Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Pheniramine: One of the HISTAMINE H1 ANTAGONISTS with little sedative action. It is used in treatment of hay fever, rhinitis, allergic dermatoses, and pruritus.Capillary Leak Syndrome: A condition characterized by recurring episodes of fluid leaking from capillaries into extra-vascular compartments causing hematocrit to rise precipitously. If not treated, generalized vascular leak can lead to generalized EDEMA; SHOCK; cardiovascular collapse; and MULTIPLE ORGAN FAILURE.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Serum Albumin, Radio-Iodinated: Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)Dermatitis, Exfoliative: The widespread involvement of the skin by a scaly, erythematous dermatitis occurring either as a secondary or reactive process to an underlying cutaneous disorder (e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, etc.), or as a primary or idiopathic disease. It is often associated with the loss of hair and nails, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, and pruritus. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Dicloxacillin: One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE.Paramethasone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of corticosteroids. It has been used by mouth in the treatment of all conditions in which corticosteroid therapy is indicated except adrenal-deficiency states for which its lack of sodium-retaining properties makes it less suitable than HYDROCORTISONE with supplementary FLUDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p737)Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome: A complication of OVULATION INDUCTION in infertility treatment. It is graded by the severity of symptoms which include OVARY enlargement, multiple OVARIAN FOLLICLES; OVARIAN CYSTS; ASCITES; and generalized EDEMA. The full-blown syndrome may lead to RENAL FAILURE, respiratory distress, and even DEATH. Increased capillary permeability is caused by the vasoactive substances, such as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS, secreted by the overly-stimulated OVARIES.Plasma Volume: Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Fluorescein: A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Capillary Action: A phenomenon in which the surface of a liquid where it contacts a solid is elevated or depressed, because of the relative attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Capillary Resistance: The vascular resistance to the flow of BLOOD through the CAPILLARIES portions of the peripheral vascular bed.Hemangioma, Capillary: A dull red, firm, dome-shaped hemangioma, sharply demarcated from surrounding skin, usually located on the head and neck, which grows rapidly and generally undergoes regression and involution without scarring. It is caused by proliferation of immature capillary vessels in active stroma, and is usually present at birth or occurs within the first two or three months of life. (Dorland, 27th ed)Capillary Electrochromatography: A separation technique which combines LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY and CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Tight Junctions: Cell-cell junctions that seal adjacent epithelial cells together, preventing the passage of most dissolved molecules from one side of the epithelial sheet to the other. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, p22)Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Phosgene: A highly toxic gas that has been used as a chemical warfare agent. It is an insidious poison as it is not irritating immediately, even when fatal concentrations are inhaled. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p7304)Colchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Blood-Air Barrier: The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Workflow: Description of pattern of recurrent functions or procedures frequently found in organizational processes, such as notification, decision, and action.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Nuclear Physics: The study of the characteristics, behavior, and internal structures of the atomic nucleus and its interactions with other nuclei. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Health Physics: The science concerned with problems of radiation protection relevant to reducing or preventing radiation exposure, and the effects of ionizing radiation on humans and their environment.

Potent mast cell degranulation and vascular permeability triggered by urocortin through activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors. (1/3442)

Urocortin (Ucn) is related to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), and both are released in the brain under stress where they stimulate CRH 1 and 2 receptors (CRHR). Outside the brain, they may have proinflammatory actions through activation of mast cells, which are located perivascularly close to nerve endings and degranulate in response to acute psychological stress. Here, we report that a concentration of intradermal Ucn as low as 10 nM induced dose-dependent rat skin mast cell degranulation and increased vascular permeability. This effect appeared to be equipotent to that of calcitonin gene-related peptide and neurotensin. Ucn-induced skin vasodilation was inhibited by pretreatment with the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate (cromolyn) and was absent in the mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice. The selective nonpeptide CRH receptor 1 antagonist, antalarmin and the nonselective peptide antagonist astressin both reduced vascular permeability triggered by Ucn but not that by Substance P or histamine. In contrast, the peptide antagonist alpha-helical CRH-(9-41) reduced the effect of all three. The vasodilatory effect of Ucn was largely inhibited by pretreatment with H1 receptor antagonists, suggesting that histamine is the major mediator involved in vitro. Neuropeptide depletion of sensory neurons, treatment with the ganglionic blocker hexamethonium, or in situ skin infiltration with the local anesthetic lidocaine did not affect Ucn-induced vascular permeability, indicating that its in situ effect was not mediated through the peripheral nervous system. These results indicate that Ucn is one of the most potent triggers of rat mast cell degranulation and skin vascular permeability. This effect of Ucn may explain stress-induced disorders, such as atopic dermatitis or psoriasis, and may lead to new forms of treatment.  (+info)

Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists. (2/3442)

1. Subcutaneous injection of sodium deoxycholic acid into the anterior of the back of male ddY mice elicited dose-dependent scratching of the injected site with the forepaws and hindpaws. 2. Up to 100 microg of sodium deoxycholic acid induced no significant increase in vascular permeability at the injection site as assessed by a dye leakage method. 3. Bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor antagonists, FR173657 and Hoe140, significantly decreased the frequency of scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. 4. Treatment with aprotinin to inhibit tissue kallikrein reduced the scratching behaviour induced by sodium deoxycholic acid, whereas treatment with soybean trypsin inhibitor to inhibit plasma kallikrein did not. 5. Although injection of kininase II inhibitor, lisinopril together with sodium deoxycholic acid did not alter the scratching behaviour, phosphoramidon, a neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, significantly increased the frequency of scratching. 6. Homogenates of the skin excised from the backs of mice were subjected to gel-filtration column chromatography followed by an assay of kinin release by trypsin from each fraction separated. Less kinin release from the fractions containing kininogen of low molecular weight was observed in the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid than in normal skin. 7. The frequency of scratching after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid in plasma kininogen-deficient Brown Norway Katholiek rats was significantly lower than that in normal rats of the same strain, Brown Norway Kitasato rats. 8. These results indicate that BK released from low-molecular-weight kininogen by tissue kallikrein, but not from high-molecular-weight kininogen by plasma kallikrein, may be involved in the scratching behaviour induced by the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid in the rodent.  (+info)

Role for nitric oxide in the hyperpermeability and hemodynamic changes induced by intravenous VEGF. (3/3442)

PURPOSE: To explore the effects of brief intravenous (IV) infusion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on vascular albumin permeability, blood flow, and vascular conductance (blood flow normalized to arterial blood pressure) in ocular tissues and brain and to assess the role of nitric oxide in mediating these changes. METHODS: A quantitative, double-tracer, radiolabeled albumin permeation method was combined with radiolabeled microspheres for assessment of changes in vascular permeability and blood flow, respectively, induced in ocular tissues by IV infusion of recombinant human VEGF165 for 20 minutes (80-450 picomoles/kg body weight). An inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA; 50 micromoles/kg body weight infused simultaneously with VEGF), was used to explore the role of nitric oxide in mediating the vascular changes induced by VEGF. RESULTS: Infusion of VEGF165 in thiopental-anesthetized rats dose-dependently increased 125I albumin permeation in the retina, anterior uvea, and choroid/sclera and in brain, aorta, lung, kidney, small intestine, and peripheral nerve. Mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, and stroke volume were decreased only at the highest dose of VEGF, whereas heart rate remained unchanged. Blood flow was increased in the anterior uvea, and vascular conductance was increased in retina, anterior uvea, choroid/sclera, and brain at the highest dose of VEGF. The NOS inhibitor, L-NMMA, blocked VEGF-induced vascular hyperpermeability in all ocular and nonocular tissues, prevented the increase in vascular conductance in all ocular tissues, and blocked the decrease in mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, and stroke volume. Infusion of L-NMMA alone decreased vascular conductance in choroid/sclera and kidney, slightly increased mean arterial blood pressure, and in general, did not affect 125I-albumin permeation. (L-NMMA slightly decreased albumin permeation in the retina and increased it in the brain.) CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous infusion of VEGF can acutely impair endothelial cell barrier functional integrity and relax resistance arterioles in ocular tissues and brain through a mechanism involving activation of NOS.  (+info)

Strain-dependent induction of allergic sensitization caused by peanut allergen DNA immunization in mice. (4/3442)

To investigate the potential application of allergen gene immunization in the modulation of food allergy, C3H/HeSn (C3H) mice received i.m. injections of pAra h2 plasmid DNA encoding one of the major peanut allergens, Ara h2. Three weeks following pDNA immunization, serum Ara h2-specific IgG2a, IgG1, but not IgE, were increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. IgG1 was 30-fold higher in multiply compared with singly immunized mice. Ara h2 or peanut protein injection of immunized mice induced anaphylactic reactions, which were more severe in multiply immunized mice. Heat-inactivated immune serum induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, suggesting that anaphylaxis in C3H mice was mediated by IgG1. IgG1 responses were also induced by intradermal injection of pAra h2, and by i.m. injection of pOMC, the plasmid DNA encoding the major egg allergen protein, ovomucoid. To elucidate whether the pDNA immunization-induced anaphylaxis was a strain-dependent phenomenon, AKR/J and BALB/c mice also received multiple i.m. pAra h2 immunizations. Injection of peanut protein into these strains at weeks 3 or 5 following immunization did not induce reactions. Although IgG2a was increased significantly from week 2 in AKR/J mice and from week 4 in BALB/c mice and remained elevated for at least 6 wk, no IgG1 or IgE was detected. These results indicate that the type of immune responses to pDNA immunization in mice is strain dependent. Consequently, models for studying human allergen gene immunization require careful selection of suitable strains. In addition, this suggests that similar interindividual variation is likely in humans.  (+info)

Antipsoriatic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects of an extract of red propolis. (5/3442)

AIM: To study the antipsoriatic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects of ethanolic extract of red propolis. METHODS AND RESULTS: This extract induced the formation of granular layer in the mouse tail test used as a model of psoriasis. Propolis 50 mg.kg-1 i.g. showed anti-inflammatory activity in the cotton-pellet granuloma assay in rats, in croton oil-induced edema in mice at a dose of 25% (2.5 microL), and in the peritoneal capillary permeability test in mice at a dose of 10 mg.kg-1. The extract (25 mg.kg-1 i.g.) showed analgesic effect in the model of acetic acid-induced writhings, whereas 40 mg.kg-1 was effective in the hot plate test in mice. CONCLUSION: Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipsoriatric properties of Cuban red propolis were evident.  (+info)

Endogenous nitric oxide in the maintenance of rat microvascular integrity against widespread plasma leakage following abdominal laparotomy. (6/3442)

1. The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the maintenance of microvascular integrity during minor surgical manipulation has been evaluated in the rat. 2. The NO synthase inhibitors, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 5 mg kg(-1), s.c.) and N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 50 mg kg(-1), s.c.) had no effect on microvascular leakage of radiolabelled albumin over 1 h in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, colon, lung and kidney in the un-operated conscious or pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rat. 3. In contrast, in anaesthetized rats with a midline abdominal laparotomy (5 cm), L-NAME (1-5 mg kg(-1), s.c.) or L-NMMA (12.5-50 mg kg(-1), s.c.) dose-dependently increased gastrointestinal, renal and pulmonary vascular leakage, effects reversed by L-arginine pretreatment (300 mg kg(-1), s.c., 15 min). These actions were not observed in anaesthetized rats that had only received a midline abdominal skin incision (5 cm). 4. Pretreatment with a rabbit anti-rat neutrophil serum (0.4 ml kg(-1), i.p.), 4 h before laparotomy, abolished the plasma leakage induced by L-NAME in all the organs investigated. 5. These results indicate that the following abdominal laparotomy, inhibition of constitutive NO synthase provokes vascular leakage in the general microcirculation, by a process that may involve neutrophils. Such effects could thus confound studies on the microvascular actions of NO synthase inhibitors using acute surgically prepared in vivo models. The findings thus suggest that constitutively-formed NO has a crucial role in the maintenance of acute microvascular integrity following abdominal surgical intervention.  (+info)

