Receptors, Cannabinoid: A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for CANNABINOIDS such as those derived from CANNABIS. They also bind a structurally distinct class of endogenous factors referred to as ENDOCANNABINOIDS. The receptor class may play a role in modulating the release of signaling molecules such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS and CYTOKINES.Cannabinoid Receptor Modulators: Compounds that interact with and modulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1: A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2: A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on immune cells where it may play a role modulating release of CYTOKINES.Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists: Compounds that interact with and stimulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators: A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)Cannabinoids: Compounds having the cannabinoid structure. They were originally extracted from Cannabis sativa L. The most pharmacologically active constituents are TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL; CANNABINOL; and CANNABIDIOL.Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.Endocannabinoids: Fatty acid derivatives that have specificity for CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. They are structurally distinct from CANNABINOIDS and were originally discovered as a group of endogenous CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Cyclohexanols: Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.Benzoxazines: OXAZINES with a fused BENZENE ring.Dronabinol: A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Polyunsaturated Alkamides: Amides composed of unsaturated aliphatic FATTY ACIDS linked with AMINES by an amide bond. They are most prominent in ASTERACEAE; PIPERACEAE; and RUTACEAE; and also found in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE; BRASSICACEAE; CONVOLVULACEAE; EUPHORBIACEAE; MENISPERMACEAE; POACEAE; and SOLANACEAE. They are recognized by their pungent taste and for causing numbing and salivation.Raloxifene: A second generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. It has estrogen agonist effects on bone and cholesterol metabolism but behaves as a complete estrogen antagonist on mammary gland and uterine tissue.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Receptors, Drug: Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.Naphthalenes: Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.Arachidonic AcidsMorpholinesBornanesGlycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Norpregnadienes: Pregnadienes which have undergone ring contractions or are lacking carbon-18 or carbon-19.Estrogen Receptor Modulators: Substances that possess antiestrogenic actions but can also produce estrogenic effects as well. They act as complete or partial agonist or as antagonist. They can be either steroidal or nonsteroidal in structure.Cannabidiol: Compound isolated from Cannabis sativa extract.AmidohydrolasesMonoacylglycerol Lipases: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycerol monoesters of long-chain fatty acids EC One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Estrogen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cannabinol: A physiologically inactive constituent of Cannabis sativa L.GABA Modulators: Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.ThiophenesLigands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cannabis: The plant genus in the Cannabaceae plant family, Urticales order, Hamamelidae subclass. The flowering tops are called many slang terms including pot, marijuana, hashish, bhang, and ganja. The stem is an important source of hemp fiber.Propylene Glycols: Derivatives of propylene glycol (1,2-propanediol). They are used as humectants and solvents in pharmaceutical preparations.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Receptors, Lysosphingolipid: A subfamily of lysophospholipid receptors with specificity for LYSOSPHINGOLIPIDS such as sphingosine-1-phosphate and sphingosine phosphorylcholine.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Leiomyoma: A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle tissue, also known as a fibroid tumor. They rarely occur outside of the UTERUS and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT but can occur in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE, probably arising from the smooth muscle of small blood vessels in these tissues.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Toremifene: A first generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Like TAMOXIFEN, it is an estrogen agonist for bone tissue and cholesterol metabolism but is antagonistic on mammary and uterine tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLPyrrolidinesTetrahydronaphthalenes: Partially saturated 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene compounds.Receptors, Androgen: Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Carbamates: Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Benzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Benzodioxoles: Compounds based on benzene fused to oxole. They can be formed from methylated CATECHOLS such as EUGENOL.Estrogen Receptor beta: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Drug Inverse Agonism: Phenomena and pharmaceutics of compounds that bind to the same receptor binding-site as an agonist (DRUG AGONISM) for that receptor but exerts the opposite pharmacological effect.