A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for CANNABINOIDS such as those derived from CANNABIS. They also bind a structurally distinct class of endogenous factors referred to as ENDOCANNABINOIDS. The receptor class may play a role in modulating the release of signaling molecules such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS and CYTOKINES.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.
A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on immune cells where it may play a role modulating release of CYTOKINES.
Compounds having the cannabinoid structure. They were originally extracted from Cannabis sativa L. The most pharmacologically active constituents are TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL; CANNABINOL; and CANNABIDIOL.
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
Compounds that interact with and modulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
Fatty acid derivatives that have specificity for CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. They are structurally distinct from CANNABINOIDS and were originally discovered as a group of endogenous CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Bornanes are a class of synthetic macrocyclic compounds that have potential applications in medicine, particularly as drug delivery systems.
Compounds that interact with and stimulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.
A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound.
OXAZINES with a fused BENZENE ring.
Amides composed of unsaturated aliphatic FATTY ACIDS linked with AMINES by an amide bond. They are most prominent in ASTERACEAE; PIPERACEAE; and RUTACEAE; and also found in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE; BRASSICACEAE; CONVOLVULACEAE; EUPHORBIACEAE; MENISPERMACEAE; POACEAE; and SOLANACEAE. They are recognized by their pungent taste and for causing numbing and salivation.
Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.
Two-ring crystalline hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar. They are used as intermediates in chemical synthesis, as insect repellents, fungicides, lubricants, preservatives, and, formerly, as topical antiseptics.
Arachidonic acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids that play a role in various physiological processes and are commonly found in cell membranes.
Morpholines are a class of organic compounds that have been used in the development of drugs, including some antibiotics and anti-infectives, due to their unique biological properties.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Compound isolated from Cannabis sativa extract.
A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glycerol monoesters of long-chain fatty acids EC 3.1.1.23.
Amidohydrolases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of amide bonds in various molecules.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of NEUROKININ-1 RECEPTORS.
A physiologically inactive constituent of Cannabis sativa L.
The plant genus in the Cannabaceae plant family, Urticales order, Hamamelidae subclass. The flowering tops are called many slang terms including pot, marijuana, hashish, bhang, and ganja. The stem is an important source of hemp fiber.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT3 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN or SEROTONIN 5-HT3 RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN or SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTOR AGONISTS. Included under this heading are antagonists for one or more specific 5-HT2 receptor subtypes.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
Phenomena and pharmaceutics of compounds that bind to the same receptor binding-site as an agonist (DRUG AGONISM) for that receptor but exerts the opposite pharmacological effect.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-A RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-A RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. Classical antihistaminics block the histamine H1 receptors only.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Compounds based on benzene fused to oxole. They can be formed from methylated CATECHOLS such as EUGENOL.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.
A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
Cell membrane proteins that bind opioids and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The endogenous ligands for opioid receptors in mammals include three families of peptides, the enkephalins, endorphins, and dynorphins. The receptor classes include mu, delta, and kappa receptors. Sigma receptors bind several psychoactive substances, including certain opioids, but their endogenous ligands are not known.
A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It has a high affinity for ENDOTHELIN-1 and ENDOTHELIN-2.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.
Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTOR AGONISTS. Included under this heading are antagonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT1 receptor subtypes.
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Biphenyl compounds are a class of organic compounds consisting of two phenyl rings attached to a central carbon atom, with potential medical applications as anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer agents.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
Resorcinols are a class of organic compounds that have been used in medicine as antiseptics, disinfectants, and topical agents for treating skin conditions.
Drugs capable of inducing illusions, hallucinations, delusions, paranoid ideations, and other alterations of mood and thinking. Despite the name, the feature that distinguishes these agents from other classes of drugs is their capacity to induce states of altered perception, thought, and feeling that are not experienced otherwise.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
Tetrazoles are a class of heterocyclic compounds with potential medicinal applications, including as antimicrobial agents, anticancer drugs, and anesthetics.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.
Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate SEROTONIN RECEPTORS. Many serotonin receptor agonists are used as ANTIDEPRESSANTS; ANXIOLYTICS; and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Kappa opioid receptors bind dynorphins with a higher affinity than endorphins which are themselves preferred to enkephalins.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate HISTAMINE H3 RECEPTORS. They have been used to correct SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and MEMORY DISORDERS.
A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-B RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-B RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
BENZOIC ACID amides.
Cell surface receptors that bind BRADYKININ and related KININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The identified receptor types (B-1 and B-2, or BK-1 and BK-2) recognize endogenous KALLIDIN; t-kinins; and certain bradykinin fragments as well as bradykinin itself.
A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that were originally identified by their ability to inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Members of this family can couple to beta and gamma G-protein subunits that activate POTASSIUM CHANNELS. The Gi-Go part of the name is also spelled Gi/Go.
A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the KIDNEY. It may play a role in reducing systemic ENDOTHELIN levels.
A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)
Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.
Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
A class of cell surface receptors for TACHYKININS with a preference for SUBSTANCE P. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G protein coupled receptor superfamily. They are found on many cell types including central and peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, acinar cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
Seven membered heterocyclic rings containing a NITROGEN atom.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2X RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are antagonists for specific P2X receptor subtypes.
A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.
A derivative of benzodiazepine that acts on the cholecystokinin A (CCKA) receptor to antagonize CCK-8's (SINCALIDE) physiological and behavioral effects, such as pancreatic stimulation and inhibition of feeding.
Cell surface proteins that bind cholecystokinin (CCK) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholecystokinin receptors are activated by GASTRIN as well as by CCK-4; CCK-8; and CCK-33. Activation of these receptors evokes secretion of AMYLASE by pancreatic acinar cells, acid and PEPSIN by stomach mucosal cells, and contraction of the PYLORUS and GALLBLADDER. The role of the widespread CCK receptors in the central nervous system is not well understood.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
An enzyme inhibitor that inactivates IRC-50 arvin, subtilisin, and the fatty acid synthetase complex.
Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen used in medical applications such as radiation therapy and as a tracer in diagnostic imaging.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.
Pyrrolidines are a class of organic compounds containing a five-membered ring with four carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom, which are used in various medical applications such as as analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, and muscle relaxants.
Piperazines are a class of psychoactive drugs that act as anticholinergics, antispasmodics, and central nervous system stimulants, and are sometimes used in the treatment of various medical conditions.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT4 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.
A selective serotonin receptor antagonist with weak adrenergic receptor blocking properties. The drug is effective in lowering blood pressure in essential hypertension. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. It is well tolerated and is particularly effective in older patients.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.
Quinoxalines are a class of heterocyclic compounds with two nitrogen atoms in a six-membered ring, which have potential medicinal applications as antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer agents.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.
Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A competitive histamine H2-receptor antagonist. Its main pharmacodynamic effect is the inhibition of gastric secretion.
Product of the CANNABIS plant, CANNABINOIDS, or synthetic derivatives thereof, used in the treatment of a wide range of clinical symptoms.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.

CB(1) cannabinoid receptor antagonism promotes remodeling and cannabinoid treatment prevents endothelial dysfunction and hypotension in rats with myocardial infarction. (1/155)

1. To study the long-term effects of altered cannabinoid receptor activity on myocardial and vascular function, Wistar rats were treated with the selective CB(1) antagonist AM-251 (0.5 mg kg(-1) d(-1)), the potent synthetic cannabinoid HU-210 (50 micro g kg(-1) d(-1)) or vehicle for 12 weeks after coronary artery ligation or sham operation. 2. AM-251 further reduced the pressure-generating capacity, shifted the pressure volume curve to the right (P<0.05) and increased the left-ventricular operating volume (AM-251: 930+/-40 micro l vs control: 820+/-40 micro l vs HU-210: 790+/-50 micro l; P<0.05) in rats with large myocardial infarction (MI). 3. Left-ventricular CB(1) immunoactivity in rats 12 weeks after large MI was unaltered as compared with noninfarcted hearts. 4. Cannabinoid receptor activation through HU-210, a cannabinoid that alters cardiovascular parameters via CB(1) receptors, increased the left-ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, P<0.05). However, it prevented the drop in left-ventricular systolic pressure (HU-210: 142+/-5 mm Hg; P<0.05 vs control: 124+/-3 mm Hg; and P<0.001 vs AM-251: 114+/-3 mm Hg) and prevented endothelial dysfunction (ED) in aortic rings of rats with large MI (P<0.05). 5. Compared with AM-251, HU-210 prevented the decline in the maximal rate of rise of left-ventricular pressure and the maximum pressure-generating ability (P<0.05). In rats with small MI, HU-210 increased cardiac index (P<0.01) and lowered the total peripheral resistance (P<0.05). 6. The study shows that during the development of congestive heart failure post-large MI, cannabinoid treatment increases LVEDP and prevents hypotension and ED. Presumed CB(1) antagonism promotes remodeling despite unchanged myocardial CB(1) expression.  (+info)

Vasodilator actions of abnormal-cannabidiol in rat isolated small mesenteric artery. (2/155)

1. The nonpsychoactive cannabinoid abnormal-cannabidiol (trans-4-[3-methyl-6-(1-methylethenyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-yl]-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenedio l) (abn-cbd) produced concentration-dependent relaxation of methoxamine-precontracted rat small mesenteric artery. Endothelial removal reduced abn-cbd potency six-fold without affecting the maximum relaxation. 2. In endothelium-intact vessels, abn-cbd was less potent under 60 mM KCl-induced tone and inhibited by combination of L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor; 300 micro M), apamin (small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels inhibitor; 50 nM) and charybdotoxin (inhibitor of intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels and large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels BK(Ca); 50 nM). L-NAME alone or in combination with either toxin alone had little effect. 3. In intact vessels, relaxations to abn-cbd were inhibited by SR 141716A (cannabinoid receptor antagonist; 1 or 3 micro M). Concomitant addition of L-NAME, apamin and charybdotoxin had no further effect. Other cannabinoid receptor antagonists either had little (SR 144528; 1 micro M and AM 251; 1 micro M) or no effect (AM 630; 10 micro M and AM 281; 1 micro M). Inhibition of gap junctions, G(i/o) protein coupling and protein kinase A also had no effect. 4. Endothelium-independent relaxation to abn-cbd was unaffected by L-NAME, apamin plus charybdotoxin or capsaicin (10 micro M). Abn-cbd inhibited CaCl(2)-induced contractions in vessels with depleted intracellular Ca(2+) stores and stimulated with methoxamine or KCl. This was insensitive to SR 141716A (3 micro M) but greatly reduced in vessels stimulated with ionomycin (Ca(2+) ionophore; 1 micro M). 5. We conclude that abn-cbd relaxes the rat small mesenteric artery by endothelium-dependent activation of K(+) channels via SR 141716A-sensitive pathways, which do not involve CB(1) and CB(2) receptors. It also causes endothelium-independent, SR 141716A-insensitive, relaxation by inhibiting Ca(2+) entry through voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels.  (+info)

Cannabinoid receptor-mediated regulation of intracellular calcium by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in resting T cells. (3/155)

Cannabinoids exhibit broad immune modulating activity by targeting many cell types within the immune system, including T cells, which exhibit sensitivity, as evidenced by altered activation, proliferation, and cytokine expression. As a result of the critical role calcium plays in T cell function coupled with previous findings demonstrating disruption of the calcium-regulated transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T cells, by cannabinoid treatment, the objective of the present investigation was to perform an initial characterization of the role of the cannabinoid receptors in the regulation of the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) by delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta(9)-THC) in T lymphocytes. Here, we demonstrate that delta(9)-THC robustly elevates [Ca(2+)](i) in purified murine splenic T cells and in the human peripheral blood acute lymphoid leukemia (HPB-ALL) human T cell line but only minimally elevates [Ca(2+)](i) in Jurkat E6-1 (dysfunctional cannabinoid receptor 2-expressing) human T cells. Removal of extracellular calcium severely attenuated the delta(9)-THC-mediated rise in [Ca(2+)](i) in murine splenic T cells and HPB-ALL cells. Pretreatment with cannabinoid receptor antagonists, SR144528 and/or SR141716A, led to an attenuation of delta(9)-THC-mediated elevation in [Ca(2+)](i) in splenic T cells and HPB-ALL cells but not in Jurkat E6-1 cells. Furthermore, pretreatment of HPB-ALL cells with SR144528 antagonized the small rise in [Ca(2+)](i) elicited by delta(9)-THC in the absence of extracellular calcium. These findings suggest that delta(9)-THC induces an influx of extracellular calcium in resting T cells in a cannabinoid receptor-dependent manner.  (+info)

Endocannabinoid system modulates relapse to methamphetamine seeking: possible mediation by the arachidonic acid cascade. (4/155)

We clarified the modulating action of the endocannabinoid system, and its possible mediation by the arachidonic acid cascade, on the reinstatement of methamphetamine (METH)-seeking behavior, using the intravenous self-administration paradigm in rats. Following 12 days of self-administration of METH, the replacement of METH with saline resulted in a gradual decrease in lever press responses (extinction). Under extinction conditions, METH-priming or re-exposure to cues previously paired with METH infusion markedly increased the responses (reinstatement of drug-seeking). The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, SR141716A, blocked this behavior. Although the cannabinoid agonist, Delta8-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), had no effects by itself, coadministration of the agonist and METH at small doses reinstated the drug-seeking behavior. THC attenuated the effects of the reinstatement-inducing dose of METH, but enhanced the effect of cues. Either given repeatedly during the extinction or singly, 24 h before the first METH-priming or cues challenge, THC suppressed the reinstatement. In another set of experiments, we found that diclofenac, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, also attenuated the reinstatement induced by exposure to cues or drug-priming. These results suggest that the endocannabinoid system, through possible mediation by the arachidonic acid cascade, serves as a modulator of the reinstating effects of METH-priming and cues. Extending the current view on the treatment of drug dependence, these results indicate that endocannabinoid-activating substances as well as cyclooxygenase inhibitors may be promising as antirelapse agents.  (+info)

Central effects of the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 on respiratory and cardiovascular regulation in anaesthetised rats. (5/155)

