Infection of the VULVA and VAGINA with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA.
Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Pathological processes of the VAGINA.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Pathological processes of the VULVA.
Inflammation of the VULVA and the VAGINA, characterized by discharge, burning, and PRURITUS.
An important nosocomial fungal infection with species of the genus CANDIDA, most frequently CANDIDA ALBICANS. Invasive candidiasis occurs when candidiasis goes beyond a superficial infection and manifests as CANDIDEMIA, deep tissue infection, or disseminated disease with deep organ involvement.
Inspection and PALPATATION of female breasts, abdomen, and GENITALIA, as well as obtaining a gynecological history. (from Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Inflammation of the vagina characterized by pain and a purulent discharge.
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Intense itching of the external female genitals.
Candidiasis of the skin manifested as eczema-like lesions of the interdigital spaces, perleche, or chronic paronychia. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
An imidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of antimycotic activity. It inhibits biosynthesis of the sterol ergostol, an important component of fungal CELL MEMBRANES. Its action leads to increased membrane permeability and apparent disruption of enzyme systems bound to the membrane.
The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.
A clinical syndrome characterized by development, usually in infancy or childhood, of a chronic, often widespread candidiasis of skin, nails, and mucous membranes. It may be secondary to one of the immunodeficiency syndromes, inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, or associated with defects in cell-mediated immunity, endocrine disorders, dental stomatitis, or malignancy.
Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of boric acid either B(OH)3 or, preferably H3BO3.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
Inflammation of the head of the PENIS, glans penis.
A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI commonly found on the body surface. It causes opportunistic infections especially in immunocompromised patients.
A common gynecologic disorder characterized by an abnormal, nonbloody discharge from the genital tract.
Inflammation of the vagina, marked by a purulent discharge. This disease is caused by the protozoan TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS.
Recurrent genital pain occurring during, before, or after SEXUAL INTERCOURSE in either the male or the female.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
Tumors or cancer of the VAGINA.
Inflammation of the UTERINE CERVIX.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.
Pathological processes in the ESOPHAGUS.
A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.
Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.
Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.
Compounds consisting of a short peptide chain conjugated with an acyl chain.
A form of invasive candidiasis where species of CANDIDA are present in the blood.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.

Psychological factors associated with recurrent vaginal candidiasis: a preliminary study. (1/350)

OBJECTIVE: To identify psychological factors associated with chronic recurrent vaginal candidiasis. DESIGN: A cross sectional exploratory study of women with chronic, recurrent vaginal candidiasis. PATIENTS: 28 women found culture positive and treated for vaginal candidiasis by a clinic physician at least twice within the past 6 months. All women reported that they had experienced vaginal thrush six or more times within 1 year. A comparison group comprised 16 women with no history of recurrent vaginal candidiasis, of similar age range, and recruited from a women's family planning service. METHODS: Both groups were compared on demographic criteria, sexual health histories, mental health, and psychological health characteristics. A purpose designed structured interview was administered alongside a battery of standardised psychometric instruments measuring mood, satisfaction with life, self esteem, and perceived stress. RESULTS: The two groups showed considerable similarities, with no significant differences in demographic characteristics and most sexual health issues. However, women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis were significantly more likely to suffer clinical depression, to be less satisfied with life, to have poorer self esteem, and to perceive their lives as more stressful. Additionally, women with recurrent vaginal candidiasis reported that their candidiasis seriously interfered with their sexual and emotional relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study identified many areas of psychological morbidity associated with chronic vaginal candidiasis, and indicates that development of appropriate psychological treatment initiatives in this area is long overdue.  (+info)

High aspartyl proteinase production and vaginitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women. (2/350)

Vaginal isolates of Candida albicans from human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+) and HIV- women with or without candidal vaginitis were examined for secretory aspartyl proteinase (Sap) production in vitro and in vivo and for the possible correlation of Sap production with pathology and antimycotic susceptibility in vitro. HIV+ women with candidal vaginitis were infected by strains of C. albicans showing significantly higher levels of Sap, a virulence enzyme, than strains isolated from HIV+, C. albicans carrier subjects and HIV- subjects with vaginitis. The greater production of Sap in vitro was paralleled by greater amounts of Sap in the vaginal fluids of infected subjects. In an estrogen-dependent, rat vaginitis model, a strain of C. albicans producing a high level of Sap that was isolated from an HIV+ woman with vaginitis was more pathogenic than a strain of C. albicans that was isolated primarily from an HIV-, Candida carrier. In the same model, pepstatin A, a strong Sap inhibitor, exerted a strong curative effect on experimental vaginitis. No correlation was found between Sap production and antimycotic susceptibility, as most of the isolates were fully susceptible to fluconazole, itraconazole, and other antimycotics, regardless of their source (subjects infected with strains producing high or low levels of Sap, subjects with vaginitis or carrier subjects, or subjects with or without HIV). Thus, high Sap production is associated with virulence of C. albicans but not with fungal resistance to fluconazole in HIV-infected subjects, and Sap is a potentially new therapeutic target in candidal vaginitis.  (+info)

Analysis of vaginal cell populations during experimental vaginal candidiasis. (3/350)

Studies with an estrogen-dependent murine model of vaginal candidiasis suggest that local cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is more important than systemic CMI for protection against vaginitis. The present study, however, showed that, compared to uninfected mice, little to no change in the percentage or types of vaginal T cells occurred during a primary vaginal infection or during a secondary vaginal infection where partial protection was observed. Furthermore, depletion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) had no effect on infection in the presence or absence of pseudoestrus. These results indicate a lack of demonstrable effects by systemic CMI or PMN against vaginitis and suggest that if local T cells are important, they are functioning without showing significant increases in numbers within the vaginal mucosa during infection.  (+info)

Circulating heat shock proteins in women with a history of recurrent vulvovaginitis. (4/350)