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Estrenes: Unsaturated derivatives of the ESTRANES with methyl groups at carbon-13, with no carbon at carbon-10, and with no more than one carbon at carbon-17. They must contain one or more double bonds.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Anabolic Agents: These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Aminophenols: Phenols substituted in any position by an amino group.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.TRPV Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Androgen Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and inhibit the activation of ANDROGEN RECEPTORS.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Marijuana Abuse: The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.Ovulation Inhibition: Blocking the process leading to OVULATION. Various factors are known to inhibit ovulation, such as neuroendocrine, psychological, and pharmacological agents.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Piper nigrum: A plant species in the PIPERACEAE plant family. It is a common spice on foods and is used medicinally to increase gastrointestinal assimilation of other supplements and drugs. Piperine is a key component. Black pepper is picked unripe and heaped for a few days to ferment. White Pepper is the ripe fruit dehulled by maceration in water.Cyclohexanes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons.ResorcinolsBehavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Hallucinogens: Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.Mice, Inbred ICRCapsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pertussis Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Gonanes: Steroids containing the fundamental tetracyclic unit with no methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and with no side chain at C-17. The concept includes both saturated and unsaturated derivatives.AnilidesNeuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Androgen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Keratin-13: A type I keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-4 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Defects in gene for keratin 13 cause HEREDITARY MUCOSAL LEUKOKERATOSIS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Contraceptive Agents, Male: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Medical Marijuana: Product of the CANNABIS plant, CANNABINOIDS, or synthetic derivatives thereof, used in the treatment of a wide range of clinical symptoms.Phenylmethylsulfonyl Fluoride: An enzyme inhibitor that inactivates IRC-50 arvin, subtilisin, and the fatty acid synthetase complex.Sphingosine: An amino alcohol with a long unsaturated hydrocarbon chain. Sphingosine and its derivative sphinganine are the major bases of the sphingolipids in mammals. (Dorland, 28th ed)Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Receptors, Opioid, mu: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Estradiol Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.Benzothiadiazines: Heterocyclic compounds of a ring with SULFUR and two NITROGEN atoms fused to a BENZENE ring. Members inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS and are used as DIURETICS.Marijuana Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Designer Drugs: Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Anisoles: A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Periaqueductal Gray: Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.Nicotinic Acids: 2-, 3-, or 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acids. Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The 3-carboxy derivative (NIACIN) is active as a vitamin.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Cinchona Alkaloids: Alkaloids extracted from various species of Cinchona.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.GABAergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.TritiumArrestins: Regulatory proteins that down-regulate phosphorylated G-protein membrane receptors, including rod and cone photoreceptors and adrenergic receptors.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Microglia: The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, (September 2, 1998)).Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Myometrium: The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.Estrogen Replacement Therapy: The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.Phytoestrogens: PLANT EXTRACTS and compounds, primarily ISOFLAVONES, that mimic or modulate endogenous estrogens, usually by binding to ESTROGEN RECEPTORS.Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials: Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Eurotium: A genus of ascomycetous fungi in the family Trichocomaceae, order EUROTIALES. Health effects, allergenicity, and toxicity of Eurotium are closely related to its anamorph ASPERGILLUS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Benzamides: BENZOIC ACID amides.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Flutamide: An antiandrogen with about the same potency as cyproterone in rodent and canine species.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Zanthoxylum: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Some members of Zanthoxylum are reclassified from ELEUTHEROCOCCUS, Melicope, and EVODIA. The twigs are used as dental brushing sticks (TOOTHBRUSHING). Most plants that are called Fagara have been reclassified as Zanthoxylum, however some Fagara were reclassified to MELICOPE (also in the Rutacea family) or to GLEDITSIA (a genus in the FABACEAE family).Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.GABA Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.

