A phenomenon in which the surface of a liquid where it contacts a solid is elevated or depressed, because of the relative attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.

Lipophilization of somatostatin analog RC-160 with long chain fatty acid improves its antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activity in vitro. (1/73)

The therapeutic potential of the somatostatin analogue RC-160 having antiproliferative activity, is limited by its short serum half life. To overcome this limitation, fatty acids namely butanoic acid and myristic acid were conjugated to the N-terminal residue of RC-160. The lipophilized derivatives of RC-160 were synthesized, purified by reverse phase HPLC and characterized by ES-mass spectroscopy. The antiproliferative activity of lipophilized derivatives of RC-160 on the growth of MIA-PaCa2 (human pancreatic carcinoma), DU145 (human prostate carcinoma), ECV304 (human umbilical chord endothelioma), as well as their antiangiogenic activity was evaluated in vitro. The relative stability of myristoyl-RC-160 towards degradation by proteases and serum was also determined. Myristoyl-RC-160 exhibited significantly higher antiproliferative efficacy than RC-160, on the above cell lines (P<0.01). Receptor binding assays, demonstrated that the affinity of RC-160 towards somatostatin receptors remains unaltered by myristoylation. Unlike RC-160, the myristoylated derivative was found to have significantly greater resistance to protease and serum degradation (P<0.01). Myristoyl-RC-160 exhibited significantly greater antiproliferative activity on ECV304, than RC-160 (P<0.01). Myristoyl RC-160 could also inhibit capillary tube formation more efficiently than RC-160 in a dose dependent manner, suggesting that it possessed enhanced antiangiogenic activity in vitro (P<0.001). Lipophilization of RC-160 with long chain fatty acids like myristic acid endows it with improved antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activity, stability and therapeutic index. British Journal of Pharmacology (2000) 109, 101 - 109  (+info)

Cryo-scanning electron microscopy observations of vessel content during transpiration in walnut petioles. Facts or artifacts? (2/73)

The current controversy about the "cohesion-tension" of water ascent in plants arises from the recent cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) observations of xylem vessels content by Canny and coworkers (1995). On the basis of these observations it has been claimed that vessels were emptying and refilling during active transpiration in direct contradiction to the previous theory. In this study we compared the cryo-SEM data with the standard hydraulic approach on walnut (Juglans regia) petioles. The results of the two techniques were in clear conflict and could not both be right. Cryo-SEM observations of walnut petioles frozen intact on the tree in a bath of liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) suggested that vessel cavitation was occurring and reversing itself on a diurnal basis. Up to 30% of the vessels were embolized at midday. In contrast, the percentage of loss of hydraulic conductance (PLC) of excised petiole segments remained close to 0% throughout the day. To find out which technique was erroneous we first analyzed the possibility that PLC values were rapidly returned to zero when the xylem pressures were released. We used the centrifugal force to measure the xylem conductance of petiole segments exposed to very negative pressures and established the relevance of this technique. We then analyzed the possibility that vessels were becoming partially air-filled when exposed to LN(2). Cryo-SEM observations of petiole segments frozen shortly after their xylem pressure was returned to atmospheric values agreed entirely with the PLC values. We confirmed, with water-filled capillary tubes exposed to a large centrifugal force, that it was not possible to freeze intact their content with LN(2). We concluded that partially air-filled conduits were artifacts of the cryo-SEM technique in our study. We believe that the cryo-SEM observations published recently should probably be reconsidered in the light of our results before they may be used as arguments against the cohesion-tension theory.  (+info)

Retinal adhesion in light- and dark-adapted rabbits. (3/73)

The effects of pigmentation and light exposure on retinal adhesion in rabbits have been investigated in a complete factorial experiment. Ocular pigmentation did not significantly influence retinal adhesion. A significant difference in retinal adhesive forces was found between light and dark adaptation. The force required to detach the retina from the retinal pigment epithelium was 20 per cent greater in light-adapted eyes than in dark-adapted eyes. These observations suggest that the positional change of rhodopsin molecules in the outer segment disk membranes occurring with light exposure and the resultant alteration in interdisk electrostatic forces may play an important role in retinal adhesion.  (+info)

