage capillary pressure ( P c ) calculated by four DRP vendors on quarter plugs with centrifuge-based gas-water measurements conducted in-house on companion plugs. (onepetro.org)
  • Colchicine inhibits elevations in both alveolar-capillary membrane permeability and lavage surfactant after exposure of the rat to phosgene. (cdc.gov)
  • Changes were measured in the permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane and lavage surfactant concentrations following phosgene (75445) exposure and the influence of colchicine on both. (cdc.gov)
  • Alveolar-capillary permeability was measured in vivo by thermodilution (PiCCO). (bmj.com)
  • The changes in the permeability properties of the rete capillaries of the eel in response to temperature shifts were studied during countercurrent perfusion at constant flow and pressure. (ahajournals.org)
  • Because flow and surface area are constant, this provides an index of how permeability varies with time. (ahajournals.org)
  • To do so, we have generated multi-phase flow properties for two large datasets consisting of 40,000 and 60,000 capillary tubes each. (ku.edu)
  • We explain the results with a one-dimensional model characterizing the flow in the narrow gaps on either side of the obstacle, which identifies a surface-tension-driven instability associated with a variation in the permeability in the flow direction. (harvard.edu)
  • The first step in urine formation is the ultrafiltration of blood in renal glomerular capillaries. (umn.edu)
  • Hylexin's key compounds decrease capillary permeability , which minimizes the tendency of fragile capillaries to leak, and improves lymphatic circulation that reduces the appearance of puffiness that usually accompanies dark circles. (thefreedictionary.com)