Biosynthesis and inactivation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol in circulating and tumoral macrophages. (1/954)

The stimulus-induced biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in intact mouse J774 macrophages and the inactivation of 2-AG by the same cells or by rat circulating macrophages was studied. By using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found that ionomycin (5 microM) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 200 microg x mL-1) cause a 24-fold and 2.5-fold stimulation of 2-AG levels in J774 cells, respectively, thus providing unprecedented evidence that this cannabimimetic metabolite can be synthesized by macrophages. In J774 cells, LPS also induced a 7.8-fold increase of the levels of the other endocannabinoid, anandamide, and, in rat circulating macrophages, an almost twofold increase of 2-AG levels. Extracellular [3H]2-AG was cleared from the medium of intact J774 macrophages (t1/2 = 19-28 min) and esterified to phospholipids, diacylglycerols and triglycerides or hydrolyzed to [3H]arachidonic acid and glycerol. These catabolic processes were attenuated differentially by various enzyme inhibitors. Rat circulating macrophages were shown to contain enzymatic activities for the hydrolysis of 2-AG, including: (a) fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), the enzyme responsible for anandamide breakdown and previously shown to catalyse also 2-AG hydrolysis, and (b) a 2-AG hydrolase activity different from FAAH and down-regulated by LPS. High levels of FAAH mRNA were found in circulating macrophages but not platelets, which, however, contain a 2-AG hydrolase. Both platelets and macrophages were shown to express the mRNA for the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. A macrophage 2-AG hydrolase with apparent Km = 110 microM and Vmax = 7.9 nmol x min-1 x (mg protein)-1 was partially characterized in J774 cells and found to exhibit an optimal pH of 6-7 and little or no sensitivity to typical FAAH inhibitors. These findings demonstrate for the first time that macrophages participate in the homeostasis of the hypotensive and immunomodulatory endocannabinoid 2-AG through metabolic mechanisms that are subject to regulation.  (+info)

The endothelial component of cannabinoid-induced relaxation in rabbit mesenteric artery depends on gap junctional communication. (2/954)

1. We have shown that the endocannabinoid anandamide and its stable analogue methanandamide relax rings of rabbit superior mesenteric artery through endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms that are unaffected by blockade of NO synthase and cyclooxygenase. 2. The endothelium-dependent component of the responses was attenuated by the gap junction inhibitor 18alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid (18alpha-GA; 50 microM), and a synthetic connexin-mimetic peptide homologous to the extracellular Gap 27 sequence of connexin 43 (43Gap 27, SRPTEKTIFII; 300 microM). By contrast, the corresponding connexin 40 peptide (40Gap 27, SRPTEKNVFIV) was inactive. 3. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A (10 microM) also attenuated endothelium-dependent relaxations but this inhibition was not observed with the CB1 receptor antagonist LY320135 (10 microM). Furthermore, SR141716A mimicked the effects of 43Gap 27 peptide in blocking Lucifer Yellow dye transfer between coupled COS-7 cells (a monkey fibroblast cell line), whereas LY320135 was without effect, thus suggesting that the action of SR141716A was directly attributable to effects on gap junctions. 4. The endothelium-dependent component of cannabinoid-induced relaxation was also attenuated by AM404 (10 microM), an inhibitor of the high-affinity anandamide transporter, which was without effect on dye transfer. 5. Taken together, the findings suggest that cannabinoids derived from arachidonic acid gain access to the endothelial cytosol via a transporter mechanism and subsequently stimulate relaxation by promoting diffusion of an to adjacent smooth muscle cells via gap junctions. 6. Relaxations of endothelium-denuded preparations to anandamide and methanandamide were unaffected by 43Gap 27 peptide, 18alpha-GA, SR141716A, AM404 and indomethacin and their genesis remains to be established.  (+info)

Comparison of novel cannabinoid partial agonists and SR141716A in the guinea-pig small intestine. (3/954)

