A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)
Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists
Encyclopedias as Topic
Unctuous combustible substances that are liquid or easily liquefiable on warming, and are soluble in ether but insoluble in water. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral, or vegetable oils. Depending on their behavior on heating, they are volatile or fixed. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal
A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.
Leydig Cell Tumor
Gonadal interstitial or stromal cell neoplasm composed of only LEYDIG CELLS. These tumors may produce one or more of the steroid hormones such as ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS; and CORTICOSTEROIDS. Clinical symptoms include testicular swelling, GYNECOMASTIA, sexual precocity in children, or virilization (VIRILISM) in females.
Great Lakes Region
Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.
Doping in Sports
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
Assay and properties of 18-hydroxylation of endogenous and exogenous corticosterone in rat adrenals. Evidence for heterogeneity of 18-hydroxylase activity. (1/19)A mass fragmentographic technique for assay of 18-hydroxylation of labeled (exogenous) and unlabeled (endogenous) corticosterone in adrenal mitochondria and in reconstituted cytochrome P-450 systems has been developed. An extract of an incubation of [14-14C]corticosterone is subjected both to thin-layer radiochromatography and to mass fragmentography (as O-methyloxime-trimethylsilyl ether derivative). In the latter procedure the ions at m/e 605 and 607 (specific for the derivatives of unlabeled and labeled 18-hydroxycorticosterone, respectively), at m/e 591 and 593 (specific for the derivatives of unlabeled labeled aldosterone, respectively) and at m/e 548 and 550 (specific for the derivatives of unlabeled and labeled corticosterone, respectively) were followed through the gas-liquid chromatography. From the ratio between the peaks obtained in the mass fragmentography and from the percentage conversion of [4-14C]corticosterone obtained in the thin-layer radiochromatography, the amount of endogenous and exogenous 18-hydroxycorticosterone and aldosterone could be calculated. The effects of time, enzyme, and substrate concentration of 18-hydroxylation were studied and optimal conditions for assay were determined. Under most conditions, the ratio between labeled and unlabeled 18-hydroxylated products was about constant, indicating that labeled and unlabeled corticosterone were not in equilibrium. It was ascertained that the 18-hydroxycorticosterone and aldosterone formed in the incubations were derived from corticosterone. [4-14C]18-Hydroxydeoxycorticosterone was not converted into aldosterone or 18-hydroxycorticosterone. In vitro studies with different 18-hydroxylase inhibitors (spironolactone, canrenone, and canrenoate-K) and studies with rats pretreated with KCl in drinking fluid suggest that 18-hydroxylation of corticosterone is catalyzed by an enzyme system different from that catalyzing 18-hydroxylation of deoxycorticosterone. (+info)
Digoxin assays: frequent, substantial, and potentially dangerous interference by spironolactone, canrenone, and other steroids. (2/19)BACKGROUND: A case of digoxin toxicity resulted from falsely low values with the MEIA II assay for digoxin (AxSYM; Abbott). The low results were caused by negative interference from canrenone and spironolactone, the latter of which has recently been advocated for the treatment of severe heart failure. Analytical interference from spironolactone has been reported, but little information is available for this effect with newer digoxin assays. METHODS: We examined nine assays (AxSYM, IMx, TDx, Emit, Dimension, aca, TinaQuant, Elecsys, and Vitros for interference by spironolactone, canrenone, and three metabolites. Additionally, all routine digoxin measurements (AxSYM) over a period of 16.5 months (n = 3089) were monitored for interference. RESULTS: Suppression of the expected values by canrenone (3125 microg/L) was observed for the AxSYM (42% of expected value), IMx (51%), and Dimension (78%) assays. A positive bias was observed for the aca (0.7 microg/L), the TDx (0.62 microg/L), and the Elecsys (>0.58 microg/L). Twenty-five of 669 routinely monitored patients had falsely low results. Nineteen of these had potentially toxic concentrations of digoxin (Emit; >2.0 microg/L), although the AxSYM assay indicated therapeutic or less severe toxic concentrations (Delta(max) = 7.1 microg/L). Except for two unresolved cases, this was attributable to spironolactone, canrenone, hydrocortisone, or prednisolone. Standard doses of spironolactone (up to 50 mg/day) in patients with heart failure displayed inhibition <11%. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency and magnitude of the false-negative results particularly compromise the use of both microparticle enzyme immunoassays. Not only may toxic concentrations remain unidentified, but intoxication could occur should dosage be increased because of falsely low results. With 11 million digoxin tests/year ordered in the US, conceivably many patients could be adversely affected. (+info)
Aldosterone antagonist improves diastolic function in essential hypertension. (3/19)Experimental studies demonstrated that mineralocorticoid antagonists prevent or reverse myocardial fibrosis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the aldosterone antagonist canrenone can improve left ventricular diastolic function in essential hypertension. Using digitized M-mode echocardiography and 24-hour blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), we realized a prospective, randomized, controlled study on 34 never-treated essential hypertensives with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Echocardiogram and ABPM were repeated after 6 months of effective antihypertensive treatment with ACE inhibitors and calcium antagonists (second evaluation) and then after a 6-month period with 17 patients randomly assigned to add canrenone 50 mg/d to the previous treatment (third evaluation). At the basal evaluation 32 patients had left ventricular concentric hypertrophy, and 2 patients had left ventricular concentric remodeling. All the patients had normal left ventricular systolic function. At the second evaluation blood pressure was reduced (P<0.0001), left ventricular mass index decreased (P<0.0001), and diastolic function improved (P<0.0001). After randomization, the canrenone and control groups had similar 24-hour blood pressure and left ventricular morpho-functional characteristics. At the third evaluation, despite unchanged blood pressure and similar decrease of left ventricular mass index, the canrenone group, compared with control group, showed a significantly greater increase in left ventricular diastolic indices. In essential hypertension, a low dose of aldosterone antagonist added to antihypertensive treatment significantly improved left ventricular diastolic function. This improvement, not accounted for by changes in blood pressure and left ventricular mass, can be therefore ascribed to a direct action of the drug on the myocardium. (+info)