Neurogenic plasma leakage in mouse airways. (7/3442)

1. This study sought to determine whether neurogenic inflammation occurs in the airways by examining the effects of capsaicin or substance P on microvascular plasma leakage in the trachea and lungs of male pathogen-free C57BL/6 mice. 2. Single bolus intravenous injections of capsaicin (0.5 and 1 micromol kg(-1), i.v.) or substance P (1, 10 and 37 nmol kg(-10, i.v.) failed to induce significant leakage in the trachea, assessed as extravasation of Evans blue dye, but did induce leakage in the urinary bladder and skin. 3. Pretreatment with captopril (2.5 mg kg(-1), i.v.), a selective inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), either alone or in combination with phosphoramidon (2.5 mg kg(-1), i.v.), a selective inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase (NEP), increased baseline leakage of Evans blue in the absence of any exogenous inflammatory mediator. The increase was reversed by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist Hoe 140 (0.1 mg kg(-1), i.v.). 4. After pretreatment with phosphoramidon and captopril, capsaicin increased the Evans blue leakage above the baseline in the trachea, but not in the lung. This increase was reversed by the tachykinin (NK1) receptor antagonist SR 140333 (0.7 mg kg(-1), i.v.), but not by the NK2 receptor antagonist SR 48968 (1 mg kg(-1), i.v.). 5. Experiments using Monastral blue pigment as a tracer localized the leakage to postcapillary venules in the trachea and intrapulmonary bronchi, although the labelled vessels were less numerous in mice than in comparably treated rats. Blood vessels of the pulmonary circulation were not labelled. 6. We conclude that neurogenic inflammation can occur in airways of pathogen-free mice, but only after the inhibition of enzymes that normally degrade inflammatory peptides. Neurogenic inflammation does not involve the pulmonary microvasculature.  (+info)

Enhancement of fluid filtration across tumor vessels: implication for delivery of macromolecules. (8/3442)