1 The primary aim was to study the central respiratory effects of cannabinoids (CB). To this end, the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 was injected into the cisterna magna of urethane-anaesthetised rats and changes in respiratory parameters were observed. The secondary aim was to observe the centrally elicited cardiovascular actions of WIN55212-2. Involvement of opioid mechanisms in the central effects of WIN55212-2 was also studied. 2 Intracisternal (i.c.) application of WIN55212-2 (1, 3, 10 and 30 microg kg(-1)) dose-dependently decreased the respiratory rate and minute volume. Tidal volume was slightly increased, whereas peak inspiratory flow remained unchanged. In addition, WIN55212-2 increased mean arterial pressure and the plasma noradrenaline concentration and decreased heart rate. 3 I.c. injection of WIN55212-3 (1, 3, 10 and 30 microg kg(-1)), an enantiomer of WIN55212-2 lacking affinity for cannabinoid receptors, elicited no effects. All effects of WIN55212-2 were prevented by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716 (2 mg kg(-1) i.v.). I.c. administration of the opioid receptor agonist DAMGO (0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 microg kg(-1)) markedly lowered the respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute volume and peak inspiratory flow. These effects were attenuated by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (0.2 mg kg(-1) i.v.). In contrast, naloxone did not affect the respiratory and cardiovascular effects of i.c. administered WIN55212-2. 4 Our results show that activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the brain stem depresses respiration and enhances sympathetic tone and cardiac vagal tone. Opioid mechanisms are not involved in these central cannabinoid effects.  (+info)

The cannabinomimetic arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA) acts on capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 receptors but not cannabinoid receptors in rat joints. (6/155)

The vasoactive effects of the synthetic cannabinoid (CB) arachidonyl-2-chloroethylamide (ACEA) was tested in the knee joints of urethane-anaesthetised rats. Experiments were also performed to determine whether these vasomotor responses could be blocked by the selective CB(1) receptor antagonists AM251 (N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole- 3-carboxamide) (10(-9) mol) and AM281 (1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-4-morpholinyl-1H-pyrazole-3-c arboxamide) (10(-8) mol), as well as the selective CB(2) receptor antagonist AM630 (6-iodo-2-methyl-1-[2-4(morpholinyl)ethyl]-[1H-indol-3-yl](4-methoxyphenyl)methan one) (10(-8) mol). Peripheral application of ACEA (10(-14)-10(-9) mol) onto the exposed surface of the knee joint capsule caused a dose-dependent increase in synovial blood flow. The dilator action of the CB occurred within 1 min after drug administration and rapidly returned to control levels shortly thereafter. The maximal vasodilator effect of ACEA corresponded to a 30% increase in articular perfusion compared to control levels. The hyperaemic action of ACEA was not significantly altered by coadministration of AM251, AM281 or AM630 (P>0.05; two-way ANOVA). The transient receptor potential channel vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV(1)) antagonist capsazepine (10(-6) mol) significantly reduced the vasodilator effect of ACEA on joint blood vessels (P=0.002). Furthermore, destruction of unmyelinated and thinly myelinated joint sensory nerves by capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) treatment also attenuated ACEA responses (P<0.0005). These data clearly demonstrate a vasodilator effect of the cannabinomimetic ACEA on knee joint perfusion. Rather than a classic CB receptor pathway, ACEA exerts its vasomotor influence by acting via TRPV(1) receptors located on the terminal branches of capsaicin-sensitive afferent nerves innervating the joint.  (+info)

Anandamide-induced cell death in primary neuronal cultures: role of calpain and caspase pathways. (7/155)

Anandamide (arachidonoylethanolamide or AEA) is an endocannabinoid that acts at vanilloid (VR1) as well as at cannabinoid (CB1/CB2) and NMDA receptors. Here, we show that AEA, in a dose-dependent manner, causes cell death in cultured rat cortical neurons and cerebellar granule cells. Inhibition of CB1, CB2, VR1 or NMDA receptors by selective antagonists did not reduce AEA neurotoxicity. Anandamide-induced neuronal cell loss was associated with increased intracellular Ca(2+), nuclear condensation and fragmentation, decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential, translocation of cytochrome c, and upregulation of caspase-3-like activity. However, caspase-3, caspase-8 or caspase-9 inhibitors, or blockade of protein synthesis by cycloheximide did not alter anandamide-related cell death. Moreover, AEA caused cell death in caspase-3-deficient MCF-7 cell line and showed similar cytotoxic effects in caspase-9 dominant-negative, caspase-8 dominant-negative or mock-transfected SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Anandamide upregulated calpain activity in cortical neurons, as revealed by alpha-spectrin cleavage, which was attenuated by the calpain inhibitor calpastatin. Calpain inhibition significantly limited anandamide-induced neuronal loss and associated cytochrome c release. These data indicate that AEA neurotoxicity appears not to be mediated by CB1, CB2, VR1 or NMDA receptors and suggest that calpain activation, rather than intrinsic or extrinsic caspase pathways, may play a critical role in anandamide-induced cell death.  (+info)

2-arachidonoylglycerol, an endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand, induces rapid actin polymerization in HL-60 cells differentiated into macrophage-like cells. (8/155)

Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, a major psychoactive constituent of marijuana, interacts with specific receptors, i.e. the cannabinoid receptors, thereby eliciting a variety of pharmacological responses. To date, two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified: the CB1 receptor, which is abundantly expressed in the nervous system, and the CB2 receptor, which is predominantly expressed in the immune system. Previously, we investigated in detail the structure-activity relationship of various cannabinoid receptor ligands and found that 2-AG (2-arachidonoylglycerol) is the most efficacious agonist. We have proposed that 2-AG is the true natural ligand for both the CB1 and CB2 receptors. Despite the potential physiological importance of 2-AG, not much information is available concerning its biological activities towards mammalian tissues and cells. In the present study, we examined the effect of 2-AG on morphology as well as the actin filament system in differentiated HL-60 cells, which express the CB2 receptor. We found that 2-AG induces rapid morphological changes such as the extension of pseudopods. We also found that it provokes a rapid actin polymerization in these cells. Actin polymerization induced by 2-AG was abolished when cells were treated with SR144528, a CB2 receptor antagonist, and pertussis toxin, suggesting that the response was mediated by the CB2 receptor and G(i/o). A phosphoinositide 3-kinase, Rho family small G-proteins and a tyrosine kinase were also suggested to be involved. Reorganization of the actin filament system is known to be indispensable for a variety of cellular events; it is possible that 2-AG plays physiologically essential roles in various inflammatory cells and immune-competent cells by inducing a rapid actin rearrangement.  (+info)

Receptors, cannabinoid are a type of cell receptor that are activated by cannabinoids, which are chemical compounds found in the cannabis plant. These receptors are primarily located in the brain and central nervous system, but they are also found in other parts of the body, such as the immune system and the gastrointestinal tract. Cannabinoid receptors are classified into two main types: CB1 receptors and CB2 receptors. CB1 receptors are primarily found in the brain and are involved in the regulation of mood, memory, appetite, and pain sensation. CB2 receptors, on the other hand, are primarily found in the immune system and are involved in the regulation of inflammation and pain. Cannabinoids can bind to these receptors and trigger a variety of physiological responses, depending on the specific receptor that is activated and the location of the receptor in the body. Some of the effects of cannabinoid receptor activation include relaxation, pain relief, and changes in mood and appetite. Cannabinoid receptors have been the subject of extensive research in the medical field, and there is growing interest in the potential therapeutic uses of cannabinoids for a variety of conditions, including chronic pain, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy. However, more research is needed to fully understand the role of cannabinoid receptors in the body and to develop safe and effective treatments that target these receptors.

The term "Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1" refers to a specific type of protein found on the surface of certain cells in the human body. These proteins, called CB1 receptors, are activated by a class of chemicals called cannabinoids, which are found in the plant Cannabis sativa (marijuana) and in the body itself. CB1 receptors are primarily located in the brain and central nervous system, but they are also found in other parts of the body, such as the immune system, the gastrointestinal tract, and the reproductive system. When activated by cannabinoids, CB1 receptors can affect a wide range of physiological processes, including mood, pain perception, appetite, memory, and movement. In the medical field, CB1 receptors have been the subject of extensive research due to their potential therapeutic applications. For example, some studies have suggested that drugs that block CB1 receptors may be effective in treating conditions such as obesity, anxiety, and depression. On the other hand, drugs that activate CB1 receptors may be useful in treating conditions such as chronic pain, nausea, and muscle spasms. However, the use of cannabis and cannabinoid-based medications is still a controversial issue, and more research is needed to fully understand their potential benefits and risks.

The term "Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB2" refers to a specific type of protein found on the surface of certain cells in the body. These proteins, called CB2 receptors, are part of the endocannabinoid system, which plays a role in regulating a variety of physiological processes, including pain, inflammation, and immune function. CB2 receptors are primarily found in the immune system, although they are also present in other tissues, such as the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system. Activation of CB2 receptors can have a range of effects on the body, depending on the specific circumstances and the cells involved. Cannabinoids are a class of compounds that interact with CB2 receptors, including endogenous cannabinoids (which are produced by the body) and exogenous cannabinoids (which are derived from plants or other sources). Some cannabinoids, such as THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), are psychoactive and can produce the "high" associated with marijuana use. Other cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), are non-psychoactive and have been studied for their potential therapeutic effects. In the medical field, CB2 receptors and their interactions with cannabinoids are being investigated for their potential role in treating a variety of conditions, including chronic pain, inflammation, and certain types of cancer. However, more research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms by which CB2 receptors and cannabinoids exert their effects, and to determine the optimal dosages and treatment regimens for these compounds.

Cannabinoids are a group of chemical compounds that are found in the cannabis plant, including marijuana and hemp. They interact with the body's endocannabinoid system, which plays a role in regulating various physiological processes such as pain, mood, appetite, and sleep. In the medical field, cannabinoids are being studied for their potential therapeutic effects on a variety of conditions, including chronic pain, nausea, vomiting, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and cancer. Some cannabinoids, such as THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol), have gained significant attention in recent years due to their potential medical benefits. Cannabinoids can be administered in various forms, including smoked or vaporized cannabis, oral or sublingual sprays, capsules, and oils. However, the use of cannabinoids for medical purposes is still a relatively new field, and more research is needed to fully understand their potential benefits and risks.

Pyrazoles are a class of heterocyclic compounds that contain a five-membered ring with one nitrogen atom and two carbon atoms. They are commonly used in the medical field as pharmaceuticals and as active ingredients in various drugs. Pyrazoles have a wide range of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiviral, and antihypertensive properties. Some examples of drugs that contain pyrazoles include: 1. Metformin: A medication used to treat type 2 diabetes. 2. Etoricoxib: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to treat pain and inflammation. 3. Ritonavir: An antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV/AIDS. 4. Alendronate: A medication used to treat osteoporosis. 5. Cilostazol: A medication used to treat peripheral arterial disease. Pyrazoles are also used as research tools in the field of medicinal chemistry to develop new drugs with specific biological activities.

Piperidines are a class of organic compounds that contain a six-membered ring with nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 4. They are commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry as a building block for the synthesis of a wide range of drugs, including analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, and antihistamines. Piperidines are also found in natural products, such as alkaloids, and have been used in traditional medicine for their various therapeutic effects. In the medical field, piperidines are often used as a starting point for the development of new drugs, as they can be easily modified to produce a wide range of pharmacological activities.

Endocannabinoids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that are produced by the human body and bind to the cannabinoid receptors in the brain and body. These compounds are similar in structure to the active compounds found in marijuana, known as cannabinoids. Endocannabinoids play a role in a variety of physiological processes, including pain sensation, mood regulation, appetite, and memory. They are produced and released by cells in the body in response to various stimuli, such as stress, injury, and changes in the environment. There are two main types of endocannabinoids: anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Anandamide is often referred to as the "bliss molecule" because it is thought to play a role in feelings of pleasure and well-being. 2-AG is another important endocannabinoid that is involved in pain regulation and other physiological processes. Endocannabinoids are also the target of the endocannabinoid system, a complex network of receptors and enzymes that is found throughout the body. The endocannabinoid system plays a role in regulating a wide range of physiological processes, and imbalances in this system have been linked to a variety of health conditions, including chronic pain, anxiety, and depression.

I'm sorry, but I couldn't find any information on a medical term called "Bornanes." It's possible that you may have misspelled the term or that it is not a recognized term in the medical field. If you have any additional information or context, please let me know and I'll do my best to assist you.

Receptors, drug, in the medical field refer to specific proteins or molecules on the surface or inside cells that bind to and respond to drugs or other molecules. These receptors play a crucial role in the body's response to drugs and are the target of many medications. When a drug binds to a receptor, it can activate or inhibit the receptor's function, leading to changes in cellular signaling and ultimately resulting in a therapeutic effect. There are many different types of drug receptors, including ion channels, G-protein coupled receptors, and enzyme-linked receptors, and each type of receptor has a specific role in the body's response to drugs. Understanding the properties and functions of drug receptors is essential for the development of effective and safe medications.

Dronabinol, also known as Marinol, is a synthetic cannabinoid medication that is used to treat nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy, as well as appetite loss in people with AIDS. It is a Schedule III controlled substance in the United States and is available only by prescription. Dronabinol is a synthetic version of the active ingredient in marijuana, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). It works by binding to cannabinoid receptors in the brain and body, which can help to reduce nausea and stimulate appetite.

Benzoxazines are a class of organic compounds that contain a benzene ring with an oxygen atom attached to a nitrogen atom. They are commonly used as dyes, pigments, and photoresists in various industries, including the pharmaceutical and medical fields. In the medical field, benzoxazines have been studied for their potential applications in drug discovery and development. Some benzoxazines have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-cancer properties, making them potential candidates for the treatment of various diseases and conditions. For example, benzoxazines have been investigated as potential treatments for inflammatory bowel disease, where they have been shown to reduce inflammation and improve symptoms in animal models. They have also been studied for their potential use in the treatment of cancer, where they have been shown to inhibit the growth of cancer cells and induce apoptosis (cell death) in some cases. Overall, benzoxazines are a promising class of compounds with potential applications in the medical field, and ongoing research is exploring their potential uses in drug discovery and development.

Polyunsaturated alkamides are a class of organic compounds that contain both saturated and unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. They are commonly found in plants, particularly in the seeds and fruits of certain plants, and are known for their potential health benefits. In the medical field, polyunsaturated alkamides have been studied for their potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Some studies have suggested that these compounds may be effective in treating conditions such as arthritis, chronic pain, and inflammatory bowel disease. One of the most well-known polyunsaturated alkamides is capsaicin, which is the compound responsible for the spicy taste of chili peppers. Capsaicin has been studied for its potential to relieve pain and reduce inflammation, and it is often used in over-the-counter pain creams and patches. Other polyunsaturated alkamides that have been studied for their potential health benefits include anandamide, which is a compound that is believed to play a role in the body's endocannabinoid system, and oleamide, which is a compound that is involved in the regulation of appetite and sleep.

