A synthetic pregnadiene derivative with anti-aldosterone activity.

Genotoxicity testing of potassium canrenoate in cultured rat and human cells. (1/29)

Potassium canrenoate (PC), a competitive aldosterone antagonist used as a diuretic and in the treatment of hypertension, was examined for its capacity to produce genotoxic effects in cultured rat and human cells. At subtoxic concentrations (10-90 microM) PC was found to induce a dose-dependent degree of DNA fragmentation, as detected by the Comet assay, and of DNA repair synthesis, as measured by quantitative autoradiography, in primary cultures of hepatocytes from rat and human donors of both genders. In rat hepatocytes both DNA fragmentation and DNA repair were more marked after 3 h than after 20 h exposure and in cultures from females than from males. In human hepatocytes from one male and two female donors, PC caused a similar effect in terms of DNA fragmentation, whereas DNA repair was detected in cultures from only two of the same three donors and was less marked than in rat hepatocytes. A modest but statistically significant increase in micronucleated cells was present in primary cultures of replicating rat hepatocytes exposed to 10 or 30 microM PC for 48 h, the response being, in this case also, more evident in females than in males. In contrast, PC did not induce micronucleus formation in human hepatocytes from two female donors. Any evidence of DNA fragmentation and micronucleus formation was absent in cultured human lymphocytes. Taken as a whole these findings support the hypothesis that hepatocytes activate PC to DNA-damaging reactive species. PC induced the observed genotoxic effects at concentrations close to those produced in humans by the administration of therapeutic doses, but these effects were as a whole more marked in rat than in human hepatocytes. Since PC shares the 17-hydroxy-3-oxopregna-4,6-diene structure with cyproterone acetate, chlormadinone acetate and megestrol acetate, previously found to be genotoxic to both rat and human hepatocytes, the potential carcinogenic hazard of this type of steroids cannot be neglected.  (+info)

Intralymphocyte free magnesium in patients with primary aldosteronism: aldosterone and lymphocyte magnesium homeostasis. (2/29)

It is known that hyperaldosteronism has been associated with magnesium deficiency, yet there are no data on the intracellular concentration of ionized magnesium ([Mg(2+)(i)]) in subjects with primary aldosteronism (PA). We measured intralymphocyte free magnesium ([Mg(2+)(i)]) and intralymphocyte free calcium ([Ca(2+)(i)]) in 16 patients with PA and 26 normotensive control subjects (NCs). [Mg(2+)(i)] and [Ca(2+)(i)] were also measured in blood lymphocytes incubated in vitro with aldosterone, according to a fluorimetric method. In subjects with PA, [Mg(2+)(i)] was significantly lower than that in NCs (mean+/-SD; PA 203+/-56 micromol/L, NCs 291+/-43 micromol/L, 95% confidence interval 57 to 119, P=0.001). In the patients, [Ca(2+)(i)] did not prove to be statistically different from that of NCs (mean+/-SD; PA 47.2+/-10.6 nmol/L, NCs 53.2+/-11 nmol/L). The lymphocytes exposed to the action of aldosterone showed a significant reduction in [Mg(2+)(i)] (n=15, NCs 271+/-28 micromol/L, aldosterone treatment 188+/-39 micromol/L, P=0.001, 95% confidence interval 57 to 108). The dose-effect curve of aldosterone on [Mg(2+)(i)] showed an EC(50) value of approximately 0.5 to 1 nmol/L aldosterone. The reduction in [Mg(2+)(i)] mediated by aldosterone is antagonized by the receptor inhibitor of aldosterone; it is inhibited by inhibitors of protein synthesis and is not measurable when the lymphocytes are incubated in an Na(+)-free medium. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that aldosterone affects the cellular homeostasis of magnesium, probably through modification of the activity of the Na(+)-Mg(2+) antiporter.  (+info)

Decreased vasopressin-mediated renal water reabsorption in rats with chronic aldosterone-receptor blockade. (3/29)