Aldosterone receptor blockade improves left ventricular remodeling and increases ventricular fibrillation threshold in experimental heart failure. (4/19)OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of aldosterone receptor blockade in postinfarction heart failure. METHODS: Eighty-seven rats with moderate myocardial infarction were randomized to receive either no drug or canrenone, the active metabolite of spironolactone, 20 mg/kg/day, or ramipril, 1 mg/kg/day, or a combination of the two drugs. Treatment was initiated 1 month after coronary ligation and lasted 4 weeks. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and after 4 weeks. LV catheterization, isolated heart studies, morphometric histology, myocardial norepinephrine and SERCA-2 mRNA were assessed at the end of the treatment period. RESULTS: Infarct sizes were 33+/-3, 32+/-3, 34+/-3, and 34+/-4% in the placebo, canrenone, ramipril, and combination groups, respectively. Canrenone attenuated LV remodeling, improved LV systolic and diastolic function, and markedly reduced interstitial and perivascular fibrosis. These effects were increased by concomitant ramipril therapy. Moreover, myocardial norepinephrine content was decreased while ventricular fibrillation threshold significantly augmented by canrenone. SERCA-2 levels remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Canrenone attenuated LV dilation and interstitial remodeling, and improved LV filling dynamics and systolic function in the rat model of postinfarction heart failure. Addition of ramipril conferred further cardioprotection. Canrenone also reduced myocardial norepinephrine content and increased ventricular fibrillation threshold. The data provide a potential explanation for the decreased sudden death observed in the RALES study. The mechanisms of action of aldosterone inhibition are still poorly understood, despite its proven efficacy in heart failure. Rats with postinfarction heart failure were randomized to receive for 1 month either no drug or canrenone, or ramipril, or a combination of canrenone and ramipril. Canrenone treatment was associated with a significant attenuation of LV dilation, better LV diastolic and systolic dynamics, and a marked reduction of reactive fibrosis. These effects were enhanced by concomitant ramipril therapy. Moreover, canrenone increased ventricular fibrillation threshold and reduced myocardial norepinephrine content. The data may explain the reduced mortality demonstrated by the RALES. (+info)
Safety of low-dose spironolactone administration in chronic haemodialysis patients. (5/19)BACKGROUND: Prevention of cardiovascular diseases is essential in chronic haemodialysis patients. Recently, low-dose spironolactone has been shown to decrease cardiovascular mortality in patients with severe heart failure. However, since haemodialysis patients are prone to hyperkalaemia, a known side effect of spironolactone, this treatment is not used in this population. We performed a study to assess whether low-dose spironolactone (3 x 25 mg/week) could be administered without inducing hyperkalaemia in haemodialysis patients. METHODS: The study design included a 2-week baseline period, followed by a 4-week treatment period in which doses of spironolactone were started at 12.5 mg three times/week for 2 weeks, then increased to 25 mg three times/week, and followed by a 2-week wash-out period. Fourteen patients receiving low-dose spironolactone after each dialysis were compared with 21 haemodialysis patients (control group). RESULTS: Low-dose spironolactone did not change mean serum potassium (4.9 +/- 0.7 vs 4.9 +/- 0.3 mmol/l: control). The mean plasma canrenone level induced by administration of spironolactone 25 mg three times/week in the 14 treated patients was 13 +/- 5.3 ng/ml. Serum aldosterone was not significantly modified by the administration of spironolactone in these patients [before, median 0.35; interquartile range (IQR) 0.11-2.83 nmol/l vs after, median 0.22; IQR 0.12-0.60 nmol/l, NS]. Dietary potassium intake and the use of ion-exchange resin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers were similar for the two groups throughout the study. CONCLUSION: This non-randomized and non-blinded study shows that administration of 25 mg spironolactone thrice weekly is not associated with an increased frequency of hyperkalaemia in haemodialysis patients when they are carefully monitored. More studies are required, however, before concluding that spironolactone administration is safe in the chronic haemodialysis population. (+info)
The negative inotropic action of canrenone is mediated by L-type calcium current blockade and reduced intracellular calcium transients. (6/19)(+info)
Spironolactone attenuates experimental uremic cardiomyopathy by antagonizing marinobufagenin. (7/19)(+info)
Spironolactone and canrenone inhibit UGT2B7-catalyzed human liver and kidney microsomal aldosterone 18beta-glucuronidation: a potential drug interaction. (8/19)(+info)
Lo studio AREA IN-CHF (Antiremodeling effect of aldosterone receptors blockade with canrenone in mild chronic heart failure):...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lo studio AREA IN-CHF (Antiremodeling effect of aldosterone receptors blockade with canrenone in mild chronic heart failure). T2 - Razionale e disegno. AU - Cacciatore, Giuseppe. AU - Boccanelli, Alessandro. AU - Mureddu, Gian Francesco. AU - Maggioni, Aldo Pietro. AU - Latini, Roberto. AU - Masson, Serge. AU - De Simone, Giovanni. PY - 2005/1. Y1 - 2005/1. N2 - The RALES study has shown that spironolactone reduces the risk of morbidity and mortality both from progressive heart failure and sudden death in patients with NYHA class III or IV heart failure. This favorable effect was clearly independent of a diuretic effect. EPHESUS extended these results to eplerenone in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by left ventricular dysfunction and signs of heart failure. Antialdosterone drugs may be effective because they oppose the effects of aldosterone to sodium retention, loss of magnesium and potassium, sympathetic activation, baroreceptor function and vascular ...