Cyclohexanols are a group of organic compounds that contain a six-membered ring of carbon atoms with a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to one of the carbon atoms. They are commonly used as solvents, intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals, and as starting materials for the production of pharmaceuticals and other chemicals. In the medical field, cyclohexanols are used as intermediates in the synthesis of various drugs, including analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, and antibiotics. They are also used as solvents in the preparation of pharmaceuticals and as precursors for the synthesis of other organic compounds. Some specific examples of cyclohexanols used in the medical field include: - Cyclohexanol, which is used as a solvent in the preparation of various pharmaceuticals and as a starting material for the synthesis of other organic compounds. - 2-Cyclohexen-1-ol, which is used as a starting material for the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals, including anti-inflammatory agents and analgesics. - 3-Cyclohexen-1-ol, which is used as a starting material for the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals, including anti-inflammatory agents and analgesics. It is important to note that while cyclohexanols have some potential medical applications, they can also be toxic and may cause skin irritation, respiratory irritation, and other adverse effects if not used properly. Therefore, they should be handled with care and used only under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

Naphthalenes are a group of organic compounds that are composed of two benzene rings fused together. They are commonly used as insecticides and moth repellents, and have also been used in the past as a treatment for certain medical conditions such as respiratory infections and skin infections. However, the use of naphthalenes as a medical treatment is now generally discouraged due to their potential toxicity and the availability of safer alternatives. In the medical field, naphthalenes are primarily used as a research tool to study the effects of benzene ring compounds on various biological processes.

Arachidonic acid (AA) is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid that is found in the cell membranes of all living organisms. It is an essential fatty acid, meaning that it cannot be synthesized by the body and must be obtained through the diet. In the medical field, arachidonic acid is known for its role in the production of eicosanoids, a group of signaling molecules that play important roles in various physiological processes, including inflammation, blood clotting, and immune function. Eicosanoids are synthesized from arachidonic acid by enzymes called cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenases (LOXs). Arachidonic acid is also a precursor to the synthesis of prostaglandins, which are another group of eicosanoids that have a wide range of effects on the body, including regulating blood pressure, controlling inflammation, and modulating pain and fever. In addition to its role in eicosanoid production, arachidonic acid is also important for maintaining the fluidity and integrity of cell membranes, and for regulating the activity of various enzymes and signaling molecules. Abnormal levels of arachidonic acid or disruptions in its metabolism have been linked to a number of medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, inflammatory disorders, and neurological disorders. As a result, arachidonic acid is an important area of research in the medical field, with efforts focused on developing new treatments and therapies for these conditions.

Morpholines are a class of organic compounds that contain a six-membered ring with four carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms. They are often used as intermediates in the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals and other chemicals. In the medical field, morpholines have been studied for their potential use as antiviral, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory agents. Some specific examples of morpholine-based drugs that have been developed for medical use include the antiviral drug ribavirin and the antipsychotic drug risperidone.

Glycerides are a type of lipid molecule that consists of a glycerol molecule bonded to three fatty acid molecules. They are an important component of cell membranes and are also found in many foods, including fats and oils. In the medical field, glycerides are often used as a measure of blood cholesterol levels, as elevated levels of triglycerides (a type of glyceride) are a risk factor for heart disease. They are also used in the production of medications, such as cholesterol-lowering drugs.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive compound found in the cannabis plant. It is one of over 100 cannabinoids that have been identified in the plant, and it is the second most abundant cannabinoid found in cannabis, after tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). CBD has gained significant attention in the medical field due to its potential therapeutic benefits. It is believed to have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-anxiety effects, and it may also have potential benefits for a range of medical conditions, including epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain. CBD is available in a variety of forms, including oils, tinctures, capsules, and topical creams. It is important to note that the medical use of CBD is still a relatively new field, and more research is needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic benefits and potential side effects.

Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein (IL-1Ra) is a protein that acts as an antagonist to the Interleukin 1 (IL-1) cytokine family. IL-1 is a group of signaling molecules that play a crucial role in the immune response and inflammation. IL-1Ra binds to the IL-1 receptor and prevents IL-1 from binding to its receptor, thereby inhibiting its pro-inflammatory effects. IL-1Ra is produced by various cells in the body, including monocytes, macrophages, and fibroblasts, and is released in response to inflammation or injury. It is also found in high concentrations in synovial fluid, which is the fluid that lubricates the joints. IL-1Ra has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects, and it has been used in clinical trials to treat various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. It is also being studied as a potential treatment for COVID-19, as it may help to reduce inflammation and prevent severe illness.

Monoacylglycerol lipases (MAGLs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the metabolism of endocannabinoids, which are signaling molecules that bind to cannabinoid receptors in the brain and body. MAGLs are responsible for breaking down 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), the most abundant endocannabinoid in the body, into arachidonic acid and glycerol. In the medical field, MAGLs have gained attention as potential therapeutic targets for a variety of conditions, including chronic pain, inflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases. By inhibiting MAGL activity, it is possible to increase the levels of 2-AG in the body, which may have therapeutic benefits. However, it is important to note that the use of MAGL inhibitors is still in the experimental stage and more research is needed to fully understand their potential therapeutic effects and potential side effects.

Amidohydrolases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of amides to form carboxylic acids and amines. These enzymes are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including the breakdown of peptides and proteins, the metabolism of neurotransmitters, and the detoxification of xenobiotics. In the medical field, amidohydrolases are often studied in the context of diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease, where the accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates is thought to play a role. Some amidohydrolases, such as beta-secretase and gamma-secretase, are involved in the processing of the amyloid precursor protein, which is a key component of the amyloid plaques that are characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. Amidohydrolases are also important in the development of new drugs, as they can be targeted to treat a variety of conditions, including cancer, inflammation, and infectious diseases. For example, some drugs that target amidohydrolases are used to treat pain, while others are used to treat bacterial infections by inhibiting the enzymes that bacteria use to synthesize essential amino acids.

Cannabinol (CBD) is a naturally occurring compound found in the cannabis plant. It is one of the main active ingredients in marijuana and has been studied for its potential medical benefits. CBD is a non-psychoactive compound, meaning it does not produce the "high" associated with marijuana use. Instead, it has been shown to have potential therapeutic effects on a variety of conditions, including chronic pain, anxiety, and epilepsy. In the medical field, CBD is often used as a supplement or alternative treatment for these conditions. It is important to note that the use of CBD is still a relatively new area of research, and more studies are needed to fully understand its potential benefits and risks.

Indoles are a class of organic compounds that contain a six-membered aromatic ring with a nitrogen atom at one of the corners of the ring. They are commonly found in a variety of natural products, including some plants, bacteria, and fungi. In the medical field, indoles have been studied for their potential therapeutic effects, particularly in the treatment of cancer. Some indoles have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-bacterial properties, and are being investigated as potential drugs for the treatment of various diseases.

Hormone antagonists are medications that block or inhibit the effects of hormones in the body. They are often used in medical treatments to counteract the effects of hormones that are either overactive or underactive. Examples of hormone antagonists include: 1. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs): These medications block the effects of estrogen in some tissues but not others. They are used to treat conditions such as breast cancer and osteoporosis. 2. Progestins: These medications mimic the effects of the hormone progesterone and are used to treat conditions such as menopause symptoms and endometriosis. 3. Androgens: These medications block the effects of testosterone and are used to treat conditions such as prostate cancer and hirsutism (excessive hair growth in women). 4. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists: These medications block the release of gonadotropins, hormones that stimulate the ovaries and testes to produce sex hormones. They are used to treat conditions such as endometriosis and prostate cancer. Overall, hormone antagonists are an important tool in the medical field for treating a variety of conditions related to hormonal imbalances.

Capsaicin is a chemical compound found in chili peppers that is responsible for their spicy flavor and pungency. In the medical field, capsaicin is used as a topical analgesic, meaning it is applied to the skin to relieve pain. It works by activating sensory nerves called TRPV1 receptors, which are responsible for detecting heat and pain. When capsaicin binds to these receptors, it causes them to fire, which can help to reduce pain signals to the brain. Capsaicin is often used to treat conditions such as arthritis, nerve pain, and migraines. It is available in various forms, including creams, patches, and gels, and is generally considered safe when used as directed. However, some people may experience side effects such as skin irritation, redness, or burning when using capsaicin products.

Carbamates are a class of organic compounds that contain a carbon-nitrogen double bond (C=N) and are derived from carbamic acid (H2NCOOH). They are commonly used as pesticides, insecticides, and fungicides. In the medical field, carbamates are used as anticholinesterase agents, which means they inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This can lead to an accumulation of acetylcholine in the body, which can cause symptoms such as muscle weakness, tremors, and difficulty breathing. Carbamates are also used as muscle relaxants and as sedatives. However, they can be toxic if ingested or inhaled in large amounts, and can cause serious side effects such as respiratory failure, seizures, and even death.

Receptors, Endothelin are a type of protein receptors found on the surface of cells in the endothelium, which is the inner lining of blood vessels. These receptors are activated by the hormone endothelin, which is produced by cells in the walls of blood vessels and plays a role in regulating blood pressure and blood vessel tone. Activation of endothelin receptors can cause blood vessels to constrict, which can increase blood pressure and reduce blood flow to organs and tissues. Endothelin receptors are also involved in the development of certain cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and heart failure.

TRPV cation channels, also known as transient receptor potential vanilloid channels, are a group of ion channels found in the membranes of sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system. These channels are activated by a variety of stimuli, including heat, capsaicin (the compound that gives chili peppers their heat), and changes in the pH of the extracellular environment. When TRPV channels are activated, they allow positively charged ions, such as sodium and calcium, to flow into the cell. This influx of ions can cause depolarization of the neuron, leading to the generation of an action potential and the transmission of a sensory signal to the central nervous system. TRPV channels play a role in a variety of physiological processes, including pain sensation, thermoregulation, and the detection of certain chemical stimuli. They are also involved in a number of pathological conditions, including inflammatory pain, neurodegenerative diseases, and certain types of cancer. As such, TRPV channels are an important target for the development of new therapeutic agents.

In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.

Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) are a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor found in the central nervous system. They are named after the agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), which binds to and activates these receptors. NMDA receptors are important for a variety of physiological processes, including learning and memory, synaptic plasticity, and neuroprotection. They are also involved in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, and addiction. NMDA receptors are heteromeric complexes composed of two subunits, NR1 and NR2, which can be differentially expressed in various brain regions and cell types. The NR2 subunit determines the pharmacological properties and functional profile of the receptor, while the NR1 subunit is essential for receptor function. Activation of NMDA receptors requires the binding of both glutamate and a co-agonist, such as glycine or d-serine, as well as the depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane. This leads to the opening of a cation-permeable channel that allows the influx of calcium ions, which can trigger various intracellular signaling pathways and modulate gene expression. In summary, NMDA receptors are a type of glutamate receptor that play a crucial role in various physiological and pathological processes in the central nervous system.

Receptors, Opioid, mu (OPRM1) are a type of protein found on the surface of nerve cells in the brain and throughout the body. These receptors are activated by opioid drugs, such as morphine, heroin, and oxycodone, as well as endogenous opioid peptides, such as endorphins and enkephalins. The mu-opioid receptors play a key role in the body's response to pain, as well as in regulating mood, reward, and stress. They are also involved in the development of addiction to opioid drugs. Mutations in the OPRM1 gene can affect the function of mu-opioid receptors and may be associated with altered responses to opioid drugs and an increased risk of addiction.

Hyperalgesia is a medical condition characterized by an increased sensitivity to pain. It is a type of pain that is caused by an overactive nervous system, which results in a heightened perception of pain in response to a normal or low-intensity stimulus. Hyperalgesia can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, inflammation, nerve damage, and certain medical conditions such as fibromyalgia, chronic pain syndrome, and multiple sclerosis. It can also be a side effect of certain medications, such as opioids. Symptoms of hyperalgesia may include increased pain sensitivity, a heightened response to touch or pressure, and a reduced ability to tolerate pain. Treatment for hyperalgesia may involve a combination of medications, physical therapy, and other interventions aimed at reducing pain and improving quality of life.

Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled (GPCRs) are a large family of membrane proteins that play a crucial role in transmitting signals from the outside of a cell to the inside. They are found in almost all types of cells and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including sensory perception, neurotransmission, and hormone signaling. GPCRs are activated by a variety of molecules, including neurotransmitters, hormones, and sensory stimuli such as light, sound, and odor. When a molecule binds to a GPCR, it causes a conformational change in the protein that activates a G protein, a small molecule that acts as a molecular switch. The activated G protein then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to a cellular response. Because GPCRs are involved in so many different physiological processes, they are an important target for drug discovery. Many drugs, including those used to treat conditions such as hypertension, depression, and allergies, work by binding to specific GPCRs and modulating their activity.

Benzodioxoles are a class of organic compounds that contain a six-membered ring with two oxygen atoms and one nitrogen atom. They are also known as dibenzodioxoles or dibenzodioxolanes. In the medical field, benzodioxoles are used as a class of drugs that have a wide range of pharmacological activities. Some examples of benzodioxoles that are used in medicine include: 1. Diazepam: A benzodiazepine that is used to treat anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms. 2. Lorazepam: Another benzodiazepine that is used to treat anxiety, insomnia, and seizures. 3. Alprazolam: A benzodiazepine that is used to treat anxiety and panic disorder. 4. Clonazepam: A benzodiazepine that is used to treat epilepsy, anxiety, and panic disorder. 5. Triazolam: A benzodiazepine that is used to treat insomnia. Benzodioxoles are also used as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs, such as anticonvulsants, anesthetics, and antidepressants.

In the medical field, pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. Pain is a complex phenomenon that involves both physical and emotional components, and it can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, illness, inflammation, and nerve damage. Pain can be acute or chronic, and it can be localized to a specific area of the body or can affect the entire body. Acute pain is typically short-lived and is a normal response to injury or illness. Chronic pain, on the other hand, persists for more than three months and can be caused by a variety of factors, including nerve damage, inflammation, and psychological factors. In the medical field, pain is typically assessed using a pain scale, such as the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), which measures pain intensity on a scale of 0 to 10. Treatment for pain depends on the underlying cause and can include medications, physical therapy, and other interventions.

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the central nervous system. It is a non-protein amino acid that is synthesized from glutamate in the brain and spinal cord. GABA acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, meaning that it reduces the activity of neurons and helps to calm and relax the brain. In the medical field, GABA is often used as a treatment for anxiety disorders, insomnia, and epilepsy. It is available as a dietary supplement and can also be prescribed by a doctor in the form of medication. GABA supplements are believed to help reduce feelings of anxiety and promote relaxation by increasing the levels of GABA in the brain. However, more research is needed to fully understand the effects of GABA on the human body and to determine the most effective ways to use it as a treatment.