OBJECTIVE: Predisposing factors influencing recurrences of bacterial vaginosis (BV) or vaginitis from Candida remain unidentified for most women. As a component of studies to determine host susceptibility factors to genital tract infections in women, we measured expression of the 60-kDa and 70-kDa heat shock proteins (hsp60 and hsp70, respectively) in the circulation of women with or without a history of recurrent BV or candidal vaginitis and with or without a current lower genital tract infection. Heat shock protein expression is associated with a down-regulation of pro-inflammatory immune responses that would inhibit microbial infection. METHOD: The investigators measured hsp60 and hsp70, antibodies to these proteins, the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) in sera by ELISA. The study population consisted of 100 women who attended a gynecology clinic in Campinas, Brazil. Of those, 55 had a history of recurrent vulvovaginitis (RV), while 45 were controls with no such history. Only women who were asymptomatic for at least 1 month were studied. RESULTS: Although all were asymptomatic, clinical and microbiological examination revealed that five of the women with a history of RV and two controls had a current candidal vaginal infection; 16 RV patients and 12 controls had BV; and six RV patients had both BV and candidiasis. Twenty-eight RV patients and 31 controls had no clinical or microbiological detectable vaginal infection. Among the RV patients, hsp60 and hsp70 were more prevalent in those with current BV (40.9% and 50.0%, respectively) or a candidal infection (45.5% and 54.5%) than in women with no current infection (21.4% and 17.9%). In the women with no history of RV, BV was not associated with a high prevalence of hsp60 (8.3%) or hsp70 (8.3%). Interleukin-10 and TNF were not more prevalent in vaginitis patients or controls with a current candidal infection or BV than in uninfected subjects. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of circulating hsp60 and hsp70 in women with a history of RV and current BV or vaginal candidiasis, but not in women with no history of RV, suggests that differences in heat shock protein induction may be related to susceptibility to recurrent vaginal infections.  (+info)

In vitro and in vivo anticandidal activity of human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors. (5/350)

Highly active antiretroviral therapy that includes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) aspartyl protease inhibitors (PIs) causes a decline in the incidence of some opportunistic infections in AIDS, and this decline is currently attributed to the restoration of specific immunity. The effect of two PIs (indinavir and ritonavir) on the enzymatic activity of a secretory aspartyl protease (Sap) of Candida albicans (a major agent of mucosal disease in HIV-infected subjects) and on growth and experimental pathogenicity of this fungus was evaluated. Both PIs strongly (>/=90%) and dose dependently (0.1-10 microM) inhibited Sap activity and production. They also significantly reduced Candida growth in a nitrogen-limited, Sap expression-dependent growth medium and exerted a therapeutic effect in an experimental model of vaginal candidiasis, with an efficacy comparable to that of fluconazole. Thus, besides the expected immunorestoration, patients receiving PI therapy may benefit from a direct anticandidal activity of these drugs.  (+info)

An adhesin of the yeast pathogen Candida glabrata mediating adherence to human epithelial cells. (6/350)

Candida glabrata is an important fungal pathogen of humans that is responsible for about 15 percent of mucosal and systemic candidiasis. Candida glabrata adhered avidly to human epithelial cells in culture. By means of a genetic approach and a strategy allowing parallel screening of mutants, it was possible to clone a lectin from a Candida species. Deletion of this adhesin reduced adherence of C. glabrata to human epithelial cells by 95 percent. The adhesin, encoded by the EPA1 gene, is likely a glucan-cross-linked cell-wall protein and binds to host-cell carbohydrate, specifically recognizing asialo-lactosyl-containing carbohydrates.  (+info)

Differential susceptibility of two species of macaques to experimental vaginal candidiasis. (7/350)

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) caused by Candida albicans is a significant problem in women of childbearing age. Unfortunately, protective host defense mechanisms against VVC are poorly understood. Although rodent models of experimental vaginal candidiasis have been useful, several differences from humans limit the correlation of experimental data. The purpose of the present study was to examine two species of macaques as an alternative model of experimental vaginitis. Screening of pig-tailed and rhesus macaques demonstrated that each had mucosal Candida colonization and prior immune sensitization to C. albicans. Vaginal-associated immunity (cytokines, antibodies, and innate resistance) was also detected in cervicovaginal lavage fluid from both species. Nevertheless, intravaginal inoculation of C. albicans into both species, either untreated or under estrogen-treated conditions, resulted in vaginal infection in rhesus, but not pig-tailed, macaques. Several estrogen-dependent changes in the rhesus immune status coincided with susceptibility to infection. Taken together, these results suggest that pig-tailed and rhesus macaques may be useful in studying pathogenesis and immunity associated with C. albicans vaginitis.  (+info)

Evolution of vaginal Candida species recovered from human immunodeficiency virus-infected women receiving fluconazole prophylaxis: the emergence of Candida glabrata? Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research in AIDS (CPCRA). (8/350)

The effect of fluconazole prophylaxis on the vaginal flora of 323 human immunodeficiency virus-infected women was evaluated in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Women with CD4 cell counts of < or = 300/mm3 received either 200 mg of fluconazole per week or placebo. Vaginal surveillance cultures were performed every 3 months. After a follow-up of 29 months, Candida albicans was recovered from 53% of patients receiving fluconazole and 68% of patients assigned placebo. Fluconazole was associated with a 50% reduction in the odds of being colonized with C. albicans but with higher rates for non-albicans Candida species. Candida glabrata was recovered from 40 women assigned fluconazole and 29 assigned placebo (relative odds, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-3.94). Fluconazole had an early and persistent effect on the vaginal mycoflora, with the emergence of C. glabrata vaginal colonization within the first 6 months. The effect of fluconazole prophylaxis can be attributed to the reduction in vaginal C. albicans colonization; however, C. glabrata colonization rapidly supervened.  (+info)

Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a medical condition that refers to an infection in the vagina and vulva caused by Candida fungus, most commonly Candida albicans. This type of infection is also commonly known as a yeast infection. The symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis can include itching, redness, swelling, pain, and soreness in the affected area, as well as thick, white vaginal discharge that may resemble cottage cheese. In some cases, there may also be burning during urination or sexual intercourse. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common condition that affects many women at some point in their lives, and it can be treated with antifungal medications.

Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by Candida species, most commonly Candida albicans. It can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, mucous membranes (such as the mouth and vagina), and internal organs (like the esophagus, lungs, or blood).

The symptoms of candidiasis depend on the location of the infection:

1. Oral thrush: White patches on the tongue, inner cheeks, gums, or roof of the mouth. These patches may be painful and can bleed slightly when scraped.
2. Vaginal yeast infection: Itching, burning, redness, and swelling of the vagina and vulva; thick, white, odorless discharge from the vagina.
3. Esophageal candidiasis: Difficulty swallowing, pain when swallowing, or feeling like food is "stuck" in the throat.
4. Invasive candidiasis: Fever, chills, and other signs of infection; multiple organ involvement may lead to various symptoms depending on the affected organs.

Risk factors for developing candidiasis include diabetes, HIV/AIDS, use of antibiotics or corticosteroids, pregnancy, poor oral hygiene, and wearing tight-fitting clothing that traps moisture. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, such as fluconazole, nystatin, or clotrimazole, depending on the severity and location of the infection.

Oral candidiasis is a medical condition characterized by an infection of the oral mucous membranes caused by the Candida fungus species, most commonly Candida albicans. It is also known as thrush or oral thrush. The infection typically appears as white, creamy, or yellowish patches or plaques on the tongue, inner cheeks, roof of the mouth, gums, and sometimes on the tonsils or back of the throat. These lesions can be painful, causing soreness, burning sensations, and difficulty swallowing. Oral candidiasis can affect people of all ages; however, it is more commonly seen in infants, elderly individuals, and those with weakened immune systems due to illness or medication use. Various factors such as poor oral hygiene, dentures, smoking, dry mouth, and certain medical conditions like diabetes or HIV/AIDS can increase the risk of developing oral candidiasis. Treatment usually involves antifungal medications in the form of topical creams, lozenges, or oral solutions, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the infection.

Vaginal diseases refer to various medical conditions that affect the vagina, which is the female reproductive organ that extends from the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) to the external part of the genitalia (vulva). These diseases can cause a range of symptoms, including discharge, itching, burning, pain, and discomfort. Some common vaginal diseases include:

1. Vaginitis: It is an inflammation or infection of the vagina that can cause abnormal discharge, itching, and irritation. The most common causes of vaginitis are bacterial vaginosis, yeast infections, and trichomoniasis.
2. Vulvovaginitis: It is an inflammation or infection of both the vagina and vulva that can cause redness, swelling, itching, and pain. The causes of vulvovaginitis are similar to those of vaginitis and include bacterial infections, yeast infections, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
3. Vaginal dryness: It is a common condition that affects many women, especially after menopause. It can cause discomfort during sexual intercourse and lead to other symptoms such as itching and burning.
4. Vaginal cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that develop in the vagina due to various reasons, including inflammation, injury, or congenital abnormalities.
5. Vaginal cancer: It is a rare type of cancer that affects the vagina. The most common symptoms include abnormal vaginal bleeding, discharge, and pain during sexual intercourse.
6. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): Several STIs, such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus (HPV), can affect the vagina and cause various symptoms, including discharge, pain, and sores.

It is essential to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of vaginal diseases to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.

'Candida albicans' is a species of yeast that is commonly found in the human body, particularly in warm and moist areas such as the mouth, gut, and genital region. It is a part of the normal microbiota and usually does not cause any harm. However, under certain conditions like a weakened immune system, prolonged use of antibiotics or steroids, poor oral hygiene, or diabetes, it can overgrow and cause infections known as candidiasis. These infections can affect various parts of the body including the skin, nails, mouth (thrush), and genital area (yeast infection).

The medical definition of 'Candida albicans' is:

A species of yeast belonging to the genus Candida, which is commonly found as a commensal organism in humans. It can cause opportunistic infections when there is a disruption in the normal microbiota or when the immune system is compromised. The overgrowth of C. albicans can lead to various forms of candidiasis, such as oral thrush, vaginal yeast infection, and invasive candidiasis.

The vagina is the canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal because babies pass through it during childbirth. The vagina is where sexual intercourse occurs and where menstrual blood exits the body. It has a flexible wall that can expand and retract. During sexual arousal, the vaginal walls swell with blood to become more elastic in order to accommodate penetration.

It's important to note that sometimes people use the term "vagina" to refer to the entire female genital area, including the external structures like the labia and clitoris. But technically, these are considered part of the vulva, not the vagina.

Vulvar diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the vulva, which is the external female genital area including the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, and the vaginal opening. These conditions can cause various symptoms such as itching, burning, pain, soreness, irritation, or abnormal growths or lesions. Some common vulvar diseases include:

1. Vulvitis: inflammation of the vulva that can be caused by infection, allergies, or irritants.
2. Lichen sclerosus: a chronic skin condition that causes thin, white patches on the vulva.
3. Lichen planus: an inflammatory condition that affects the skin and mucous membranes, including the vulva.
4. Vulvar cancer: a rare type of cancer that develops in the tissues of the vulva.
5. Genital warts: caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, these are small growths or bumps on the vulva.
6. Pudendal neuralgia: a nerve condition that causes pain in the vulvar area.
7. Vestibulodynia: pain or discomfort in the vestibule, the area surrounding the vaginal opening.

It is important to consult a healthcare professional if experiencing any symptoms related to vulvar diseases for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Vulvovaginitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the vulva and vagina. It is often characterized by symptoms such as itching, burning, redness, swelling, discomfort, pain, and abnormal vaginal discharge. The condition can be caused by various factors, including infections (such as bacterial vaginosis, yeast infections, or sexually transmitted infections), irritants (like chemicals found in soaps, douches, or sanitary products), allergies, or hormonal changes.

The symptoms of vulvovaginitis can vary depending on the cause and severity of the inflammation. In some cases, it may resolve on its own or with simple home remedies, while in other cases, medical treatment may be necessary to clear up any underlying infection or address any specific causes of the inflammation.

If you are experiencing symptoms of vulvovaginitis, it is important to speak with a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment plan.

