Capillaria: A genus of trichuroid nematodes parasitic in the liver and intestines of many mammals and birds. Two species, C. hepatica and C. philippinensis, produce often fatal infections in man.Enoplida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order ENOPLIDA.Liver Diseases, Parasitic: Liver diseases caused by infections with PARASITES, such as tapeworms (CESTODA) and flukes (TREMATODA).Ascaridida: An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Its organisms possess two or three pairs of dorsolateral caudal papillae.Trichuroidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the order ENOPLIDA. Its organisms have a well developed intestine and rectum.Helminthiasis, Animal: Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Animals, ZooCanidae: A family of terrestrial carnivores with long snouts and non-retractable claws. Members include COYOTES; DOGS; FOXES; JACKALS; RACCOON DOGS; and WOLVES.Ascaridida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order ASCARIDIDA.Liver Cirrhosis, Experimental: Experimentally induced chronic injuries to the parenchymal cells in the liver to achieve a model for LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.Galliformes: An order of heavy-bodied, largely terrestrial BIRDS including pheasants, TURKEYS, grouse, QUAIL, and CHICKENS.Nematode Infections: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.Antinematodal Agents: Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Artemisia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE with strong-smelling foliage. It is a source of SANTONIN and other cytotoxic TERPENES.Agrostis: A plant genus of the family POACEAE.Crepis: A plant genus in the ASTERACEAE family.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Names: Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Insulinoma: A benign tumor of the PANCREATIC BETA CELLS. Insulinoma secretes excess INSULIN resulting in HYPOGLYCEMIA.Artemisia annua: A plant species of the genus ARTEMISIA, family ASTERACEAE. It is the source of the antimalarial artemisinin (ANTIMALARIALS).Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Sheltered Workshops: Protective places of employment for disabled persons which provide training and employment on a temporary or permanent basis.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Veterinary Drugs: Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.Schools, Veterinary: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of veterinary medicine.KansasMissouriInflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Tropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Cystitis: Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.Hematuria: Presence of blood in the urine.Anoplura: An order of insects comprising the sucking lice, which are blood-sucking ectoparasites of mammals. Recognized families include: Echinphthiriidae, Haematopinidae, and Pediculidae. The latter contains the medically important genera affecting humans: PEDICULUS and PHTHIRUS.ArabinoseAsteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Cat's Claw: A vine (Uncaria tomentosa) indigenous to the Amazon rainforest whose name is derived from its hook-like thorns. It contains oxindole alkaloids and glycosides and has many medicinal uses.

Hepatic capillariasis in children: report of 3 cases in Brazil. (1/53)

Capillaria hepatica is a helminth that may cause an extremely rare condition of parasitic hepatitis. Only 29 cases have been published, 2 of them in Brazil. We report here 3 cases of children in Brazil with massive hepatic capillariasis who presented the characteristic triad of this type of infection, i.e., persistent fever, hepatomegaly, and eosinophilia. The diagnosis was made by liver biopsy. All children responded well after treatment with thiabendazole (case 1), albendazole (case 3), and albendazole in combination with a corticoid (case 2). Case 1 has been followed-up for 24 years, an event not previously reported in the literature.  (+info)

Serological detection of Capillaria hepatica by indirect immunofluorescence assay. (2/53)

In this paper, a serological assay for the detection of antibodies to Capillaria hepatica, a zoonotic parasite, is described. In the past, the only way of detecting Capillaria hepatica was to perform a liver biopsy. The indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assay, based on liver sections of naturally infected mice and human serum samples, is suitable for detecting early stages of human infections and for screening purposes. No cross-reactivity with other parasitic infections was detected. We have applied the IIF assay to serum samples of 60 employees of the Zoological Garden of Vienna, Schonbrunn, Austria, and found one positive and one questionable sample.  (+info)

Hepatic capillariasis (Capillaria hepatica) in porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) in Pennsylvania. (3/53)

