Cape Verde: The republic consists of islands that are located in the mid-Atlantic Ocean about 300 miles off the west coast of Africa. The archipelago includes 10 islands and 5 islets, divided into the windward (Barlavento) and leeward (Sotavento) groups. The capital is Praia.Phenylethyl Alcohol: An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.Caffeic Acids: A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.Baccharis: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Other plants called broom include CYTISUS; SPARTIUM; and BROMUS.Apitherapy: The medical use of honey bee products such as BEE VENOM; HONEY; bee pollen; PROPOLIS; and royal jelly.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Propolis: A resinous substance obtained from beehives that is used traditionally as an antimicrobial. It is a heterogeneous mixture of many substances.Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Toothpastes: Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.LatviaAloe: A plant genus of the family Aloeaceae, order Liliales (or Asphodelaceae, Asparagales in APG system) which is used medicinally. It contains anthraquinone glycosides such as aloin-emodin or aloe-emodin (EMODIN).Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Dental Pulp Capping: Application of a protective agent to an exposed pulp (direct capping) or the remaining thin layer of dentin over a nearly exposed pulp (indirect capping) in order to allow the pulp to recover and maintain its normal vitality and function.BulgariaLactobacillus helveticus: A species of gram-positive bacteria isolated from MILK and cheese-starter cultures.Quinic Acid: An acid which is found in cinchona bark and elsewhere in plants. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Achillea: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that has long been used in folk medicine for treating wounds.Dental Pulp Necrosis: Death of pulp tissue with or without bacterial invasion. When the necrosis is due to ischemia with superimposed bacterial infection, it is referred to as pulp gangrene. When the necrosis is non-bacterial in origin, it is called pulp mummification.Calcium Hydroxide: A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.BenzophenonesCoumaric Acids: Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.Pulpectomy: Dental procedure in which the entire pulp chamber is removed from the crown and roots of a tooth.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Root Canal Irrigants: Chemicals used mainly to disinfect root canals after pulpectomy and before obturation. The major ones are camphorated monochlorophenol, EDTA, formocresol, hydrogen peroxide, metacresylacetate, and sodium hypochlorite. Root canal irrigants include also rinsing solutions of distilled water, sodium chloride, etc.Diagnosis, Oral: Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.Thymus Plant: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE best known for the thyme spice added to foods.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Dental Fistula: An abnormal passage in the oral cavity on the gingiva.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.CinnamatesHydrocarbons, IodinatedPulpotomy: Dental procedure in which part of the pulp chamber is removed from the crown of a tooth.Dentin, Secondary: Dentin formed by normal pulp after completion of root end formation.Flavanones: A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.Dental Pulp Exposure: The result of pathological changes in the hard tissue of a tooth caused by carious lesions, mechanical factors, or trauma, which render the pulp susceptible to bacterial invasion from the external environment.Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Periapical Tissue: Tissue surrounding the apex of a tooth, including the apical portion of the periodontal membrane and alveolar bone.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Morinda: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. Members contain iridoid glycosides and ANTHRAQUINONES.Pulp Capping and Pulpectomy Agents: Materials used in DENTAL PULP CAPPING or PULPECTOMY.Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.BrazilRadiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.PicratesLaxatives: Agents that produce a soft formed stool, and relax and loosen the bowels, typically used over a protracted period, to relieve CONSTIPATION.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine: A substituted carcinogenic nitrosamine.Dentin Permeability: The property of dentin that permits passage of light, heat, cold, and chemical substances. It does not include penetration by microorganisms.Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Dentin Desensitizing Agents: Substances which reduce or eliminate dentinal sensitivity or the pain associated with a source of stimulus (such as touch, heat, or cold) at the orifice of exposed dentinal tubules causing the movement of tubular fluid that in turn stimulates tooth nerve receptors.Sarcoma 180Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Silver Sulfadiazine: Antibacterial used topically in burn therapy.MassachusettsRhodotorula: A red yeast-like mitosporic fungal genus generally regarded as nonpathogenic. It is cultured from numerous sources in human patients.