Invasive candidiasis is a serious and potentially life-threatening fungal infection caused by the Candida species, most commonly Candida albicans. It occurs when the fungus invades normally sterile areas of the body, such as the bloodstream, heart, brain, or eyes. Invasive candidiasis can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the site of infection, and may include fever, chills, hypotension, sepsis, organ dysfunction, and skin lesions.

Risk factors for invasive candidiasis include prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppression, indwelling catheters, recent surgery, critical illness, and underlying medical conditions such as diabetes or cancer. Diagnosis typically involves blood cultures and sometimes tissue biopsy, and treatment usually requires intravenous antifungal medications such as echinocandins, fluconazole, or amphotericin B. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent serious complications and improve outcomes.

A gynecological examination is a medical procedure performed by a healthcare professional, typically a gynecologist, to evaluate the female reproductive system. The examination may include a variety of tests and procedures, such as:

1. Medical history review: The doctor will ask questions about the patient's menstrual cycle, sexual activity, contraceptive use, pregnancy history, and any symptoms or concerns.
2. External examination: The doctor will inspect the external genitalia for any signs of infection, irritation, or abnormalities.
3. Speculum exam: A speculum, a medical instrument that resembles a duckbill, is inserted into the vagina to allow the doctor to visualize the cervix and vaginal walls. This helps in detecting any abnormalities such as cervical polyps, inflammation, or cancerous growths.
4. Pelvic exam: The doctor will insert gloved fingers into the patient's vagina while simultaneously pressing on the lower abdomen to assess the size, shape, and position of the reproductive organs, including the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.
5. Pap test: A sample of cells is collected from the cervix using a spatula or brush and sent to a laboratory for analysis. This helps in detecting any precancerous or cancerous changes in the cervical cells.
6. Other tests: Depending on the patient's age, medical history, and symptoms, additional tests such as STD screening, breast exam, or imaging studies (e.g., ultrasound, MRI) may be recommended.

The frequency and type of gynecological examinations vary depending on a woman's age, health status, and individual needs. Regular check-ups are essential for early detection and prevention of reproductive system-related issues, including sexually transmitted infections, cervical cancer, and other gynecological conditions.

Vaginitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the vagina, often accompanied by an alteration in the normal vaginal flora and an associated discharge. It can result from infectious (bacterial, viral, or fungal) or noninfectious causes, such as chemical irritants, allergies, or hormonal changes. Common symptoms include abnormal vaginal discharge with varying colors, odors, and consistencies; itching; burning; and pain during urination or sexual intercourse. The specific diagnosis and treatment of vaginitis depend on the underlying cause, which is typically determined through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests.

'Candida' is a type of fungus (a form of yeast) that is commonly found on the skin and inside the body, including in the mouth, throat, gut, and vagina, in small amounts. It is a part of the normal microbiota and usually does not cause any problems. However, an overgrowth of Candida can lead to infections known as candidiasis or thrush. Common sites for these infections include the skin, mouth, throat, and genital areas. Some factors that can contribute to Candida overgrowth are a weakened immune system, certain medications (such as antibiotics and corticosteroids), diabetes, pregnancy, poor oral hygiene, and wearing damp or tight-fitting clothing. Common symptoms of candidiasis include itching, redness, pain, and discharge. Treatment typically involves antifungal medication, either topical or oral, depending on the site and severity of the infection.

Pruritus vulvae is a medical term used to describe the sensation of itching or irritation in the vulvar area, which is the external female genital region. This condition can have various causes, including dermatological issues (such as eczema, psoriasis, or contact dermatitis), infections (like candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, or scabies), hormonal imbalances, menopause, or systemic diseases (such as diabetes, liver disorders, or kidney problems). In some cases, the cause of pruritus vulvae may remain undetermined even after a thorough evaluation.

The itching and irritation associated with pruritus vulvae can significantly impact a person's quality of life, causing discomfort, sleep disturbances, and emotional distress. Proper diagnosis and treatment typically require a consultation with a healthcare professional specializing in gynecology or dermatology, who will consider the patient's medical history, conduct a physical examination, and potentially order further tests to identify the underlying cause. Treatment options vary depending on the specific cause but may include topical creams, oral medications, lifestyle changes, or a combination of these approaches.

Cutaneous candidiasis is a fungal infection of the skin caused by Candida species, most commonly Candida albicans. The infection can occur anywhere on the skin, but it typically affects warm, moist areas such as the armpits, groin, and fingers. The symptoms of cutaneous candidiasis include redness, itching, burning, and cracking of the skin. In severe cases, pustules or blisters may also be present.

The infection can occur in people of all ages but is more common in those with weakened immune systems, such as individuals with HIV/AIDS, diabetes, or cancer. Other risk factors include obesity, poor hygiene, and the use of certain medications, such as antibiotics and corticosteroids.

Treatment for cutaneous candidiasis typically involves topical antifungal medications, such as clotrimazole or miconazole. In severe cases, oral antifungal medications may be necessary. Keeping the affected area clean and dry is also important to prevent the spread of the infection.

Antifungal agents are a type of medication used to treat and prevent fungal infections. These agents work by targeting and disrupting the growth of fungi, which include yeasts, molds, and other types of fungi that can cause illness in humans.

There are several different classes of antifungal agents, including:

1. Azoles: These agents work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes. Examples of azole antifungals include fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole.
2. Echinocandins: These agents target the fungal cell wall, disrupting its synthesis and leading to fungal cell death. Examples of echinocandins include caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.
3. Polyenes: These agents bind to ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to fungal cell death. Examples of polyene antifungals include amphotericin B and nystatin.
4. Allylamines: These agents inhibit squalene epoxidase, a key enzyme in ergosterol synthesis. Examples of allylamine antifungals include terbinafine and naftifine.
5. Griseofulvin: This agent disrupts fungal cell division by binding to tubulin, a protein involved in fungal cell mitosis.

Antifungal agents can be administered topically, orally, or intravenously, depending on the severity and location of the infection. It is important to use antifungal agents only as directed by a healthcare professional, as misuse or overuse can lead to resistance and make treatment more difficult.