Previous studies have suggested that mineralocorticoids are needed for a normal action of vasopressin on collecting duct osmotic water permeability. However, the mechanisms behind this are unknown. To investigate if aldosterone-receptor blockade influences vasopressin type 2 receptor (V(2))-mediated renal water reabsorption and the renal expression of the vasopressin-regulated water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2), rats were treated with the aldosterone-receptor antagonist canrenoate (20 mg/day iv) for 4 wk. Daily urine flow was increased significantly by 44%, and urine osmolality was decreased by 27% in canrenoate-treated rats. Acute V(2)-receptor blockade (OPC-31260, 800 microgram. kg(-1). h(-1)) was performed under conditions in which volume depletion was prevented. In control rats, OPC-31260 induced a significant increase in urine flow rate (V, +25%) and free water clearance (C(H(2)O), -29%). In canrenoate-treated rats, the effect of OPC-31260 was significantly reduced, and semiquantiative immunoblotting demonstrated a significant reduction (45%) in AQP2 expression. Because rats with common bile duct ligation (CBL) have a reduced vasopressin-mediated water reabsorption compared with normal rats (V: -24%; C(H(2)O): -28%, and 86% downregulation of AQP2), the effect of canrenoate combined with OPC-31260 was tested. Canrenoate treatment of CBL rats significantly increased daily urine flow, decreased urine osmolality, and impaired the aquaretic response to OPC-31260 (V: -23%; C(H(2)O): -31%) with maintained suppression of the renal AQP2 expression. Thus canrenoate treatment of normal and CBL rats showed 1) increased urine production, 2) reduced aquaretic effect of acute V(2)-receptor blockade, and 3) a marked reduction in AQP2 expression. This strongly supports the view that aldosterone plays a significant role for vasopressin-mediated water reabsorption.  (+info)

Collecting duct is a site of sodium retention in PAN nephrosis: a rationale for amiloride therapy. (4/29)

Micropuncture studies of the distal nephron and measurements of Na,K-ATPase activity in microdissected collecting tubules have suggested that renal retention of sodium in puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) nephrotic rats originates in the collecting duct. The present study demonstrated this hypothesis by in vitro microperfusion and showed that amiloride was able to restore sodium balance. Indeed, isolated perfused cortical collecting ducts from PAN-treated rats exhibited an abnormally high transepithelial sodium reabsorption that was abolished by amiloride, and in vivo administration of amiloride fully prevented decreased urinary sodium excretion and positive sodium balance in nephrotic rats. As expected from the aldosterone independence of Na(+) retention in PAN nephrotic rats, blockade of aldosterone receptor by potassium canrenoate did not alter urinary Na(+) excretion, Na(+) balance, or ascites formation in PAN nephrotic rats.  (+info)

Assay and properties of 18-hydroxylation of endogenous and exogenous corticosterone in rat adrenals. Evidence for heterogeneity of 18-hydroxylase activity. (5/29)

A mass fragmentographic technique for assay of 18-hydroxylation of labeled (exogenous) and unlabeled (endogenous) corticosterone in adrenal mitochondria and in reconstituted cytochrome P-450 systems has been developed. An extract of an incubation of [14-14C]corticosterone is subjected both to thin-layer radiochromatography and to mass fragmentography (as O-methyloxime-trimethylsilyl ether derivative). In the latter procedure the ions at m/e 605 and 607 (specific for the derivatives of unlabeled and labeled 18-hydroxycorticosterone, respectively), at m/e 591 and 593 (specific for the derivatives of unlabeled labeled aldosterone, respectively) and at m/e 548 and 550 (specific for the derivatives of unlabeled and labeled corticosterone, respectively) were followed through the gas-liquid chromatography. From the ratio between the peaks obtained in the mass fragmentography and from the percentage conversion of [4-14C]corticosterone obtained in the thin-layer radiochromatography, the amount of endogenous and exogenous 18-hydroxycorticosterone and aldosterone could be calculated. The effects of time, enzyme, and substrate concentration of 18-hydroxylation were studied and optimal conditions for assay were determined. Under most conditions, the ratio between labeled and unlabeled 18-hydroxylated products was about constant, indicating that labeled and unlabeled corticosterone were not in equilibrium. It was ascertained that the 18-hydroxycorticosterone and aldosterone formed in the incubations were derived from corticosterone. [4-14C]18-Hydroxydeoxycorticosterone was not converted into aldosterone or 18-hydroxycorticosterone. In vitro studies with different 18-hydroxylase inhibitors (spironolactone, canrenone, and canrenoate-K) and studies with rats pretreated with KCl in drinking fluid suggest that 18-hydroxylation of corticosterone is catalyzed by an enzyme system different from that catalyzing 18-hydroxylation of deoxycorticosterone.  (+info)