Glutamic acid is an amino acid that is naturally occurring in the human body and is essential for various bodily functions. It is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that the body can produce it from other compounds, but it is still important for maintaining good health. In the medical field, glutamic acid is sometimes used as a medication to treat certain conditions. For example, it is used to treat epilepsy, a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. Glutamic acid is also used to treat certain types of brain injuries, such as stroke, by promoting the growth of new brain cells. In addition to its medicinal uses, glutamic acid is also an important component of the diet. It is found in many foods, including meats, fish, poultry, dairy products, and grains. It is also available as a dietary supplement.

Sialoglycoproteins are a type of glycoprotein that are found in the saliva of humans and other animals. They are composed of a protein core and one or more carbohydrate chains attached to the protein. Sialoglycoproteins play important roles in a variety of biological processes, including the lubrication and protection of the oral mucosa, the breakdown of food in the mouth, and the immune response. They are also involved in the development and progression of certain diseases, such as cancer and autoimmune disorders. In the medical field, sialoglycoproteins are often studied as potential biomarkers for these and other conditions.

Leukotriene antagonists are a class of medications that block the action of leukotrienes, which are chemical messengers produced by the immune system. These drugs are used to treat a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and allergic rhinitis (hay fever). Leukotrienes play a role in the inflammatory response and can cause constriction of the airways, leading to difficulty breathing. By blocking the action of leukotrienes, leukotriene antagonists can help to relax the airways and improve breathing in people with asthma or COPD. There are several different types of leukotriene antagonists available, including montelukast (Singulair) and zafirlukast (Accolate). These drugs are usually taken by mouth and are generally well-tolerated. However, like all medications, they can cause side effects, such as headache, nausea, and dizziness. It is important to talk to a healthcare provider about the potential benefits and risks of leukotriene antagonists before starting treatment.

Receptors, Opioid are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to opioid drugs, such as morphine, heroin, and oxycodone. These receptors are part of the body's natural pain-relieving system and are involved in regulating pain, mood, and reward. When opioid drugs bind to these receptors, they can produce a range of effects, including pain relief, sedation, and euphoria. However, long-term use of opioid drugs can lead to dependence and addiction, as the body becomes accustomed to the presence of the drug and requires more of it to achieve the same effect.

The Endothelin A receptor (ETA receptor) is a protein that is found on the surface of cells in the body, particularly in the endothelium (the inner lining of blood vessels). It is a type of G protein-coupled receptor, which means that it is activated by a molecule called an agonist, such as endothelin-1, and triggers a series of cellular responses. The ETA receptor plays a role in regulating blood pressure and blood vessel tone, and is also involved in the development and progression of certain diseases, such as hypertension, heart failure, and atherosclerosis. Activation of the ETA receptor can cause vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels), which can increase blood pressure, and can also stimulate the release of other signaling molecules that can contribute to inflammation and tissue damage. In the medical field, the ETA receptor is an important target for the development of drugs that are used to treat cardiovascular diseases. For example, some drugs that block the ETA receptor, such as bosentan and ambrisentan, are used to treat pulmonary hypertension, a condition in which blood pressure in the lungs is abnormally high.

In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.

Ethanolamines are a group of organic compounds that contain an amino (-NH2) group attached to an ethyl (-CH2CH3) group. They are commonly used in the medical field as solvents, emulsifiers, and preservatives in various pharmaceutical and medical products. One specific ethanolamine that is commonly used in the medical field is triethanolamine (TEA). TEA is a colorless, viscous liquid that is used as a buffering agent in various medical products, including topical creams, ointments, and shampoos. It is also used as a surfactant in some medical devices, such as catheters and endoscopes, to help prevent bacterial growth and contamination. Another ethanolamine that is used in the medical field is diethanolamine (DEA). DEA is a colorless, odorless liquid that is used as a solvent and emulsifier in various medical products, including topical creams, ointments, and shampoos. It is also used as a preservative in some medical devices, such as catheters and endoscopes, to help prevent bacterial growth and contamination. Overall, ethanolamines are commonly used in the medical field due to their ability to act as solvents, emulsifiers, and preservatives in various medical products. However, it is important to note that some ethanolamines, such as DEA, have been linked to skin irritation and other adverse effects when used in high concentrations or for prolonged periods of time. Therefore, it is important to use these compounds in accordance with recommended guidelines and to carefully monitor their use in medical products.

Dizocilpine maleate, also known as dizocilpine or dizocilpine dibromide, is a drug that belongs to a class of compounds called N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists. It is used in scientific research to study the effects of NMDA receptor antagonists on the brain and nervous system. In the medical field, dizocilpine maleate has been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in a variety of neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and schizophrenia. However, it has not been approved for use in humans by regulatory agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) due to concerns about its safety and efficacy. Dizocilpine maleate is a potent and selective NMDA receptor antagonist that blocks the action of glutamate, a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in learning, memory, and other cognitive functions. It is believed that by blocking NMDA receptors, dizocilpine maleate can reduce the overactivity of neurons in the brain that is thought to contribute to the symptoms of certain neurological and psychiatric conditions. However, dizocilpine maleate has also been associated with a range of side effects, including cognitive impairment, psychosis, and motor dysfunction. As a result, its use in humans is limited and is typically only conducted in controlled clinical trials under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

Receptors, Serotonin are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to serotonin, a neurotransmitter that plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, and other bodily functions. There are several different types of serotonin receptors, each of which has a specific function and is activated by different types of serotonin molecules. Dysfunction of serotonin receptors has been implicated in a number of mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Medications that target serotonin receptors, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.

Cyclohexanes are a group of organic compounds that consist of a six-membered ring of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached to them. They are commonly used in the medical field as solvents for various drugs and as intermediates in the synthesis of other pharmaceuticals. Cyclohexanes are also used as anesthetic agents, particularly in veterinary medicine. They are generally considered to be safe and non-toxic, but high doses can cause dizziness, drowsiness, and other side effects.

Biphenyl compounds are a class of organic compounds that consist of two benzene rings joined together by a single carbon-carbon bond. They are commonly used as industrial solvents, plasticizers, and flame retardants. In the medical field, biphenyl compounds have been studied for their potential therapeutic effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral properties. Some biphenyl compounds have also been used as diagnostic agents in medical imaging. However, some biphenyl compounds have been associated with adverse health effects, including endocrine disruption, neurotoxicity, and carcinogenicity, and their use is regulated in many countries.

Resorcinols are a group of organic compounds that contain a hydroxybenzene ring with two hydroxyl groups (-OH) attached to the aromatic ring. They are commonly found in plants and are used in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and food. In the medical field, resorcinols are used as antiseptics, disinfectants, and antifungal agents. They have been shown to have antimicrobial properties against a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Resorcinols are also used in the treatment of skin conditions such as acne, eczema, and psoriasis. Some resorcinols, such as resorcinol and hydroquinone, are used in skin lightening products to reduce the appearance of hyperpigmentation. However, the use of these compounds in skin lightening products has been controversial due to concerns about their potential side effects, including skin irritation, allergic reactions, and long-term skin damage. Overall, resorcinols have a wide range of applications in the medical field, and their antimicrobial and skin-lightening properties make them useful in the treatment of various skin conditions. However, their use should be carefully monitored to minimize potential side effects.

Naloxone is a medication used to reverse the effects of opioid overdose. It works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and body, blocking the effects of opioids and causing the person to breathe normally again. Naloxone is often administered as an injection, but it can also be administered nasally or intravenously. It is commonly used in emergency medical settings to treat opioid overdose, but it can also be used in non-emergency situations, such as in the management of chronic pain or opioid addiction.

Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in many cellular processes, including metabolism, gene expression, and cell proliferation. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase, and its levels are regulated by various hormones and neurotransmitters. In the medical field, cAMP is often studied in the context of its role in regulating cellular signaling pathways. For example, cAMP is involved in the regulation of the immune system, where it helps to activate immune cells and promote inflammation. It is also involved in the regulation of the cardiovascular system, where it helps to regulate heart rate and blood pressure. In addition, cAMP is often used as a tool in research to study cellular signaling pathways. For example, it is commonly used to activate or inhibit specific signaling pathways in cells, allowing researchers to study the effects of these pathways on cellular function.

Receptors, Interleukin-1 (IL-1R) are a type of cell surface receptor that are activated by the cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1). IL-1 is a signaling molecule that plays a key role in the immune response and inflammation. It is produced by immune cells in response to infection or injury and can stimulate the production of other cytokines, as well as activate immune cells such as macrophages and T cells. IL-1R are expressed on a variety of cell types, including immune cells, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. When IL-1 binds to its receptor, it triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of various intracellular signaling pathways, including the NF-κB pathway and the MAPK pathway. These pathways can activate genes that produce pro-inflammatory molecules, such as cytokines and chemokines, as well as genes that regulate cell survival and proliferation. IL-1R are important in the regulation of the immune response and inflammation, and are also involved in the development of various diseases, including autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer. Inhibitors of IL-1R or its downstream signaling pathways are being developed as potential therapeutic agents for these diseases.

Morphine is a powerful opioid medication that is used to relieve severe pain. It is derived from the opium poppy and is one of the most potent naturally occurring opioids. Morphine works by binding to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, which can reduce the perception of pain and produce feelings of euphoria. It is often prescribed for patients who are experiencing severe pain, such as those with cancer or after surgery. Morphine can be administered in a variety of ways, including orally, intravenously, or through injection. It can also be used in combination with other medications to enhance its pain-relieving effects. However, morphine can also be highly addictive and can lead to dependence and withdrawal symptoms if used for an extended period of time. It is important for patients to use morphine only as directed by their healthcare provider and to avoid taking more than the recommended dose.

Pertussis toxin is a protein toxin produced by Bordetella pertussis, the bacterium responsible for whooping cough. It is one of the major virulence factors of B. pertussis and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Pertussis toxin is a complex molecule composed of two subunits: the A subunit, which is responsible for its toxic effects, and the B subunit, which is responsible for its binding to host cells. The A subunit of pertussis toxin ADP-ribosylates a specific host cell protein, called the G protein, which is involved in signal transduction pathways. This ADP-ribosylation leads to the inhibition of the G protein, which in turn disrupts normal cellular signaling and causes a variety of toxic effects, including inflammation, cell death, and disruption of the respiratory system. Pertussis toxin is a major contributor to the severity of whooping cough, and it is the target of several vaccines used to prevent the disease. In addition to its role in whooping cough, pertussis toxin has also been studied for its potential use as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of other diseases, such as cancer and autoimmune disorders.

Benzazepines are a class of psychoactive drugs that are structurally related to benzodiazepines. They are characterized by the presence of a benzene ring fused to an azepine ring, which gives them their unique chemical structure and pharmacological properties. Benzazepines are primarily used as anxiolytics, sedatives, and hypnotics to treat conditions such as anxiety, insomnia, and agitation. They work by enhancing the activity of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which helps to reduce anxiety and promote relaxation. Some examples of benzazepines include thienotriazolodiazepines (e.g., flunitrazepam), dibenzazepines (e.g., zolpidem), and benzodiazepine-like compounds (e.g., alprazolam). However, benzazepines are generally less commonly used than benzodiazepines due to their potential for abuse and dependence, as well as their side effects, which can include drowsiness, dizziness, and impaired coordination.

Sulfonamides are a class of synthetic antimicrobial drugs that were first discovered in the 1930s. They are commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, and skin infections. Sulfonamides work by inhibiting the production of folic acid by bacteria, which is essential for their growth and reproduction. They are often used in combination with other antibiotics to increase their effectiveness. Sulfonamides are generally well-tolerated, but can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions in some people.

Receptors, Dopamine D2 are a type of protein found on the surface of cells in the brain and other parts of the body. These receptors are activated by the neurotransmitter dopamine, which is a chemical that helps to regulate a variety of functions in the brain, including movement, motivation, and reward. When dopamine binds to D2 receptors, it can cause a variety of effects, including reducing the activity of certain neurons and increasing the activity of others. This can lead to changes in behavior, mood, and other physiological processes. D2 receptors are also involved in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia, and are the target of many medications used to treat these conditions.

Marijuana abuse refers to the excessive or inappropriate use of marijuana, a psychoactive drug derived from the Cannabis plant. It is characterized by the use of marijuana for non-medical purposes, despite the potential negative consequences on an individual's physical and mental health, social life, and overall well-being. Marijuana abuse can manifest in various ways, including using marijuana more frequently or in larger amounts than intended, using it in situations where it is not appropriate, or experiencing withdrawal symptoms when trying to stop using it. It can also lead to physical dependence, addiction, and other mental health problems such as anxiety, depression, and psychosis. In the medical field, marijuana abuse is often treated through a combination of behavioral therapy, medication-assisted treatment, and support groups. The goal of treatment is to help individuals overcome their addiction to marijuana and manage any underlying mental health issues that may have contributed to their abuse.

Tetrazoles are a class of organic compounds that contain a five-membered ring with four nitrogen atoms and one carbon atom. They have a variety of applications in the medical field, including as antimicrobial agents, anticancer drugs, and as inhibitors of enzymes involved in various biological processes. One example of a tetrazole-based drug is linezolid, which is an antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections, including pneumonia, skin infections, and bone and joint infections. Linezolid works by inhibiting the production of bacterial proteins, which are essential for the bacteria's survival. Tetrazoles are also being investigated as potential treatments for cancer. For example, some tetrazole derivatives have been shown to selectively target and kill cancer cells, while sparing healthy cells. Additionally, tetrazoles have been found to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, which could make them useful in the treatment of pain and other inflammatory conditions. Overall, tetrazoles are a versatile class of compounds with a wide range of potential applications in the medical field.

Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.

Xanthines are a group of compounds that include caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine. They are naturally occurring alkaloids found in plants such as coffee, tea, and cocoa. In the medical field, xanthines are used as bronchodilators to treat conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). They work by relaxing the muscles in the airways, allowing air to flow more easily. Xanthines can also be used to treat heart rhythm disorders and to prevent blood clots. However, they can have side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and increased heart rate, and may interact with other medications.

Benzofurans are a class of organic compounds that contain a six-membered aromatic ring with two nitrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. They are often used as dyes, pigments, and intermediates in the synthesis of other compounds. In the medical field, benzofurans have been studied for their potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-viral activities. Some benzofurans have been shown to have activity against specific types of cancer cells, and are being investigated as potential treatments for these diseases. Additionally, some benzofurans have been found to have anti-inflammatory effects, and may be useful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as arthritis.