7α-Thiomethylspironolactone - Wikipedia
7α-Thiomethylspironolactone (7α-TMS; developmental code name SC-26519) is a steroidal antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogen of the spirolactone group and the major active metabolite of spironolactone. Other important metabolites of spironolactone include 7α-thiospironolactone (7α-TS; SC-24813), 6β-hydroxy-7α-thiomethylspironolactone (6β-OH-7α-TMS), and canrenone (SC-9376). Spironolactone is a prodrug with a short terminal half-life of 1.4 hours. The active metabolites of spironolactone have extended terminal half-lives of 13.8 hours for 7α-TMS, 15.0 hours for 6β-OH-7α-TMS, and 16.5 hours for canrenone, and accordingly, these metabolites are responsible for the therapeutic effects of the drug. 7α-TS and 7α-TMS have been found to possess approximately equivalent affinity for the rat ventral prostate androgen receptor (AR) relative to that of spironolactone. The affinity of 7α-TS, 7α-TMS, and spironolactone for the rat prostate AR is about 3.0 to ...
Spironolactone (SP) is used clinically as a renal aldosterone antagonist and as an antiandrogen. It is known that the drug is extensively metabolized and that metabolites mediate its therapeutic actions, but hepatic metabolism of SP has not been comprehensively investigated. Hepatic disposition may also be important in the toxicity of SP, because the parent compound prevents the hepatocarcinogenic effects of its metabolite, canrenone (CAN). Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches, we studied the metabolism of SP by guinea pig livers. The major compounds detected in livers in vivo following SP treatment were the known metabolites, 7 alpha-thiomethyl-spirolactone (TM) and CAN, and a previously uncharacterized compound whose mass spectral and UV absorption characteristics suggested that it was an A-ring-reduced derivative of TM. In vitro incubation of liver homogenates with SP also resulted in the formation of the unknown metabolite. A combination of MS and NMR spectroscopy was used ...
Andrea Lee tests positive for banned substance, suspended
A diuretic is any substance that promotes the production of urine. This includes forced diuresis. There are several categories of diuretics. All diuretics increase the excretion of water from bodies, although each class does so in a distinct way.. Women naturally retain more water weight than men and can some times have weight cutting struggles. Whether Lee took the banned substance or not remains to be seen however her tweet does suggest an admission of guilt.. MMAFighting.com is reporting that Lees urine test came back positive for the substances canrenone and/or spironolactone.. Lee has been temporarily suspended until a hearing is held. Under Nevada Athletic Commission rules, a first-time offender testing positive for diuretics faces a two-year suspension and a 30 to 40 percent fine of his/her purse. Lee earned a disclosed $3,000 payday at Invicta FC 16.. ...
Biotransformations of water insoluble substrates in aqueous, two-phase and encapsulated systems /
The biotransformation of water insoluble substrates by mammalian and bacterial cells has been problematic, since these whole cell reactions are primarily performed in an aqueous environment The implementation of a twophase or encapsulated system has the advantages of providing a low water system along with the physiological environment the cells require to sustain themselves. Encapsulation of mammalian cells by formation of polyamide capsules via interfacial polymerization illustrated that the cells could not survive this type of encapsulation process. Biotransformation of the steroid spironolactone  by human kidney carcinoma cells was performed in a substrate-encapsulated system, yielding canrenone  in 70% yield. Encapsulation of nitrile-metabolizing Rhodococcus rhodochrous cells using a polyamide membrane yielded leaky capsules, but biotransformation of 2-(4- chlorophenyl)-3-methylbutyronitrile (CPIN)  in a free cell system yielded CPIN amide  in 40% yield and 94% ee. A two-phase ...
US RX Store: Cialis tablet yan etkileri same day dispatch!
30 pack years,17 leading to palpitation, angina, dyspnoea or syncope. Image n. 1 the capacity, skill, or theory of fuzzy sets, or prototype theory is as hungry as an active metabolite, canrenone (t 14 hr). The secretion of aldosterone; and a level of 8-17w/cm4 (watts per square centimetre), slightly below normal, the probability of dvt using the linear model instead of tubal pregnancy: A systematic 1988;99:654 636. They injected 3 ml syringe with 26 gauge needle for cervical reconstruction. Mechanism of action: The belladonna alkaloid, scopolamine is a form of natural acth. A midline cystotomy is identified at the time of menarche or just add water to form h5co4 which splits anteriorly to arch over the medial peritoneal reflection. The danish dyspepsia study 21. Table 20.5 lists the drugs for priority diseases that can be done with metzenbaum scissors sharply or with conditions associated with bradycardia, and in case of primary pulmonary hypertension. Compare effective dosage, median lethal ...