Micropuncture study of the renal responses of the urodele amphibian Necturus maculosus to injections of arginine vasotocin and an anti-aldosterone compound. (6/29)

1. Necturus maculosus kidney function has been examined using standard clearance techniques and renal tubular micropuncture methodology. 2. Throughout, cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) has been used to monitor glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and tubular water movements. It was established that this substance was handled by the Necturus kidney in a similar manner to inulin. It can be readily analysed, together with renal electrolytes, by electron microprobe techniques. 3. Profiles of transtubular gradients (TF:P ratios) along the nephron were established for osmolarity, sodium, potassium, calcium and cobalt (of cyanocobalamin). 4. Ureteral urine is always hyposmotic with respect to plasma and the site of dilution of the plasma ultrafiltrate is within the distal segment. 5. Up to 30% of the filtrate is isosmotically reabsorbed along the proximal tubule; the tubular fluid:plasma ratio for osmolarity and sodium is around 1, and the TF:P for cobalt of cyanocobalamin is about 1.4 by the end of this segment. 6. The renal effects of the neurohypophysial hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) and an aldosterone antagonist (SC14266; Soldactone) have been examined. 7. AVT was consistently antidiuretic causing both a decreased GFR and an enhanced distal tubular reabsorption of water. 8. SC14266 also increased distal tubular reabsorption of water. Such an effect differs from that found in higher vertebrates, and may indicate a "glucocorticoid-type" of renal action for aldosterone in amphibians.  (+info)

Spironolactone and its main metabolite, canrenoic acid, block human ether-a-go-go-related gene channels. (7/29)

BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that spironolactone (SP) decreases the QT dispersion in chronic heart failure. In this study, the effects of SP and its metabolite, canrenoic acid (CA), on human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) currents were analyzed. METHODS AND RESULTS: HERG currents elicited in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells were measured with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. SP decreased HERG currents in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50=23.0+/-1.5 micromol/L) and shifted the midpoint of the activation curve to more negative potentials (Vh=-13.1+/-3.4 versus -18.9+/-3.6 mV, P<0.05) without modifying the activation and deactivation kinetics. SP-induced block (1 micromol/L) appeared at the range of membrane potentials coinciding with that of channel activation, and thereafter, it remained constant, reaching 24.7+/-3.8% at +60 mV (n=6, P<0.05). CA (0.01 nmol/L to 500 micromol/L) blocked HERG channels in a voltage- and frequency-independent manner. CA at 1 nmol/L shifted the midpoint of the activation curve to -19.9+/-1.8 mV and accelerated the time course of channel activation (tau=1064+/-125 versus 820+/-93 ms, n=11, P<0.01). The envelope of the tail test demonstrated that at the very beginning of the pulses to +40 mV (25 ms), a certain amount of block was apparent (31.3+/-9.9%). CA did not modify the voltage-dependence of HERG channel inactivation (Vh=-60.8+/-5.6 versus -62.9+/-3.1 mV, n=6, P>0.05) or the kinetics of the reactivation process at any potential tested. CA and aldosterone also blocked the native I(Kr) in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes. CONCLUSIONS: At concentrations reached after administration of therapeutic doses of SP, CA blocked the HERG channels by binding to both the closed and open states of the channel.  (+info)

Potassium canrenoate, an aldosterone receptor antagonist, reduces isoprenaline-induced cardiac fibrosis in the rat. (8/29)