Receptors, Opioid, kappa are a type of protein found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to opioid drugs, such as morphine and heroin. These receptors play a role in the body's response to pain, stress, and reward, and are involved in a number of physiological processes, including breathing, digestion, and mood regulation. The kappa opioid receptor is one of three main types of opioid receptors, along with the mu and delta receptors. Activation of the kappa receptor can produce a range of effects, including analgesia, sedation, and changes in mood and behavior.

Pyridines are a class of heterocyclic aromatic compounds that contain a six-membered ring with one nitrogen atom and five carbon atoms. They are commonly used in the medical field as precursors for the synthesis of various drugs and as ligands in metal complexes that have potential therapeutic applications. Some examples of drugs that contain pyridine rings include the antihistamine loratadine, the antipsychotic drug chlorpromazine, and the anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen. Pyridines are also used as chelating agents to remove heavy metals from the body, and as corrosion inhibitors in the manufacturing of metal products.

Substance Withdrawal Syndrome is a group of physical and psychological symptoms that occur when a person stops using a substance that they have been dependent on. These symptoms can be severe and can cause significant distress and discomfort. Substance withdrawal syndrome can occur when a person stops using alcohol, opioids, benzodiazepines, stimulants, or other addictive substances. The symptoms of substance withdrawal syndrome can vary depending on the substance that was being used and the length and severity of the addiction. Treatment for substance withdrawal syndrome typically involves medical supervision and the use of medications to manage the symptoms and prevent complications.

Cimetidine is a medication that is primarily used to treat ulcers in the stomach and esophagus. It works by blocking the production of stomach acid, which can help to reduce pain and inflammation associated with ulcers. Cimetidine is also sometimes used to treat other conditions, such as heartburn, GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease), and certain types of cancer. It is available in both oral and intravenous forms, and is typically taken two to four times per day. Side effects of cimetidine may include headache, dizziness, nausea, and constipation. It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by your healthcare provider and to let them know if you experience any side effects while taking this medication.

In the medical field, peptides are short chains of amino acids that are linked together by peptide bonds. Cyclic peptides are a type of peptide in which the amino acids are linked in a ring-like structure, rather than in a linear chain. These cyclic peptides can have a variety of biological activities, including antimicrobial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory effects. They are being studied for their potential use in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Substance P is a neuropeptide that is involved in the transmission of pain signals in the nervous system. It is a small protein that is produced by sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system and is released into the spinal cord and brain when these neurons are activated by noxious stimuli such as injury or inflammation. Substance P acts on specific receptors on nerve cells in the spinal cord and brain, triggering the release of other neurotransmitters and hormones that contribute to the perception of pain. It is also involved in other physiological processes, such as regulating blood pressure and heart rate. In the medical field, substance P is often studied in the context of pain management and the development of new pain medications. It is also used as a diagnostic tool in certain conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome, where it may be present in higher levels in the body.

Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a hormone that is produced by cells in the small intestine and the pancreas. It plays a role in regulating the digestive process by stimulating the release of digestive enzymes and bile from the pancreas and gallbladder, respectively. CCK also helps to slow down the movement of food through the small intestine, allowing more time for digestion and absorption of nutrients. In addition to its role in digestion, CCK has been found to have other functions in the body, including the regulation of appetite and the control of blood sugar levels.

Serotonin is a neurotransmitter, a chemical messenger that transmits signals between nerve cells in the brain and throughout the body. It plays a crucial role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, and other bodily functions. In the medical field, serotonin is often studied in relation to mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Low levels of serotonin have been linked to these conditions, and medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are often prescribed to increase serotonin levels in the brain and improve symptoms. Serotonin is also involved in the regulation of pain perception, blood pressure, and other bodily functions. Imbalances in serotonin levels have been implicated in a variety of medical conditions, including migraines, fibromyalgia, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Losartan is a medication used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) and to reduce the risk of stroke in people with high blood pressure and diabetes. It belongs to a class of drugs called angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), which work by relaxing blood vessels and decreasing the workload on the heart. Losartan is also used to treat heart failure and to reduce the risk of heart attack in people who have had a heart attack or who have certain risk factors for heart disease. It is usually taken once or twice a day, with or without food. Common side effects of losartan include headache, dizziness, and cough.

N-Methylaspartate (NMA) is a chemical compound that is found in the human body. It is a non-essential amino acid that is structurally similar to aspartate, another amino acid that is important for the proper functioning of the nervous system. NMA is thought to play a role in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and has been implicated in a number of neurological disorders, including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and multiple sclerosis. In the medical field, NMA is often used as a research tool to study the function of the nervous system and to develop new treatments for neurological disorders.

Benzamides are a class of organic compounds that contain a benzene ring with an amide functional group (-CONH2) attached to it. They are commonly used in the medical field as analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, and muscle relaxants. One example of a benzamide used in medicine is acetaminophen (paracetamol), which is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to relieve pain and reduce fever. Another example is benzylamine, which is used as a local anesthetic in dentistry. Benzamides can also be used as anticonvulsants, such as carbamazepine, which is used to treat epilepsy and trigeminal neuralgia. Additionally, some benzamides have been used as antidepressants, such as amitriptyline, which is a tricyclic antidepressant used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. Overall, benzamides have a wide range of medical applications and are an important class of compounds in the field of medicine.

Receptors, Bradykinin are a type of protein receptors found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to and respond to the hormone bradykinin. Bradykinin is a peptide hormone that plays a role in the inflammatory response and is involved in the regulation of blood pressure, pain, and other physiological processes. When bradykinin binds to its receptors, it triggers a cascade of chemical reactions within the cell that leads to various physiological effects. There are two main types of bradykinin receptors: B1 receptors and B2 receptors. B1 receptors are primarily found in the immune system and are involved in the inflammatory response, while B2 receptors are found in a wide range of tissues and are involved in a variety of physiological processes, including blood pressure regulation and pain perception.

GTP-binding protein alpha subunits, Gi-Go, are a family of proteins that play a crucial role in signal transduction pathways in cells. They are also known as G proteins or heterotrimeric G proteins because they consist of three subunits: an alpha subunit, a beta subunit, and a gamma subunit. The alpha subunit of Gi-Go proteins is responsible for binding to guanosine triphosphate (GTP), a small molecule that is involved in regulating many cellular processes. When GTP binds to the alpha subunit, it causes a conformational change in the protein, which in turn activates or inhibits downstream signaling pathways. Gi-Go proteins are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell growth and differentiation, metabolism, and immune function. They are also involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release in the nervous system and the contraction of smooth muscle cells in the cardiovascular system. Dysfunction of Gi-Go proteins has been implicated in a number of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the role of these proteins in cellular signaling pathways is an important area of research in the medical field.

The Endothelin B receptor (ETB) is a protein that is found on the surface of cells in the body, including cells in the cardiovascular system. It is a type of G protein-coupled receptor, which means that it is activated by the binding of a signaling molecule called an agonist, such as endothelin-1 or endothelin-3. When the ETB receptor is activated, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that can have a variety of effects on the cell, depending on the specific cell type and the context in which the receptor is activated. In the cardiovascular system, the ETB receptor is thought to play a role in regulating blood pressure and blood vessel tone, and it has been implicated in a number of cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, heart failure, and atherosclerosis.

Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide hormone that is primarily produced by endothelial cells in the walls of blood vessels. It plays a key role in regulating blood pressure and blood vessel tone, and is also involved in a variety of other physiological processes, including cell growth and differentiation, inflammation, and angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels). In the medical field, ET-1 is often measured as a biomarker for various cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, heart failure, and atherosclerosis. It is also used as a therapeutic target in the treatment of these conditions, with drugs such as endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) being developed to block the effects of ET-1 and improve cardiovascular outcomes. Additionally, ET-1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other diseases, such as cancer and fibrosis, and is being studied as a potential therapeutic target in these conditions as well.

Naltrexone is a medication that is used to treat alcohol and opioid addiction. It works by blocking the effects of opioids and alcohol on the brain, which can help reduce cravings and prevent relapse. Naltrexone is available in both oral and injectable forms, and it is typically prescribed as part of a comprehensive treatment plan that may also include counseling and support. It is important to note that naltrexone is not effective for everyone, and it may not be suitable for people with certain medical conditions or who are taking certain medications. It is always important to discuss the potential risks and benefits of any medication with a healthcare provider before starting treatment.

Receptors, Neurokinin-1 (NK1 receptors) are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found on the surface of certain cells in the body, including nerve cells (neurons) and immune cells. These receptors are activated by a group of signaling molecules called neurokinins, which are released by nerve cells in response to various stimuli, such as injury, stress, or inflammation. NK1 receptors play a role in a number of physiological processes, including pain perception, inflammation, and regulation of the immune system. They are also involved in the development of certain diseases, such as chronic pain, asthma, and irritable bowel syndrome. In the medical field, NK1 receptors are targeted by drugs used to treat a variety of conditions, including pain, nausea, and inflammation. One example of a drug that targets NK1 receptors is aprepitant, which is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy. Other drugs that target NK1 receptors include telaprevir and maraviroc, which are used to treat hepatitis C and HIV, respectively.

Palmitic acid is a saturated fatty acid that is commonly found in animal fats and some plant oils. It is a long-chain fatty acid with 16 carbon atoms and is one of the most abundant fatty acids in the human body. Palmitic acid is an important source of energy for the body and is also used to synthesize other important molecules, such as cholesterol and hormones. In the medical field, palmitic acid is sometimes used as a dietary supplement or as a component of certain medications. It is also sometimes used in the production of medical devices, such as catheters and implants. However, excessive consumption of palmitic acid has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease and other health problems, so it is important to consume it in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Azepines are a class of organic compounds that contain a seven-membered ring with four nitrogen atoms and three carbon atoms. They are often used as a building block for the synthesis of other drugs and are also used as anticonvulsants, anxiolytics, and sedatives in the medical field. Some common examples of azepines include triazolam (a benzodiazepine used to treat anxiety and insomnia), alprazolam (another benzodiazepine used to treat anxiety and panic disorder), and meprobamate (an antianxiety medication).

Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate (mGluRs) are a family of receptors that are activated by the neurotransmitter glutamate. These receptors are found throughout the central nervous system and play a role in a variety of physiological processes, including learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity. mGluRs are metabotropic because they do not directly open ion channels like other types of glutamate receptors. Instead, they activate intracellular signaling pathways that can modulate the activity of other proteins and molecules within the cell. There are eight subtypes of mGluRs, which are classified into three groups based on their structure and function: group I (mGluR1 and mGluR5), group II (mGluR2 and mGluR3), and group III (mGluR4, mGluR6, mGluR7, and mGluR8). Each subtype has a distinct distribution and function within the brain, and dysregulation of mGluR activity has been implicated in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, and epilepsy.

Colforsin is a synthetic decapeptide that mimics the action of adenosine, a naturally occurring molecule that plays a role in regulating various physiological processes in the body. It is used in the medical field as a bronchodilator, which means it helps to relax and widen the airways in the lungs, making it easier to breathe. Colforsin is typically administered as an aerosol or nebulizer solution and is used to treat conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchitis. It works by activating adenosine receptors in the lungs, which leads to the release of calcium from the cells lining the airways, causing them to relax and open up.

6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, also known as 7-nitro-6-cyanoquinoxaline-2,3-dione (7-NQX) or CNQX, is a synthetic compound that is commonly used in the medical field as a selective antagonist of the AMPA subtype of glutamate receptors. These receptors are important for the transmission of signals in the central nervous system, and they play a role in a variety of neurological processes, including learning, memory, and mood regulation. CNQX is often used in research to study the function of AMPA receptors and to investigate the effects of modulating their activity on various neurological disorders. It has been shown to have potential as a therapeutic agent for a number of conditions, including epilepsy, schizophrenia, and depression. In addition to its use as a research tool, CNQX has also been studied as a potential treatment for certain types of cancer. It has been shown to have anti-tumor effects in some preclinical studies, although more research is needed to determine its safety and efficacy in humans. Overall, CNQX is a useful tool for researchers studying the function of AMPA receptors and the potential therapeutic applications of modulating their activity.

2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV) is a chemical compound that is used in the medical field as a drug. It is a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, which means that it blocks the action of NMDA receptors in the brain. NMDA receptors are a type of ion channel that are involved in a variety of brain functions, including learning, memory, and mood regulation. By blocking NMDA receptors, APV can have a range of effects on the brain, including reducing seizures, improving mood, and reducing anxiety. APV is sometimes used as a treatment for conditions such as epilepsy, depression, and anxiety disorders. It is also being studied as a potential treatment for other neurological and psychiatric conditions.

Devazepide is a medication used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) and to reduce the risk of stroke and heart attack in people with high blood pressure and diabetes. It belongs to a class of drugs called diuretics, which work by increasing the amount of urine produced by the kidneys, which helps to lower blood pressure. Devazepide is taken by mouth and is usually prescribed once or twice a day. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider and to take the medication as directed. Devazepide may cause side effects, such as dizziness, headache, and stomach upset. It is important to talk to your healthcare provider if you experience any side effects while taking this medication.

Receptors, Cholecystokinin (CCK) are a type of protein receptor found in the cells of various organs in the body, including the pancreas, small intestine, and brain. These receptors are activated by the hormone cholecystokinin, which is produced by the cells of the small intestine in response to the presence of food in the stomach. When cholecystokinin binds to its receptors, it triggers a series of chemical reactions that lead to the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and the contraction of the muscles of the small intestine. This helps to move food through the digestive system and prepare it for absorption. In addition to its role in digestion, cholecystokinin has been found to play a role in regulating appetite, mood, and other physiological processes. It is also involved in the development of certain types of cancer, including pancreatic cancer. Overall, receptors, cholecystokinin are an important part of the body's digestive system and play a role in regulating a variety of physiological processes.

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the brain's reward and pleasure centers. It is also involved in regulating movement, motivation, and emotional responses. In the medical field, dopamine is often used to treat conditions such as Parkinson's disease, which is characterized by a lack of dopamine in the brain. It can also be used to treat high blood pressure, as well as to manage symptoms of depression and schizophrenia. Dopamine is typically administered through injections or intravenous infusions, although it can also be taken orally in some cases.

Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) is a chemical compound that is commonly used as a protease inhibitor in the medical field. Proteases are enzymes that break down proteins, and PMSF works by irreversibly inhibiting the activity of these enzymes. PMSF is often used in research to study the function of specific proteins, as well as to prevent the degradation of proteins during sample preparation. It is also used in some medical treatments, such as in the management of certain types of cancer. In the medical field, PMSF is typically administered as a solution or a powder that is dissolved in a solvent such as water or buffer. It is important to handle PMSF with care, as it is a strong acid and can cause skin irritation or burns if it comes into contact with skin.

Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with the atomic number 3 and the symbol T. It is a beta emitter with a half-life of approximately 12.3 years. In the medical field, tritium is used in a variety of applications, including: 1. Medical imaging: Tritium is used in nuclear medicine to label molecules and track their movement within the body. For example, tritium can be used to label antibodies, which can then be injected into the body to track the movement of specific cells or tissues. 2. Radiation therapy: Tritium is used in radiation therapy to treat certain types of cancer. It is typically combined with other isotopes, such as carbon-14 or phosphorus-32, to create a radioactive tracer that can be injected into the body and targeted to specific areas of cancerous tissue. 3. Research: Tritium is also used in research to study the behavior of molecules and cells. For example, tritium can be used to label DNA, which can then be used to study the process of DNA replication and repair. It is important to note that tritium is a highly radioactive isotope and requires careful handling to minimize the risk of exposure to radiation.

Receptors, Vasopressin are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to and respond to the hormone vasopressin. Vasopressin is produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland. It plays a role in regulating water balance in the body by constricting blood vessels and increasing the reabsorption of water in the kidneys. Vasopressin receptors are also found in other parts of the body, including the brain, heart, and blood vessels, where they can have a variety of effects, including regulating blood pressure and promoting the growth of blood vessels.

Pyrrolidines are a class of organic compounds that contain a five-membered ring with four carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. They are commonly used in the medical field as pharmaceuticals, as well as in the synthesis of other drugs and chemicals. One example of a pyrrolidine used in medicine is metoclopramide, which is used to treat nausea and vomiting. Another example is pyrilamine, which is used to treat allergies and hay fever. Pyrrolidines can also be used as chiral auxiliaries in organic synthesis, which allows for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure compounds. This is important in the pharmaceutical industry, as many drugs are effective only when administered in a specific enantiomer. Overall, pyrrolidines are a versatile class of compounds with a wide range of applications in the medical field.

Piperazines are a class of organic compounds that contain a six-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms. They are commonly used in the medical field as drugs and are known for their anticholinergic, antispasmodic, and sedative properties. Some examples of piperazine-based drugs include antihistamines, antipsychotics, and antidiarrheals. Piperazines can also be used as intermediates in the synthesis of other drugs.

Ketanserin is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called serotonin receptor antagonists. It is primarily used to treat high blood pressure and Raynaud's phenomenon, a condition characterized by cold, white fingers and toes. Ketanserin works by blocking the action of serotonin, a neurotransmitter that plays a role in regulating blood pressure and blood vessel constriction. It is available in both oral and intravenous forms.

Bicuculline is a chemical compound that is commonly used in the medical field as a muscle relaxant and as a tool for studying the function of the central nervous system. It is a non-competitive antagonist of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor, which is a type of ion channel that is involved in the regulation of muscle tone and other functions in the brain and spinal cord. Bicuculline is typically administered intravenously or intramuscularly, and it can cause a range of effects, including muscle relaxation, sedation, and changes in heart rate and blood pressure. It is also used in research to study the role of GABA receptors in various neurological disorders, such as epilepsy and anxiety disorders. It is important to note that bicuculline can be toxic in high doses and can cause serious side effects, including respiratory depression, seizures, and coma. As such, it is typically only used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.

Anisoles are a class of organic compounds that contain a benzene ring with an oxygen atom bonded to one of the carbon atoms. They are also known as phenols or phenolic ethers. In the medical field, anisoles are used as antiseptics, disinfectants, and antifungal agents. They are also used as flavoring agents in food and beverages. Some common examples of anisoles include anisole, estragole, and thymol.

Quinoxalines are a class of heterocyclic compounds that contain two nitrogen atoms in a six-membered ring. They are often used as intermediates in the synthesis of other compounds, such as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. In the medical field, quinoxalines have been studied for their potential use as antiviral, antifungal, and antiparasitic agents. Some quinoxalines have also been shown to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, and are being investigated as potential treatments for a variety of conditions, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic applications of quinoxalines.

Receptors, Thromboxane are a type of protein receptors found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to and respond to thromboxane, a hormone-like substance that plays a role in blood clotting and inflammation. These receptors are involved in a variety of physiological processes, including platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction, and smooth muscle contraction. In the medical field, the study of thromboxane receptors is important for understanding the pathophysiology of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, asthma, and inflammatory disorders.

Benzimidazoles are a class of organic compounds that contain a six-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms and two carbon atoms. They are widely used in the medical field as drugs and as active ingredients in pesticides. In the medical field, benzimidazoles are used to treat a variety of conditions, including: 1. Helminth infections: Benzimidazoles are effective against a range of parasitic worms, including roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes. They work by interfering with the worms' ability to absorb glucose, which leads to their death. 2. Gastric ulcers: Benzimidazoles are used to treat stomach ulcers caused by the bacteria Helicobacter pylori. They work by inhibiting the production of enzymes that break down the stomach lining, allowing the ulcers to heal. 3. Migraines: Benzimidazoles are sometimes used to prevent migraines by reducing inflammation in the brain. 4. Cancers: Some benzimidazoles are being studied as potential treatments for certain types of cancer, including colon cancer and ovarian cancer. Overall, benzimidazoles are a versatile class of compounds with a wide range of potential medical applications.

Neuralgia is a medical condition characterized by pain that is felt along the path of a nerve. It is caused by damage or irritation to the nerve, which can result in a variety of symptoms, including sharp, stabbing, or burning pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness. Neuralgia can affect any nerve in the body, but it is most commonly associated with the trigeminal nerve, which supplies sensation to the face. There are several different types of neuralgia, including trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, and postherpetic neuralgia. Treatment for neuralgia typically involves medications to manage pain and other symptoms, as well as lifestyle changes and physical therapy. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying cause of the neuralgia.

Famotidine is a medication that is used to treat conditions such as heartburn, acid reflux, and stomach ulcers. It works by blocking the production of stomach acid, which helps to reduce symptoms such as heartburn and acid reflux. Famotidine is available in both over-the-counter and prescription forms, and is typically taken by mouth. It is generally considered to be safe and effective when used as directed, but like all medications, it can cause side effects in some people. Some common side effects of famotidine include headache, dizziness, and nausea.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of the body to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is a protective mechanism that helps to eliminate the cause of injury, remove damaged tissue, and initiate the healing process. Inflammation involves the activation of immune cells, such as white blood cells, and the release of chemical mediators, such as cytokines and prostaglandins. This leads to the characteristic signs and symptoms of inflammation, including redness, heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function. Inflammation can be acute or chronic. Acute inflammation is a short-term response that lasts for a few days to a few weeks and is usually beneficial. Chronic inflammation, on the other hand, is a prolonged response that lasts for months or years and can be harmful if it persists. Chronic inflammation is associated with many diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and autoimmune disorders.

Bradykinin is a peptide hormone that plays a role in the regulation of blood pressure, inflammation, and pain. It is produced in the body by the breakdown of larger proteins called kinins, which are released from blood vessels and other tissues in response to injury or inflammation. Bradykinin acts on various types of cells in the body, including blood vessels, smooth muscle cells, and nerve cells, to cause a range of physiological effects. In the blood vessels, bradykinin causes them to dilate, or widen, which can lead to a drop in blood pressure. It also increases the permeability of blood vessels, allowing fluid and other substances to leak out and cause swelling. In addition to its effects on blood vessels, bradykinin is also involved in the body's inflammatory response. It stimulates the release of other inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which can cause redness, swelling, and pain. Overall, bradykinin plays an important role in the body's response to injury and inflammation, and its activity is tightly regulated by various enzymes and other factors in the body.

GTP-binding proteins, also known as G proteins, are a family of proteins that play a crucial role in signal transduction in cells. They are involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. G proteins are composed of three subunits: an alpha subunit, a beta subunit, and a gamma subunit. The alpha subunit is the one that binds to guanosine triphosphate (GTP), a molecule that is involved in regulating the activity of the protein. When GTP binds to the alpha subunit, it causes a conformational change in the protein, which in turn activates or inhibits downstream signaling pathways. G proteins are activated by a variety of extracellular signals, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors. Once activated, they can interact with other proteins in the cell, such as enzymes or ion channels, to transmit the signal and initiate a cellular response. G proteins are found in all eukaryotic cells and play a critical role in many physiological processes. They are also involved in a number of diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

Receptors, Neurokinin-2 (NK2) are a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the nervous system. They are activated by the neuropeptide substance P, which is involved in pain transmission and regulation of the immune system. Activation of NK2 receptors can lead to a variety of physiological responses, including vasodilation, increased heart rate, and bronchoconstriction. These receptors are also involved in the regulation of mood and anxiety, and have been implicated in the pathophysiology of certain neurological disorders, such as depression and schizophrenia.

Adenosine is a naturally occurring nucleoside that plays a crucial role in various physiological processes in the human body. It is a component of the nucleic acids DNA and RNA and is also found in high concentrations in the cells of the heart, brain, and other organs. In the medical field, adenosine is often used as a medication to treat certain heart conditions, such as supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) and atrial fibrillation (AFib). Adenosine works by blocking the electrical signals that cause the heart to beat too fast or irregularly. It is typically administered as an intravenous injection and has a short duration of action, lasting only a few minutes. Adenosine is also used in research to study the function of various cells and tissues in the body, including the nervous system, immune system, and cardiovascular system. It has been shown to have a wide range of effects on cellular signaling pathways, including the regulation of gene expression, cell proliferation, and apoptosis (cell death).

Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the transmission of signals between neurons in the nervous system. It is synthesized from the amino acid choline and is stored in vesicles within nerve cells. When an electrical signal reaches the end of a nerve cell, it triggers the release of acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft, the small gap between the nerve cell and the next cell it communicates with. Acetylcholine then binds to receptors on the surface of the receiving cell, causing a change in its electrical activity. Acetylcholine is involved in a wide range of bodily functions, including muscle movement, memory, and learning. It is also important for the regulation of the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate and digestion. In the medical field, acetylcholine is used as a diagnostic tool to study the function of the nervous system, particularly in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and myasthenia gravis. It is also used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of certain conditions, such as glaucoma and myasthenia gravis, by increasing the activity of the affected nerves.

Quinuclidines are a class of organic compounds that contain a quinuclidine ring, which is a six-membered ring with four nitrogen atoms and two carbon atoms. They are structurally related to the amphetamines and have been used as stimulants and nootropics. Some quinuclidines, such as pyrovalerone, have also been used as analgesics and anticonvulsants. In the medical field, quinuclidines are not commonly used and their therapeutic potential is not well established.

Benzodiazepinones are a class of psychoactive drugs that are similar in structure to benzodiazepines, but with some key differences. Like benzodiazepines, benzodiazepinones are used to treat a variety of conditions, including anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms. However, benzodiazepinones are generally considered to be less potent and have a shorter duration of action than benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepinones are classified as Schedule IV controlled substances in the United States, meaning that they have a low potential for abuse and dependence. However, like all psychoactive drugs, benzodiazepinones can be habit-forming and should be used only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