Tissues of 53 adult porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) from Pennsylvania were obtained for histopathologic examination. Hepatic capillariasis was recorded in 9% of the porcupines. An additional 11% of the liver sections showed lesions that were compatible with migration by Capillaria hepatica. Because only 1 section of the liver per animal was examined microscopically, the documented prevalence of C. hepatica in Pennsylvania is considered conservatively low. However, this condition was subclinical, because none of the infected animals showed clinical signs, and none revealed severe pathologic changes in the affected livers. This seems to be the only report of C. hepatica in porcupines.  (+info)

Hepatic capillariasis in rats: a new model for testing antifibrotic drugs. (4/53)

Rats infected with the helminth Capillaria hepatica regularly develop septal hepatic fibrosis that may progress to cirrhosis in a relatively short time. Because of such characteristics, this experimental model was selected for testing drugs exhibiting antifibrosis potential, such as pentoxifylline, gadolinium chloride and vitamin A. Hepatic fibrosis was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated in liver samples obtained by partial hepatectomy and at autopsy. The material was submitted to histological, biochemical and morphometric methods. A statistically significant reduction of fibrosis was obtained with pentoxifylline when administered intraperitoneally rather than intravenously. Gadolinium chloride showed moderate activity when administered prophylactically (before fibrosis had started), but showed a poor effect when fibrosis was well advanced. No modification of fibrosis was seen after vitamin A administration. Hydroxyproline content was correlated with morphometric measurements. The model appears to be adequate, since few animals die of the infection, fibrosis develops regularly in all animals, and the effects of different antifibrotic drugs and administration protocols can be easily detected.  (+info)

Effect of interferon-alpha on experimental septal fibrosis of the liver - study with a new model. (5/53)

Interferon-alpha is used in antiviral therapy in humans, mainly for viral hepatitis B and C. An anti-fibrotic effect of interferon has been postulated even in the absence of anti-viral response, which suggests that interferon directly inhibits fibrogenesis. Rats infected with the helminth Capillaria hepatica regularly develop diffuse septal fibrosis of the liver, which terminates in cirrhosis 40 days after inoculation. The aim of this study was to test the anti-fibrotic effect of interferon in this experimental model. Evaluation of fibrosis was made by three separate methods: semi-quantitative histology, computerized morphometry and hydroxyproline measurements. Treatment with interferon-alpha proved to inhibit the development of fibrosis in this model, especially when doses of 500,000 and 800,000 IU were used for 60 days. Besides confirming the anti-fibrotic potential of interferon-alpha on a non-viral new experimental model of hepatic fibrosis, a clear-cut dose-dependent effect was observed.  (+info)

Worm load and septal fibrosis of the liver in Capillaria hepatica-infected rats. (6/53)

Inocula, varying from 15 to 1,000 embryonated Capillaria hepatica eggs, were administered to young adult rats by gastric tube, in an attempt to investigate the influence of worm load in the production of septal fibrosis of the liver. Low doses of 15, 30 or 50 eggs were sufficient to produce septal fibrosis, but it appeared with variable degrees of intensity and always with focal distribution. Septal fibrosis became diffuse, progressive with time, and already well developed 40 days after infection, when 100 eggs or more were administered. However, higher inocula (200, 500 and 1,000 eggs) did not intensify septal fibrosis, although the number of parasitic focal lesions proportionally augmented.  (+info)

Pathogenesis of hepatic septal fibrosis associated with Capillaria hepatica infection of rats. (7/53)

Septal fibrosis is a common form of hepatic fibrosis, but its etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. Rats infected with the helminth Capillaria hepatica constitute a good experimental model of such fibrosis. To investigate the pathogenetic contribution of the several parasitic factors involved, the following procedures were performed in rats: a) regarding the role of eggs, these were isolated and injected either into the peritoneal cavity or directly into the liver parenchyma; b) for worms alone, 15-day-old infection was treated with mebendazole, killing the parasites before oviposition started; c) for both eggs and worms, rats at the 30th day of infection were treated with either mebendazole or ivermectin. Eggs only originated focal fibrosis from cicatricial granulomas, but no septal fibrosis. Worms alone induced a mild degree of perifocal septal fibrosis. Systematized septal fibrosis of the liver, similar to that observed in the infected controls, occurred only in the rats treated with mebendazole or ivermectin, with dead worms and immature eggs in their livers. Thus, future search for fibrogenic factors associated with C. hepatica infection in rats should consider lesions with both eggs and worms.  (+info)