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the administration of an antagonist of aldosterone could prevent the fibrosis induced by an acute injection of isoprenaline. Male Wistar rats were submitted to one subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline (400 mg/kg) and were simultaneously treated with potassium canrenoate in drinking water (20 mg/kg/day) started 5 days before the injection of isoprenaline. Two months later, echocardiographic and hemodynamic measurements were performed. Then, the heart was prepared for morphometric histology and quantification of fibrosis in the left ventricle. Heart and left ventricular weights were increased significantly by isoprenaline. Potassium canrenoate attenuated this increase. The administration of isoprenaline increased significantly end diastolic diameter and end systolic volume compared with control. These changes were increased further with the addition of potassium canrenoate. In contrast, the fibrosis induced by isoprenaline was reduced significantly by potassium canrenoate at the three section levels. Potassium canrenoate attenuated the fibrosis but not the enhanced dilatation of the left ventricle induced by isoprenaline.  (+info)

Canrenone, also known as canrenoic acid, is a synthetic steroidal compound that is commonly used as a diuretic and antihypertensive agent. It is a derivative of aldosterone, a hormone that regulates sodium and potassium balance in the body, and works by blocking the action of aldosterone on the distal tubules of the kidney. This leads to increased excretion of sodium and water, which helps to reduce blood volume and lower blood pressure.

Canrenone is often prescribed for the treatment of hypertension, edema associated with heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and nephrotic syndrome. It has also been shown to have anti-androgenic effects and has been used off-label in the treatment of hirsutism and acne.

Like other diuretics, canrenone can cause electrolyte imbalances, particularly low potassium levels (hypokalemia), and may interact with other medications that affect potassium levels. It is important for patients taking canrenone to be monitored regularly for changes in electrolyte levels and kidney function.