A cannabinoid receptor antagonist, also known simply as a cannabinoid antagonist or as an anticannabinoid, is a type of ... cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2). Both receptors are 7-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) which inhibit ... This revived the research on cannabinoid receptor antagonists which were expected to help answer these questions. The use of ... 1994), "SR141716A, a potent and selective antagonist of the brain cannabinoid receptor", FEBS Letters, 350 (2-3): 240-244, doi: ...
"Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists and Antagonists". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 1 (3): 343-352. doi:10.2174/ ... WIN 54,461 (6-Bromopravadoline) is a drug that acts as a potent and selective inverse agonist for the cannabinoid receptor CB2 ... Cannabinoids, Aminoalkylindoles, WIN compounds, Benzoylindoles, 4-Morpholinyl compounds, Organobromides, All stub articles, ...
It is a tricyclic aryl derivative that acts as a competitive antagonist at the CB2 cannabinoid receptor. Its activity at CB1 ... WIN 55,212-2 WIN 55,225 Howlett AC, Berglund B, Melvin LS (October 1995). "Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists and Antagonists". ... Cannabinoids, Aminoalkylindoles, WIN compounds, 4-Morpholinyl compounds, Anthracenes, All stub articles, Cannabinoid stubs). ...
AM cannabinoids, Pyrazolecarboxamides, Mu-opioid receptor antagonists, Antineoplastic drugs, All stub articles, Cannabinoid ... Discovery and development of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Antagonists Lan R, Liu Q, Fan P, Lin S, Fernando SR, McCallion D, et al. ( ... AM-251 is structurally very close to rimonabant; both are biarylpyrazole cannabinoid receptor antagonists. In AM-251, the p- ... February 1999). "Structure-activity relationships of pyrazole derivatives as cannabinoid receptor antagonists". Journal of ...
CB1 receptor antagonists, Chlorobenzenes, 1-Piperidinyl compounds, Pyrazoles, Withdrawn drugs, Cannabinoids, Mu-opioid receptor ... Cahill K, Ussher MH (March 2011). "Cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonists for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of ... Rimonabant is an inverse agonist of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor. Originally thought to be selective for the CB1 receptor, ... "AM-251 and rimonabant act as direct antagonists at mu-opioid receptors: implications for opioid/cannabinoid interaction studies ...
Previously, rimonabant, which is a cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonist, was used to help in quitting and moderate the ... Cahill K, Ussher MH (March 2011). "Cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonists for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of ... Jo YH, Talmage DA, Role LW (December 2002). "Nicotinic receptor-mediated effects on appetite and food intake". Journal of ... Lancaster T, Stead LF (2000). "Mecamylamine (a nicotine antagonist) for smoking cessation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic ...
Cannabinoid receptor antagonist Rimonabant Lange JH, Kruse CG (2008). "Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists in therapeutic and ... Lee HK, Choi EB, Pak CS (2009). "The current status and future perspectives of studies of cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonists as ... Reggio, Patricia H. (2009). "Toward the design of cannabinoid CB1 receptor inverse agonists and neutral antagonists". Drug ... Drinabant (INN; AVE-1625) is a drug that acts as a selective CB1 receptor antagonist, which was under investigation varyingly ...
Cannabinoid receptor antagonist Janero DR, Makriyannis A (March 2009). "Cannabinoid receptor antagonists: pharmacological ... Cannabinoids, Carboxamides, CB1 receptor antagonists, Chlorobenzenes, Piperidines, Pyrazolines, All stub articles, Cannabinoid ... Lee HK, Choi EB, Pak CS (2009). "The current status and future perspectives of studies of cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonists as ... Rosonabant (INN; E-6776) is a drug acting as a CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist that was under investigation by Esteve ...
It is described as a mixed agonist/antagonist at the cannabinoid receptor CB1, meaning that it acts as an antagonist when co- ... Griffin G, Wray EJ, Martin BR, Abood ME (October 1999). "Cannabinoid agonists and antagonists discriminated by receptor binding ... April 1999). "An investigation into the structural determinants of cannabinoid receptor ligand efficacy". British Journal of ... Cannabinoids, Benzochromenes, Phenols, Alkyne derivatives, Nitriles, All stub articles, Cannabinoid stubs). ...
Cannabinoids, CB1 receptor antagonists, Hydrazides, Chloroarenes, Pyrazoles, Piperidines, All stub articles, Cannabinoid stubs) ... Discovery and development of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Antagonists NESS-040C5 Ruiu S, Pinna GA, Marchese G, Mussinu JM, Saba P, ... July 2003). "Synthesis and characterization of NESS 0327: a novel putative antagonist of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor". The ... August 2002). "Design, synthesis and biological activity of rigid cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists". Chemical & ...
"Cannabinoid agonists and antagonists discriminated by receptor binding in rat cerebellum". British Journal of Pharmacology. 128 ... Structure-activity relationships defining the ACD-tricyclic cannabinoids: cannabinoid receptor binding and analgesic activity. ... CP 55,244 is a chemical compound which is a cannabinoid receptor agonist. It has analgesic effects and is used in scientific ... Cannabinoids, Decalins, Pfizer brands, Phenols, All stub articles, Cannabinoid stubs). ...
Griffin G, Wray EJ, Martin BR, Abood ME (October 1999). "Cannabinoid agonists and antagonists discriminated by receptor binding ... It is a partial agonist at the cannabinoid receptor CB1, producing a maximal stimulation of 58.3% with a Ki of 8.45nM. ... April 1999). "An investigation into the structural determinants of cannabinoid receptor ligand efficacy". British Journal of ... yne-delta8-tetrahydrocannabinol at cannabinoid receptors". British Journal of Pharmacology. 128 (3): 735-43. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp ...
Griffin G, Wray EJ, Martin BR, Abood ME (1999). "Cannabinoid agonists and antagonists discriminated by receptor binding in rat ... Cannabinoids, Benzochromenes, Phenols, Carboxamides, All stub articles, Cannabinoid stubs). ... O-1125 (3-(1,1-dimethylhexyl-6-dimethylcarboxamide)-Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol) is a research chemical which is a cannabinoid ...
It is described as a mixed agonist/antagonist at the cannabinoid receptor CB1, meaning that it acts as an antagonist when co- ... Griffin G, Wray EJ, Martin BR, Abood ME (October 1999). "Cannabinoid agonists and antagonists discriminated by receptor binding ... April 1999). "An investigation into the structural determinants of cannabinoid receptor ligand efficacy". British Journal of ... Cannabinoids, Benzochromenes, Phenols, Alkyne derivatives, Organobromides, All stub articles, Cannabinoid stubs). ...
Cannabinoids, CB1 receptor antagonists, Chloroarenes, Pyrazolines, Abandoned drugs, All stub articles, Cannabinoid stubs). ... Cannabinoid receptor antagonist Lange JH, Coolen HK, van Stuivenberg HH, Dijksman JA, Herremans AH, Ronken E, et al. (January ... May 2010). "SLV330, a cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, ameliorates deficits in the T-maze, object recognition and Social ... November 2005). "Novel 3,4-diarylpyrazolines as potent cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists with lower lipophilicity". ...
Cannabinoid receptor Synthetic cannabinoid Cannabinoid receptor antagonist George I. Papakostas; Maurizio Fava (2010). ... 323-. ISBN 978-981-4287-59-3. Bambico, Francis Rodriguez; Gobbi, Gabriella (2008). "The cannabinoid CB1 receptor and the ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Cannabinoids, Endocannabinoids, All stub articles, ...
Rawls SM, Schroeder JA, Ding Z, Rodriguez T, Zaveri N (August 2007). "NOP receptor antagonist, JTC-801, blocks cannabinoid- ... JTC-801 is a selective antagonist for the nociceptin receptor, also known as the ORL-1 receptor. This was the fourth opioid ... "Small-molecule agonists and antagonists of the opioid receptor-like receptor (ORL1, NOP): ligand-based analysis of structural ... October 2002). "Characterization of nociceptin/orphanin FQ-induced pain responses by the novel receptor antagonist N-(4-amino-2 ...
Cannabinoid receptor agonists reduce gut motility in IBS patients. Application of CB2-specific antagonists has found that these ... The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), is a G protein-coupled receptor from the cannabinoid receptor family that in humans is ... The receptor was identified among cDNAs based on its similarity in amino-acid sequence to the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) ... "Cannabinoid Receptors: CB2". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical ...
THCV is a cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonist or, at higher doses, a CB1 receptor agonist and cannabinoid receptor type 2 ... "Evidence that the plant cannabinoid Delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin is a cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonist". British ... "Synthetic and plant-derived cannabinoid receptor antagonists show hypophagic properties in fasted and non-fasted mice". British ... THCV is an antagonist of THC at CB1 receptors and lessens the psychoactive effects of THC. THCV also acts as an agonist of ...
Cannabinoid receptor antagonists were developed to treat obesity because researchers noticed that cannabinoid agonists (such as ... "Overcoming the psychiatric side effects of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists: current approaches for therapeutics ... Fong TM, Heymsfield SB (September 2009). "Cannabinoid-1 receptor inverse agonists: current understanding of mechanism of action ... It reduces appetite by activating a type of serotonin receptor known as the 5-HT2C receptor in a region of the brain called the ...
SR144528, a CB2 receptor antagonist/ inverse agonist WIN 55,212-2, a potent cannabinoid receptor agonist JWH-133, a potent ... Cannabis portal Cancer and nausea § Cannabinoid Cannabinoid receptor antagonist Endocannabinoid enhancer Endocannabinoid ... It was found to be an antagonist at the putative new cannabinoid receptor, GPR55, a GPCR expressed in the caudate nucleus and ... Cannabidiol has little affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors but acts as an indirect antagonist of cannabinoid agonists. ...
Cannabinoid receptor antagonist O-1269 Rinaldi-Carmona M, Barth F, Congy C, Martinez S, Oustric D, Pério A, et al. (September ... Surinabant (SR147778) is a cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonist developed by Sanofi-Aventis. It is being investigated as a ... Gessa GL, Serra S, Vacca G, Carai MA, Colombo G (2005). "Suppressing effect of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, ... Doggrell SA (March 2005). "Will the new CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR-147778 have advantages over rimonabant?". Expert ...
Cannabinoids, CB1 receptor antagonists, Phenols, Sulfonamides, All stub articles, Cannabinoid stubs). ... O-2050 is a drug that is a classical cannabinoid derivative, which acts as an antagonist for the CB1 receptor. This gives it an ... 2010). "The cannabinoid 1-receptor silent antagonist O-2050 attenuates preference for high-fat diet and activated astrocytes in ... January 2011). "Structural and pharmacological analysis of O-2050, a putative neutral cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist". ...
... cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR144528 decreases mu-opioid receptor expression and activation in mouse brainstem: role of CB( ... February 1998). "SR 144528, the first potent and selective antagonist of the CB2 cannabinoid receptor". The Journal of ... February 1999). "SR 144528, an antagonist for the peripheral cannabinoid receptor that behaves as an inverse agonist". The ... "Mutational analysis and molecular modelling of the antagonist SR 144528 binding site on the human cannabinoid CB(2) receptor". ...
Cannabinoid receptor antagonist Kim MA, Yun H, Kwak H, Kim J, Lee J (2008). "Design, chemical synthesis, and biological ... Cannabinoids, Purines, Piperidines, Carboxamides, Chlorobenzenes, Pfizer brands, CB1 receptor antagonists, All stub articles, ... a cannabinoid-1 receptor inverse agonist". Tetrahedron. 64 (48): 10802-10809. doi:10.1016/j.tet.2008.09.057. Woods SC (November ... Otenabant (CP-945,598) is a drug which acts as a potent and highly selective CB1 antagonist. It was developed by Pfizer for the ...
"The cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 inhibits transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and evokes peripheral antihyperalgesia ... Wu C, Gavva NR, Brennan TJ (June 2008). "Effect of AMG0347, a transient receptor potential type V1 receptor antagonist, and ... "Novel transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor antagonists for the treatment of pain: structure-activity relationships ... novel potent and high affinity antagonists and partial antagonists of the vanilloid receptor". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. ...
Griebel, G.; Stemmelin, J.; Scatton, B. (2005). "Effects of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant in models of ... Donatti, A.F.; Leite-Panissi, C.R.A. (2011). "Activation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptors from the basolateral or ...
It may be considered an analog of the traditional pyrazole cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist rimonabant. The pharmacological ... is a pyrazole-based synthetic cannabinoid that is presumed to be an agonist of the CB1 receptor and has been sold online as a ... Cannabinoids, Designer drugs, Fluoroarenes, Pyrazoles, Pyrazolecarboxamides, Organofluorides, All stub articles, Cannabinoid ... 5-fluoro-3,5-AB-PFUPPYCA has been detected in synthetic cannabinoid smoke blends in the USA as early as December 30, 2021, ...
January 2011). "Structural and pharmacological analysis of O-2050, a putative neutral cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist". ... O-2113 is a drug that is a classical cannabinoid derivative, which acts as a potent agonist for cannabinoid receptors, ... US 7279500, Martin BR, Razdan RJ, Pertwee RG, "Sulfonamide Cannabinoid Agonists and Antagonists", published 5 May 2005 v t e ( ...
Altmann; J. Gertsch (2010). "Falcarinol is a covalent cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist and induces pro-allergic effects in ... It was shown that falcarinol acts as a covalent cannabinoid receptor type 1 inverse agonist and blocks the effect of anandamide ...
Cannabinoid-receptor antagonists. The central cannabinoid system has an increasingly recognized role in appetite and feeding ... Cannabinoid receptor antagonists and obesity. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2004 Apr. 5(4):389-94. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Rimonabant, the most-developed CB1-receptor antagonist, caused a mean weight loss of 3-6 kg over a 1-year follow-up at doses of ... Effects of the cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker rimonabant on weight reduction and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight ...
Cannabinoid type 1 receptor antagonists for smoking cessation 2011 Department of Primary Health Care, University of Oxford, ... BACKGROUND: Selective type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor antagonists may assist with smoking cessation by restoring the balance ... OBJECTIVES: To determine whether selective CB1 receptor antagonists (currently rimonabant and taranabant) increase the numbers ... acting as an antagonist). Varenicline was developed as a nicotine receptor partial agonist from cytisine, a drug widely used in ...
2009) Central side-effects of therapies based on CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists: focus on anxiety and ... GABAB receptors and CB1Rs(Glu) are insensitive to BDNF. A, The depressant effect of the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen on ... In these mice, CB1R(GABA) sensitivity was also preserved from the action of haloperidol, a DA receptor antagonist able to ... Here, we addressed the functional interplay between BDNF and cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) in the striatum, a brain area in ...
SR 144528, an Antagonist for the Peripheral Cannabinoid Receptor that Behaves as an Inverse Agonist Marielle Portier, Murielle ... Large Receptor Reserve for Cannabinoid Actions in the Central Nervous System Andrew N. Gifford, Magalie Bruneus, S. John Gatley ... Electrophysiological Comparison of 5-Hydroxytryptamine1A Receptor Antagonists on Dorsal Raphe Cell Firing Lynn P. Martin, David ... Disruption of Prepulse Inhibition and Increases in Locomotor Activity by Competitive N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Antagonists ...
Natural News) In this study, American and South Korean researchers isolated cannabinoid (CB1) receptor antagonists that can ... Natural News) Cannabinoid receptors are components of the human endocannabinoid system, which plays a central role in ... in: alternative medicine,anti-obesity,appetite suppression,cannabinoid receptor,fight obesity,flavonoids,food science, ... CB1 receptors are […] in: alternative medicine,anti-obesity,appetite suppression,fight obesity,food cures,food is medicine, ...
Investigating the Safety and Efficacy of the Novel Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CB1) Antagonist, Genistein for Attenuating Adverse ...
SR A, a cannabinoid receptor antagonist, produces hyperalgesia in untreated mice. Effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and ... Cannabinoids reduce hyperalgesia and inflammation via interaction with peripheral CB1 receptors. Richardson JD, Aanonsen L, ... Chronic administration of cannabinoids regulates proenkephalin mRNA levels in selected regions of the rat brain. ... Antihyperalgesic effects of spinal cannabinoids. Richardson JD, Aanonsen L, Hargreaves KM. ...
CB1 cannabinoid receptor, Receptor canabinoide CB1, Sulfonamide, Sulfonamida, Synthèse chimique, Chemical synthesis, Síntesis ... CB1 antagonist, Peripherally-restricted cannabinoid antagonist, and Pyrrole ... 2. Rational design of a novel peripherally-restricted, orally active CB1 cannabinoid antagonist containing a 2,3-diarylpyrrole ... DRUG design, CANNABINOIDS, DRUG receptors, ORAL drug administration, CHEMICAL inhibitors, PYRROLES, and METABOLISM ...