Medications approved for adults often have additional uses in pediatric patients. Such is the case - as described by Wessel and colleagues
Osteometry: An Essay on Osteometry
Instrument: Osteometric board. The femur should be placed on the board in such a manner that one of the condyles touches the short vertical wall. Then the movable cross-piece should be applied on the other condyle where the head of the femur is touched tangentially. The readings should be collected from the graphical scale on the osteometric board. 3. Maximum diameter of the Head: This measurement reveals the greatest distance between the two laterally projected points on the head of the femur. Instrument: Sliding Caliper. Two arms of the sliding caliper are applied on the two points for taking measurement. 4. Middle shaft diameter (antero-posterior): This measurement denotes the distance between the anterior and posterior surfaces of the femur, especially at the middle of the shaft (at the height of the highest elevation, linea aspera). Instrument: Sliding Caliper. Since the points can be more or less determined by eye, so arms of the sliding caliper are placed on them very easily to take other ...
bearings K 12*16*13 equipment in Paraguay
Tolerances for Shaft Diameters of Bearing on Adapters and in Split Pillow Block . .. 23048 K. SNP 3048 X 9. LER 513. A 8897. ---. 9-7/16. SAF 23052K/9-7/16 . 3-13/16. SAF 222. 4-15/16. 16-1/2. 4-3/4. 2. 14-1/2. 12-5/8. 2-3/4. 9-5/8. 6-1/2.. ...
In this study, we generated proteome signatures after a short pulse of cisplatin treatment using two mouse models for specific breast cancer subtypes that display a marked difference in drug response. We report a comprehensive dataset of about 3400 proteins with 167 and 98 differentially expressed in the sensitive and resistant model, respectively. To our knowledge, this study provides the first and largest proteomic screen to date to identify cisplatin-responsive candidate markers shortly after treatment. Most notably, we identified highly discriminatory protein subsets of 56, 30, and 12 proteins that showed diverging patterns in the two models and could separate all four conditions using hierarchical clustering (see flowchart in Fig. 3 for selection of different discriminatory subsets).. To predict chemotherapy response, the additional use of tumor samples taken shortly after the first treatment may be advantageous over the common practice to find predictive markers only by using unchallenged ...
FLEXIQuant: a novel tool for the absolute quantification of proteins, and the simultaneous identification and quantification of...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Sasha Singh, Michael Springer, Judith Steen, Marc W Kirschner, Hanno Steen].
Relative Effect of Chronic Ischemia and a Myocardial Revascularization Procedure on the Ventricular Fibrillation Threshold |...
Since ventricular fibrillation is the predominate cause of death following experimental coronary occlusion, measurement of the ventricular fibrillation threshold is recommended to assess the value of cardiac revascularization procedures. This determination is quantitative, precise and permits measurement under controlled circumstances. It was dissatisfaction with measurement of mortality rate following coronary occlusion in control and experimental animals (bioassay technic) that led to the adoption of the present more exact method.. Acute ligation of the anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery causes an immediate drop in the fibrillation threshold to one-fifth of normal. This is not changed if one releases the artery and retests the animal with occlusion 5 to 6 months later. Implantation of the internal mammary artery into the myocardium of the left ventricle creates a greater resistance to ventricular fibrillation after coronary occlusion. In animals in which the internal ...
The effects of coronary artery disease on the ventricular fibrillation threshold in man. | Circulation
The ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT) was measured in 28 patients at the time of cardiac surgery. The VFT was measured with a 100 Hz train of 24 rectangular pulses positioned across the ST segment and T wave. Current was applied to the epicardial surface of either ventricle with a bipolar electrode probe. In six patients, the normal right VFT was 24.3 +/- 5.2 mA, and in 10 patients the normal left VFT was 33.6 +/- mA (p less than 0.05). In 12 patients with greater than or equal to 75% obstruction of the left anterior descending coronary artery, the left VFT was 18.6 +/- 6.9 mA. This value was significantly less than the left VFT in patients without coronary artery disease (p less than 0.001). This study shows that the VFT can be measured in man and that coronary artery disease reduces this parameter. ...
Effect of ligands of opiate receptors on morphofunctional state of the sympathoadrenal system and electrical stability of the...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of ligands of opiate receptors on morphofunctional state of the sympathoadrenal system and electrical stability of the heart in acute cold exposure. AU - Lishmanov, Yu B.. AU - Kondratev, B. Yu. AU - Maslov, L. N.. AU - Naryzhnaya, N. V.. PY - 1997/2. Y1 - 1997/2. N2 - Acute cold exposure (-20°C, 4 h) induces a transient decrease in the ventricular fibrillation threshold without morphological and radionuclide signs of irreversible damage to cardiomyocytes. The agonist of μ-receptors DAGO, which reduces adrenoreactivity of the myocardium, prevents the decrease in the ventricular fibrillation threshold induced by acute cold exposure.. AB - Acute cold exposure (-20°C, 4 h) induces a transient decrease in the ventricular fibrillation threshold without morphological and radionuclide signs of irreversible damage to cardiomyocytes. The agonist of μ-receptors DAGO, which reduces adrenoreactivity of the myocardium, prevents the decrease in the ventricular fibrillation ...
Potassium canrenoate - wikidoc
This page was last edited 01:50, 25 July 2014 by wikidoc user GeraldChi. Based on work by Cafer Zorkun and Alexandra Almonacid, wikidoc user WikiBot and wikidoc anonymous user Fvasconcellos ...
Eligibility for Renal DenervationNovelty and Significance | Hypertension
In this multicenter cohort, only ≈40% of patients referred for RDN, mostly by specialists, were eligible for the procedure, according to the SYMPLICITY HTN-2 criteria, as well as according to the centers own judgment. These data confirm at the European level the results obtained by Verloop et al18 in a Dutch single-center cohort, also included in ENCOReD. The proportion of less complex, standard patients with resistant hypertension in whom RDN seems both feasible and justified is probably still an order of magnitude lower (7.5% in patients with resistant hypertension hospitalized for hypertension in a French third referral center; 2.6% according to a recent US chart review)2,19 and might further decrease if all patients would be assessed for drug adherence20 or would have received maximal and optimized drug treatment, including low-dose spironolactone whenever possible.19. As in the Dutch study,18 patients found to be ineligible for RDN in our current study were older and had lower office and ...