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Trichosporon: A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Onions: Herbaceous biennial plants and their edible bulbs, belonging to the Liliaceae.Atlantic Islands: Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Root Canal Preparation: Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)Complex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Falconiformes: An order of diurnal BIRDS of prey, including EAGLES; HAWKS; buzzards; vultures; and falcons.Fur Seals: A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.AlloxanLithuaniaPhenylpropionatesChromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Smear Layer: Adherent debris produced when cutting the enamel or dentin in cavity preparation. It is about 1 micron thick and its composition reflects the underlying dentin, although different quantities and qualities of smear layer can be produced by the various instrumentation techniques. Its function is presumed to be protective, as it lowers dentin permeability. However, it masks the underlying dentin and interferes with attempts to bond dental material to the dentin.Meglumine: 1-Deoxy-1-(methylamino)-D-glucitol. A derivative of sorbitol in which the hydroxyl group in position 1 is replaced by a methylamino group. Often used in conjunction with iodinated organic compounds as contrast medium.Hyraxes: Any of certain small mammals of the order Hyracoidea.PolandParasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Pasteurella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.BelizeComet Assay: A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.Chalcones: Compounds based on CHALCONE. They are important intermediates in the formation of FLAVONOIDS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Sonication: The application of high intensity ultrasound to liquids.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Leishmania mexicana: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.Progesterone-Binding Globulin: A glycoprotein migrating as alpha 1-globulin, molecular weight 70,000 to 120,000. The protein, which is present in increased amounts in the plasma during pregnancy, binds mainly progesterone, with other steroids including testosterone competing weakly.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Gingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.PortugalDentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.Atlantic OceanDental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Isotonic Solutions: Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Tetrachloroethylene: A chlorinated hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent and cooling liquid in electrical transformers. It is a potential carcinogen.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Genetic Pleiotropy: A phenomenon in which multiple and diverse phenotypic outcomes are influenced by a single gene (or single gene product.)Biphenyl CompoundsDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Civil Disorders: Deliberate and planned acts of unlawful behavior engaged in by aggrieved segments of the population in seeking social change.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Bacteria, AnaerobicHospitals, State: Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the state government.Mauritania: A republic in western Africa, southwest of ALGERIA and west of MALI. Its capital is Nouakchott.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Buffaloes: Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.EstersWound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Azinphosmethyl: An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor. It has been used as an acaricide and as an insecticide.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Perissodactyla: An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Amphetamine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of amphetamines.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Genealogy and HeraldryTetrazolium Salts: Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Trypanosomiasis, Bovine: Infection in cattle caused by various species of trypanosomes.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.TurkeyChemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Growth Inhibitors: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Rape: Unlawful sexual intercourse without consent of the victim.Isosorbide: 1,4:3,6-Dianhydro D-glucitol. Chemically inert osmotic diuretic used mainly to treat hydrocephalus; also used in glaucoma.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Dyspnea, Paroxysmal: A disorder characterized by sudden attacks of respiratory distress in at rest patients with HEART FAILURE and PULMONARY EDEMA. It usually occurs at night after several hours of sleep in a reclining position. Patients awaken with a feeling of suffocation, coughing, a cold sweat, and TACHYCARDIA. When there is significant WHEEZING, it is called cardiac asthma.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Ribes: A plant genus of the family GROSSULARIACEAE. GAMMA-LINOLENIC ACID is obtained from the black currant oil of the seeds.Nova Scotia: A province of eastern Canada, one of the Maritime Provinces with NEW BRUNSWICK; PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND; and sometimes NEWFOUNDLAND AND LABRADOR. Its capital is Halifax. The territory was granted in 1621 by James I to the Scotsman Sir William Alexander and was called Nova Scotia, the Latin for New Scotland. The territory had earlier belonged to the French, under the name of Acadia. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p871 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p384)Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.Phenindione: An indandione that has been used as an anticoagulant. Phenindione has actions similar to WARFARIN, but it is now rarely employed because of its higher incidence of severe adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p234)Space-Time Clustering: A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)ThiazolesOrchidaceae: A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Monophenol Monooxygenase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between L-tyrosine, L-dopa, and oxygen to yield L-dopa, dopaquinone, and water. It is a copper protein that acts also on catechols, catalyzing some of the same reactions as CATECHOL OXIDASE. EC 1.14.18.1.Construction Materials: Supplies used in building.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
  • Comparative analysis of the inhibitory potencies revealed that phenethyl ferulate was the most potent among the CAPE derivatives. (rcsb.org)
  • Besides TNF, CAPE also inhibited NF-kappa B activation induced by other inflammatory agents including phorbol ester, ceramide, hydrogen peroxide, and okadaic acid. (pnas.org)
  • Apart from the structural and functional attributes of propolis for beehives ( 1 ), propolis has been reported to possess a variety of disease-preventive and therapeutic potentials for the human population ( 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Another study also showed that CAPE suppresses acute immune and inflammatory responses and holds promise for therapeutic uses to reduce inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, standardized quality controls and good design clinical trials are essential before either propolis or its active ingredients can be adopted routinely in our future therapeutic armamentarium. (springer.com)
  • Research conducted to date, describes a promising effectiveness of propolis in the prevention of caries and other diseases of the oral cavity, making it necessary to develop studies to identify and understand the therapeutic targets or mechanisms of molecular action of the various compounds present on them. (scielo.br)
  • Also included is just a small sampling of references to scientific research that backs up many of the medicinal and therapeutic claims made with regard to propolis. (beeculture.com)
  • Propolis is one of the few natural products that has maintained popularity for a long time, although it is not considered a therapeutic agent by the conventional allopathic medical establishment. (beeculture.com)
  • The drug development may take a while and in the current scenario, these natural resources (Ashwagandha and Propolis) may offer some preventive or even therapeutic value, say researchers. (eetindia.co.in)
  • Initial studies were carried out in rabbits and Chang believes that CAPE-loaded PMMA bone cement could be used for human clinical applications after therapeutic efficacy evaluation. (rsc.org)
  • Consistently, propolis has shown a therapeutic effect over the placebo and has outperformed acyclovir in healing time. (wordpress.com)
  • Taken together, these results indicate that propolis from M. orbignyi has therapeutic potential for the treatment and/or prevention of diseases related to microorganism activity, oxidative stress and tumor cell proliferation. (unifesp.br)
  • Initially, this variability was a serious obstacle to the standardisation of propolis and its reliable therapeutic use. (bio30.com)
  • After that, CAPE demonstrated its effectiveness on models of neuroinflammation, such as the cerebral ischemia model [ 7 ], and glutamate-induced excitotoxicity [ 8 ], through antioxidant or p38 phosphorylation and caspase-3 activation, respectively. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, the flavonoid pinocembrin, an important propolis constituent, has reduced brain lesion in an ischemia-reperfusion model, probably by its antioxidant and antiapoptotic activity [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Our CAPE content, the main antioxidant that gives propolis it's incredible benefits, is significantly higher than it's alternatives. (beeandyou.com)
  • The present study focused on the antibacterial potential of propolis in combination with the standard antibiotic Cefixime against the typhoid causing bacteria i.e. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Propolis acted synergistically with cefixime and enhanced the efficacy of antibiotic and reduced its effective dose in combined therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, the CAPE-loaded antimicrobial bone-cements showed a controlled release pattern better than that of the GM-loaded antibiotic bone-cement due to their homogeneous loading. (rsc.org)
  • The researchers were not only able to demonstrate that CAPE-loaded PMMA is an effective antimicrobial against Staphylococcus aureus, but it also has much better compressive strength than antibiotic-loaded PMMA. (rsc.org)
  • Most medical articles, however, still point to the value of propolis as a powerful, natural antibiotic. (blogspot.com)
  • In 2014 the same research team which performed the 2013 study, were so intrigued by the beneficial effects of the propolis extracts, that they decided to investigate which component, out of the 200 or so that propolis contains, was likely to be responsible for the improvements. (bee-pollen-buzz.com)