Clotrimazole is an antifungal medication used to treat various fungal infections such as athlete's foot, jock itch, ringworm, candidiasis (yeast infection), and oral thrush. It works by inhibiting the growth of fungi that cause these infections. Clotrimazole is available in several forms, including creams, lotions, powders, tablets, and lozenges.

The medical definition of Clotrimazole is:

A synthetic antifungal agent belonging to the imidazole class, used topically to treat various fungal infections such as candidiasis, tinea pedis, tinea cruris, and tinea versicolor. It works by inhibiting the biosynthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes, leading to increased permeability and death of fungal cells.

The vulva refers to the external female genital area. It includes the mons pubis (the pad of fatty tissue covered with skin and hair that's located on the front part of the pelvis), labia majora (the outer folds of skin that surround and protect the vaginal opening), labia minora (the inner folds of skin that surround the vaginal and urethral openings), clitoris (a small, sensitive organ located at the front of the vulva where the labia minora join), the external openings of the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body) and vagina (the passageway leading to the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus).

It's important to note that understanding the anatomy and terminology related to one's own body can help facilitate effective communication with healthcare providers, promote self-awareness, and support overall health and well-being.

Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is a group of rare disorders characterized by persistent or recurrent Candida infections of the skin, nails, and mucous membranes. The infection can affect various sites such as the mouth, esophagus, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract.

CMC is typically caused by an impaired immune response to Candida albicans, a type of fungus that commonly exists on the skin and mucous membranes. In CMC, the immune system fails to control the growth of Candida, leading to chronic or recurrent infections.

The symptoms of CMC can vary depending on the site of infection. Common manifestations include:

* Chronic or recurrent thrush (oral candidiasis)
* Esophagitis (inflammation of the esophagus)
* Chronic nail infections (onychomycosis)
* Skin lesions, such as redness, swelling, and cracks
* Genital infections, including vaginitis and balanitis (inflammation of the head of the penis)

CMC can be associated with other immune disorders, such as endocrine dysfunction, autoimmune diseases, and primary immunodeficiencies. The diagnosis of CMC is based on clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, such as topical or systemic azoles, echinocandins, or polyenes. In some cases, immunomodulatory therapy may be necessary to manage the underlying immune dysfunction.

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a condition that occurs when there's an imbalance or overgrowth of bacteria in the vagina. It's not technically considered a sexually transmitted infection (STI), but certain activities such as unprotected sex can increase the risk of developing BV. The normal balance of bacteria in the vagina is disrupted, leading to symptoms such as abnormal vaginal discharge with a strong fishy odor, burning during urination, and itching or irritation around the outside of the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is diagnosed through a pelvic examination and laboratory tests to identify the type of bacteria present in the vagina. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, either in the form of pills or creams that are inserted into the vagina. It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have bacterial vaginosis, as it can increase the risk of complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease and preterm labor during pregnancy.

Boric acid is not a compound that is typically produced within the body as it is an inorganic, weak acid. It is commonly used as a preservative, antiseptic, and insecticide. Boric acid can be found in various over-the-counter products such as eye wash solutions, mouthwashes, and topical creams or ointments.

The medical definition of boric acids is:

A white crystalline powder with the chemical formula B(OH)3. It is slightly soluble in water and has a wide range of uses, including as an antiseptic, insecticide, and preservative. In medicine, boric acid is used as a mild antiseptic for minor cuts, scrapes, and burns, and to treat yeast infections of the skin. It works by killing bacteria and fungi that can cause infections. Boric acid is also used in some eye wash solutions to help prevent bacterial infections.

It's important to note that boric acid can be toxic if ingested or absorbed through the skin in large amounts, so it should be used with caution and kept out of reach of children and pets.

Fluconazole is an antifungal medication used to treat and prevent various fungal infections, such as candidiasis (yeast infections), cryptococcal meningitis, and other fungal infections that affect the mouth, throat, blood, lungs, genital area, and other parts of the body. It works by inhibiting the growth of fungi that cause these infections. Fluconazole is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and intravenous (IV) solutions, and is typically prescribed to be taken once daily.

The medical definition of Fluconazole can be found in pharmacological or medical dictionaries, which describe it as a triazole antifungal agent that inhibits fungal cytochrome P450-dependent synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of the fungal cell membrane. This results in increased permeability and leakage of cellular contents, ultimately leading to fungal death. Fluconazole has a broad spectrum of activity against various fungi, including Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus, and others.

It is important to note that while Fluconazole is an effective antifungal medication, it may have side effects and interactions with other medications. Therefore, it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Balanitis is an inflammation of the glans penis, which is the rounded tip of the penis. It's a common condition in uncircumcised males and can affect men of all ages. The symptoms of balanitis include redness, swelling, pain, itching, and soreness on the glans penis. In some cases, there may be a discharge with an unpleasant odor.

Balanitis can have various causes, including poor hygiene, irritants (such as soaps or spermicides), infections (bacterial, fungal, or viral), and skin conditions (like psoriasis or eczema). In rare cases, balanitis can be a sign of an underlying medical condition, such as diabetes.

Treatment for balanitis depends on the cause. For mild cases, good hygiene and avoiding irritants may be enough. More severe cases might require medication, such as antibiotics, antifungals, or corticosteroids. If an underlying condition is causing the balanitis, that will need to be treated as well.

'Candida glabrata' is a species of yeast that is commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans. It is a member of the genus Candida, which includes several species of fungi that can cause infections in humans. C. glabrata is one of the more common causes of candidiasis, or yeast infections, particularly in the mouth (oral thrush) and genital area. It can also cause invasive candidiasis, a serious systemic infection that can affect various organs and tissues in the body. C. glabrata is often resistant to some of the antifungal drugs commonly used to treat Candida infections, making it more difficult to treat.