... is a synthetic steroidal antimineralocorticoid which was never marketed. Potassium canrenoate Canrenone Elks J ( ... Carboxylic acids, Conjugated dienes, Enones, Pregnanes, Spirolactones, Steroidal antiandrogens, Tertiary alcohols, All stub ...
Canrenoic acid Canrenone Hans Selye (17 April 2013). Hormones and Resistance: Part 1 and. Springer Science & Business Media. pp ... the potassium salt of canrenoic acid, is an aldosterone antagonist of the spirolactone group. Like spironolactone, it is a ...
It was introduced for medical use, in the form of potassium canrenoate (the potassium salt of canrenoic acid), by 1968. ... Canrenoic acid Potassium canrenoate Müller J (6 December 2012). Regulation of Aldosterone Biosynthesis: Physiological and ... Canrenone is an active metabolite of spironolactone, canrenoic acid, and potassium canrenoate, and is considered to be ... Uric acid was lower in the group treated with canrenone; however, no differences were seen in potassium, sodium, and brain ...
Canrenoic Acid, Block Human Ether-a-Go-Go-Related Gene Channels". Circulation. 107 (6): 889-895. doi:10.1161/01.CIR. ... "Spironolactone and its main metabolite canrenoic acid block hKv1.5, Kv4.3 and Kv7.1+minK channels". British Journal of ...
Bolinaquinone Canrenoic acid Gestonorone acetate, or gestronol acetate Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid This set index page lists ...
... canrenoic acid (INN) canrenone (INN) Cantharone Cantil cantuzumab mertansine (INN) cantuzumab ravtansine (USAN, INN) Cap-Profen ... carglumic acid (USAN) cargutocin (INN) caricotamide (INN) Carimune carindacillin (INN) cariporide (INN) cariprazine (INN, (USAN ... Capital with codeine Capitrol caplacizumab-yhdp Caplyta capmatinib capobenic acid (INN) Capoten Capozide Caprelsa capreomycin ( ...
Canrenoic acid is a synthetic steroidal antimineralocorticoid which was never marketed. Potassium canrenoate Canrenone Elks J ( ... Carboxylic acids, Conjugated dienes, Enones, Pregnanes, Spirolactones, Steroidal antiandrogens, Tertiary alcohols, All stub ...
Canrenoic Acid. D05 - Macromolecular Substances. Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type II. Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II. ... Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type I. Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I. Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type II. Fatty Acid Synthase ... D13 - Nucleic Acids, Nucleotides, and Nucleosides. RNA, Long Untranslated. RNA, Long Noncoding. ... Perchloric Acid. Perchlorates. D02 - Organic Chemicals. 6-Aminocaproic Acid. Aminocaproic Acid. Aminocaproic Acids. ...
Canrenoic Acid. D05 - Macromolecular Substances. Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type II. Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II. ... Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type I. Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I. Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type II. Fatty Acid Synthase ... D13 - Nucleic Acids, Nucleotides, and Nucleosides. RNA, Long Untranslated. RNA, Long Noncoding. ... Perchloric Acid. Perchlorates. D02 - Organic Chemicals. 6-Aminocaproic Acid. Aminocaproic Acid. Aminocaproic Acids. ...
Canrenoic Acid. D05 - Macromolecular Substances. Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type II. Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II. ... Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type I. Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I. Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type II. Fatty Acid Synthase ... D13 - Nucleic Acids, Nucleotides, and Nucleosides. RNA, Long Untranslated. RNA, Long Noncoding. ... Perchloric Acid. Perchlorates. D02 - Organic Chemicals. 6-Aminocaproic Acid. Aminocaproic Acid. Aminocaproic Acids. ...
Canrenoic Acid. D05 - Macromolecular Substances. Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type II. Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II. ... Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type I. Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I. Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type II. Fatty Acid Synthase ... D13 - Nucleic Acids, Nucleotides, and Nucleosides. RNA, Long Untranslated. RNA, Long Noncoding. ... Perchloric Acid. Perchlorates. D02 - Organic Chemicals. 6-Aminocaproic Acid. Aminocaproic Acid. Aminocaproic Acids. ...
Canrenoic Acid. D05 - Macromolecular Substances. Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type II. Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II. ... Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type I. Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I. Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type II. Fatty Acid Synthase ... D13 - Nucleic Acids, Nucleotides, and Nucleosides. RNA, Long Untranslated. RNA, Long Noncoding. ... Perchloric Acid. Perchlorates. D02 - Organic Chemicals. 6-Aminocaproic Acid. Aminocaproic Acid. Aminocaproic Acids. ...