The controversial nature of the CB(1) receptor antagonist, SR141716A, in the guinea-pig small intestine was investigated by comparing it with four analogues of Delta(8)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(8)-THC): O-1184, O-1238, O-584 and O-1315. These compounds (10 - 1000 nM) inhibited the electrically-evoked contractions with a rank order of potency of O-1238>O-1184>O-584>O-1315. Log concentration-response curves for O-1238, O-1184 and O-1315 were significantly shifted to the right by SR141716A and the maxima were significantly less than that of the CB(1) agonist, WIN55212-2, an indication of partial agonism. Partial saturation of the triple bond in O-1184 to a cis double bond (O-1238) increased its potency as an agonist (pEC(50) from 6.42 to 7.63) and as an antagonist of WIN55212-2, (pK(B), from 8.36 to 9.49). Substitution of the terminal azide group by an ethyl group (O-584) or removal of the phenolic hydroxyl group (O-1315) had no significant effect on the agonist or antagonist potency. None of these analogues increased the twitch response in a manner resembling that of SR141716A. O-1184 (10 and 100 nM) shifted the log concentration-response curve of WIN55212-2 for inhibition of the twitch responses to the right with pK(B) values of 8.29 and 8.38, respectively. We conclude that these Delta(8)-THC analogues behave as partial agonists rather than silent antagonists at CB(1) binding sites in this tissue. There was no evidence of antagonism of endocannabinoids thus supporting the hypothesis that, in this tissue, SR141716A is an inverse agonist of constitutively active CB(1) receptors.  (+info)

Reversal of dopamine D(2) receptor responses by an anandamide transport inhibitor. (4/954)

We characterized the pharmacological properties of the anandamide transport inhibitor N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-arachidonamide (AM404) in rats and investigated the effects of this drug on behavioral responses associated with activation of dopamine D(2) family receptors. Rat brain slices accumulated [(3)H]anandamide via a high-affinity transport mechanism that was blocked by AM404. When administered alone in vivo, AM404 caused a mild and slow-developing hypokinesia that was significant 60 min after intracerebroventricular injection of the drug and was reversed by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR141716A. AM404 produced no significant catalepsy or analgesia, two typical effects of direct-acting cannabinoid agonists. However, AM404 prevented the stereotypic yawning produced by systemic administration of a low dose of apomorphine, an effect that was dose-dependent and blocked by SR141716A. Furthermore, AM404 reduced the stimulation of motor behaviors elicited by the selective D(2) family receptor agonist quinpirole. Finally, AM404 reduced hyperactivity in juvenile spontaneously hypertensive rats, a putative model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The results support a primary role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of psychomotor activity and point to anandamide transport as a potential target for neuropsychiatric medicines.  (+info)

Endocannabinoid 2-arachidonyl glycerol is a full agonist through human type 2 cannabinoid receptor: antagonism by anandamide. (5/954)

The endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) bind to G protein-coupled central and peripheral cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, respectively. Due to the relatively high expression of the CB2 isotype on peripheral immune cells, it has been hypothesized that this receptor mediates the immunosuppressive effects of cannabinoids. Unfortunately, there was a dearth of pharmacological studies with the endocannabinoids and human CB2 (hCB2). These studies compare and contrast the potency and efficacy of anandamide, 2-AG, and the synthetic cannabinoid HU210 at hCB2. Using [(35)S]guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate (GTPgammaS) and radioligand bindings in insect Sf9-hCB2 membranes, we showed that both endocannabinoids bound hCB2 with similar affinity and that the cannabinoids acted as full agonists in stimulating [(35)S]GTPgammaS exchange, although 2-AG was 3-fold more potent than anandamide (EC(50) = 38.9 +/- 3.1 and 121 +/- 29 nM, respectively). In a mammalian expression system (Chinese hamster ovary-hCB2 cells), HU210 and 2-AG maximally inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP synthesis (IC(50) = 1.61 +/- 0.42 nM and 1.30 +/- 0.37 microM, respectively) although anandamide was ineffective. In Chinese hamster ovary-hCB2 membranes, HU210 and 2-AG were also full agonists in stimulating [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding (EC(50) = 1.96 +/- 0.35 and 122 +/- 17 nM, respectively), but anandamide was a weak partial agonist (EC(50) = 261 +/- 91 nM; 34 +/- 4% of maximum). Due to its low intrinsic activity, coincubation with anandamide effectively attenuated the functional activity of 2-AG at hCB2. Collectively, the data showed that both endocannabinoids bound hCB2 with similar affinity, but only 2-AG functioned as a full agonist. Moreover, the agonistic activity of 2-AG was attenuated by anandamide.  (+info)