Vaginal discharge refers to the fluid that comes out of the vagina on a regular basis. It's a normal and healthy process for the body to keep the vagina clean and maintain its pH balance. The amount, color, and consistency of vaginal discharge can vary throughout a woman's menstrual cycle and can also be influenced by various factors such as pregnancy, sexual arousal, and infections.

Normal vaginal discharge is typically clear or white and may have a mild odor. However, if the discharge changes in color, consistency, or smell, or if it's accompanied by symptoms such as itching, burning, or pain, it could be a sign of an infection or other medical condition that requires treatment.

It is important to note that while vaginal discharge is a normal bodily function, any abnormal changes should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to ensure appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

Trichomonas vaginitis is a type of vaginal infection caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. It is transmitted through sexual contact and primarily affects the urogenital tract. The infection can cause various symptoms in women, such as vaginal discharge with an unpleasant smell, itching, redness, and pain during urination or sex. However, up to 50% of infected individuals may be asymptomatic. In men, it often does not cause any symptoms but can lead to urethritis (inflammation of the urethra). Diagnosis is usually made through microscopic examination of vaginal secretions or a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Treatment typically involves prescription antibiotics like metronidazole or tinidazole, targeting both sexual partners to prevent reinfection.

Dyspareunia is a medical term that describes painful sexual intercourse. This condition can affect both men and women, but it is more commonly reported by women. The pain can occur in various locations, such as the vaginal opening, deep inside the vagina, or in the pelvic region. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including physical conditions like vulvodynia, endometriosis, or vaginal infections, as well as psychological factors like anxiety, depression, or relationship issues. Treatment for dyspareunia depends on the underlying cause and may include medication, therapy, or lifestyle changes.

Fungal drug resistance is a condition where fungi are no longer susceptible to the antifungal drugs that were previously used to treat infections they caused. This can occur due to genetic changes in the fungi that make them less sensitive to the drug's effects, or due to environmental factors that allow the fungi to survive and multiply despite the presence of the drug.

There are several mechanisms by which fungi can develop drug resistance, including:

1. Mutations in genes that encode drug targets: Fungi can acquire mutations in the genes that encode for the proteins or enzymes that the antifungal drugs target. These mutations can alter the structure or function of these targets, making them less susceptible to the drug's effects.
2. Overexpression of efflux pumps: Fungi can increase the expression of genes that encode for efflux pumps, which are proteins that help fungi expel drugs from their cells. This can reduce the intracellular concentration of the drug and make it less effective.
3. Changes in membrane composition: Fungi can alter the composition of their cell membranes to make them less permeable to antifungal drugs, making it more difficult for the drugs to enter the fungal cells and exert their effects.
4. Biofilm formation: Fungi can form biofilms, which are complex communities of microorganisms that adhere to surfaces and are protected by a matrix of extracellular material. Biofilms can make fungi more resistant to antifungal drugs by limiting drug penetration and creating an environment that promotes the development of resistance.

Fungal drug resistance is a significant clinical problem, particularly in patients with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or cancer. It can lead to treatment failures, increased morbidity and mortality, and higher healthcare costs. To address this issue, there is a need for new antifungal drugs, as well as strategies to prevent and manage drug resistance.

Vaginal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the vagina. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The two main types of vaginal neoplasms are:

1. Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN): This is a condition where the cells on the inner lining of the vagina become abnormal but have not invaded deeper tissues. VAIN can be low-grade or high-grade, depending on the severity of the cell changes.
2. Vaginal cancer: This is a malignant tumor that arises from the cells in the vagina. The two main types of vaginal cancer are squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type, accounting for about 85% of all cases.

Risk factors for vaginal neoplasms include human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, smoking, older age, history of cervical cancer or precancerous changes, and exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Uterine cervicitis is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of the uterine cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. It can be caused by various factors, including bacterial or viral infections, allergies, or irritants. The symptoms of cervicitis may include abnormal vaginal discharge, pain during sexual intercourse, bleeding after sex, and irregular menstrual bleeding. In some cases, cervicitis may not cause any noticeable symptoms. If left untreated, cervicitis can increase the risk of developing more severe complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease or infertility. Treatment for cervicitis typically involves antibiotics to eliminate any underlying infections and management of symptoms. Regular gynecological exams and Pap tests are essential for early detection and prevention of cervical diseases.

Intravaginal administration refers to the delivery of medications or other substances directly into the vagina. This route of administration can be used for local treatment of vaginal infections or inflammation, or to deliver systemic medication that is absorbed through the vaginal mucosa.

Medications can be administered intravaginally using a variety of dosage forms, including creams, gels, foams, suppositories, and films. The choice of dosage form depends on several factors, such as the drug's physicochemical properties, the desired duration of action, and patient preference.

Intravaginal administration offers several advantages over other routes of administration. It allows for direct delivery of medication to the site of action, which can result in higher local concentrations and fewer systemic side effects. Additionally, some medications may be more effective when administered intravaginally due to their ability to bypass first-pass metabolism in the liver.

However, there are also potential disadvantages to intravaginal administration. Some women may find it uncomfortable or inconvenient to use this route of administration, and there is a risk of leakage or expulsion of the medication. Additionally, certain medications may cause local irritation or allergic reactions when administered intravaginally.

Overall, intravaginal administration can be a useful route of administration for certain medications and conditions, but it is important to consider the potential benefits and risks when choosing this method.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

Fungal antibodies are a type of protein called immunoglobulins that are produced by the immune system in response to the presence of fungi in the body. These antibodies are specifically designed to recognize and bind to antigens on the surface of fungal cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells.

There are several types of fungal antibodies, including IgA, IgG, IgM, and IgE, each with a specific role in the immune response. For example, IgG antibodies are the most common type of antibody found in the blood and provide long-term immunity to fungi, while IgE antibodies are associated with allergic reactions to fungi.

Fungal antibodies can be measured in the blood or other bodily fluids to help diagnose fungal infections, monitor the effectiveness of treatment, or assess immune function in individuals who are at risk for fungal infections, such as those with weakened immune systems due to HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplantation.