Cancer therapies using genes and other macromolecules might realize their full clinical potential if they could be delivered to tumor tissue in optimal quantities. Unfortunately, the compromised circulation within tumors poses a formidable resistance to adequate and uniform penetration of these agents. Previously, we have proposed elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) as a major physiological barrier to delivery of macromolecules. Here we postulate that modulation of tumor microvascular pressure (MVP) and associated changes in IFP would enhance macromolecular delivery into a solid tumor. To test our hypothesis, we altered tumor MVP by either periodic injection or continuous infusion of angiotensin II (AII) and measured the resulting changes in IFP and uptake of macromolecules. We used the nicotinyl hydrazine derivative of human polyclonal IgG (HYNIC-IgG) as a nonspecific macromolecule and CC49 antibody as a specific macromolecule. We found that both chronic and periodic modulation of tumor MVP enhances transvascular fluid filtration, leading to a 40% increase in total uptake of the specific antibody within 4 hr of its administration. Conversely, neither continuous nor periodic infusion of AII induced any increase in uptake of nonspecific antibodies. Strategies to improve delivery of macromolecules and limitations of this approach are identified.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Magnitude-dependent regulation of pulmonary endothelial cell barrier function by cyclic stretch. AU - Birukov, Konstantin G.. AU - Jacobson, Jeffrey R.. AU - Flores, Alejandro A.. AU - Ye, Shui Q.. AU - Birukova, Anna A.. AU - Verin, Alexander D.. AU - Garcia, Joe G.N.. PY - 2003/10/1. Y1 - 2003/10/1. N2 - Ventilator-induced lung injury syndromes are characterized by profound increases in vascular leakiness and activation of inflammatory processes. To explore whether excessive cyclic stretch (CS) directly causes vascular barrier disruption or enhances endothelial cell sensitivity to edemagenic agents, human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC) were exposed to physiologically (5% elongation) or pathologically (18% elongation) relevant levels of strain. CS produced rapid (10 min) increases in myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation, activation of p38 and extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 MAP kinases, and actomyosin remodeling. Acute (15 min) and chronic (48 h) CS ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Fibrinogen-γ C-Terminal fragments induce endothelial barrier dysfunction and microvascular leak via integrin-mediated and RhoA-dependent mechanism. AU - Guo, Mingzhang. AU - Daines, Dayle. AU - Tang, Jing. AU - Shen, Qiang. AU - Perrin, Rachel M.. AU - Takada, Yoshikazu. AU - Yuan, Sarah Y.. AU - Wu, Mack H.. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - Objectives - The purposes of this study were to characterize the direct effect of the C-terminal fragment of fibrinogen γ chain (γC) on microvascular endothelial permeability and to examine its molecular mechanism of action. Methods and Results-Intravital microscopy was performed to measure albumin extravasation in intact mesenteric microvasculature, followed by quantification of hydraulic conductivity in single perfused micro vessels. Transendothelial electric resistance was measured in microvascular endothelial cells in combination with immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. The results show that γC induced time- and ...
Inhibitory effects of sasanquasaponin on over-expression of ICAM-1 and on enhancement of capillary permeability induced by burns in rats. - Qiren Huang, Lijian Shao, Ming He, Heping Chen, Dan Liu, Yongming Luo, Yucheng Dai
Vascular permeability factor (VPF) is a 40-kilodalton disulfide-linked dimeric glycoprotein that is active in increasing blood vessel permeability, endothelial cell growth, and angiogenesis. These properties suggest that the expression of VPF by tumor cells could contribute to the increased neovascularization and vessel permeability that are associated with tumor vasculature. The cDNA sequence of VPF from human U937 cells was shown to code for a 189-amino acid polypeptide that is similar in structure to the B chain of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-B) and other PDGF-B-related proteins. The overall identity with PDGF-B is 18%. However, all eight of the cysteines in PDGF-B were found to be conserved in human VPF, an indication that the folding of the two proteins is probably similar. Clusters of basic amino acids in the COOH-terminal halves of human VPF and PDGF-B are also prevalent. Thus, VPF appears to be related to the PDGF/v-sis family of proteins.
Our finding that short-term treatment with imatinib protects against endothelial barrier dysfunction and edema formation provides first mechanistic insight regarding previous case reports on patients in whom initiation of imatinib treatment was followed by fast resolution of pulmonary edema.5,11 Combining in vitro and in vivo measurements of endothelial barrier dysfunction and vascular leakage, we found that imatinib protects against edema formation by enforcing the endothelial barrier. Although edema formation and vascular leakage may also be affected by changes in blood pressure, microvascular perfusion, or vascular remodeling, these factors are less likely to underlie the protective effect of imatinib. Alteration of blood pressure and microvascular perfusion as explanation for edema resolution was excluded in this study, because (1) imatinib did not affect systemic blood pressure in an experimental set-up similar to the Miles assay or Kfc measurements, (2) the pressure and the flow in the ...
Background and Objective: Impairment of the regulation of tissue fluid homeostasis and migration of blood cells across the endothelial barrier are crucial factors in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Thus, a goal for treatment of ALI is to target the pathways that lead to profound dysregulation of the restrictive endothelial barrier, and thereby restore lung microvascular endothelial barrier function and inhibit protein-rich tissue fluid accumulation. Here we test the hypothesis that epigenetic modifiers TSA (Trichostatin-A, a HDAC inhibitor) and Aza (5-aza-2-deoxycytidine, a DNA methyl transferase inhibitor) together inhibit the LPS/thrombin induced eNOS/RhoA signaling and restore AJ integrity and diminished endothelial hyperpermeability.. Methods and Results: The signaling, AJ integrity and endothelial permeability were assessed by RT-PCR and western blot analysis; transendothelial resistance (TER) and lung endothelial permeability were measured by capillary filtration coefficient ...
The control of fluid introduction into and out of body conduits such as vessels, is of great concern in medicine. As the development of more particular treatments to vessels and organs continues it is apparent that controlled introduction and removal of fluids is necessary. Fluid delivery and removal from such sites, usually referred to as irrigation and aspiration, using fluid exchange devices that control also need to be considerate of potential volume and/or pressure in the vessel or organ are described together with catheter and lumen configurations to achieve the fluid exchange. The devices include several electrically or mechanically controlled embodiments and produce both controlled and localized flow with defined volume exchange ratios for fluid management. The applications in medicine include diagnostic, therapeutic, imaging, and uses for the introduction or removal of concentrations of emboli within body cavities.
Dr. Garcia is an authority on the genetic basis of inflammatory lung disease (with an emphasis on health disparities) and on the mechanistic basis of lung vascular permeability. Using bench-to-bedside approaches, his lab has explored novel methods to prevent vascular leak and to restore endothelial cell barrier function and vascular integrity. This expertise in lung inflammation and vascular permeability provides a natural linkage to interrogation of lung vascular contribution to the development of lung metastases.. Leveraging their genomic expertise, in recent years, Dr. Garcias lab has identified vascular genes whose products are key participants in inflammatory lung injury that also play a role in cancer development. They have developed lung endothelial inflammatory gene expression profiles as well as diagnostic gene signatures influenced by MYLK and NAMPT that impact lung and breast cancer prognosis. This work with NAMPT led to development of a therapeutic NAMPT neutralizing antibody that ...
AJs disassemble and reassemble in endothelial monolayers in response to proinflammatory mediators such as thrombin.29 AJ reassembly precedes the restoration of vascular endothelial barrier integrity.29-31 However, the signals responsible for recovery of endothelial barrier function are incompletely understood. Herein, we addressed the basis for the reformation of AJs and the subsequent recovery of endothelial barrier function. Reassembly of AJs in epithelial cells has been linked to activation of Rho GTPases.32 The Rho family of proteins, known to translocate to membranes on activation, is responsible for actin cytoskeleton rearrangements affecting chemotaxis, cell motility, vesicular trafficking, and cell-cell adhesion.22 We assessed the time course of activation of Rho GTPases after thrombin and found that Cdc42 was activated during the phase of AJ reformation. This finding is consistent with evidence that Cdc42 was not involved in signaling the increase in endothelial permeability induced by ...
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These studies are the first to show that the anti-angiogenic VEGF-A165b does not disturb the junctional occupancy of VE-cadherin or induce paracellular tracer leakage in the human placental microvascular bed and HUVEC monolayers. Indeed, VEGF-A165b (at a 2-fold concentration) can block/reverse VEGF-A165a-mediated increases in feto-placental endothelial permeability to macromolecules (75 kDa) and loss of VE-cadherin from AJs. In these experiments, PlGF did not affect endothelial integrity, VE-cadherin localization and permeability when added singly; however, it could prevent the rescue of VEGF-A165a-mediated effects by VEGF-A165b.. The similarities between the observed induced changes in both fetal endothelial cell cultures and the more physiological and complex perfused microvascular bed are re-assuring. Placental microvessels showed a robust response to a 30 min perfusion of exogenous VEGF-A165a, with loss of VE-cadherin and increased vascular leak of 76 kDa dextrans. These changes were not ...
A role for NRP1 in driving the effects of VEGF on vascular permeability was revealed in experiments in which NRP1 and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) were cotransfected (23), and was recently confirmed with the use of NRP1 inhibitors (24). The capacity of VEGF to promote tumor vessel leakiness (25) is actually the first property that led to the identification of this factor [initially described as the vascular permeability factor (26)]. A VEGF-like effect of CendR through its binding to NRP1 could therefore account for an increase in the tumor vessel surface of exchange and for a global elevation in vascular permeability, which is beneficial for the penetration of small drugs and macromolecules. The limitation of the number and capacity of receptors for targeted ligands is also less acute, because generic drug transport pathways are made available through paracellular permeability (passage between endothelial cells that involves localized disruption of cell junctions) or transcytosis (transport through ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The ARP 2/3 complex mediates endothelial barrier function and recovery. AU - Belvitch, Patrick. AU - Brown, Mary E.. AU - Brinley, Brittany N.. AU - Letsiou, Eleftheria. AU - Rizzo, Alicia N.. AU - Garcia, Joe G.N.. AU - Dudek, Steven M.. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Pulmonary endothelial cell (EC) barrier dysfunction and recovery is critical to the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Cytoskeletal and subsequent cell membrane dynamics play a key mechanistic role in determination of EC barrier integrity. Here, we characterizAQe the actin related protein 2/3 (Arp 2/3) complex, a regulator of peripheral branched actin polymerization, in human pulmonary EC barrier function through studies of transendothelial electrical resistance (TER), intercellular gap formation, peripheral cytoskeletal structures and lamellipodia. Compared to control, Arp 2/3 inhibition with the small molecule inhibitor CK-666 results in a reduction of baseline barrier function (1,241±53 ...
Increased microvascular permeability to plasma proteins and neutrophil emigration are hallmarks of innate immunity and key features of numerous inflammatory disorders. Although neutrophils can promote microvascular leakage, the impact of vascular permeability on neutrophil trafficking is unknown. Here, through the application of confocal intravital microscopy, we report that vascular permeability-enhancing stimuli caused a significant frequency of neutrophil reverse transendothelial cell migration (rTEM). Furthermore, mice with a selective defect in microvascular permeability enhancement (VEC-Y685F-ki) showed reduced incidence of neutrophil rTEM. Mechanistically, elevated vascular leakage promoted movement of interstitial chemokines into the bloodstream, a response that supported abluminal-to-luminal neutrophil TEM. Through development of an in vivo cell labeling method we provide direct evidence for the systemic dissemination of rTEM neutrophils, and showed them to exhibit an activated ...
The research focus of Rolf Reeds group is on the how the extracellular matrix participates in determining the properties of the tumors and how this in turn is reflected in growth and metastasis. Additional foci have been on how collagen binding integrins influence these properties and also how tumor hypoxia does the same.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nuclear targeting of beta-catenin and p120ctn during thrombin-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction. AU - Beckers, C.M.L.. AU - Garcia Vallejo, J.J.. AU - van Hinsbergh, V.W.M.. AU - van Nieuw Amerongen, G.P.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. U2 - 10.1093/cvr/cvn127. DO - 10.1093/cvr/cvn127. M3 - Article. C2 - 18490349. VL - 79. SP - 679. EP - 688. JO - Cardiovascular Research. JF - Cardiovascular Research. SN - 0008-6363. IS - 4. ER - ...
The endothelial barrier function maintains vascular and tissue homeostasis, and therefore modulates many cardinal physiological processes such as angiogenesis, immune responses, and dynamic fluid exchanges throughout organs.
Purpose: Before metastasis, primary tumor can create a premetastatic niche in distant organ to facilitate the dissemination of tumor cells. In the premetastatic phase, the permeability of pulmonary vasculatures is increased to accelerate the extravasation of circulating tumor cells. However, it is not clear whether local miRNAs contribute to the vascular hyperpermeability of the premetastatic niche. Experimental Design: The expression of total miRNAs was determined using microarray in series of premetastatic lungs from tumor-bearing mice. Significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and validated with qRT-PCR. Vascular permeability assays, vascular mimic systems, and orthotopic tumor models were used to investigate roles of selected miRNAs and target genes in premetastatic hyperpermeability. Results: We identified a miRNA signature in premetastatic lungs. Among these miRNAs, miR-30a, b, c, d and e were significantly attenuated. Subsequent investigations elucidated that lung ...