Are anandamide and cannabinoid receptors involved in ethanol tolerance? A review of the evidence. (6/954)

There have been significant developments towards the elucidation of molecular and cellular changes in neuronal second messenger pathways involved in the development of tolerance to and dependence on ethanol (EtOH). The long-term exposure to EtOH has been shown to affect several aspects of neuronal signal transduction as well as ligand-gated ion channels and receptor systems, including the receptors that are coupled to the superfamily of GTP binding regulatory proteins (G-proteins). The recent identification of a G-protein coupled receptor that was activated by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component of marijuana, led to the discovery of endogenous agonists. One such agonist found to exist in mammalian brain was characterized to be an arachidonic acid (AA) metabolite and was named anandamide (AnNH). AnNH has been shown to bind specifically to the cannabinoid receptor (CB(1)) and mimic many of the pharmacological and behavioural effects of THC including tolerance development. The role of endocannabinoids and the CB(1) receptor signal transduction system in tolerance development to drugs of abuse has not been explored until recently. The findings presented in this review provide evidence for the first time that some of the pharmacological actions of EtOH including tolerance development may be mediated through participation of the endocannabinoid-CB(1) receptor signal transduction system. Recent studies have shown that chronic EtOH exposure produces downregulation of CB(1) receptors and an inhibition of CB(1) receptor agonist-stimulated GTPgammaS binding in mouse brain synaptic plasma membranes (SPM). The observed receptor downregulation results from the persistent stimulation of the receptors by the endogenous CB(1) receptor agonist AnNH, the synthesis of which is increased by chronic EtOH exposure. Further, the CB(1) receptor antagonist SR-141716A has been shown to block voluntary EtOH intake in rats and mice. Based on these studies, a hypothesis is presented to explain the possible involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the pharmacological and behavioural effects of EtOH.  (+info)

Down-regulation of anandamide hydrolase in mouse uterus by sex hormones. (7/954)

Endocannabinoids are an emerging class of lipid mediators, which mimic several effects of cannabinoids. Anandamide (arachidonoylethanolamide) is a major endocannabinoid, which has been shown to impair pregnancy and embryo development. The activity of anandamide is controlled by cellular uptake through a specific transporter and intracellular degradation by the enzyme anandamide hydrolase (fatty acid amide hydrolase, FAAH). We characterized FAAH in mouse uterus by radiochromatographic and immunochemical techniques, showing that the enzyme is confined to the epithelium and its activity decreases appreciably during pregnancy or pseudopregnancy because of lower gene expression at the translational level. Ovariectomy prevented the decrease in FAAH, and both progesterone and estrogen further reduced its basal levels, suggesting hormonal control of the enzyme. Anandamide was shown to induce programmed cell death in mouse blastocysts, through a pathway independent of type-1 cannabinoid receptor. Blastocysts, however, have a specific anandamide transporter and FAAH, which scavenge this lipid. Taken together, these results provide evidence of an interplay between endocannabinoids and sex hormones in pregnancy. These findings may also be relevant for human fertility, as epithelial cells from healthy human uterus showed FAAH activity and expression, which in adenocarcinoma cells was increased fivefold.  (+info)

Age dependent accumulation of N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids in ischemic rat brain. A (31)P NMR and enzyme activity study. (8/954)