Pharyngeal diseases refer to conditions that affect the pharynx, which is the part of the throat that lies behind the nasal cavity and mouth, and above the esophagus and larynx. The pharynx plays a crucial role in swallowing, speaking, and breathing. Pharyngeal diseases can cause symptoms such as sore throat, difficulty swallowing, pain during swallowing, swollen lymph nodes, and earaches.

Some common pharyngeal diseases include:

1. Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the pharynx, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
2. Tonsillitis: Inflammation of the tonsils, which are two masses of lymphoid tissue located on either side of the back of the throat.
3. Epiglottitis: Inflammation of the epiglottis, a flap of cartilage that covers the windpipe during swallowing to prevent food and liquids from entering the lungs.
4. Abscesses: A collection of pus in the pharynx caused by a bacterial infection.
5. Cancer: Malignant tumors that can develop in the pharynx, often caused by smoking or heavy alcohol use.
6. Dysphagia: Difficulty swallowing due to nerve damage, muscle weakness, or structural abnormalities in the pharynx.
7. Stridor: Noisy breathing caused by a narrowed or obstructed airway in the pharynx.

Treatment for pharyngeal diseases depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, pain relievers, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Esophageal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the esophagus, which is the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. Here are some common esophageal diseases with their brief definitions:

1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): A chronic condition in which stomach acid or bile flows back into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing.
2. Esophagitis: Inflammation of the esophageal lining, often caused by GERD, infection, or medication.
3. Esophageal stricture: Narrowing of the esophagus due to scarring or inflammation, which can make swallowing difficult.
4. Esophageal cancer: Cancer that forms in the tissues of the esophagus, often as a result of long-term GERD or smoking.
5. Esophageal motility disorders: Disorders that affect the normal movement and function of the esophagus, such as achalasia, diffuse spasm, and nutcracker esophagus.
6. Barrett's esophagus: A condition in which the lining of the lower esophagus changes, increasing the risk of esophageal cancer.
7. Esophageal diverticula: Small pouches that form in the esophageal wall, often causing difficulty swallowing or regurgitation.
8. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE): A chronic immune-mediated disorder characterized by inflammation of the esophagus due to an allergic reaction.

These are some of the common esophageal diseases, and their diagnosis and treatment may vary depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the reproductive organs in women, specifically the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries. It is often caused by an infection that ascends from the cervix or vagina into the upper genital tract. The infectious agents are usually sexually transmitted bacteria such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, but other organisms can also be responsible.

Symptoms of PID may include lower abdominal pain, irregular menstrual bleeding, vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor, fever, painful sexual intercourse, or pain in the lower back. However, some women with PID may not experience any symptoms at all. If left untreated, PID can lead to serious complications such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain.

Diagnosis of PID is typically based on a combination of clinical findings, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection and may also include pain management and other supportive measures. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary for more intensive treatment or if complications arise.

Echinocandins are a class of antifungal medications that inhibit the synthesis of 1,3-β-D-glucan, a key component of the fungal cell wall. This results in osmotic instability and ultimately leads to fungal cell death. Echinocandins are commonly used to treat invasive fungal infections caused by Candida species and Aspergillus species. The three drugs in this class that are approved for use in humans are caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.

Here's a brief overview of each drug:

1. Caspofungin (Cancidas, Cancidas-W): This is the first echinocandin to be approved for use in humans. It is indicated for the treatment of invasive candidiasis, including candidemia, acute disseminated candidiasis, and other forms of Candida infections. Caspofungin is also approved for the prevention of Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
2. Micafungin (Mycamine): This echinocandin is approved for the treatment of candidemia, esophageal candidiasis, and other forms of Candida infections. It is also used for the prevention of Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
3. Anidulafungin (Eraxis): This echinocandin is approved for the treatment of esophageal candidiasis and candidemia, as well as other forms of Candida infections. It is also used for the prevention of Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Echinocandins have a broad spectrum of activity against many fungal species, including those that are resistant to other classes of antifungal medications. They are generally well-tolerated and have a low incidence of drug interactions. However, they should be used with caution in patients with hepatic impairment, as their metabolism may be affected by liver dysfunction.

Fungal antigens are substances found on or produced by fungi that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. They can be proteins, polysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system. Fungal antigens can be used in diagnostic tests to identify fungal infections, and they can also be targets of immune responses during fungal infections. In some cases, fungal antigens may contribute to the pathogenesis of fungal diseases by inducing inflammatory or allergic reactions. Examples of fungal antigens include the cell wall components of Candida albicans and the extracellular polysaccharide galactomannan produced by Aspergillus fumigatus.

The cervix uteri, often simply referred to as the cervix, is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that connects to the vagina. It has an opening called the external os through which menstrual blood exits the uterus and sperm enters during sexual intercourse. During childbirth, the cervix dilates or opens to allow for the passage of the baby through the birth canal.

The oropharynx is the part of the throat (pharynx) that is located immediately behind the mouth and includes the back one-third of the tongue, the soft palate, the side and back walls of the throat, and the tonsils. It serves as a passageway for both food and air, and is also an important area for the immune system due to the presence of tonsils.

Amphotericin B is an antifungal medication used to treat serious and often life-threatening fungal infections. It works by binding to the ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to the loss of essential cell components and ultimately cell death.

The medical definition of Amphotericin B is:

A polyene antifungal agent derived from Streptomyces nodosus, with a broad spectrum of activity against various fungi, including Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, and Histoplasma capsulatum. Amphotericin B is used to treat systemic fungal infections, such as histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, candidiasis, and aspergillosis, among others. It may be administered intravenously or topically, depending on the formulation and the site of infection.

Adverse effects associated with Amphotericin B include infusion-related reactions (such as fever, chills, and hypotension), nephrotoxicity, electrolyte imbalances, and anemia. These side effects are often dose-dependent and may be managed through careful monitoring and adjustment of the dosing regimen.

Sugar alcohols, also known as polyols, are carbohydrates that are chemically similar to sugar but have a different molecular structure. They occur naturally in some fruits and vegetables, but most sugar alcohols used in food products are manufactured.