Global analysis of the Deinococcus radiodurans proteome by using accurate mass tags. (4/73)

Understanding biological systems and the roles of their constituents is facilitated by the ability to make quantitative, sensitive, and comprehensive measurements of how their proteome changes, e.g., in response to environmental perturbations. To this end, we have developed a high-throughput methodology to characterize an organism's dynamic proteome based on the combination of global enzymatic digestion, high-resolution liquid chromatographic separations, and analysis by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The peptides produced serve as accurate mass tags for the proteins and have been used to identify with high confidence >61% of the predicted proteome for the ionizing radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans. This fraction represents the broadest proteome coverage for any organism to date and includes 715 proteins previously annotated as either hypothetical or conserved hypothetical.  (+info)

Generation of the streaming potential by liposomes in cylindrical capillary. Experimental data. (5/73)

A model of creation a streaming potential U as a result of colloidal particle movement in flow in a capillary has been described previously (Zawada 1996) as well as the systems for measurement (Zawada 1990, 1991). The filling of capillary with a solution of liposomes results in a labile adsorbance of liposomes on a capillary glass and changes the measured streaming potential. In order to minimalize these adverse effects, the capillary was covered with phospholipid layer of different composition. Some concentrations of stearylamine as a component of the phospholipid layer may fully compensate the surface charge of the glass capillary and can reduce the liposomes adsorption. The streaming potential of the liposomes solution depends on the ionic strength of the electrolyte and is smaller than the zeta potential for similar liposomes. This suggests that only a part of ions of the liposome ion atmosphere participate in creating of the streaming potential. These are the ions from the hydrodynamic slipping layer. The regression analysis of the relationships between streaming potential U and concentration of liposomes and next ionic strength of the electrolyte gave the value of the surface potential psi0 and the thickness of the hydrodynamic slipping layer d, that is independent of the ionic strength.  (+info)

The shape parameter of liposomes and DNA-lipid complexes determined by viscometry utilizing small sample volumes. (6/73)

A minicapillary viscometer utilizing <0.5 ml of sample at a volume fraction of <0.1% is described. The calculated a/b of DPPC/DPPG multilamellar liposome was 1.14 as prolate ellipsoids and a/b of dioleoylpropyltrimethyl ammonium methylsulfate-DNA complex at a charge ratio of 4:1 (+/-) was 3.7 as prolate ellipsoids or 4.9 as oblate ellipsoids. The deviation of shape from perfect sphere is thus expressed quantitatively in more than two significant figures. In these measurement, the necessary amount of DNA is <0.5 mg.  (+info)

Iohexol in serum determined by capillary electrophoresis. (7/73)

Iohexol, a nonionic compound used as a contrast medium for angiography and as a measure of the glomerular filtration rate, was quantified in serum by capillary electrophoresis. Comparable results were obtained for serum samples deproteinized with acetonitrile or analyzed directly after 50-fold dilution with borate buffer. Serum samples were electrophoresed for 2.6 min at 12 kV in a borate buffer with detection at 254 nm and with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine as internal standard. Acetonitrile deproteinization gave a greater sensitivity than did sample dilution. Between-run CVs were between 4.7% and 6.7%, and within-run CVs were between 2.5 and 3.2%. Analytical recoveries were 95-105%. Results of the method compared well with those by high-performance liquid chromatography (slope 0.96, intercept 0.005 g/L). This method demonstrates the potential of capillary electrophoresis for rapid and simple quantification of small molecules.  (+info)

High-pressure fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. (8/73)

We demonstrate that a novel high-pressure cell is suitable for fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). The pressure cell consists of a single fused silica microcapillary. The cylindrical shape of the capillary leads to refraction of the excitation light, which affects the point spread function of the system. We characterize the influence of these beam distortions by FCS and photon-counting histogram (PCH) analysis and identify the optimal position for fluorescence fluctuation experiments in the capillary. At this position within the capillary, FCS and photon-counting histogram experiments are described by the same equations as used in standard FCS experiments. We report the first experimental realization of fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy under high pressure. A fluorescent dye was used as a model system for evaluating the properties of the capillary under pressure. The autocorrelation function and the photon count distribution were measured in the pressure range from 0 to 300 MPa. The fluctuation amplitude and the diffusion coefficient show a small pressure dependence. The changes of these parameters, which are on the order of 10%, are due to the pressure changes of the viscosity and the density of the aqueous medium.  (+info)

Capillary action, also known as capillarity, is the ability of a liquid to rise or get drawn into narrow spaces, such as small tubes or gaps between particles, against gravity. This phenomenon occurs due to the attractive forces between the molecules of the liquid and the solid surface of the narrow space.