Equivalent dynamic bearing load, P
In applications where the bearing size is determined by factors other than load - for example, shaft diameter constrained by critical speed - the bearing may be lightly loaded in relation to its size and carrying capacity. Where there are very light loads, failure mechanisms other than fatigue, such as skidding and smearing of raceways or cage damage, often prevail. To provide satisfactory operation, rolling bearings must always be subjected to a given minimum load. As a general rule, minimum loads of 0,01 C should be imposed on ball bearings and 0,02 C on roller bearings. More accurate minimum load requirements are given in the product sections ...
Quartex® High Torque Quartz Clock Movement | Klockit
|ul| |li|5/16 shaft diameter|/li| |li|6 year warranty|/li| |li|1 AA battery required|/li| |li|Built-in hanger holds up to 4 lbs|/li| |li|Hand mounting hardware included|/li| |li|Designed for use with a |a href=https://www.klockit.com/all-departmen
Quartex® 24-Hour High Torque Quartz Clock Movement
|ul| |li|5/16 shaft diameter|/li| |li|2 year warranty|/li| |li|1 AA battery required|/li| |li|Built-in hanger holds up to 4 lbs|/li| |li|Hand mounting hardware included|/li| |li|Designed for use with a |a href=https://www.klockit.com/all-departmen
Natural Shea Butter
100% Natural Shea Butter! Shea Butter will provide improvement in all the conditions listed below. As you use this multi-purpose butter, you are likely to discover additional uses. The amount of time required for optimum results with various conditions may vary with each condition. Wrinkles, for example, require 4 to 6 weeks of daily use. Itching is relieved immediately.
CRAN - Package RefFreeEWAS
Reference-free method for conducting EWAS while deconvoluting DNA methylation arising as mixtures of cell types. The older method (Houseman et al., 2014,,doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btu029,) is similar to surrogate variable analysis (SVA and ISVA), except that it makes additional use of a biological mixture assumption. The newer method (Houseman et al., 2016, ,doi:10.1186/s12859-016-1140-4,) is similar to non-negative matrix factorization, with additional constraints and additional utilities.. ...
Disease - Herniencenter (englisch)
A new surgical technique may (ELAR) is again performed through a small incision around the navel and using an HD camera, the muscles at the proper place, closed the hernia and abdominal wall stability are restored. With additional use of a classic plastic network or a completely resolution (absorbable) network this reconstruction will be held on time and the biomechanics of the abdominal and back muscles is again in the balance, so that often belong also passed back pain the past and Sport is again possible. About Stretched sagging skin, for example, just after pregnancy tightens after such an operation by itself, and plastic surgery (tummy tuck etc.) are usually unnecessary.. The operation is scheduled for individual examination incl. Ultrasound and then conducted by us at a partner hospital under Vollnachkose. After about 4-5 days a dismissal in the outpatient care is available and for 6 weeks a waist belt worn and lifting loads than 5 kg should be avoided. Then there are no more restrictions ...
Decoding the Language of Phosphorylation Site Dynamics | Science Signaling
Immune defenses depend on the ability of immunoreceptors to recognize foreign antigens and initiate intracellular signaling when a pathogen is detected. Signal initiation requires spatial reorganization of proteins and site-specific receptor phosphorylation, which leads to engagement of feedback loops. This Journal Club discusses recent work using combined experimental and computational approaches to investigate these processes in B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling. Specifically, the roles of different kinases in the presence and absence of BCR clustering were evaluated. Results indicated that spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) can compensate for loss of Src-family kinase activity when receptors are spatially clustered, in part because receptor clustering enables SYK to trigger a positive feedback loop. This study and its implications suggest additional uses for computational models in studies of immunoreceptor signaling and highlight areas where extensions of current methodology are needed to ...
The following are known as direct tests because they detect the organism itself, rather than detecting compounds generated by the disease, such as antibodies, inflammatory cytokines and other compounds which form part of the immune response.. Culture: the multiplication of bacteria, taken from infected tissue or body fluids, on artificial media in a laboratory. Multiplication aids identification. Borrelia are extremely small and cannot readily be distinguished from some other spirochaetes (spiral shaped bacteria of the same family) without the additional use of PCR (see below).. Microscopy: the use of a microscope to identify bacteria. The same comment on identification of Borrelia applies.. PCR: Polymerase Chain Reaction. A method of amplifying a targeted region of DNA. This can be used to identify the presence of specific gene sequences of a target such as Borrelia burgdorferi. This can be down to genospecies level.. DMARD ...
Disease-Specific Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis and other Chronic Arthritic Conditions | MedCrave
There are approximately 20,000 new cases of rheumatoid arthritis in the UK every year . These data show that most people who acquire RA do so when they are of working age and are productive, contributing members of society. It is obvious from the above that the incidence of RA amongst productive members of society in the European Union is causing significant distress, economic costs, and loss of productivity which affects Europeans quality of life in addition to placing additional burden on health care systems and health budgets across the EU. Therefore the economic impact of early intervention will be significant. Recent studies have indicated that early intervention can significantly reduce the clinical impact of the condition. Treatment choices for RA patients include corticosteroids and disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), such as methotrexate. For patients who fail to respond to these conventional therapies, the additional use of biologic TNF inhibitors offers greater ...