W.C. Sangren and C.W. Sheppard. A mathematical derivation of the exchange of a labelled substance between a liquid flowing in a vessel and an external compartment. Bull Math BioPhys, 15, 387-394, 1953. C.A. Goresky, W.H. Ziegler, and G.G. Bach. Capillary exchange modeling: Barrier-limited and flow-limited distribution. Circ Res 27: 739-764, 1970. J.B. Bassingthwaighte. A concurrent flow model for extraction during transcapillary passage. Circ Res 35:483-503, 1974. B. Guller, T. Yipintsoi, A.L. Orvis, and J.B. Bassingthwaighte. Myocardial sodium extraction at varied coronary flows in the dog: Estimation of capillary permeability by residue and outflow detection. Circ Res 37: 359-378, 1975. C.P. Rose, C.A. Goresky, and G.G. Bach. The capillary and sarcolemmal barriers in the heart--an exploration of labelled water permeability. Circ Res 41: 515, 1977. J.B. Bassingthwaighte, C.Y. Wang, and I.S. Chan. Blood-tissue exchange via transport and transformation by endothelial cells. Circ. Res. ...
This study provides compelling evidence that in marmoset EAE, which forms lesions strongly resembling those of MS, early changes in vascular permeability are associated with perivascular inflammatory cuffing and parenchymal microglial activation but precede the arrival of blood-derived monocytes tha …
The endothelium is the simple squamous epithelium that lines the innermost layer of the cardiovascular and lymphatic vessels and is continuous with the endocardial lining of the heart. Endothelial cells are active participants in a variety of vessel-related activities, including mechanical influences on blood flow, regulation of the transport of macromolecules and blood components from the interstitium to the lumen of the vessel, secretion of chemical mediators that influence the contractile state of the overlying smooth muscle, and contribution to capillary permeability. In addition, their smooth luminal surface facilitates efficient blood flow by reducing surface friction. The vascular endothelium is divided into arterial and venous endothelia, with additional differences between larger and smaller vessels.. The fenestrated endothelium, present in organs, such as the kidney and liver, that reabsorb water and small molecules or hormones, is characterized by the presence of circular windows in ...
Keywords: Thiazolidinediones, Rosiglitazone, Endothelial cells, Vascular permeability, Edema, Akt Background Cardiovascular disease is normally a leading trigger of loss of life related to atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis takes place from a series of proinflammatory, proliferative, and procoagulatory procedures [1, 2]. Affected endothelial cell function has a vital function in the development of atherosclerosis [3]. Endothelial disorder can become characterized as an modification in cell migration and permeability. Endothelial cell migration entails the neovascularization of atherosclerotic plaques and causes plaques to become vulnerable. In addition, newly created small ships can provide an access for inflammatory cells [4]. Under physiological conditions, endothelial cells provide a buffer between blood ships and cells [5, 6]. However, inflammatory stimuli can increase endothelial permeability [6, 7] and enable the movement of macromolecules such as vascular endothelial growth element (VEGF), ...
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Antigen combine with antibody. Mast cells & basophils release chemotactic agents. Histamine release causes vessel dilation and. Contraction of smooth muscles Result in increased capillary permeability and constriction of bronchioles ...
Optimal control of diabetes should achieve not only euglycemia and normal levels of glycosylated hemoglobin but also absence of the reversible concomitants of diabetes such as red cell rigidity, hyperlipidemia, increased capillary permeability, enlargement of the kidneys, proteinuria, etc. Unfortunately, in most patients consistent euglycemia cannot be assured even with two daily injections of insulin. However, self-measurement of blood glucose as a guide to insulin taken before each meal and at bedtime can, in selected patients, increase the frequency of normal glucose levels without undue hypoglycemia.. ...
Blood Separators separate platelets from blood. A bearing is used to to provide rotary fluid exchange between the collection tray & the separator unit.
Blood Separators separate platelets from blood. A bearing is used to to provide rotary fluid exchange between the collection tray & the separator unit.
Capillary leak syndrome is characterized by the escape of blood plasma through capillary walls, from the blood circulatory system to surrounding tissues, muscle compartments, organs or body cavities. It is a phenomenon most commonly witnessed in sepsis, and less frequently in autoimmune diseases, differentiation syndrome, engraftment syndrome, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, viral hemorrhagic fevers, and snakebite and ricin poisoning. Pharmaceuticals, including the chemotherapy medication gemcitabine, as well as certain interleukins and monoclonal antibodies, can also cause capillary leaks. These conditions and factors are sources of secondary capillary leak syndrome. Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS, or Clarksons disease), or primary capillary leak syndrome, is a rare, grave and episodic medical condition observed largely in otherwise healthy individuals mostly in middle age. It is characterized by self-reversing episodes during which the ...
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Abstract: : Purpose: Previously, we demonstrated that Pigment Epithelial Derived Factor (PEDF) blocks VEGF-induced retinal vascular permeability in vivo in a dose dependent manner. Since an increase in VEGF expression and retinal vascular leakage is associated with diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema, we investigated whether exogenously added PEDF could inhibit diabetes-induced retinal vascular permeability. Methods: Retinal vascular leakage in non-diabetic and STZ-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats was measured by the Evans Blue albumin permeation technique. At days 11 and 13 after induction of diabetes, 10 ul of PEDF (200 ng/eye, 40nM final) was injected into one eye and vehicle (0.1% BSA in PBS) was injected into the contralateral eye under sterile conditions. The intact condition of each eye and retina was assessed 24 hours after each injection. At day 14, the animals were sacrificed and retinal vascular permeability was determined. Results: Vascular leakage was increased by ...
Vascular endothelial growth factor is an important signaling protein involved in both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. As its name implies, VEGF activity has been mostly studied on cells of the vascular endothelium, although it does have effects on a number of other cell types (e.g. stimulation monocyte/macrophage migration, neurons, cancer cells, kidney epithelial cells). VEGF mediates increased vascular permeability, induces angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and endothelial cell growth, promotes cell migration, and inhibits apoptosis. In vitro, VEGF has been shown to stimulate endothelial cell mitogenesis and cell migration. VEGF is also a vasodilator and increases microvascular permeability and was originally referred to as vascular permeability factor. Elevated levels of this protein is linked to POEMS syndrome, also known as Crow-Fukase syndrome. Mutations in this gene have been associated with proliferative and nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. Human recombinant VEGF-165 produced in yeast ...
in Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (The) (1994), 270(1), 30-6. The effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) (6 x 10(-8) M) on hemodynamics and on pulmonary microvascular permeability were investigated in isolated, perfused rabbit lungs by measuring the ... [more ▼]. The effects of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) (6 x 10(-8) M) on hemodynamics and on pulmonary microvascular permeability were investigated in isolated, perfused rabbit lungs by measuring the arterial, capillary and venous pressures and the capillary filtration coefficient (Kf,c). CGRP was administered alone or in combination with capsaicin (10(-4) M), acetylcholine (ACh) (10(-11) M to 10(-7) M), substance P (SP) (10(-10) M to 10(-6) M) and serotonin (10(-4) M). The influence of a specific antagonist of CGRP receptors, CGRP8-37 (10(-8) M), on the pulmonary edema induced by these mediators was also considered. CGRP had no direct effect on the vascular pressures or on Kf,c. Capsaicin and ...
Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) is a method for obtaining information about quantities and binding properties of adsorbed species on a surface. A microfabricated flow system for TPD with an integrated capillary leak to a mass spectrometer is presented. The use of an integrated capillary leak minimizes dead volumes in the system, resulting in increased sensitivity and reduced response time. These properties make the system ideal for TPD experiments in a carrier gas. With CO desorbing from platinum as model system, it is shown that CO desorbing in 105 Pa of argon from as little as 0.5 cm2 of platinum foil gives a clear desorption peak. By using the microfabricated flow system, TPD experiments can be performed in a carrier gas with a sensitivity approaching that of TPD experiments in vacuum. ©2004 American Institute of Physics ...
Trypsin-induced acute inflammation was studied in hamster cheek pouch using intravital microscopy, correlative histology, and electron microscopy. Vascular permeability changes were monitored with intravital fluoroscopy, after intravenous injection of FITC-dextran (Mw 150,000), by counting the number of FITC-dextran leakages around the vessels. The number of extravasated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) was calculated by a histological technique. A dose-dependent increase in the number of FITC-dextran leakages, as well as the number of accumulated PMNLs, was found when trypsin was locally deposited in concentrations of 0.25-2.5 microM (15 microliters during 5 min). Local deposition of autologous serum treated with trypsin at final concentrations of 0.25-2.5 microM caused an increase in vascular permeability as equally pronounced as that of pure trypsin, but only a moderate PMNL accumulation which was not dose dependent. Trypsin at a 25 microM concentration resulted in numerous microbleedings ...
This unit describes various protocols for the in vivo quantitation of drug permeability across the rodent blood ‐ brain barrier
The very interesting review on the systemic capillary leakage of circulating macromolecules (1) suggests capillary dysfunction. An analogous and more common case is renal proteinuria. The heparan sulfate proteoglycan of the glomerular basement membrane is thought to be a key element to retain erythrocytes and plasma protein in circulation. This may be achieved by the negative net charge of the proteoglycans, which repels cells and other protein species ...
BACKGROUND: Blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption is accompanied by edema in the surrounding areas of the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The aim of the study was to clarify the correlation between BBB breakdown and outcome in ICH. PATIENTS: Twenty-se
The endothelial glycocalyx forms a continuous coat over the luminal surface of all vessels, and regulates multiple vascular functions. The contribution of individual components of the endothelial glycocalyx to one critical vascular function, microvascular permeability, remains unclear. We developed novel, real time, paired methodologies to study the contribution of sialic acids within the endothelial glycocalyx to the structural and functional permeability properties of the same microvessel in vivo. Single perfused rat mesenteric microvessels were perfused with fluorescent endothelial cell membrane and glycocalyx labels, and imaged with confocal microscopy. A broad range of glycocalyx depth measurements (0.17-3.02μm) were obtained with different labels, imaging techniques and analysis methods. The distance between peak cell membrane and peak glycocalyx label provided the most reliable measure of endothelial glycocalyx anatomy, correlating with paired, numerically smaller values of endothelial ...
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of CAGB surgery-induced alterations in ANG1, ANG2 and TIE2 levels on post-surgical SIRS and to evaluate potential mechanisms inducing capillary leakage. Our results indicate that CABG induced profound changes in the ANG2/ANG1 balance with loss of the barrier-protective ANG1 and an increase in the barrier-disruptive ANG2 contents in the patients serum. This imbalance was observed in adult patients with systemic pro-inflammatory response characterized by elevated IL-6 levels. The molecular changes correlated with clinical surrogate parameters of an impaired endothelial barrier function, such as fluid balance, application of vasoconstrictors, and prolonged ventilation.. In healthy individuals, constitutive expression of ANG1 results in much higher serum concentrations than ANG2, which is mainly secreted upon endothelial stimulation; therefore, an increased ratio between ANG2 and ANG1 (in healthy adults a numerical value below 1) serves as marker ...
Quantitative MRI reveals the elderly ischemic brain is susceptible to increased early blood-brain barrier permeability following tissue plasminogen activator related to claudin 5 and occludin disassembly
A patient had fatal hypovolemic shock and edema. As in previously reported cases, the mechanism of shock appears to be loss of protein and fluid from the vascul
The Caco-2 permeability assay provides a measure of the permeability of a test compound across the intestinal barrier and its potential for interactions with drug transporters. We provide permeability assays for small molecule formulations such as pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and consumer products.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Airway extravasation induced by increasing airway temperature in ovalbumin-sensitized rats. AU - Hsu, Chun-Chun. AU - Tapia, Reyno J.. AU - Lee, Lu-Yuan. N1 - Export Date: 11 May 2016 CODEN: RPNEA 通訊地址: Lee, L.-Y.; Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky Medical Center, 800 Rose St., MS511A, United States 化學物質/CAS: Evans blue, 314-13-6; formoterol, 73573-87-2; ovalbumin, 77466-29-6 參考文獻: Baluk, P., Bolton, P., Hirata, A., Thurston, G., McDonald, D.M., Endothelial gaps and adherent leukocytes in allergen-induced early- and late-phase plasma leakage in rat airways (1998) Am. J. Pathol., 152, pp. 1463-1476; Baluk, P., McDonald, D.M., The beta 2-adrenergic receptor agonist formoterol reduces microvascular leakage by inhibiting endothelial gap formation (1994) Am. J. Physiol., 266, pp. L461-L468; Evans, T.W., Rogers, D.F., Aursudkij, B., Chung, K.F., Barnes, P.J., Inflammatory mediators involved in antigen-induced airway microvascular leakage in guinea ...
Principal Investigator:SHIMADA Yasuhiro, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Anesthesiology/Resuscitation studies