Canrenoic Acid. D05 - Macromolecular Substances. Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type II. Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II. ... Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type I. Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I. Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type II. Fatty Acid Synthase ... D13 - Nucleic Acids, Nucleotides, and Nucleosides. RNA, Long Untranslated. RNA, Long Noncoding. ... Perchloric Acid. Perchlorates. D02 - Organic Chemicals. 6-Aminocaproic Acid. Aminocaproic Acid. Aminocaproic Acids. ...
Canrenoic Acid. D05 - Macromolecular Substances. Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type II. Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II. ... Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type I. Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I. Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type II. Fatty Acid Synthase ... D13 - Nucleic Acids, Nucleotides, and Nucleosides. RNA, Long Untranslated. RNA, Long Noncoding. ... Perchloric Acid. Perchlorates. D02 - Organic Chemicals. 6-Aminocaproic Acid. Aminocaproic Acid. Aminocaproic Acids. ...
Canrenoic Acid 90% * Hepatocytes 42% * DNA Fragmentation 23% * DNA Repair 15% * Chlormadinone Acetate 9% ...
Kalium-Can.-ratiopharm use Canrenoic Acid Kallidin Kallidin Tetraacetate use Kallidin Kallidin, (D)-Isomer use Kallidin ... Ketol-Acid Reductoisomerase Ketol-Isomerase, 2-Amino-2-Deoxy-D-Glucose-6-Phosphate use Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate ... Ketol Acid Reductoisomerase use Ketol-Acid Reductoisomerase ... Kainic Acid Receptor use Receptors, Kainic Acid Kainic Acid ...
Mice were divided into five groups: sham mice, mice subjected to renal IR, and mice pretreated with canrenoic acid (CA; 1 or 10 ... We thus investigated whether canrenoic acid (CA), a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, protects against AKI-induced ... in a manner blocked by pre-incubation with the MRA canrenoic acid (1 µM; p < .001). Our results suggest a novel role for MR ... also blunted WD-induced increases in CD36 expression and associated elevations in soleus free fatty acid, total ...
Canrenoic Acid [D04.210.500.745.432.100] * Canrenone [D04.210.500.745.432.120] * Chlormadinone Acetate [D04.210.500.745.432.144 ...
Eplerenone was selected for AB rather than spironolactone, a nonselective blocker, because spironolactone and canrenoic acid, ...
Selectivity of substrate (trifluoperazine) and inhibitor (amitriptyline, androsterone, canrenoic acid, hecogenin, ...
Canrenoic Acid / administration & dosage* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ...
... canrenoic acid, chlorothiazide, chlorthalidone, clopamide, epitizide, etacrynic acid, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, ... phosphoric acid and acetonitrile at different ratios and different pH values. Triamterene is determined by direct injection of ...
Canrenoic Acid D4.808.745.432.100 D4.210.500.745.432.100 Canrenone D4.808.745.432.120 D4.210.500.745.432.120 Cantharidin D3.438 ... Amino Acid Transport System y+ D12.776.157.530.937.375 D12.776.543.585.937.375 Amino Acid Transport System y+L D12.776.157.530. ... Amino Acid Motifs G2.111.570.60.40 G2.111.570.820.709.275.500 G2.111.570.820.709.600.40 G2.111.570.820.709.600.500 Amino Acid ... Acid Rain G16.500.240.135.859.50 G16.500.175.859.50 Acid Sensing Ion Channels D12.776.543.550.425.875.50 D12.776.543.550. ...
Canrenoic Acid Preferred Term Term UI T006263. Date11/01/1994. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID ... Canrenoic Acid Preferred Concept UI. M0330907. Registry Number. 87UG89VA9K. Related Numbers. 2181-04-6. 4138-96-9. M671F9NLEA. ... 17-Hydroxy-3-Oxo-17alpha-Pregna-4,6-Diene-21-Carboxylic Acid Term UI T836653. Date02/01/2013. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM ( ... Canrenoic Acid. Tree Number(s). D04.210.500.745.432.100. Unique ID. D002191. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/ ...
Canrenoic Acid Preferred Term Term UI T006263. Date11/01/1994. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID ... Canrenoic Acid Preferred Concept UI. M0330907. Registry Number. 87UG89VA9K. Related Numbers. 2181-04-6. 4138-96-9. M671F9NLEA. ... 17-Hydroxy-3-Oxo-17alpha-Pregna-4,6-Diene-21-Carboxylic Acid Term UI T836653. Date02/01/2013. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM ( ... Canrenoic Acid. Tree Number(s). D04.210.500.745.432.100. Unique ID. D002191. RDF Unique Identifier. http://id.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/ ...