Capillariidae eggs found in the urine of a free ranging maned wolf from Argentina. (8/53)

The first finding of a Capillariid in the urinary tract of a free ranging maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is described. The individual was an adult male attacked by dogs in the locality of Cayastacito (Santa Fe, Argentina, 31 degrees 05' S, 60 degrees 34' W). Eggs found in urine measured 64.6-66.9 micrometer (mean 65.4 micrometer) x 26.9-31 micrometer (mean 29 micrometer). Further studies are needed to determine whether this finding corresponds to a new Capillariid species, related to C. brachyurus, or it is an already described species that has been introduced by domestic dogs.  (+info)

  • Capillaria, which purports to be the sixth voyage of Swift's Lemuel Gulliver, is the sequel to Karinthy's 1916 novel, Voyage to Faremido, in which he is transported from the battlefields of World War I to Faremido. (wikipedia.org)
  • this quote needs a citation] Voyage to Faremido and its sequel, Capillaria, are presented by the author as the fifth and sixth journeys of Gulliver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also the genre of the two novels are different: Voyage to Faremido is an example of utopian-satirical literature, but Capillaria is not utopian. (wikipedia.org)
  • Title: Voyage to Faremido: Capillaria Author: Frigyes Karinthy Editor: Living Books, 1966 Pages Nº: de páginas 126 páginas Novels portal Voyage to Faremido Kazohinia Manguel, Alberto, and Gianni Guadalupi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nematode (roundworm) Capillaria hepatica (= Calodium hepaticum ) causes hepatic capillariasis in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Calodium hepaticum, outrora denominado Capillaria hepatica , e um nematodeo pertencente a familia Trichuroidae, sendo relatado parasitando o parEnquima hepatico de mais de 40 especies de mamiferos, tais como caes, gatos, suinos, macacos e coelhos, sendo mais comumente encontrado em roedores, especialmente nos ratos (SAWAMURA et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Capillaria obsignata gehört mit Ascaridia galli und Heterakis gallinarum zu den häufigsten Nematodenarten des Haushuhns. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Um weitere Forschungsprojekte auch bei der Gattung Capillaria etablieren zu können, sollten die Handhabung und das Verhalten von C. obsignata-Eiern hinsichtlich der Embryonierung nach Inkubation in verschiedenen Medien sowie die anschließende künstliche Infektion untersucht werden. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Im Verlauf weiterer Untersuchungen sollten die vier häufigsten Capillaria-Arten des Geflügels (C. obsignata, C. bursata, C. caudinflata und C. anatis) zuerst morphologisch unterschieden werden. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Based on these morphological features, the capillarid nematode was identified as Capillaria obsignata. (bvsalud.org)
  • Reexamination of samples showed that they contained Capillaria eggs that resemble T. trichiura in Kato-Katz smears. (cdc.gov)
  • Morphologic differential diagnoses included eggs of Capillaria hepatica (bipolar striated ova in liver), Dicrocoelium (slightly smaller operculated ova typically found in feces or bile), and the similar Eurytrema (thick-walled operculated ova in feces). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Two distinctive eggs resembling those of Capillaria and Heterakis were detected in the feces. (bvsalud.org)
  • One type of worms in cats is caused by the parasitic worm known as Capillaria - the condition is capillariasis. (petmd.com)
  • Furthermore, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, and scoparone from A. capillaris abrogated the association of V-ATPase with TRAF6, suggesting that the blockage of bone resorption by A. capillaris was partially mediated by reducing acidification through down-regulating interaction of V-ATPase with TRAF6 due to scoparone as well as chlorogenic acid and hyperoside. (mdpi.com)
  • These results imply that the anti-osteoclastic effect of A. capillaris through down-regulating osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption may contribute to its anti-osteoporotic effect. (mdpi.com)