Edema can be caused by increased hydrostatic pressure (eg due to venous stasis in the case of varicose veins of the lower limbs), or colloid osmotic pressure reduction (for example due to any disease that results in hypoalbuminemia) significant enough not allow more than the lymphatic vessels to drain fluid that accumulates in the interstitial spaces, inflated. It can be caused by obstruction of the lymphatic vessels, which can no longer drain the interstitial fluid (lymphedema) and excessive sodium retention. In these cases, the liquid that accumulates in the interstitial spaces is called transudate as it has a lower specific gravity was 1.012 kg / m 3, is low in protein and contains no inflammatory cells. Finally, you can have swelling in case of inflammation (inflammatory edema) because it increases vascular permeability. In this case the liquid exudate has accumulated since it has high specific gravity, greater than 1.020kg / m 3, is rich in proteins and inflammatory cells. The swelling ...
Compositions, methods, kits, and apparatus are provided for delivering a macromolecular assembly such as a plasmid, virus vector, or other gene vector, to an extravascular tissue such as muscle tissue. The composition comprises the macromolecular assembly and a vascular permeability-enhancing agent. In another embodiment, the composition further comprises a vasodilating agent. The method of the invention comprises proving a vascular permeability-enhancing agent to a blood vessel and providing a macromolecular assembly to the vessel. An oxygenator useful for providing oxygen to a fluid extracorporeally prior to providing the fluid to a blood vessel of a mammal is included in the invention. Kits, apparatus, and methods for using the catheters described herein for isolating cardiac circulation, diverting caval blood flow from the right atrium, and for other purposes, are also described.
These methods are sensitive to two different types of signals: electric signals and water-soil pressure disturbances, respectively. The advantages of the SP technique lie in the high rate of data acquisition,which allows assessment of long dykes, and direct diagnosis in terms of leakage area delimitation and quantification. Coupled with punctual hydro-acoustic cartography, a leakage position can be precisely located, therefore allowing specific remediation decisions with regard to the results of the geophysical investigation. Here, the precise localization of leakage from an earth dyke has been identified using SP and hydro-acoustic signals, with the permeability of the preferential fluid flow area estimated by forward SP modeling. Moreover, we propose a general abacus diagram for the estimation of hydraulic permeability of dyke leakage according to the magnitude of over water SP anomalies and the associated uncertainty. ...
Capillary endothelium Endothelial basement membrane Interstitial space Epithelial basement membrane Alveolar epithelium ( type I pneumocyte) (thick , upper - fluid & gas  On one side of alveolar septum  On the other side exchanging side) there is connective tissue and interstitial space (thin , down- gas exchange only) basement membranes are fused and there is a greatly restricted interstitial space 55 .    There are tight junctions on the epithelium of the upper side (passage of fluid from interstitial space to alveolus) There are loose junction on the endothelium of the upper side (passage of fluid from intravascular space to interstitial space) Pulmonary capillary permeability depends on the size & number of loose junctions 56 . 1. 2. Interstitial space is between periarteriolar and peribronchial connective tissue shit and between epithelium & endothelium basement membrane in alveolar septum The space has a progressively negative distal to proximal ΔP Negative ΔP increases ...
It had been long been believed that water could not pass through the membrane due to the hydrophobic property of the lipid bilayer in the membrane. However, it has been recently found that a 28 kD protein family on the membrane, namely, the AQP protein, that has a structure like other channel proteins, can adjust the transcellular permeability of water. The basic function of AQP is to mediate the transcellular transport of free water molecules. The major difference from other ion channels is that the osmotic pressure gradient only regulates the transport of water (i.e., the water molecules could be diffused through the AQP along the osmotic pressure gradient) instead of the so-called "turn-on" or "turn-off" phases. Thus, water molecules could be directly allowed into and out of the cells. Once the endothelial cells are injured, the expression of AQP increases, which augments capillary permeability and is believed to be closely associated with the onset of hydrocephalus. To date, there are 13 ...
Treatment of a fully developed SCLS episode requires recognition that there are two phases. The first phase, which often lasts a couple of days, is called the resuscitation phase because the dual aim of the emergency room (ER) and intensive care unit (ICU) treatment is to stop or control the capillary leak and to raise the patients blood pressure from near zero. In this initial phase, an albumin and fluid leak from the capillaries into the tissue spaces causes swelling, especially into the extremities rather than the abdomen or organs (such as the lungs). The blood pressure falls and the red cells concentrate. This loss of fluid has similar effects on the circulation as dehydration, slowing both the flow of oxygen carrying blood to tissues and the output of urine.. Glucocorticoids (steroids like methylprednisolone) are recommended to reduce or stop the capillary leak, and albumin and colloids usually help to increase the remaining blood flow to vital organs like the kidneys. Keeping up with the ...
The pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin is discussed in the tutorial as an example of a typical "extracellular" solute for which the tissue/blood partition can be predicted from in vitro measurements of plasma binding. This drug class is selected by clicking the "Extracellular" box which activates 3 other input boxes (see Figure 2): 1) the free plasma fraction, 2) A factor that adjusts the default extracellular volume of each organ; and 3) A capillary permeability factor (= 1.0 for amoxicillin which is flow limited). In addition, a value needs to be entered in the renal clearance box (Figure 3).. Two "high fat soluble" drug classes are discussed in the tutorial as examples of drugs whose tissue/partition coefficient can be predicted from in vitro measurements of fat/water partition. The first are the volatile anesthetics, represented by modeling the experimental desflurane pharmacokinetics [12]. Since the metabolism of most volatile anesthetics is negligible, their elimination rate is completely ...
In 1933, Hückel was still thinking about his molecular orbital electronic theory of benzene, but for ~15 years, there remained little need for the rule we now know as 4n+2, because n was invariably equal to 1 for most known aromatic molecules! It was only the discovery of so-called non-benzenoid aromatics in the 1940s (e.g. Dewars tropolone structure) that propelled chemists to identify aromatic molecules with other values of n. And Monastral blue is a prime example of n=4 (although it would be of interest to find out when it became so associated with the Hückel rule). If you count the red bonds above, there are eight, along with one lone pair of electrons located on the highlighted (blue) nitrogen atom. This makes 18 π-electrons in the ring, or 4×4+2 (there are paths other than the one shown, but they give the same count). Part of the reason for the remarkable thermal stability of this molecule must be its aromaticity.. So what about the colour? The visible spectrum is shown below, with ...
Factors driving the progression of heart failure (HF) are diverse. Immunological and inflammatory processes probably play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of HF (1,2). Tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, interleukin-2, interleukin-6, transforming growth factor, and C-reactive protein are all elevated in patients with HF. However, it is unclear whether the inflammatory stimulus is driven by diseased myocardium; the activation of inflammatory pathways by factors, such as galectin (3), derived from the heart, liver, or kidney; low-grade infection of the respiratory, oropharyngeal, or gastrointestinal tract; or absorption of endotoxins from the gut (1,2,4).. The development of peripheral edema is a bad sign in patients with HF (5), reflecting to varying degrees increases in right atrial pressure, increased capillary permeability, and reduced lymphatic drainage. Although gravity may make fluid accumulation most obvious in dependent regions, venous congestion will affect all ...
Levitt DG. 2002. PKQuest: a general physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. Introduction and application to propranolol. BMC Clin Pharmacol 2(1):5.Levitt DG. 2002. PKQuest: capillary permeability limitation and plasma protein binding - application to
Studies of the inheritance of C3 types and partial deficiency of C3 in over 100 relatives of a previously reported Afrikaner child with virtually no serum C3 revealed that she was homozygous for a C3 gene producing little or no C3, C3-. Metabolic studies with purified radiolabeled C3 in this patient showed a mildly elevated fractional catabolic rate and a markedly reduced synthesis rate for C3. There was also a mild increase in the rate of conversion in vitro of labeled C3 added to her serum and incubated at 37°C for 1 hr. The intradermal injection of C1̄s, which produces a marked increase in vasopermeability in the skin of normal subjects, produced no definite change in the patient, possibly implicating C3 or a protein in the alternative pathway as the normal mediator of this response. On incubating the patients serum with purified cobra venom factor in the presence of unsensitized guinea pig erythrocytes, C5 inactivation and normal lysis of the red cells occurred, consistent with the venom ...
This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms that complete diapedesis and restore endothelial barrier integrity. Although providing an answer to this question, our findings unveil basic mechanisms for tissue homeostasis with potentially broad relevance. We reveal VL as a novel type of actin remodeling in endothelia and epithelia that is distinct from known lamellipodia or dorsal ruffles (Chhabra and Higgs, 2007) and serves to close diapedesis pores/gaps. VL are nucleated from preexisting actin filaments and exhibit the unique ability to propagate under cells independently of radial axes of cell symmetry and to dynamically change direction in response to additional discontinuities. These findings raise important new questions about fundamental mechanisms for nucleation of actin assemblies and coordination of their propagation, which point toward interesting roles for mechanotransduction.. We hypothesized that transcellular diapedesis micro-wounds might be healed by purse strings that ...
Tumor vasculature, as in wounded vasculature, is typically leaky and hyperpermeable, mainly because of the influence of VEGF, which leads to the escape of plasma proteins such as fibrinogen (57). Although multiple cell types, extracellular matrix (ECM) components, and soluble factors contribute to the wound-healing-like response observed in tumors, seminal observations by Dvorak describe the near-ubiquitous presence of fibrin(ogen) in solid tumors, and later studies demonstrated that fibrin itself is directly proangiogenic (1, 6, 58-60). Biomechanical forces, driven by thickened sheets of cross-linked ECM in tumors, may also compress the endothelium, leading to vascular injury and plasma leakage (61). The perivascular accumulation of fibrin, along with matrix proteins such as fibronectin, provides scaffolds for new blood vessels (and for cancer cells) and is suggested to be a principal instigator of many of the sequential steps that typify the wound healing-like response observed in solid tumors ...
The monolayer of endothelial cells lining the vessel wall forms a semipermeable barrier (in all tissue except the relatively impermeable blood-brain and inner retinal barriers) that regulates tissue-fluid homeostasis, transport of nutrients, and migration of blood cells across the barrier. Permeabil …
In this study, we have demonstrated that the acute anti-inflammatory activity of antisense ODN targeted against murine ICAM-1 mRNA is dramatically enhanced after encapsulation in LUV. In general, liposomes enhance the therapeutic index of conventional drugs by reducing drug toxicity, increasing residency time in the plasma, and delivering more active drug to disease tissue by extravasation of the carriers through hyperpermeable vasculature associated with tumor and inflammation sites (Mayer et al., 1990; Jain et al., 1997). All of these positive attributes of drug delivery are shown to be present in the model described herein. For example, the clinical concerns most commonly associated with rapid systemic administration of PS ODN are complement activation and prolonged blood clotting times (Galbraith et al., 1994; Henry et al., 1997a,b). Disruption of normal hematological homeostasis in this way is related to the polyanionic nature and stability of the PS backbone and is considered a class ...
LntStore is the online storefront for LinkNewTech Inc, a company devoted to innovative new products and technologies for businesses all over the world. Automotive companies use Qwik Draw for the latest technology in Automotive Fluid Exchange Equipment. We also feature a large selection of Car Care Detailing Supplies at discounted wholesale prices! ...
A series of arylketo-containing P1-P3 linked macrocyclic BACE-1 inhibitors were designed, synthesized, and compared with compounds with a previously known and extensively studied corresponding P2 isophthalamide moiety with the aim to improve on permeability whilst retaining the enzyme- and cell-based activities. Several inhibitors displayed substantial increases in Caco-2 cell-based permeability compared to earlier synthesized inhibitors and notably also with retained activities, showing that this approach might yield BACE-1 inhibitors with improved properties.. ...
The glycocalyx of the endothelium is an intravascular compartment that creates a barrier between circulating blood and the vessel wall. The glycocalyx is suggested to play an important role in numerous physiological processes including the regulation of vascular permeability, the prevention of the margination of blood cells to the vessel wall, and the transmission of shear stress. Various theoretical models and experimental approaches provide data about changes to the structure and functions of the glycocalyx under various types of inflammatory conditions. These alterations are suggested to promote inflammatory processes in vessels and contribute to the pathogenesis of number of diseases. In this review we summarize current knowledge about the modulation of the glycocalyx under inflammatory conditions and the consequences for the course of inflammation in vessels. The structure and functions of endothelial glycocalyx are briefly discussed in the context of methodological approaches regarding the ...
How many times does this have to happen before we all stop going to KFC? Hopefully twice is the answer. Three weeks ago a teenager in the UK thought he had
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كانبيرا ــ لعل أكثر الكلمات التي سمعتها حكمة عن حرب غزة الثانية جاءت على لسان مواطن إسرائيلي يعيش في كيبوتز (مزرعة جماعية يهودية) بالقرب من حدود غزة، ودونها ميشال فاسر في صحية هآرتس في الخامس عشر من نوفمبر/تشرين الثاني: "إذا كنت تريد الدفاع عني... فلا ترسل قوات الدفاع الإسرائيلية إلينا لكي تسجل نصراً شخصيا. بل عليك أن تبدأ في التفكير في الأمد البعيد، وليس فقط في الانتخابات القادمة. عليك أن تستمر في التفاوض إلى أن يخرج الدخان الأبيض من المدخنة (إشارة قديمة إلى التوصل إلى اتفاق). وعليك أن تمد يدك إلى الرئيس الفلسطيني محمود عباس، وأن تكف عن ممارسة الاغتيالات ...