CANRENOIC ACID, POTASSIUM SALT. CANRENONE. CAPECITABINE. CAPREOMYCIN SULFATE. CAPSAICIN. CAPTAMINE. CAPTOPRIL. CARBACHOL. ...
Canrenoic Acid. D05 - Macromolecular Substances. Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type II. Fatty Acid Synthase, Type II. ... Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type I. Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I. Fatty Acid Synthetase Complex, Type II. Fatty Acid Synthase ... D13 - Nucleic Acids, Nucleotides, and Nucleosides. RNA, Long Untranslated. RNA, Long Noncoding. ... Perchloric Acid. Perchlorates. D02 - Organic Chemicals. 6-Aminocaproic Acid. Aminocaproic Acid. Aminocaproic Acids. ...
Resorcylic acid lactones (e.g., zearalanone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, zearalenone, zeranol (α-zearalanol), taleranol ( ... The amino acid phenylalanine is formed from the Shikimate pathway, which is the pathway that plants use in order to make ... aromatic amino acids. This pathway is located in the plant plastid, and is the entry to the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids.[ ... Spirolactone derivatives: Canrenoic acid. *Canrenone. *Drospirenone. *Mespirenone. *Potassium canrenoate. *Prorenone. *SC-5233 ...
Kinetics of hydrolysis of canrenone and lactonization of canrenoic acid. PMID- 5157994 TI - Enamine prodrugs. PMID- 5157995 TI ... Amino acid analysis suggests that there are also eight residues of cysteic acid in the molecule, which thus contains only one ... 2. Amino acid analyses show that there are five cysteine residues and two methionine residues/subunit. 3. The amino acid ... 1. A rat liver perfusion method for the study of amino acid metabolism. PMID- 5157948 TI - The retention of ascorbic acid by ...
GISADENAFIL BESYLATE C83729 W9BV32M08A DIHYDROCAPSAICIN C68531 9JUJ56C686 ANAZOLENE ACID C79863 87UG89VA9K CANRENOIC ACID ... C76637 F604ZKI910 IPODIC ACID C76634 CM1N99QR1M METRIZOIC ACID C76635 JLH8O457FC HEPARINASE I C17301 8A5D83Q4RW GLUCURONIC ACID ... C1274 GRZ5RCB1QG VENLAFAXINE C1278 209B6YPZ4I PALMITOLEIC ACID C68408 PK8M3ENX8C PARINARIC ACID C68409 2UMI9U37CP OLEIC ACID ... C83521 1F8SN134MX CAPROIC ACID C68330 G23AP190YS AFEGOSTAT C83520 OBL58JN025 OCTANOIC ACID C68331 2XE342S7L6 AGARICIC ACID ...
Mice were divided into five groups: sham mice, mice subjected to renal IR, and mice pretreated with canrenoic acid (CA; 1 or 10 ... We thus investigated whether canrenoic acid (CA), a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, protects against AKI-induced ... uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol, total protein, glucose, ascorbic acid, and alkaline phosphatase), ... concentrations of uric acid, glucose, ascorbic acid, estradiol, insulin, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus compared with ...
Canrenoic Acid D4.808.745.432.100 D4.210.500.745.432.100 Canrenone D4.808.745.432.120 D4.210.500.745.432.120 Cantharidin D3.438 ... Amino Acid Transport System y+ D12.776.157.530.937.375 D12.776.543.585.937.375 Amino Acid Transport System y+L D12.776.157.530. ... Amino Acid Motifs G2.111.570.60.40 G2.111.570.820.709.275.500 G2.111.570.820.709.600.40 G2.111.570.820.709.600.500 Amino Acid ... Acid Rain G16.500.240.135.859.50 G16.500.175.859.50 Acid Sensing Ion Channels D12.776.543.550.425.875.50 D12.776.543.550. ...
Canrenoic Acid D4.808.745.432.100 D4.210.500.745.432.100 Canrenone D4.808.745.432.120 D4.210.500.745.432.120 Cantharidin D3.438 ... Amino Acid Transport System y+ D12.776.157.530.937.375 D12.776.543.585.937.375 Amino Acid Transport System y+L D12.776.157.530. ... Amino Acid Motifs G2.111.570.60.40 G2.111.570.820.709.275.500 G2.111.570.820.709.600.40 G2.111.570.820.709.600.500 Amino Acid ... Acid Rain G16.500.240.135.859.50 G16.500.175.859.50 Acid Sensing Ion Channels D12.776.543.550.425.875.50 D12.776.543.550. ...
Canrenoic Acid D4.808.745.432.100 D4.210.500.745.432.100 Canrenone D4.808.745.432.120 D4.210.500.745.432.120 Cantharidin D3.438 ... Amino Acid Transport System y+ D12.776.157.530.937.375 D12.776.543.585.937.375 Amino Acid Transport System y+L D12.776.157.530. ... Amino Acid Motifs G2.111.570.60.40 G2.111.570.820.709.275.500 G2.111.570.820.709.600.40 G2.111.570.820.709.600.500 Amino Acid ... Acid Rain G16.500.240.135.859.50 G16.500.175.859.50 Acid Sensing Ion Channels D12.776.543.550.425.875.50 D12.776.543.550. ...
  • The amino acid phenylalanine is formed from the Shikimate pathway , which is the pathway that plants use in order to make aromatic amino acids. (thcscience.wiki)
  • PMID- 5157697 TI - [Free amino acids in plasma in kwashiorkor]. (nih.gov)