The height to which a liquid will rise in a capillary tube is determined by several factors, including the surface tension of the liquid, the radius of the capillary tube, and the adhesive forces between the liquid and the tube's material. In general, liquids with higher surface tension and stronger adhesion to the tube's material will rise higher than those with lower surface tension and weaker adhesion.

Capillary action plays an essential role in many natural and industrial processes, such as water absorption by plants, fluid transport in biological systems, and ink movement in fountain pens.

Capillaries are the smallest blood vessels in the body, with diameters that range from 5 to 10 micrometers. They form a network of tiny tubes that connect the arterioles (small branches of arteries) and venules (small branches of veins), allowing for the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste products between the blood and the surrounding tissues.

Capillaries are composed of a single layer of endothelial cells that surround a hollow lumen through which blood flows. The walls of capillaries are extremely thin, allowing for easy diffusion of molecules between the blood and the surrounding tissue. This is essential for maintaining the health and function of all body tissues.

Capillaries can be classified into three types based on their structure and function: continuous, fenestrated, and sinusoidal. Continuous capillaries have a continuous layer of endothelial cells with tight junctions that restrict the passage of large molecules. Fenestrated capillaries have small pores or "fenestrae" in the endothelial cell walls that allow for the passage of larger molecules, such as proteins and lipids. Sinusoidal capillaries are found in organs with high metabolic activity, such as the liver and spleen, and have large, irregular spaces between the endothelial cells that allow for the exchange of even larger molecules.

Overall, capillaries play a critical role in maintaining the health and function of all body tissues by allowing for the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between the blood and surrounding tissues.

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze charged particles such as proteins, nucleic acids, and other molecules based on their size and charge. In CE, the sample is introduced into a narrow capillary tube filled with a buffer solution, and an electric field is applied. The charged particles in the sample migrate through the capillary towards the electrode with the opposite charge, and the different particles become separated as they migrate based on their size and charge.

The separation process in CE is monitored by detecting the changes in the optical properties of the particles as they pass through a detector, typically located at the end of the capillary. The resulting data can be used to identify and quantify the individual components in the sample. Capillary electrophoresis has many applications in research and clinical settings, including the analysis of DNA fragments, protein identification and characterization, and the detection of genetic variations.

Capillary permeability refers to the ability of substances to pass through the walls of capillaries, which are the smallest blood vessels in the body. These tiny vessels connect the arterioles and venules, allowing for the exchange of nutrients, waste products, and gases between the blood and the surrounding tissues.

The capillary wall is composed of a single layer of endothelial cells that are held together by tight junctions. The permeability of these walls varies depending on the size and charge of the molecules attempting to pass through. Small, uncharged molecules such as water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide can easily diffuse through the capillary wall, while larger or charged molecules such as proteins and large ions have more difficulty passing through.

Increased capillary permeability can occur in response to inflammation, infection, or injury, allowing larger molecules and immune cells to enter the surrounding tissues. This can lead to swelling (edema) and tissue damage if not controlled. Decreased capillary permeability, on the other hand, can lead to impaired nutrient exchange and tissue hypoxia.

Overall, the permeability of capillaries is a critical factor in maintaining the health and function of tissues throughout the body.