Looking for online definition of Capillary Leak Syndrome in the Medical Dictionary? Capillary Leak Syndrome explanation free. What is Capillary Leak Syndrome? Meaning of Capillary Leak Syndrome medical term. What does Capillary Leak Syndrome mean?
Although these findings are interesting, they deserve some comments. First, whereas indexing EVLW to PBW may reduce the number of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with normal EVLW, in this population, the EVLW/ABW index performed best [2]. Furthermore, the absence of a link between EVLW and PaO2/FiO2 (calculated r2 of 0.14 to 0.23) could explain that these indices identified only 33% of ALI and 38% of ARDS cases. Second, the EVLW/PBV terminology appears very unusual. The transpulmonary thermodilution technique determines cardiac output, intrathoracic thermal volume (ITTV), pulmonary thermal volume (PTV) and global end-diastolic volume (Global end-diastolic volume (GEDV) = ITTV - PTV). The estimated blood volume of the chest (Intrathoracic blood volume (ITBV) = GEDV + PBV) permits the calculation of PBV (ITBV = 1.25 × GEDV - 28.4 ml) [3]. Importantly, the PiCCO monitor automatically provides, at each calibration, an estimation of the pulmonary vascular permeability index ...
... (SCLS) is characterized by recurrent hypovolemic shock attributable to increased systemic capillary leakage. A 46-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of recurrent episodes of generalized edema with hypovolemic shock. Blood laboratory data revealed severe hypoproteinemia with a small monoclonal IgG-κ protein. These findings suggested strongly the diagnosis of SCLS. A regimen with steroid pulse therapy was tried; however, intravascular overloading accompanied by the recruitment of the initially extravasated fluids resulted in acute pulmonary edema. Intensive care and careful monitoring of fluid volume are required in SCLS ...
Isocapnic dry gas hyperpnea causes bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs that is mediated by release of tachykinins from airway sensory nerves. Exogenous neuropeptides can induce microvascular leak. Therefore we tested whether dry gas hyperpnea also elicits bronchovascular hyperpermeability by measuring Evans blue-labeled albumin extravasation along the airways of mechanically ventilated guinea pigs. We found that 1) room temperature dry gas hyperpnea increased Evans blue extravasation in extrapulmonary and intrapulmonary airways as a specific consequence of local airway heat/water losses, 2) capsaicin pretreatment ablated the bronchoconstrictor response to dry gas hyperpnea and reduced bronchovascular leak only in intrapulmonary airways, 3) phosphoramidon given to capsaicin-pretreated animals partially restored dry gas hyperpnea-induced bronchoconstriction and increased the vascular hyperpermeability response to hyperpnea in intrapulmonary airways, and 4) propranolol administration had no important
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ezrin/radixin/moesin proteins differentially regulate endothelial hyperpermeability after thrombin. AU - Adyshev, Djanybek M.. AU - Dudek, Steven M.. AU - Moldobaeva, Nurgul. AU - Kim, Kyung mi. AU - Ma, Shwu Fan. AU - Kasa, Anita. AU - Garcia, Joe G.N.. AU - Verin, Alexander Dmitriyevich. PY - 2013/8/1. Y1 - 2013/8/1. N2 - Endothelial cell (EC) barrier disruption induced by inflammatory agonists such as thrombin leads to potentially lethal physiological dysfunction such as alveolar flooding, hypoxemia, and pulmonary edema. Thrombin stimulates paracellular gap and F-actin stress fiber formation, triggers actomyosin contraction, and alters EC permeability through multiple mechanisms that include protein kinase C (PKC) activation. We previously have shown that the ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) actin-binding proteins differentially participate in sphingosine-1 phosphate-induced EC barrier enhancement. Phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue in the COOH-terminus of ERM ...
Looking for online definition of lymph node permeability factor in the Medical Dictionary? lymph node permeability factor explanation free. What is lymph node permeability factor? Meaning of lymph node permeability factor medical term. What does lymph node permeability factor mean?
Unfortunately, to date there are no standardized criteria for the clinical diagnosis of increased microvascular permeability, because the assessment of fluid distribution and fluid balance in septic patients is very difficult. Clearly, early diagnosis of increased microvascular permeability would be valuable, because it would allow early and specified treatment as well as the evaluation of the efficacy of therapeutic efforts. It is important to distinguish between increased microvascular permeability and other hypo-oncotic conditions leading to fluid retention, that is, caused by renal or hepatic failure. Proposed criteria for clinical assessment of the microvascular leak syndrome so far either are nonspecific or have limited bedside applicability: Microvascular leak was defined as noncardiogenic generalized edema and hemodynamic instability or more than 3 percent increase of body weight within 24 hours, combined with generalized edema. In this context, it is worth noting that calculated fluid ...
Recent studies have demonstrated elevated plasma levels of ADM in vertebrates with a systemic inflammatory response.15-19⇓⇓⇓⇓ However, the role of ADM in the complex and dynamic disease process of sepsis is still largely undefined. On the one hand, the high ADM plasma levels observed in septic humans may contribute to hypotension and hyperdynamic circulatory response in sepsis, thereby contributing to disease progress.18 On the other hand, transgenic mice overexpressing ADM in their vasculature turned out to be resistant against lipopolysaccharide-induced shock, suggesting a rather beneficial effect of elevated ADM levels in sepsis.26. Considering that endothelial hyperpermeability is the hallmark of an inflammatory reaction1,2⇓ and that mice lacking a functional ADM gene displayed an extreme hydrops fetalis,27 we tested the hypothesis that elevated ADM levels stabilized endothelial barrier function, thereby acting as a "protective" peptide in the systemic inflammatory response. Our ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of vascular endothelial barrier function by Epac, a cAMP-activated exchange factor for Rap GTPase. AU - Cullere, Xavier. AU - Shaw, Sunil K.. AU - Andersson, Lorna. AU - Hirahashi, Junichi. AU - Luscinskas, Francis W.. AU - Mayadas, Tanya N.. PY - 2005/3/1. Y1 - 2005/3/1. N2 - Endothelial cell-cell junctional proteins and cortical actin are of central importance for regulating vascular permeability. Rap1, a member of the Ras family of GTPases, is enriched at endothelial cell-cell contacts and activated by cyclic AMP (cAMP) through a PKA-independent pathway. Activation of a cAMP-inducible gua nine-exchange factor for Rap, Epac, results in markedly enhanced basal endothelial barrier function by increasing cortical actin and subsequent redistribution of adherens and tight junctional molecules to cell-cell contacts. Activation of Epac also counteracts thrombin-induced hyperpermeability through down-regula tion of Rho GTPase activation, suggesting cross-talk between Rap and ...
Vascular hyperpermeability and excessive neovascularization are hallmarks of early and late vascular endothelial cell dysfunction induced by diabetes. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) appears to be an important mediator for these early and late vascular changes. We reported previously, using skin chambers mounted on backs of SD rats, that neutralizing antibodies directed against VEGF blocked vascular permeability and blood flow changes induced by elevated tissue glucose and sorbitol levels in a dosage-dependent manner. We report in this study, using the same skin chamber model and neutralizing antibodies directed against basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), that another member of the heparin-binding growth factor family also mediates glucose- and sorbitol-induced vascular permeability and blood flow increases. In addition, we show that 1) TBC1635, a novel heparin-binding growth factor antagonist, blocks the vascular hyperpermeability and blood flow increases induced by elevated ...
Purpose: : Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) plays a major role in macrophage infiltration, pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and adhesion molecule upregulation in macrovascular disease. Since diabetic macular edema (DME) is recognised to have an inflammation-linked aetiology it was hypothesized that inhibition of this enzyme could be protective against blood retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown. Methods: : Localization of Lp-PLA2 in human retina was analyzed by immunohistology. In parallel, brown Norwegian (BN) rats had diabetes induced using streptozotocin (65mg/Kg). After 4 weeks hyperglycemia, animals were treated for 4 weeks with either vehicle or SB435495 (a specific inhibitor of Lp-PLA2)(10mg/Kg/day) by intra-peritoneal injection. An additional group of hyperglycemic animals were maintained treatment free for 4 weeks prior to initiating the 4 wk treatment regimen. An age and sex-matched group of non-diabetic NDb) BN rats were used as controls. Following drug treatment, BRB ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell-Free Hemoglobin-mediated Increases in Vascular Permeability. A Novel Mechanism of Primary Graft Dysfunction and a New Therapeutic Target. AU - Shaver, Ciara M.. AU - Wickersham, Nancy. AU - McNeil, J. Brennan. AU - Nagata, Hiromasa. AU - Sills, Gillian. AU - Kuck, Jamie L.. AU - Janz, David R.. AU - Bastarache, Julie A.. AU - Ware, Lorraine B.. PY - 2017/9/1. Y1 - 2017/9/1. N2 - RATIONALE: Cell-free hemoglobin (CFH) is a potent oxidant associated with poor clinical outcomes in a variety of clinical settings. Recent studies suggest that acetaminophen (APAP), a specific hemoprotein reductant, can abrogate CFH-mediated oxidative injury and organ dysfunction. Preoperative plasma CFH levels are independently associated with primary graft dysfunction (PGD) after lung transplant ( 1 ).OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to determine whether CFH would increase lung vascular permeability in the isolated perfused human lung and whether APAP would limit these effects.METHODS: Human lungs ...
The development of malignant effusions is likely due to a combination of factors. Tumors that line the pleural cavity can produce differential osmotic and oncotic pressures that may lead to fluid accumulation. Vascular integrity may be physically disrupted by tumor infiltration of lymphatic channels and capillaries. In addition, permeability factors such as VEGF may be secreted by tumor cells, thus leading to increased capillary permeability and fluid accumulation.. We have previously shown that VEGF levels are elevated in malignant ascites and that this elevation of VEGF leads to increased endothelial cell permeability in vitro. Because most malignancies express VEGF, we hypothesized that elevated levels of VEGF may be associated with malignant pleural effusions. Given that other cytokines can be elevated in malignant effusions, we also investigated IL-8 and angiogenin in malignant pleural effusions. We found that amounts of VEGF in malignant pleural effusions were significantly higher than in ...
Filter permeability is a significant term used to measure the endothelial permeability to fluid. There exist permeable sheath in the walls of the filter that allows the fluid (oil, fuel, water) to get in and out. Amongst the numerous methods of measuring micro vascular permeability to fluids infiltration, filter permeability aces.. What Is The Need For Filter Permeability?. In simple language, filtering the solid particles and microorganisms from the fluid by depositing them on the filters septum is what filter permeability does. A study of the correlation of the air permeability of the filter paper and rate of filtration is studied to get the active relationship and speed of the filtration. Through filter permeability process, the resistance is understood. Lower the permeability represents a high resistance and higher the permeability states a low resistance.. How Is Filter Permeability Expressed?. ...
Plasma leakage is the central event in the pathogenesis of DHF. Elevated levels of cytokines with permeability-enhancing effects have been reported in DHF, although their relative importance is not known. Elevated levels of VEGF, a potent vascular permeability-enhancing cytokine, have been previously reported in DHF patients (44). Here we demonstrated that the increase in plasma free VEGF levels was associated with a decrease in its soluble receptor, VEGFR2. We also present the first evidence of VEGF binding to naturally occurring sVEGFR2 in vivo, suggesting its role as a regulator of VEGF function.. Studies of patients with preeclampsia and studies with animal models have demonstrated that VEGF activity in vivo could be inhibited by binding to the soluble form of another VEGF receptor, VEGFR1 (31). Several pieces of evidence in the present study, however, implicate sVEGFR2 as the more important regulator of VEGF effects in vivo. First, sVEGFR2 is present at much higher levels in plasma than is ...
Vascular endothelium is the principal barrier to, and regulator of, material exchange between circulating blood and the body tissues. Based on previous research in this field, two new theoretical models have been developed in this thesis. One is to investigate structural mechanisms in the regulation of microvessel permeability by cAMP. The other is to examine the charge effects of surface glycocalyx on microvessel permeability; To investigate the microstructural mechanisms of decreasing microvascular permeability induced by the enhancement of intraendothelial adenosine 3 ,5-cyclic monophosphate (CAMP) levels, we extended the previous analytical model developed by Fu et al. (1994) for the interendothelial cleft to include multiple junction strands in the cleft and an interface between the surface glycocalyx layer and the cleft entrance; Previous experimental studies revealed that the endothelial surface glycocalyx might carry negative charges. To investigate this charge effect on microvessel
A differential diagnosis of the pulmonary oedema is important because the therapeutic approach is quite different. In cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, a negative fluid balance is sought, while in cases of permeability pulmonary oedema treating the cause of inflammation has priority. The Pulmonary Vascular Permeability Index (PVPI) enables this differential diagnosis. This parameter is calculated from the relation between Extravascular Lung Water (EVLW) and Pulmonary Blood Volume (PBV). A PVPI value in the range of 1 to 3 points to a cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, while a PVPI value greater than 3 suggests a permeability pulmonary oedema.. ...
Topical application of TNF-alfa antiserum attenuates spinal cord trauma induced edema formation, microvascular permeability disturbances and cell injury in the rat ...
The bacterial endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leads to the extensive vascular endothelial cells (EC) injury under septic conditions. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor-H1 (GEF-H1)/ROCK signaling not only involved in LPS-induced overexpression of pro-inflammatory mediator in ECs but also implicated in LPS-induced endothelial hyper-permeability. However, the mechanisms behind LPS-induced GEF-H1/ROCK signaling activation in the progress of EC injury remain incompletely understood. GEF-H1 localized on microtubules (MT) and is suppressed in its MT-bound state. MT disassembly promotes GEF-H1 release from MT and stimulates downstream ROCK-specific GEF activity. Since glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3beta) participates in regulating MT dynamics under pathologic conditions, we examined the pivotal roles for GSK-3beta in modulating LPS-induced activation of GEF-H1/ROCK, increase of vascular endothelial permeability and severity of acute lung injury (ALI). In this study, we found that LPS induced human