  • Both aqueous and ethanol extracts of propolis have been tested against the herpes virus and results indicate that it may help when used as a topical application against cold sores. (beeculture.com)
  • In a Chinese study, researchers found that extracts of propolis - specifically, sinapic, isoferulic, and caffeic acids - inhibited the growth of S. aureus (Qiao Z, China Journal of Chinese Materi Medica, Aug. 1991;16:481-2). (blogspot.com)
  • A European study reported that ethanol extracts from propolis had a "marked synergistic effect" on the anti-staph activity of two antibiotics, streptomycin and cloxacillin, and a moderate effect on several others (Krol W, Arzneimittel-Forschung, May 1993;43:607-9). (blogspot.com)
  • The aim of this study was to increase knowledge about the chemical composition of the S. postica propolis by analyzing non-polar extracts obtained using hexane and chloroform as the solvents, by GC-EI-MS. A total of 15 constituents were identified comparing their respective mass spectral data with those available in the NIST data bases and those reported in the literature. (scielo.br)
  • Cheung KW, Sze DM, Chan WK, Deng RX, Tu W, Chan GC (2011) Brazilian green propolis and its constituent, artepillin C inhibits allogeneic activated human CD4 T cells expansion and activation. (springer.com)
  • Also, Brazilian red propolis, largely derived from Dalbergia ecastaphyllum plant resin, has high relative percentages of the isoflavonoids 3-hydroxy-8,9-dimethoxypterocarpan and medicarpin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salatino A, Teixeira EW, Negri G, Message D (2005) Origin and chemical variation of Brazilian propolis. (springer.com)
  • Bankova V, Boudourova-Krasteva G, Sforcin JM, Frete X, Kujumgiev A, Maimoni-Rodella R et al (1999) Phytochemical evidence for the plant origin of Brazilian propolis from Sao Paulo state. (springer.com)
  • Schnitzler, 2009) Meanwhile studies have indicated that Brazilian propolis possess anti-influenza virus activity and ameliorated influenza symptoms in mice making it a possible candidate for an anti-influenza dietary supplement for humans (Shimizu, 2008). (beeculture.com)
  • The biologists are certain that the propolis is formulated and used by some special Bee , the collectors and deposited on the external borders of the honeycomb and all over the beehive as it have a defensive effect against the microbiological aggressions. (savingbees.org)
  • It was also demonstrated that Bio 30, which is a CAPE-rich commercially available New Zealand propolis, inhibited TTR amyloidogenesis and stabilized the TTR tetramer. (rcsb.org)
  • New Zealand propolis has particularly high levels of these important bioactive components. (manukanatural.com)
  • These plant exudates are present on all continents and honeybees introduced to continents where they were never present (such as Australia, New Zealand and the Americas) find no difficulty in obtaining propolis. (ujubee.com)
  • This website provides information on BIO30 New Zealand Propolis including its properties, traditional use and scientific findings. (bio30.com)
  • However, studies based on propolis from particular locations (such as Professor Hiroshi Maruta's research on BIO30 Propolis from New Zealand) have led to findings based on the characteristics of particular propolis. (bio30.com)
  • Early results from poorly designed human studies suggest that propolis used on the skin may improve lesions from genital herpes virus infections. (arborfarms.com)
  • Animal and laboratory studies suggest that propolis may help treat various types of infections. (arborfarms.com)
  • The findings obtained in the study might suggest that propolis, CAPE, NSO, and TQ could prevent cataractogenesis in ionizing radiation-induced cataracts in the lenses of rats, wherein propolis and NSO were found to be more potent. (springermedizin.at)
  • In fact, since 2003, bioactive components present in propolis have been investigated. (hindawi.com)
  • As reported in the Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, scientists set out to measure the anti-oxidant and anti-AGE potential of propolis. (bee-pollen-buzz.com)
  • A recent study showed that TMZ administered together with propolis[ 20 ] enhanced the sensitivity of human brain cancer cells, indicating that the combination of TMZ with natural products may be more effective in glioma therapy than using TMZ alone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The beetles lay their eggs in dung and those which do escape can often not fly as their elytra are fused together with propolis (Tribe 2009). (ujubee.com)
  • One study, which was published in 2016, looks at the effects of Chrysin, a flavonoid which is found not only in propolis but also in honey, on mice which had been subjected to unpredicted chronic stress. (bee-pollen-buzz.com)
  • Propolis adalah produk lebah dengan kandungan flavonoid tinggi yang mempunyai efek antioksidan, anti inflamasi, proteksi DNA, neuroprotektan, dan immunomodulator. (ub.ac.id)
  • The antimicrobial ability and controlled release property of both CAPE-loaded and GM-loaded bone-cements were demonstrated as a function of time, concentration and optimization to maximize their antimicrobial effects against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. (rsc.org)
  • Through various in vitro and in vivo biological assessments, the CAPE-loaded antimicrobial bone-cements showed positive results in all assessments, without any inflammatory response. (rsc.org)