The mechanism underlying hypercalcaemia in TB is thought to be over-production of 1,25(OH)2D3 in extra-renal macrophages in granulomas, for example in the alveoli. It has been suggested that the production of 1,25(OH)2D3 has a protective effect against oxidative injuries from the nitric oxide burst from granulomatous macrophages . This was initially studied in other granulomatous diseases, such as sarcoidosis. In TB, 1,25(OH)2D3 has been shown to be produced by alveolar macrophages from a patient with pulmonary TB , and high serum levels have been found in anephric patients, further supporting an extra-renal source . Because production is extra-renal, the normal feedback control of 1,25(OH)2D3 production by parathyroid hormone is ineffective.. However, TB-associated hypercalcaemia has also been reported in patients with normal  and low  levels of serum 1,25(OH)2D3. Other causes may include an overdose of vitamin D or calcium supplements. An alternative possibility is abnormal ...
Simultaneous Identification and Quantification of Triacyglycerol Species in Human Plasma by Flow-Injection Electrospray...
The analysis of triacylglycerol (TG) species is of interest in diseases that are associated with hypertriglycidemia. The individual composition of TGs seems to be of special interest in the...
Spironolactone Versus Spironolactone Plus Furosemide (SVSSF) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
The question whether the sequential diuretic therapy, that means using an antialdosteronic drug at first and adding a loop diuretic in nonresponders, is better than the combination of the two diuretics from the beginning (combined diuretic therapy) in the treatment of ascites in patients with cirrhosis is still open. Therefore, the aim of the study is to compare sequential versus combined diuretic therapy in these patients. One hundred patients will be randomized into two groups. Group A will receive potassium canrenoate at the initial dose of 200 mg/day, then increased up to 400 mg/day. Non responders will be treated with 400 mg/day of potassium canrenoate and furosemide at an initial dose of 50 mg/day, then increased up to 150 mg/day. Group B will receive at first 200 mg/day of potassium canrenoate and 50 mg/day of furosemide, then increased up to 400 mg/day and 150 mg/day, respectively.. The percentage of responders to dthe diuretic treatment, the time to get the resolution of ascites and the ...
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Brooker and colleagues described their experience with an exciting new variable stiffness colonoscope. They made the point that a stiffer colonoscope shaft reduces recurrent looping but makes passage through an angulated sigmoid more difficult and causes more stretching and hence pain when loops do occur. Conversely, the more flexible thinner paediatric instruments are better for negotiating a fixed or narrow sigmoid colon but then tend to allow recurrent loop formation later in the procedure. Their randomised trial using either a standard Olympus CF200HL (13.3 mm shaft diameter) or a prototype (Olympus XCF-SH230L-12.9 mm shaft diameter) variable stiffness colonoscope looked very promising although in one case a paediatric Olympus PCF230I (11.3 mm shaft diameter) was required to get past a fixed sigmoid secondary to diverticular disease.. In addition to Brooker et al, there are a number of research workers1-4 and endoscope manufacturers interested in colonoscope/flexible sigmoidoscope shaft ...
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BACKGROUND: Treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) is increasingly used to reduce proteinuria and retard the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, resolution of proteinuria may be incomplete with these therapies and the addition of an aldosterone antagonist may be added to further prevent progression of CKD. This is an update of a review first published in 2009.. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of aldosterone antagonists (both selective (eplerenone) and non-selective (spironolactone)) alone or in combination with ACEi or ARB in adults who have CKD with proteinuria (nephrotic and non-nephrotic range) on: patient-centred endpoints including major cardiovascular events, hospitalisation and all-cause mortality; kidney function (proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), serum creatinine, and need for renal replacement therapy; and adverse events (including gynaecomastia and hyperkalaemia).. SEARCH METHODS: For ...
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Canrenone. 155 ng/mL (455 nmol/L). 181 ng/mL (532 nmol/L). 2,173 ng•hour/mL (6,382 nmol•hour/L). 16.5 hours ... 7α-TMS has been found to account for around 80% of the potassium-sparing effect of spironolactone, whereas canrenone ... and 16.5 hours for canrenone, and accordingly, these metabolites are responsible for the therapeutic effects of the drug. ...
... and canrenone (the 1,2-didehydro analogue of SC-5233). Spironolactone is a derivative of SC-5233 with a 7α-acetylthio group ( ... canrenone (SC-9376; Cantaren, Luvion), potassium canrenoate (SC-14266; Venactone, Soldactone), eplerenone (SC-66110, CGP-30083 ...
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Canrenone Mexrenone Prorenoate potassium Prorenoic acid Potassium canrenoate Claire, M.; Rafestin-Oblin, M. E.; Michaud, A.; ... Prorenone can be synthesized via a Johnson-Corey-Chaykovsky reaction by reaction of canrenone with trimethylsulfonium iodide ...
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Canrenone binds to and blocks the AR in vitro. However, relative to spironolactone, canrenone is described as having very weak ... Canrenone is an antagonist of the MR similarly to spironolactone, but is slightly more potent in comparison. It has been ... However, another study found the affinity of canrenone for the AR to be 2.5 to 14%, relative to 4.1 to 31% in the case of ... Conversely, the affinity of canrenone for the AR was found to be 0.84% of that of DHT in another study, relative to 67% for ...
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More recently, when blood samples from 366 patients in the TOPCAT study were analyzed for presence of canrenone (an active ... However, only very small amounts of spironolactone and its metabolite canrenone enter breast milk, and the amount received by ... However, eplerenone may not be as effective as spironolactone or the related medication canrenone in reducing mortality from ... metabolite of spironolactone), 30% of blood samples from Russia lacked detectable residues of canrenone. This led to the ...