Greenberg DA Cannabinoids and neuroprotection in global and focal cerebral ischemia and in neuronal cultures J Neurosci 1999 19 ... WIN 55212-2 was blocked by the specific central cannabinoid (CB1) cannabinoid receptor antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4- ... this in vitro effect was not stereoselective and was insensitive to CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonists. Cannabinoids may have ... "Cannabinoids and neuroprotection in global and focal cerebral ischemia and in neuronal cultures". ...
This rapid estrogenic diminution of cannabinoid-induced decreases in mEPSC frequency was blocked by the estrogen receptor (ER) ... or the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 or its cremephor/ethanol/0.9% saline vehicle. AMPK catalytic subunit, PI3K p85α regulatory ... Serotonin (5-HT)3 receptors are the only ligand-gated ion channel of the 5-HT receptors family. They are present both in the ... Serotonin (5-HT)3 receptors are the only ligand-gated ion channel of the 5-HT receptors family. They are present both in the ...
Following the chronic administration of cannabinoids, tolerance develops to most of their pharmacological effects. The ... Different animal models have been used to clarify the consequences of chronic exposure to cannabinoid agonists and their abuse ... cannabinoid antagonist SR141716A in animals chronically treated with THC and other cannabinoid agonists precipitated somatic ... Receptors, Drug / drug effects * Receptors, Drug / metabolism * Reinforcement Schedule * Reward * Self Administration / ...
Similarly, the appetite suppressant rimonabant (a cannabinoid receptor antagonist) needed to be withdrawn when it was linked ...
... where its anti-cataleptic effects were both blocked by antagonists of the two cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), and ... a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, but not by mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. Corticosterone was also ... Overall, 5-HT6 receptor antagonists can reasonably be regarded as potential drug candidates for the treatment of AD. ... Overall, 5-HT6 receptor antagonists can reasonably be regarded as potential drug candidates for the treatment of AD. ...
Cannabinoid receptor antagonists and obesity. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2004 Apr. 5(4):389-94. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Effects of the cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker rimonabant on weight reduction and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight ... Vaisse C, Clement K, Durand E, Hercberg S, Guy-Grand B, Froguel P. Melanocortin-4 receptor mutations are a frequent and ... Melanocortins and body weight: a tale of two receptors. Nat Genet. 2000 Sep. 26(1):8-9. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
doi:10.1016/S0161-813X(03)00101-3. ... atropine and cannabinoid receptor antagonists. As well, compounds such as 5-HTP, ... a 5-HT2A receptor antagonist). However, pretreatment with SB200646A (a 5-HT2B/2C receptor antagonist) only blocked the ... of a vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist. 3. Injection (i.v.) of the V1 receptor antagonist at the peak pressor response evoked ... Receptors, Muscarinic. One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Muscarinic receptors were originally defined by ...
... a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist; 5â ¯µg/5â ¯µl), (2); AM281 (a selective cannabinoid receptor type 1 [CB1] ... antagonist; 2â ¯µg/5â ¯µl), (3); and 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX; a selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist; ... The selected articles addressed the following peripheral receptors: opioid (n = 9), adenosine (n = 5), cannabinoid (n = 5), ... Peripheral receptors and neuromediators involved in the antihyperalgesic effects of acupuncture: a state-of-the-art review. ...
CB1 antagonist 2 * Cat. No.: CS-0066157 * CAS No.: 614726-85-1 ... Bioactive Small Molecules • GPCR/G Protein • Cannabinoid ...
Subsequent research identified endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists. Follow the self-help advice for ...
When cortisol was administered together with either cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB(1) ) antagonist (rimonabant; 100 nM), CB(2) ... antagonist (JTE907; 100 nM), transient receptor potential vanilloid channel 1 (TRPV-1) antagonist (capsazepine; 1 μM), FAAH ...
New Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonists as Pharmacological Tool. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2020, 28 (19), 115672. https://doi.org/10.1016 ... Targeting Cannabinoid Receptor Activation and BACE-1 Activity Counteracts TgAPP Mice Memory Impairment and Alzheimers Disease ... Páez, J. A.; Campillo, N. E. Innovative Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoid Receptors as Targets in Alzheimers Disease and ... Activation of the Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptor by a Novel Indazole Derivative Normalizes the Survival Pattern of Lymphoblasts ...
... both are biarylpyrazole where to purchase zaleplon canada cannabinoid receptor antagonists. Sakamochi, the teacher, calls again ... When apomorphine interacts with where to purchase zaleplon canada the dopamine receptor, or the ATP on the receptor, the ...
4]Ziqi Dong, Hui Gong et al., A Peripheral Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Antagonist,, Front Endocrinol, 2018 ... Among many other cannabinoids, CBD can reportedly have calming, anti-inflammatory, and anxiety-reducing effects when ingested. ... CBD was able to block the CB1 receptors according to a study [4] and thus influence the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders ... Thus, a connection between the activation of the receptors and overweight as well as metabolic functions could play a role. [1] ...
Cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist genistein attenuates marijuana-induced vascular inflammation. *The Association of Cannabis ... In general, when using cannabinoid-based therapeutics that contain both THC and CBD consider the ratio between them and weigh ... chemotype overviews and dosing summaries for medical conditions and organ system and receptor breakdowns for cannabinoid and ... If you are interested in the interaction potential of specific pharmaceuticals with both primary cannabinoids and THC/CBD, ...
These effects were partly antagonized by the CB1-specific antagonist, AM251. While CB1-mediated signaling also significantly ... T2 - Cannabinoid receptor 1-mediated signaling down-regulates the expression of keratins K6 and K16 in human keratinocytes in ... Ramot Y, Sugawara K, Zákány N, Tóth BI, Bíró T, Paus R. A novel control of human keratin expression: Cannabinoid receptor 1- ... N2 - Cannabinoid receptors (CB) are expressed throughout human skin epithelium. CB1 activation inhibits human hair growth and ...
They also treated the mice with a CB1 antagonist, a compound that binds to the receptor but does not activate it. Mice with CB1 ... Turned-Off Cannabinoid Receptor Turns on Colorectal Tumor Growth. Researchers find CB1 suppresses tumors, a new potential path ... "Just increasing the levels of cannabinoids to treat colorectal cancer wont work if the CB1 receptor is not present," DuBois ... The team also analyzed the other main cannabinoid receptor, CB2, and found no role for it in colorectal cancer. ...
... a vanilloid receptor antagonist, or CGRP(8-37), a CGRP receptor antagonist (n = 4 or 5) [5]. ... The vanilloid receptor may thus be another molecular target for endogenous anandamide, besides cannabinoid receptors, in the ... Effects of TRPV1 receptor antagonists on stimulated iCGRP release from isolated skin of rats and TRPV1 mutant mice. Pethö, G., ... Western blot showed that protein expression for the calcitonin receptor-like receptor-but not receptor activity modifying ...
THCV is a cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonist or, at higher doses, a CB1 receptor agonist and cannabinoid receptor type 2 ... "Evidence that the plant cannabinoid Delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin is a cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonist". British ... "Synthetic and plant-derived cannabinoid receptor antagonists show hypophagic properties in fasted and non-fasted mice". British ... CB1Tooltip Cannabinoid receptor type 1. *Agonists (abridged; see here for more): 2-AG ...
Early increase of cannabinoid receptor density after experimental traumatic brain injury in the newborn piglet.. Donat CK, ... Homeostasis (Turning Agonists into Antagonists) and the CS. "However, we discovered that bivalency has an influence on the ... Cannabinoids Cannabinoid System Cannabis Carcinogenesis Caryophyllene Caudate Putamen Cb1 Cb2 CB2 GPR55 Heteromers CB2-GPR55 ... Cannabinoid control of brain bioenergetics: Exploring the subcellular localization of the CB1 receptor.. Hebert-Chatelain E, ...
These chemicals might work as agonists or antagonists for cannabinoid receptors located in the eye. ... Cannabinoids discovered in cannabis act to lower intraocular pressure, aqueous humour manufacturing, and also central pain. ... HU-211, a nonpsychotropic cannabinoid, has additionally been shown to minimize intraocular pressure in tiny animal research ...
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  • Synthetic cannabinoids are not one drug. (cdc.gov)
  • however, synthetic cannabinoids may affect the brain in different and unpredictable ways compared to THC (2). (cdc.gov)
  • Synthetic cannabinoids are widely available. (cdc.gov)
  • Consumers can buy synthetic cannabinoids in convenience stores, from individual drug dealers, friends, or online as incense or natural herbal products. (cdc.gov)
  • In March 2018, the Illinois Department of Public Health reported cases of unexplained bleeding among patients who reported using synthetic cannabinoids. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC is currently coordinating national surveillance activities for possible cases of vitamin K-dependent antagonist coagulopathy associated with synthetic cannabinoids use. (cdc.gov)
  • The current working hypothesis is that brodifacoum was mixed with synthetic cannabinoids products. (cdc.gov)
  • Patients should be considered high-risk for coagulopathy if they have reported use of or are suspected of using synthetic cannabinoids. (cdc.gov)
  • Maintain a high index of suspicion for vitamin K-dependent antagonist coagulopathy in patients with a history or suspicion of using synthetic cannabinoids. (cdc.gov)
  • Cannabinoids, Synthetic Synthetic cannabinoids are manufactured drugs that are tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) receptor agonists. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Potential for additive opioid receptor anatagonism and increased risk of opioid withdrawal. (medscape.com)
  • Animal and human studies show that tianeptine is an opioid receptor agonist (2). (cdc.gov)
  • Subsequent testing of drug and biological samples from case-patients detected the presence of brodifacoum, a long-acting vitamin K-dependent antagonist that is used as a rodenticide (4). (cdc.gov)
  • Comment: Naltrexone may enhance therapeutic effects of cannabinoids. (medscape.com)
  • These effects were not correlated to the content of major cannabinoids such as CBD or THC, but with the presence of a complex terpenes profile. (bvsalud.org)
  • Radioligand binding and GTPŒ≥S functional assays were used to investigate a novel series of peripherally limited CB1R antagonists with a diaryl-pyridazine core and a sulfonamide moiety. (nih.gov)
  • Based on our preliminary in vitro and in vivo ADME data, we found many chiral antagonists with nanomolar affinity and selectivity for CB1R and functional antagonists at this receptor that may be able to cure fibrosis, diabetes, and obesity. (nih.gov)
  • It has been shown that the cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) is overactivated in fibrotic lung tissue of mice and humans with HPS. (nih.gov)
  • In previous studies, rimonabant, a CB1R antagonist, demonstrated a modest ability to mitigate fibrosis in animal models. (nih.gov)
  • However, the neuropsychiatric side effects of CB1R inhibitors, through the blockade of receptors expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), led to rimonabant being withdrawn from all clinical use. (nih.gov)
  • To avoid the CNS side effects of the first-generation CB1R antagonists, MRI-1867 was designed to be restricted to the peripheral tissues and specifically excluded from the brain. (nih.gov)
  • 5. Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists and Antagonists: Implication in CNS Disorders. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Modern approaches to the development of synthetic cannabinoid receptor probes. (nih.gov)
  • Through a lot of research and development on CB1 and CB2 ligands, different synthetic cannabinoid molecules with different affinities have been found. (nih.gov)
  • 18. Type 1 cannabinoid receptor ligands display functional selectivity in a cell culture model of striatal medium spiny projection neurons. (nih.gov)
  • and, imaging agents have been synthesized that target both transporters and receptors (e.g., [11C] RTI-121 as a selective radioligand for PET studies of the dopamine transporter). (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies of alcohol dependent, opiate dependent and cocaine dependent animals during acute withdrawal have shown enhanced stress-like responses that are reversed by selective competitive corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) antagonists. (nih.gov)
  • Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS . (nih.gov)
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and calcium channel blockers, rather than beta-adrenergic blockers, should be considered as first-line therapy for hypertension in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who are obese. (medscape.com)
  • Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Non-Brain Penetrant Hybrid Cannabinoid CB 1 R inverse agonist/inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitors for the treatment of liver fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • Dual Inhibition of CB1 Receptors and iNOS as a Potential Novel Approach to the Pharmacological Management of Acute and Long COVID-19. (nih.gov)
  • Cannabinoids are immune modulators that affect specific intracellular signaling pathways in leukocytes. (nih.gov)
  • 11. Real-time characterization of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 ) allosteric modulators reveals novel mechanism of action. (nih.gov)
  • 6. Evaluation of the potential of the phytocannabinoids, cannabidivarin (CBDV) and Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), to produce CB1 receptor inverse agonism symptoms of nausea in rats. (nih.gov)
  • We describe a peripheral CB 1 R antagonist (MRI-1891) highly biased toward inhibiting CB 1 R-induced β-arrestin-2 (βArr2) recruitment over G-protein activation. (nih.gov)
  • Literature precedent suggests that peripheral blockade of CB1 receptors retains many metabolic benefits without causing CNS side effects and achieves positive benefits like weight loss, less insulin resistance, and better control of glucose. (nih.gov)
  • The team provided the first proof of this concept using a novel peripheral CB1 antagonist in an animal model of diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • The team's research shows that peripheral CB1 antagonists have potential for treating metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes without causing unwanted neuropsychiatric side effects. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, we determined the effect of Delta(9)-THC and CBN, 2 plant-derived cannabinoids, on 2 key epigenetic markers of tumor promotion: inhibition of GJIC, which is essential in removing a cell from growth suppression, and activation of the ERK-MAPK pathway, which is crucial in activating the appropriate genes for mitogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibition of MEK with PD98059 prevented the inhibition of GJIC by either cannabinoid, suggesting that inhibition of GJIC was MEK-dependent. (nih.gov)
  • Functional interaction between opioid and cannabinoid receptors in drug self-administration have also been demonstrated. (nih.gov)
  • Molecules that disrupt the CB1 receptor (CB1 antagonists) are effective not only in reducing body weight, but also in alleviating metabolic complications. (nih.gov)
  • IRP researchers led by George Kunos, M.D., Ph.D. , hypothesized that CB1 antagonists with limited brain penetrance may retain their metabolic efficacy without the unwanted neuropsychiatric effect. (nih.gov)
  • 8. Positive allosteric modulation of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor reduces the signs and symptoms of Huntington's disease in the R6/2 mouse model. (nih.gov)
  • Seven-transmembrane receptors signal via G-protein- and β-arrestin-dependent pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Cannabinoids inhibit gap junctional intercellular communication and activate ERK in a rat liver epithelial cell line. (nih.gov)
  • Endogenous cannabinoids are lipid messengers that activate CB1 receptors in the brain to stimulate food intake. (nih.gov)
  • Evaluation of [ 11 C]NR2B-SMe and its enantiomers as radioligands for imaging the NR2B subunit within the NMDA receptor complex in rats. (nih.gov)
  • A non-receptor tyrosine kinase that is essential for the development, maturation, and signaling of B-LYMPHOCYTES. (nih.gov)
  • Studies with animals exposed to chronic administration of cocaine, alcohol and cannabinoids have shown increases in CRF activity in the amygdala as measured by in vivo microdialysis. (nih.gov)
  • The Therapeutic Potential of Second and Third Generation CB 1 R Antagonists Cinar, R. (nih.gov)
  • 13. Therapeutic potential and safety considerations for the clinical use of synthetic cannabinoids. (nih.gov)
  • RECEPTORS) and is used in the treatment of metastatic NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER. (nih.gov)
  • Even more exciting are results showing that CRF antagonists gain the ability to reduce alcohol drinking in animals with a history of dependence, but are inactive in animals with no history of dependence. (nih.gov)