N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids (NAPE) can be formed as a stress response during neuronal injury, and they are precursors for N-acyl-ethanolamines (NAE), some of which are endocannabinoids. The levels of NAPE accumulated during post-decapitative ischemia (6 h at 37 degrees C) were studied in rat brains of various age (1, 6, 12, 19, 30, and approximately 70 days) by the use of (31)P NMR spectroscopy of lipid extracts. This ability to accumulate NAPE was compared with the activity of N-acyltransferase and of NAPE-hydrolyzing phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) in brain microsomes. These two enzymes are involved in the formation and degradation of NAPE, respectively. The results showed that 1) the ability to accumulate NAPE during post-decapitative ischemia is especially high in the youngest rats and is markedly reduced in older brains [in 1-day-old rat brains NAPE accumulated to 1.5% of total phospholipids, while in 30-day-old rat brains NAPE accumulation could not be detected (detection limit 0.09%)] and 2) this age pattern of accumulation can be explained by a combination of the decreased activity of N-acyltransferase and the increased activity of NAPE-PLD during development. These results point out that it would be advantageous to investigate a potential cytoprotective role of NAPE in the brains of very young rats.  (+info)

  • 2017) (‐)‐β‐Caryophyllene, a CB2 receptorselective phytocannabinoid, suppresses motor paralysis and neuroinflammation in a murine model of multiple sclerosis. (
  • 2017) Hepatic expression of cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 correlate with fibrogenesis in patients with chronic hepatitis B. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 59: 124-130. (
  • Contreras PC, Tam L, Drower E, Rafferty MF (1993) [3H]naltrindole: a potent and selective ligand for labeling delta-opioid receptors. (
  • The activation of the CB 1 and CB 2 receptors causes the numerous intracellular effects which may be cell type and ligand specific and involve the inhibition of various voltage gated Ca +2 channels and adenylate cyclase activity and the activation of K + channels, resulting in lower levels of cAMP along with activation of MAPK pathways [ 5 ]. (
  • En negativ modulator (NAM) reducerer virkningerne af den orthosteriske ligand , men er inaktiv i fravær af den orthosteriske ligand. (
  • De er i stand til at binde målproteinet og udøve deres virkning i fravær af en orthosterisk ligand, medens tilstedeværelsen af en orthosterisk ligand typisk kræves for at observere de indirekte virkninger af rene allosteriske modulatorer. (
  • Given NAGly mediated actions we speculate that GPR18 and its ligand NAGly are modulators of glial and neuronal cells during neuronal damage. (
  • Elsohly MA, Slade D (2005) Chemical constituents of marijuana: the complex mixture of natural cannabinoids. (
  • Marijuana smoke produces its psychotropic effects by delivering milligram quantities of cannabinoids, including primarily Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 3 to the lung ( 1 ). (
  • Since this receptor is implicated in several maladies, such as obesity, pain, and neurodegenerative disorders, there is interest in developing therapeutics that selectively target this receptor. (
  • Benito C, Nunez E, Tolon RM, Carrier EJ, Rabano A, Hillard CJ, Romero J (2003) Cannabinoid CB 2 receptors and fatty acid amide hydrolase are selectively overexpressed in neuritic plaque-associated glia in Alzheimer's disease brains. (
  • More recently, we reported that the immunosuppressive property of THC can be attributed, at least in part, to its ability to induce apoptosis in T cells and dendritic cells through ligation of CB2 receptors and that the latter was regulated by activation of nuclear factor-κB ( 8 ), recruiting both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. (
  • In this article, we will review the metabolic pathways of eCBs, and the latest advances on their potential receptor targets. (
  • Obtaining a comprehensive understanding of the diverse mechanisms of cannabinoid action may lead to the design and development of therapeutic agents with greater efficacy and specificity for their cellular targets. (
  • Compound SC4a , SN15b , SC33 and FG45a were incubated at different concentrations with membrane preparations obtained from CHO-K1 cells overexpressing h CB2 receptors in presence of 0.5 nM of [ 3 H]CP55,940. (
  • The present invention provides a compound represented by formula (I) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof which has the effect of antagonizing the LPA1 receptor. (