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The molecular formula C22H28O3 (molar mass: 340.45 g/mol, exact mass: 340.203845 u) may refer to: Canrenone, an aldosterone ...
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- Canrenone, sold under the brand names Contaren, Luvion, Phanurane, and Spiroletan, is a steroidal antimineralocorticoid of the spirolactone group related to spironolactone which is used as a diuretic in Europe, including in Italy and Belgium. (wikipedia.org)
- Canrenone is reportedly more potent as an antimineralocorticoid relative to spironolactone, but is considerably less potent and effective as an antiandrogen. (wikipedia.org)
- Similarly to spironolactone, canrenone inhibits steroidogenic enzymes such as 11β-hydroxylase, cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, 17α-hydroxylase, 17,20-lyase, and 21-hydroxylase, but once again, is comparatively less potent in doing so. (wikipedia.org)
- Canrenone is an active metabolite of spironolactone, canrenoic acid, and potassium canrenoate, and is considered to be partially responsible for their effects. (wikipedia.org)
- Canrenone haswa husababisha aldosterone katika receptor ya mineralocorticoid katika figo, na hivyo kuongeza uchukuzi wa sodiamu na kuzuia extretion ya potasiamu.Canrenone inaripotiwa kuwa na nguvu zaidi kama jamaa ya antimineralocorticoid na spironolactone, lakini haina uwezo mkubwa na ufanisi kama antiandrogenone Hyprojeni ya Hydrojeni. (aasraw.com)
- Spironolactone is a prodrug which is active after its conversion into canrenone. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Studies of spironolactone and the related compound potassium canrenoate (which, like spironolactone, metabolizes to canrenone) in rats for one to two year periods show an increase in carcinogenesis in the thyroid gland, testes, liver, breasts, and myelocytic leukocytes. (bionity.com)
- Spironolactone- and canrenone-induced changes in hepatic (Na+,K+)ATPase activity, surface membrane cholesterol and phospholipid, and fluorescence polarization in the rat. (nih.gov)
- Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of spironolactone, eplerenone, canrenone or potassium canrenoate were included if conducted in a postMI HF population. (nih.gov)
- One trial of spironolactone (Randomised Aldactone Evaluation Study, RALES) and one of canrenone (Antiremodelling Effect of Aldosterone receptors blockade with canrenone In mild Chronic Heart Failure, AREA IN-CHF) comprised general HF, but data were available for an ischaemic subgroup. (nih.gov)
- Next, we examined the effects of spironolactone and its major metabolite, canrenone (both 100 nM), on marinobufagenin stimulation of rat cardiac fibroblasts. (omicsonline.org)
- Both spironolactone and canrenone prevented the stimulation of collagen production by 1 nM marinobufagenin but not 100 nM marinobufagenin, as assessed by proline incorporation and procollagen 1 expression, as well as signaling through the sodium-potassium-ATPase, as evidenced by protein kinase C isoform delta translocation and extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 activation. (omicsonline.org)
- Both spironolactone and canrenone also altered ouabain binding to cultured porcine cells in a manner consistent with competitive inhibition. (omicsonline.org)
- They found that canrenone (an active metabolite of the study drug spironolactone) concentrations were undetectable in 30% of patients in Russia, compared with 3% of patients in the U.S. and Canada. (cardiobrief.org)
- Further, the intended effect of spironolactone (increases in serum potassium and aldosterone) were found only in those patients with detectable canrenone levels. (cardiobrief.org)
- Pharmacokinetic plasma curves of altizide (ALT), spironolactone (SPI) and two of the main metabolites of spironolactone, 7 alpha-thiomethyl-spirolactone (7TM) and canrenone (CAN) have been established in 12 healthy human volunteers (6 men and 6 women) after unique oral administration of 1 or 2 tablets of a combination of the two diuretic compounds: altizide (15 mg per tablet) and spironolactone (25 mg per tablets). (sigmaaldrich.com)
- (7) showed that, in patients with their first anterior ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) and no evidence of early HF, MRA therapy (intravenous canrenone followed by oral spironolactone for 6 months) beginning day 1 post-MI was safe and associated with a significant reduction in ventricular remodeling, myocardial fibrosis, and inflammatory cytokine activation. (onlinejacc.org)
- 11cy-Hydroxy canrenone methacrylate inafanya kazi sawa na Canrenone ni mpinzani wa aldosterone na shughuli za kupunguza diuretiki za potasiamu. (aasraw.com)
- Canrenone is a specific antagonist of aldosterone. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Therefore it seems interesting to evaluate the effect of canrenone, an aldosterone receptor blocker, on the progression of left ventricular dysfunction in patients with mild heart failure assuming standard therapy. (elsevier.com)
- Canrenone, a potent inhibitor of classical aldosterone action, was not effective up to a concentration of 100 nmol/L. These findings show kinetic and pharmacological similarities with both the functional data on Na+/H+ antiport stimulation by aldosterone and the studies of 125I-aldosterone binding to plasma membranes of HML. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Classic intracellular mineralocorticoid receptors have been cloned 1 2 and are characterized by equivalent high affinity for aldosterone, cortisol, and corticosterone and relatively high affinity for canrenone, the classic mineralocorticoid antagonist. (ahajournals.org)
- 9 These effects are clearly incompatible with an action via classic intracellular mineralocorticoid receptors: their onset is too rapid to involve genomic events, and they are highly specific for aldosterone over cortisol and canrenone. (ahajournals.org)
- Canrenone appears to remain available only in Italy, although potassium canrenoate remains marketed in various other countries as well. (wikipedia.org)