Areas of Research: My research has focused on vascular transport and vascular permeability in health and disease. Recently we have been studying the blood brain barrier permeability to deliver drugs to tumors in the brain using a mouse model. ...
Elif Nur Firat-Karalars studies have taken her from Turkey to the USA and back again, where she is now Assistant Professor at Koç University in Istanbul, focusing on the structure and function of the mammalian centrosome/cilium complex.. Catch up with early-career first authors in our First Person interviews. Recently, we spoke to Min Jae Kim, Osvaldo Contreras and Ebtissal Khouj.. ...
Cysteinyl leukotrienes production in interactions between activated platelet and PMN leukocytes... Leukocytes contain phospholipase A3and 5-lipoxygenase. Thus they can generate LTA4.In contrast, other blood cell, such as erythrocytes and platelets or vascular endothelial cells contain LTA4hydrolase or LTC4synthase, but they lack 5-lipoxygenase and cannot generate their own LTA4. Activated platelet may receive LTA4 from PMN leukocyte ,using transcellular biosynthesis, and produce LTC4.4 LTC4and its metabolites LTD4,LTE4, are potent mediators of vasoconstriction and increase vascular permeability.. ...
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VEGF signaling through PKCβ has been targeted for therapeutic intervention for retinal eye disease. Clinical evidence demonstrates that neutralizing antibodies to VEGF improves visual acuity in conjunction with laser photocoagulation for patients with diabetic macular edema (5). Previous publications have shown that PKCβ transduces a signal for VEGF-induced vascular permeability (6,32) and that a PKCβ-specific inhibitor, ruboxistaurin, partially blocks the progression of visual impairment (7-9,33). However, the downstream effectors from this kinase pathway and a mechanistic explanation for PKCβ regulation of permeability were unknown. Recent work from our laboratory has demonstrated that VEGF-induced occludin phosphorylation on Ser490 and subsequent ubiquitination changes the distribution of TJ proteins in retinal endothelial cells from cell border to intracellular puncta, promoting endothelial permeability (25). Here, we demonstrate that VEGF-induced activation of PKCβ results in ...
Cilostazol strengthens the endothelial barrier of postcapillary venules from the rat mesentery in situ(審査報告)Cilostazol strengthens the endothelial barrier of postcapillary venules from the rat mesentery in situ(審査報告) ...
Background and Purpose Mind vascular endothelial cells express histamine H1 and H2 receptors, which regulate mind capillary permeability. receptor gene (in mind blood vessels by activating H4 receptors, as the H4 receptor-specific inverse agonists/antagonist JNJ 7777120, but not ciproxifan, H3 receptor antagonist, dose-dependently clogged this effect in RBE4 cells. Conclusions and Implications Both and receptors are indicated in rat mind endothelial cells, and activation of the histamine H4 buy DAPT receptor activates the Erk1/2 cascade. H3 and H4 receptors in endothelial cells are potentially important for rules of bloodCbrain barrier permeability, including trafficking of immunocompetent cells. Linked Articles This short article is definitely portion of a themed issue on Histamine Pharmacology Upgrade. To view the additional articles in this problem check out http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.170.issue-1 hybridization, but antibodies made against peptides derived from the H4 receptor sequence ...
Interferons Interferons (IFN) act through cell receptors producing a variety of immu-nological and antiviral effects. Although the exact mechanism of action in multiple sclerosis is unknown, an anti-inflammatory effect may be the result of inhibition of interferon gamma, inhibition of T-cell activation, production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, reduced T-cell migration, decrease blood brain barrier permeability, or… Read More ». ...
It has been suggested that venous congestion plethysmography (VCP) substantially underestimates microvascular permeability by activation of a veni-arteriolar constrictor mechanism, even when using small (| 25 mmHg) congestion pressure steps. We studi
Changes in permeability due to changes in the state of stress in the reservoir during depletion arise because of the strain that results from the stress changes. This influences permeability around the producing well, as well as permeability throughout the depleted reservoir that affects future wells. Various models exist for coupling stress, strain, and permeability. The simplest models relate changes in stress relative to some reference value to changes in permeability. More complex models invoke the Kozeny equation in accounting for changes in porosity, tortuosity, and surface area. Previous work formulated a model that relates changes in permeability to changes in tortuosity due to grain rearrangement during consolidation that may be applied to any stress path with appropriate stress-strain coupling. In some cases, the hoop stress concentrations around a wellbore may cause the reservoir rock to fail in shear. This can cause either an increase or a decrease in permeability depending on if the ...
Date: November 19, 2014 Source: Karolinska Institutet Summary: Our natural gut-residing microbes can influence the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, which protects the brain from harmful substances in the blood, a new study in mice shows. The blood-brain barrier is a highly selective barrier that prevents unwanted molecules and cells from entering the brain from…
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine the feasibility of performing intravital microscopy on accessible human melanoma tumors during their standard course of treatment (i.e., wide local excision). (Part I). SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:. I. To determine the blood flow velocity of the tumor vessels and tissue penetration of fluorescein (fluorescein sodium) as a marker of tumor vessel permeability. (Part II). OUTLINE:. Patients receive fluorescein sodium intravenously (IV) followed by intravital microscopic observation over 10-15 minutes during excision of the melanoma.. After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up at 3 weeks and then periodically for 5 years. ...
Schnitzer, J. E.; Oh, P. (1994). "Albondin-mediated capillary permeability to albumin. Differential role of receptors in ...
A high value of Kf indicates a highly water permeable capillary. A low value indicates a low capillary permeability. The ... The permeability of the filtering membrane. "Filtration coefficient - definition of filtration coefficient by Medical ... Filtration coefficient (Kf) a measure of a membrane's permeability to water; specifically, the volume of fluid filtered in unit ...
These cells release cytokines and increase blood capillary permeability. All of the cells within the blood clot degenerate and ...
Farquhar, M G; Wissig S L; Palade G E (December 1999). "Glomerular permeability I. Ferritin transfer across the normal ... glomerular capillary wall. 1961". J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. United States. 10 (12): 2645-62. ISSN 1046-6673. PMID 10589706. Raju, T ...
The most interesting are: Capillary bed permeability, which varies between tissues. Blood-brain barrier: this is located ... The distribution of a drug between tissues is dependent on vascular permeability, regional blood flow, cardiac output and ...
Histamine causes dilation and increased permeability of capillaries close to the basophil. Injured basophils and other ... Increased permeability of the inflamed tissue also allows for more phagocyte migration to the site of infection so that they ...
The injection of IP activators into the skin of rodents increases local capillary permeability and swelling; IP(-/-) mice fail ... IP antagonists likewise reduce experimentally-induced capillary permeability and swelling in rats. This actions is also ... to show this increased capillary permeability and swelling in response not only to IP activators but also in a model of ...
In the acute phase of ALI, there is increased permeability of this barrier and protein rich fluid leaks out of the capillaries ... The direct toxicity to the cells leads to an increase in capillary permeability. Furthermore, when phosgene hydrolyzes it forms ... The core pathology is disruption of the capillary-endothelial interface: this actually refers to two separate barriers - the ...
Capillary permeability and how it may change 1988 (1988): Pierre Dejours (Wikidata; Reasonator) - From comparative physiology ...
High protein (> 2.5 mg/dL) suggests increased capillary permeability associated with peritonitis, intestinal compromise, or ... Capillary refill time (CRT) may be decreased early in the colic, but generally prolongs as the disease progresses and ... The poor blood supply also has effects on the vascular endothelium, leading to an increased permeability which first leaks ... Inflammation of the bowel may lead to increased permeability and subsequent endotoxemia. The underlying cause of inflammation ...
In addition, brodifacoum (as with other anticoagulants in toxic doses) increases permeability of blood capillaries; the blood ...
Reverses capillary permeability and lysosomal stabilization at the cellular level to prevent or control inflammation. Has a ...
Capillary Permeability: The Transfer of Molecules and Ions Between Capillary Blood and Tissue (C. ed.). Munksgaard: Copenhagen ... Betz, A.L.; Goldstein, G.W. "Brain capillaries: structure and function". In Lajtha, A. Structural Elements of the Nervous ... Smith, Q.R. (1989). "Quantitation of blood-brain barrier permeability". In Neuwelt, E.A. Implications of the Blood-Brain ...
Capillary pressure Permeability (fluid) Relative permeability Darcy's law S.E. Buckley and M.C. Leverett (1942). "Mechanism of ... k r w ( S w ) {\displaystyle k_{rw}(S_{w})} and k r n ( S w ) {\displaystyle k_{rn}(S_{w})} denote the relative permeability ... Flow is linear and horizontal Both wetting and non-wetting phases are incompressible Immiscible phases Negligible capillary ...
... inhibits platelet aggregation, as well as decreases capillary permeability, making the blood thinner and improving ... seeds and determination by capillary electrophoresis". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 47 (11): 4649-52. doi: ...
The higher the specific gravity, the greater the likelihood of capillary permeability changes in relation to body cavities. For ...
The events preceding OM are acute inflammatory changes such as hyperemia, increased capillary permeability and infiltration of ...
It also inhibits the effects of the prostaglandin mediated vasodilatation and increased capillary permeability, thereby ... Etamsylate was also thought to stabilise capillaries, reinforcing capillary membranes by polymerising hyaluronic acid. ... vasodilation and increased capillary permeability. Prophylaxis and control of haemorrhages from small blood vessels, neonatal ... Etamsylate limits capillary bleeding through its action on hyaluronic acid and initial studies showed a reduction in ...
IgE with Aspergillus antigens results in mast cell degranulation with bronchoconstriction and increased capillary permeability ...
Fluid from the bloodstream leaks through the wall of small blood vessels into body cavities due to capillary permeability. As a ... Severe disease is marked by the problems of capillary permeability (an allowance of fluid and protein normally contained within ... Leaky capillaries (and the critical phase) are thought to be caused by an immune system response. Other processes of interest ... Some petechiae (small red spots that do not disappear when the skin is pressed, which are caused by broken capillaries) can ...
... involves fluid accumulation in the outer plexiform layer secondary to abnormal perifoveal retinal capillary permeability. The ... causing the capillaries in the retina to dilate and leak fluid into the retina. Less common today with modern lens replacement ... is similarly caused by leaking macular capillaries. DME is the most common cause of visual loss in both proliferative, and non- ...
Vasodilation and increased permeability of capillaries are a result of both H1 and H2 receptor types. Stimulation of histamine ... Histamine dilates post-capillary venules, activates the endothelium, and increases blood vessel permeability. This leads to ...
... acts upon blood vessels and capillaries of the salivary gland to generate vasodilation and increased capillary permeability ...
The permeability of a capillary wall is determined by the type of capillary and the surface of the endothelial cells. A ... Diffusion between the cells changes depending upon the type of capillary. There are three different types of capillaries: ... making it easier for the fluid to flow through the capillary. Heat also effects the viscosity of a fluid inside a capillary. An ... the body will open precapillary sphincter to increase the number of capillary beds. This increases the overall capillary ...
... proliferation and increased capillary permeability. When mustard oil is adulterated deliberately (as in most cases) or ... as oedema is mainly due to increased capillary permeability. Cardiac failure is managed by bed rest, salt restriction, ... The haemodynamic consequences of this vascular dilatation and permeability lead to a state of relative hypovolemia with a ... Sanguinarine and dihydrosanguinarine are two major toxic alkaloids of argemone oil, which cause widespread capillary dilatation ...
Farquhar, M G; Wissig S L, Palade G E (December 1999). "Glomerular permeability I. Ferritin transfer across the normal ... glomerular capillary wall. 1961". J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (United States) 10 (12): 2645-62. ISSN 1046-6673. PMID 10589706. ...
Cyclic shock due to increased capillary permeability. Probable role of immunoglobulin G LARCAN A. ... Hypovolemic shock caused by increased capillary permeability. A case without monoclonal dysglobulinemie (letter) JANIN- ... Hypovolemic shock caused by increased capillary permeability associated with monoclonal gammopathy. New case and review of the ... Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome * * Kawabe Shotetsu KAWABE Shotetsu * the Department of Internal Medicine, Nagaoka Red Cross ...
Definition of capillary permeability factor. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ...
Capillary permeability factor definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and ... capillary permeability factor in Medicine Expand. capillary permeability factor n. See vitamin P. ...
... but it is an ongoing challenge to accurately describe the relationship between capillary... ... A sizable oil reserves are held in a thick oil/water capillary transition zones in the carbonate reservoirs, ... capillary pressure and relative permeability and saturation to obtain typical capillary pressure and relative permeability ... 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, there is a change in shapes of capillary pressure curves. This is due to change in capillary pressure with ...
... Olugbenga ... Olugbenga Falode and Edo Manuel, "Wettability Effects on Capillary Pressure, Relative Permeability, and Irredcucible Saturation ...