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Capillary action of the liquid can be explained on the basis of its ___A. Resistance to flowB. Surface tensionC. Heat of ... This in turn causes the capillary action.. So, the capillary rise of a liquid can be explained on the basis of its surface ... Capillary action is the ability of a fluid to flow through a narrow tube without the aid of any outside force or even in the ... Capillary action of the liquid can be explained on the basis of its ___. A. Resistance to flow. B. Surface tension. C. Heat of ...
Rising damp is known to be caused by capillary action - a rise of liquid moisture inside the capillaries - a characteristic of ... indicating that rising damp is not only capillary action but a combination of several mechanisms, liquid capillary flow just ... Fast Wetting - Capillary Action. Dumping a large amount of water at the base of the brick creates a lot of significant, fast ... This fast wetting is known as capillary effect. Experiment 2: bricks have been placed on top of a 100 mm thick layer of ...
Capillarity or capillary action can best be explained with the way plants are able to nourish each branch or each leaf by ... Capillary action is a process wherein fluids are able to flow through seemingly narrow spaces without any form of assistance. ... Through the waters capillary action, though, the seemingly difficult task of reaching the upper parts of the tree can be ... The process of capillary action is made possible mainly by two liquid properties namely cohesion and adhesion. Cohesion ...
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Results In Progress - Capillary Action. After 24 hours, this is the results from our project. ... I liked the capillary colors project because we were able to talk about plant growth, capillaries, as well as the mechanics of ... Project 1: Capillary Colors The first project was a big hit! We had all the ingredients on hand and even assembled it before ... and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for ...
A mechanism for their capillary protective action. Arzneimittelforschung. 1994;44:592-601. View abstract. ... Coimbra, S. R., Lage, S. H., Brandizzi, L., Yoshida, V., and da Luz, P. L. The action of red wine and purple grape juice on ... Fromantin M. [OPC in the treatment of capillary weakness and retinopathy in diabetics. A propos of 26 cases]. Med Int 1982;16: ... Lagrue, G., Olivier-Martin, F., and Grillot, A. [A study of the effects of procyanidol oligomers on capillary resistance in ...
Capillary action and water. http://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/capillary-action-. Last accessed ... Capillary action. http://www.dictionary.com/browse/capillary-action. Last accessed April 5, 2021. [Context Link] ... the additional diffusion gradient and capillary action of a compress may aid in slightly deeper wound bed cleansing action and ... It will at first spread the water over the floor before absorbing it via capillary action. By using a wrung-out (damp) compress ...
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Capillary rise is capable of demonstrating the mechanism involved in groundwater evaporation, where the evaporation from ... This was because capillary water rose under both the capillary action and gravity, so the capillary force was far larger than ... The rate of capillary rise obtained a decreasing trend, with a sharp decrease at the initial stage. The capillary action played ... For the capillary rise experiment, the influence of pipe diameter on capillary action can be ignored under conditions where the ...
Staining Science: Capillary Action of Dyed Water in Plants, from Scientific American. STEM Activities for Kids, from Science ...
... ammodendron due to the strong root system and supporting capillary water in the soil. The actual evapotranspiration ETa for H. ... Soil capillary action drives the movement from groundwater to soil water. The rise height of the capillary determines whether ... Evapotranspiration of groundwater is caused by the combined action of soil evaporation and plant transpiration. The capillary ... For crops, depths within 200 cm of the surface are usually effective [35,36,37], and the capillary rise rate increases with the ...
Maybe some capillary action could help out here too?. -. gtoal, Mar 19 2009. ... Now if you wanted to pump using specific gravity (specific densities) or capillary effects, I would have no arguments.... ...
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PCU - Heat Extraction from Core • How Heat Pipes Work • Isothermal heat transfer • Capillary action • Self-contained system • ... PCU - Heat Pipes (2) • Possible Limits to Flow • Entrainment • Sonic Limit • Boiling • Freezing • CapillaryCapillary force ...
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Or was it perhaps capillary action that drained his ear? I suppose that if gravity it might not matter on the lunar surface, ...
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"Through capillary action, water keeps the soil moistened. This way of watering not only cuts down on water use but also helps ...
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Moisture is drawn up through the soil via a process called capillary action or wicking. This allows moisture to be more evenly ... Moisture is drawn up through the soil via a process called capillary action or wicking. This allows moisture to be more evenly ...
Surface Tension, Capillary Action, and Viscosity Surface Tension The various IMFs between identical molecules of a substance ... Fabricating High-viscosity Droplets using Microfluidic Capillary Device with Phase-inversion Co-flow Structure ...
capillary action in plants Last post by SandbaggerOne « Thu Apr 16, 2015 6:51 am. ...

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