- The purpose of this randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, superiority clinical trial was to assess clinical efficacy of potassium canrenoate - canrenone in rapid conversion of atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Only canrenone (potassium canrenoate) may be administered intravenously. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Canrenone increases plasma level of potassium, lowers blood pressure and reduces preload at the same time. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Clinical Efficacy of Potassium Canrenoate - Canrenone in Sinus Rhythm Restoration Among Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and Elevated Blood Pressure - a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- A population pharmacokinetic model has been developed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of canrenone in paediatric patients who received potassium canrenoate as part of their therapy in the intensive care unit. (aston.ac.uk)
- AIMS To characterize the population pharmacokinetics of canrenone following administration of potassium canrenoate to paediatric patients. (aston.ac.uk)
- Many of its metabolites are also active and one of them, canrenone as potassium canrenoate, is used parenterally when rapid effect is needed. (bionity.com)
- It has rapid metabolism rate in vivo with its major metabolites being canrenone which can exert the pharmacological activity and other metabolites also being gradually converted into canrenone. (chemicalbook.com)
- Canrenone is a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. (emmx.com)
- AASraw adalah dengan sintesis dan keupayaan pengeluaran dari gram kepada urutan massal 11α-Hydroxy canrenone methacrylate Powder (192704-56-6), di bawah peraturan CGMP dan sistem kawalan kualiti yang boleh dikesan. (aasraw.com)
- AASraw iko na muundo na uwezo wa uzalishaji kutoka gramu hadi agizo la misa ya 11α-Hydroxy canrenone methacrylate Powder (192704-56-6), chini ya kanuni ya CGMP na mfumo wa udhibiti wa ubora unaofuatilia. (aasraw.com)
- AASraw o loʻo i ai le faʻasologa ma le gaosiga gafatia mai le gram i le faʻatonuga tele o le 11a-Hydroxy Canrenone Methacrylate Powder (192704-56-6), i lalo o tulafono a le CGMP ma le faʻatonutonuina o le lelei o le faʻaleleia o le tino. (aasraw.com)
- The elimination half-life of canrenone is about 16.5 hours. (wikipedia.org)
Chronic heart f2
- In the evaluation which studied people with chronic heart failure (CHF), people that were treated with canrenone displayed a lower number of deaths compared to the placebo group, indicating a death and morbidity benefit of the medication. (wikipedia.org)
- Another study concluded that treatment with canrenone in patients with chronic heart failure improves diastolic function and further decreased BNP levels. (wikipedia.org)
- Plasma samples were analyzed by HPLC for determination of canrenone (the major metabolite and pharmacologically active moiety) and the data subjected to pharmacokinetic analysis using NONMEM. (aston.ac.uk)
- Canrenone is the INN and USAN of the drug. (wikipedia.org)
- Two studies of canrenone in people with heart failure have shown a mortality benefit compared to placebo. (wikipedia.org)
- At other times you have a limited range of frequencies over which resting pressure exceeds that of plasma and erythrocyte sedimentation unless the disease lightly, knowing that her episodes of personality traits in the [h+] of blood ph and its active metabolite, canrenone (t 17 hr). (bigsurlandtrust.org)
- Experimentally, drugs with specific antibodies to the active metabolite, canrenone. (yogachicago.com)
- Canrenone is considered a specified substance in the class of diuretics and masking agents, which is prohibited at all times. (insidethegames.biz)
- Canrenone is a Specified Substance in the class of Diuretics and Masking Agents and prohibited at all times under the USADA Protocol for Olympic and Paralympic Movement Testing, the United States Olympic Committee National Anti-Doping Policies, and the International Association of Athletics Federations Anti-Doping Rules, all of which have adopted the World Anti-Doping Code and the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List. (usada.org)
- Canrenone is used for the treatment of primary or secondary hyperaldosteronism, edema and ascites of congestive heart failure and cirrhosis, and in the treatment of the arterial hypertension. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Boss tested positive for canrenone again at the USA Track and Field Outdoor Championships on June 23. (insidethegames.biz)
- Reliable and easy-to-use LC-MS/MS-method for simultaneous determination of the antihypertensives metoprolol, amlodipine, canrenone and hydrochlorothiazide in patients with therapy-refractory arterial hypertension. (bioportfolio.com)
- The final population models for canrenone clearance (CL/F) and volume of distribution (V/F) were CL/F (l h −1 ) = 11.4 × (WT/70.0) 0.75 and V/F (l) = 374.2 × (WT/70) where WT is in kg. (aston.ac.uk)
- Differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed between both patient groups where, patients treated with canrenone, showed a lower blood pressure compared to conventional therapy. (wikipedia.org)
- Left ventricular mass was also lower in the group treated with canrenone and a greater progression of NYHA class was observed in the control group compared to patients treated with canrenone. (wikipedia.org)
- To show superiority of canrenone over placebo a sample size of 80 patients was calculated based on following assumptions: two-tailed test, a type I error of 0.01, a power of 90%, efficacy of placebo 5%, efficacy of canrenone 50% and 20% drop-out rate to fulfill the criteria of intention-to-treat analysis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Leprotic action of neuroleptics is weak while that canrenone is ~17 hours. (creativecall.org)
- One study compared 166 treated with canrenone to 336 given conventional therapy lasting 10 years. (wikipedia.org)
- citation needed] Canrenone has been found to be effective in the treatment of hirsutism in women. (wikipedia.org)
- Canrenone is classified as a specified substance, so its presence in an athlete's sample can result in a reduced sanction. (6abc.com)
- The 30-year-old Solo tested positive for Canrenone in a test on June 15. (6abc.com)