... much tighter control of permeability was achieved. Relative to the EC-fibroblast co-cultures, permeabilities were reduced 41% ... Quantitatively, permeability dropped from initial levels of 61% to 39% after 7 days, and to 7% after 2 weeks. When ECs were co- ... The purpose of this study was to test the resistance to permeability of these networks in vitro, grown with different stromal ... Our lab has developed a 3D co-culture method to grow interconnected networks of pericyte-invested capillaries, which can ...
Use of Capillary Pressure to Estimate Permeability in a Drill Cutting Sample Lansing "C" Zone, Ashley #1, NE/4 Section 5 T17S ... Analysis included routine porosity, mercury capillary pressure analysis and permeability calculation from principal pore throat ... were submitted for analysis to determine permeability from principal pore throat diameter as measured by mercury capillary ...
Changes were measured in the permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane and lavage surfactant concentrations following ... Colchicine inhibits elevations in both alveolar-capillary membrane permeability and lavage surfactant after exposure of the rat ... Changes were measured in the permeability of the alveolar capillary membrane and lavage surfactant concentrations following ... Permeability was elevated immediately but returned to normal values one day after inhalation. Values of total phospholipid in ...
The study of changes in cardiac permeability with chemotherapy could enhance the understanding of mechanisms behind cardiac ... Crone, C. The permeability of capillaries in various organs as determined by use of the indicator diffusion method. Acta ... Myocardial capillary permeability after regional ischemia and reperfusion in the in vivo canine heart. Effect of superoxide ... Application of a fluorescent multiple indicator dilution method to study changes in cardiac capillary permeability with ...
What is capillary permeability? Meaning of capillary permeability as a finance term. What does capillary permeability mean in ... Definition of capillary permeability in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Related to capillary permeability: blood capillary, fenestrated capillaries, continuous capillaries. permeability. The measure ... permeability. (redirected from capillary permeability). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. ...
The glomerular capillary wall is an exquisitely well-engineered barrier, which is normally very permeable to water and yet able ... The first step in urine formation is the ultrafiltration of blood in renal glomerular capillaries. ... Structural Basis for Glomerular Capillary Permeability. Wednesday, February 10, 1999 - 2:00pm - 2:45pm ... The first step in urine formation is the ultrafiltration of blood in renal glomerular capillaries. The glomerular capillary ...
List of treatments and remedies for Edema due to increased capillary permeability in children and treatments for any causes of ... Edema due to increased capillary permeability in children. ... Deaths and Edema due to increased capillary permeability in ... Symptom Checker for Edema due to increased capillary permeability in Symptoms » Edema due to increased capillary permeability ... Edema due to increased capillary permeability in children *Common causes of Edema due to increased capillary permeability in ...
RITODRINE DOES NOT INCREASE LUNG CAPILLARY PERMEABILITY IN SHEEP F. G. Zavisca, M. D.; R. E. Drake, Ph.D.; E. Abouleish, M. D. ... RITODRINE DOES NOT INCREASE LUNG CAPILLARY PERMEABILITY IN SHEEP You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, ... RITODRINE DOES NOT INCREASE LUNG CAPILLARY PERMEABILITY IN SHEEP. Anesthesiology 9 1984, Vol.61, A399. doi: ... RITODRINE DOES NOT INCREASE LUNG CAPILLARY PERMEABILITY IN SHEEP. Anesthesiology 1984;61(3):A399. ...
Capillary Pressure, multi-frequency electric measurements, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Directional Permeability, Hydrocarbon ... We verified that the estimates of permeability, saturation-dependent capillary pressure, and throat-size distribution obtained ... directional permeability, saturation-dependent capillary pressure), and fluid distribution. However, techniques for reliable ... and tortuosity are used to calculate directional permeability and saturation-dependent capillary pressure. We test the ...
Title: On the capillary pressure function in porous media based on relative permeabilities of two immiscible fluids: ... Publishers Accepted Manuscript: On the capillary pressure function in porous media based on relative permeabilities of two ... immiscible fluids: Application of capillary bundle models and validation using experimental data ...
Permeability of retinal capillaries in rats with inherited retinal degeneration. You will receive an email whenever this ... The permeability of retinal capillaries in RCS rats with inherited retinal degeneration was investigated with horseradish ... The RCS rat may be a useful model for studying the morphological basis of changes in capillary permeability associated with ... E Essner, R M Pino, R A Griewski; Permeability of retinal capillaries in rats with inherited retinal degeneration.. Invest. ...
The wetting phase (oil) will tend to accumulate at the outlet where the capillary pressure is zero and leave a highly remaining ... Summary In preferentially oil-wet porous media, laboratory waterflooding experiments are prone to capillary end effects. ... capillary end effects, alternative determination of relative permeability and capillary pressure, capillary pressure from core ... Capillary Pressures-Their Measurement Using Mercury and the Calculation of Permeability Therefrom. J Pet Technol 1 (2): 39-48. ...
We also compare primary drainage capillary pressure (Pc) calculated by four DRP vendors on quarter plugs with centrifuge-based ... We cleaned the plugs, measured porosity (φ) and absolute permeability (kabs), and then split the plugs into four quarter plugs ... DRP predictions for porosity ranged from 33 to 96% of the measured values, whereas permeability ranged within a factor of 0.3 ... Four commercial DRP labs conducted blind porosity and permeability predictions on those quarter plugs using (a) only micro-CT ...
During the krmeasurements of low-permeability rocks, high capillary... ... Relative permeability ( kr) data are the key factors for describing the behaviour of the multi-phase flow in porous media. ... During the kr measurements of low-permeability rocks, high capillary pressure can cause a significant liquid hold-up at the ... Steady-State Relative Permeability Measurements of Tight and Shale Rocks Considering Capillary End Effect. ...
Water Control in Producing Wells: Influence of an Adsorbed-Polymer Layer on Relative Permeabilities and Capillary Pressure ... a selective reduction of the relative permeability to water with respect to the relative permeability to oil). The trend was ... The capillary pressure was measured directly along the core by use of water- and oil-wet semipermeable membranes, while ... The action of adsorbed polymer on relative permeabilities was found to be the same with both water- and oil-wet cores (i.e. ...
Effect of temperature change on the permeability of eel rete capillaries.. E A Rasio, M Bendayan, C A Goresky ... The changes in the permeability properties of the rete capillaries of the eel in response to temperature shifts were studied ... From the ratio of end concentrations of arterial to venous capillaries divided by surface area, calculated from rete weight, a ... Because flow and surface area are constant, this provides an index of how permeability varies with time. A group of ...
Secondly, a grain size based work flow, developed by Daza, 2012 at TNO, to calculate permeability and capillary seal capacity ... Clay formations have a high permeability which is highly preferred with nuclear waste storage. The issues with the devices is ... They established equations relating pressure coefficients to porosity and permeability, based on the clay fraction of the ... developed in his PhD thesis several equations relating effective stress to porosity and eventually porosity to permeability. ...
Inhibitory effects of sasanquasaponin on over-expression of ICAM-1 and on enhancement of capillary permeability induced by ... The capillary permeability was determined spectrophotometrically. The results showed that SQS markedly lowered the levels of ... Inhibitory effects of sasanquasaponin on over-expression of ICAM-1 and on enhancement of capillary permeability induced by ... In addition, SQS dramatically inhibited the enhancement of dermal capillary permeability induced by burns in a dose-dependent ...
The characteristic functions relating relative permeabilities and capillary pressures to fluid saturations (kr-S-Pc models) are ... Comparison of relative permeability-fluid saturation-capillary pressure relations in the modelling of non-aqueous phase liquid ... Different models for the capillary pressure (Pc) - fluid saturation (S) - relative permeability (kr) constitutive relations ... Relative permeability, Capillary pressure, Constitutive relations, Multi-phase flow, Modelling, NAPL, Tortuosity, Scaling ...
Nature of glomerular capillary permeability changes following acute renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.. @article{ ... mTOR inhibition with temsirolimus causes acute increases in glomerular permeability, but inhibits the dynamic permeability ... Nature of glomerular capillary permeability changes following acute renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.}, author={ ... renal ischaemia in rats induces a rapid secretion of inflammatory markers to renal lymph and increased capillary permeability. ...
  • Drill cuttings from the Ashley #1, Lansing "C" Zone, Ashley #1, NE/4 Section 5 T17S R8W, Ellsworth County, KS, were submitted for analysis to determine permeability from principal pore throat diameter as measured by mercury capillary pressure intrusion analysis. (ku.edu)
  • Analysis included routine porosity, mercury capillary pressure analysis and permeability calculation from principal pore throat diameter. (ku.edu)
  • For the case of oil-wet sandstone, the capillary pressure curve moved from negative to positive values, indicating that, in addition to pore-size restriction, the wettability of the core changed after polymer adsorption. (onepetro.org)
  • Sinusoids are actually classified as a type of open pore capillary (or discontinuous) as opposed to continuous and fenestrated types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fenestrated capillaries have diaphragms that cover the pores whereas open pore capillaries lack a diaphragm and just have an open pore. (wikipedia.org)
  • This article describes the genesis and composition of soil, the distinction between pore water pressure and inter-granular effective stress, capillary action of fluids in the soil pore spaces, soil classification, seepage and permeability, time dependent change of volume due to squeezing water out of tiny pore spaces, also known as consolidation, shear strength and stiffness of soils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally small pore size and large capillary pumping capability are necessary in a wick. (wikipedia.org)
  • A widely used classification of pore size is that of Brewer (1964): The pores that are too large to have any significant capillary force. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under the conditions of a pore pressure gradient, the ground water flows, according to the permeability equation (Darcy's law). (wikipedia.org)
  • A formulation for the daily care of sensitive skin with dilated capillaries and tendency to periodic hyperactivity occurring due to external factors, such as sudden changes in temperature, strong emotions, alcohol or spicy food. (pharmaceris.com)
  • Recommended for daily use for the sensitive skin with dilated capillaries and the skin which is proneto periodic hyper-reactivity triggered by such external factors as temperature, intense emotions, or the consumption of alcohol or spicy foods. (pharmaceris.com)
  • The underlying cause of the disease process is capillary permeability caused by the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) that occurs in every critically ill patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2014 ). The thickness of a capillary transition zone may vary from a few feet in high-permeability reservoirs to more than 300 feet in low-permeability reservoirs such as carbonate reservoirs, due to its extreme heterogeneity. (springer.com)
  • Finally, we perform a waterflooding experiment in the laboratory on a high-permeability (3 darcies) Bentheimer sandstone core, altered to an oil-wet state. (onepetro.org)
  • Clay formations have a high permeability which is highly preferred with nuclear waste storage. (uu.nl)
  • As polymerization proceeds, rubber plugs form and permanently seal these water pathways, greatly reducing both water absorption and water permeability. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also compare primary drainage capillary pressure ( P c ) calculated by four DRP vendors on quarter plugs with centrifuge-based gas-water measurements conducted in-house on companion plugs. (onepetro.org)
  • Our model, which is based on the work by Purcell, Burdine and Wyllie and Gardner models, is given by: (Equation 1 - See PDF) Combining the previous equation and the Brooks and Corey model for capillary pressure, we obtain: (Equation 2 - See PDF) The correlation given by this equation could yield permeability from capillary pressure (and vice-versa). (tamu.edu)
  • The resulting correlation equation generated in this work shows very good coherence for permeabilities higher than 1 md and reasonably good coherence for permeabilities less than 1 md. (tamu.edu)
  • The subscript i {\displaystyle i} indicates that the parameters are for phase i {\displaystyle i} . κ i {\displaystyle \kappa _{i}} is here the phase permeability (i.e., the effective permeability of phase i {\displaystyle i} ), as observed through the equation above. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus the required pressure/flow ratio can be obtained from the ratio of the two manometer readings, and when fed into the Carman equation, yields an "absolute" value of the air permeability surface area. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1940 M.C. Leverett pointed out that in order to include capillary pressure effects in the flow equation, the pressure must be phase dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flow equation then becomes u a = − μ a − 1 K r a K ⋅ ( ∇ P a − ρ a g ) {\displaystyle \mathbf {u} _{a}=-\mu _{a}^{-1}K_{ra}\mathbf {K} \cdot \left(\nabla P_{a}-\rho _{a}\mathbf {g} \right)} where a = w, o, g Leverett also pointed out that the capillary pressure shows significant hysteresis effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alveolar-capillary permeability was measured in vivo by thermodilution (PiCCO). (bmj.com)
  • There were associations between alveolar-capillary permeability and BAL myeloperoxidase (r = 0.4, p = 0.038) and BAL interleukin 8 (r = 0.38, p = 0.033). (bmj.com)
  • Alveolar-capillary barrier Basolateral membrane Collagen Glomerular basement membrane Lamina propria Reticular lamina Histology image:22403loa from Vaughan, Deborah (2002). (wikipedia.org)
  • Progress has been made in using hydrodynamic models to relate the permeability properties of this barrier to its structure, at the cellular and subcellular levels, in health and disease. (umn.edu)
  • In an oil or gas field, hydrocarbons migrate into rocks and can be trapped if there is a permeability barrier to prevent upward escape. (wikipedia.org)