  • This also explains why CAPE-PMMA exhibits more controlled and sustained antimicrobial release compared to bone cement loaded with gentamycin. (rsc.org)
  • Thus, overall our results demonstrate that CAPE is a potent and a specific inhibitor of NF-kappa B activation and this may provide the molecular basis for its multiple immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory activities. (pnas.org)
  • The data proposes that CAPE-γCD complex is a potent anti-cancer and anti-metastasis reagent. (jcancer.org)
  • Cumulatively, these findings point to CAPE as being a potent chemopreventive agent, which may be useful in combatting diseases with strong inflammatory and/or oxidative stress components, i.e. , various types of cancer and possibly cataract development. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Numerous case reports have demonstrated propolis to be a potent allergen and sensitizing agent. (arborfarms.com)
  • Studies have also demonstrated CAPE to be a specific and potent inhibitor of activation of nuclear transcription factor NF kappa B, which is a protein complex that controls the transcription of DNA. (scbt.com)
  • Propolis is gaining a reputation in allergy, obesity, and autoimmunity but today I am going to briefly mention one aspect of its well known anti-viral properties (I have provided a table at the end of this blog with a list of published antiviral effects along with the links to the articles). (wordpress.com)
  • Since then there have been a number of small multicenter studies comparing the use of propolis ointment at 3-5% to acyclovir (a well known antiviral) and placebo. (wordpress.com)
  • Moreover, CAPE inhibited both the DNA-binding and transcriptional activity of NFAT, a result that correlated with its ability to inhibit phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus ionomycin-induced NFAT1 dephosphorylation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Antioxidants inhibit the oxidation of molecules and it turns out that propolis contains some powerful antioxidants. (beeculture.com)
  • We showed that dietary CAPE can significantly inhibit growth of MDA-231 cell xenografts in nude mice when started at a time of cell inoculation and when provided after xenografts are already developed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Does CAPE inhibit growth decreasing agents from binding to ERBeta? (heightquest.com)
  • 1000 (48h) for CA. Polyphenols induced apoptosis, higher apoptotic effect observed for CAPE (dose dependent). (propolisscience.org)
  • Here, we show that CAPE preferentially induced S- and G2/M- phase cell cycle arrests and initiated apoptosis in human cervical cancer lines. (blogspot.com)
  • Furthermore, E2F-1 silencing abolished CAPE-mediated effects on cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and related gene expression. (blogspot.com)
  • CAPE promotes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the upregulation of. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Here, we show that treatment with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in combination with CAPE significantly sensitized SK-Hep1 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Moreover, TRAIL receptors, such as DR4 and DR5 were significantly upregulated by CAPE treatment, and both DR4/Fc and DR5/Fc chimera markedly abrogated apoptosis induced by CAPE and TRAIL, demonstrating the critical role of these death receptors in combination-induced apoptosis. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The inhibition of p38, using SB203580, blocked the CAPE-induced expression of death receptors and attenuated the combinationinduced apoptosis, suggesting the pro-apoptotic role of p38. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Taken together, these results indicate that CAPE potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis in SK-Hep1 cells, through upregulation of TRAIL receptors via modulation of p38 and JNK signaling pathways. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • It is also shown that CAPE can cause DNA fragmentation and apoptosis which can have toxic results towards cloned rat embryo fibroblast (CREF) cells. (scbt.com)
  • Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh pemberian ekstrak propolis dalam berbagai dosis pada ekspresi TLR4 dan apoptosis di jaringan otak tikus Rattus norvegicus model trauma kapitis. (ub.ac.id)
  • Penelitian ini membuktikan bahwa propolis berpengaruh dalam penurunan ekspresi TLR4 dan apoptosis di sel otak tikus model trauma kapitis. (ub.ac.id)
  • An interesting pattern discerned in the natural nests of wild honeybees in pristine Coastal Fynbos and Succulent Karoo has been the lavish use of propolis to form an enclosing wall at the entrance to the nest. (ujubee.com)
  • The propolis forms an immediate mechanical barrier but due to its chemical properties, imparts social immunity to honeybees through both contact and volatile emissions. (ujubee.com)
  • A look at African races of honeybees that do or don't use propolis when related to their environment, and where and when propolis is used may give some insight into this behaviour. (ujubee.com)
  • A colony of honeybees collects 150-700g of propolis per hive/annum (Ghisalberti 1979, Prost-Jean 1985). (ujubee.com)
  • Propolis [is] a natural product derived from plant resins collected by the honeybees. (heightquest.com)