The chemical structure of sugar alcohols contains a hydroxyl group (-OH) instead of a hydrogen and a ketone or aldehyde group, which makes them less sweet than sugar and have fewer calories. They are not completely absorbed by the body, so they do not cause a rapid increase in blood glucose levels, making them a popular sweetener for people with diabetes.

Common sugar alcohols used in food products include xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, erythritol, and maltitol. They are often used as sweeteners in sugar-free and low-sugar foods such as candy, chewing gum, baked goods, and beverages.

However, consuming large amounts of sugar alcohols can cause digestive symptoms such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea, due to their partial absorption in the gut. Therefore, it is recommended to consume them in moderation.

Nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) are medical laboratory methods used to increase the number of copies of a specific DNA or RNA sequence. These techniques are widely used in molecular biology and diagnostics, including the detection and diagnosis of infectious diseases, genetic disorders, and cancer.

The most commonly used NAAT is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate and replicate DNA strands. Other NAATs include loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), and transcription-mediated amplification (TMA).

NAATs offer several advantages over traditional culture methods for detecting pathogens, including faster turnaround times, increased sensitivity and specificity, and the ability to detect viable but non-culturable organisms. However, they also require specialized equipment and trained personnel, and there is a risk of contamination and false positive results if proper precautions are not taken.

A fungal vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity against fungal infections. It contains one or more fungal antigens, which are substances that can stimulate an immune response, along with adjuvants to enhance the immune response. The goal of fungal vaccines is to protect against invasive fungal diseases, especially in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy, organ transplantation, or HIV/AIDS treatment.

Fungal vaccines can work by inducing both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Humoral immunity involves the production of antibodies that recognize and neutralize fungal antigens, while cell-mediated immunity involves the activation of T cells to directly attack infected cells.

Currently, there are no licensed fungal vaccines available for human use, although several candidates are in various stages of development and clinical trials. Some examples include vaccines against Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Pneumocystis jirovecii.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

Fungemia is the presence of fungi (fungal organisms) in the blood. It's a type of bloodstream infection, which can be serious and life-threatening, particularly for people with weakened immune systems. The fungi that cause fungemia often enter the bloodstream through medical devices like catheters or from a fungal infection somewhere else in the body.

Fungemia is often associated with conditions like candidemia (caused by Candida species) and aspergillemia (caused by Aspergillus species). Symptoms can vary widely but often include fever, chills, and other signs of infection. It's important to diagnose and treat fungemia promptly to prevent serious complications like sepsis.

Lipopeptides are a type of molecule that consists of a lipid (fatty acid) tail attached to a small peptide (short chain of amino acids). They are produced naturally by various organisms, including bacteria, and play important roles in cell-to-cell communication, signaling, and as components of bacterial membranes. Some lipopeptides have also been found to have antimicrobial properties and are being studied for their potential use as therapeutic agents.

Candidemia is a medical condition defined as the presence of the fungus Candida in the bloodstream. It is a type of invasive candidiasis, which occurs when Candida invades normally sterile areas of the body such as the blood, heart, brain, eyes, or bones. Candidemia is usually acquired in healthcare settings and can cause serious illness, especially in people with weakened immune systems. Symptoms may include fever, chills, hypotension, and organ dysfunction. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications.

AIDS-related opportunistic infections (AROIs) are infections that occur more frequently or are more severe in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with advanced HIV infection or AIDS. These infections take advantage of a weakened immune system and can affect various organs and systems in the body.

Common examples of AROIs include:

1. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), caused by the fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii
2. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection, caused by a type of bacteria called mycobacteria
3. Candidiasis, a fungal infection that can affect various parts of the body, including the mouth, esophagus, and genitals
4. Toxoplasmosis, caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii
5. Cryptococcosis, a fungal infection that affects the lungs and central nervous system
6. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, caused by a type of herpes virus
7. Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis
8. Cryptosporidiosis, a parasitic infection that affects the intestines
9. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a viral infection that affects the brain

Preventing and treating AROIs is an important part of managing HIV/AIDS, as they can cause significant illness and even death in people with weakened immune systems. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is used to treat HIV infection and prevent the progression of HIV to AIDS, which can help reduce the risk of opportunistic infections. In addition, medications to prevent specific opportunistic infections may be prescribed for people with advanced HIV or AIDS.

Mannans are a type of complex carbohydrate, specifically a heteropolysaccharide, that are found in the cell walls of certain plants, algae, and fungi. They consist of chains of mannose sugars linked together, often with other sugar molecules such as glucose or galactose.

Mannans have various biological functions, including serving as a source of energy for microorganisms that can break them down. In some cases, mannans can also play a role in the immune response and are used as a component of vaccines to stimulate an immune response.

In the context of medicine, mannans may be relevant in certain conditions such as gut dysbiosis or allergic reactions to foods containing mannans. Additionally, some research has explored the potential use of mannans as a delivery vehicle for drugs or other therapeutic agents.

Vulvovaginal candidiasis was first described in 1849 by Wilkinson. In 1875, Haussmann demonstrated the causative organism in ... Mucosal candidiasis Oral candidiasis (thrush, oropharyngeal candidiasis) Pseudomembranous candidiasis Erythematous candidiasis ... Vaginal candidiasis can cause congenital candidiasis in newborns. In oral candidiasis, simply inspecting the person's mouth for ... disseminated candidiasis) - organ infection by Candida Chronic systemic candidiasis (hepatosplenic candidiasis) - sometimes ...
"Genital / vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) , Fungal Diseases , CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-12-16. Barry L. Hainer; Maria V ... "Vulvovaginal Candidiasis - 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines". www.cdc.gov. 2019-01-11. "STD Facts - Trichomoniasis". www.cdc.gov. ... A vaginal yeast infection or vaginal candidiasis results from overgrowth of candida albicans, or yeast, in the vagina. This is ... had vaginal candidiasis (yeast infection). 32% of patients were found to have sexually transmitted infections including ...
... and Placebo in the Treatment of Acute Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Episodes in Subjects with Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis ( ... "Treating recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis". www.mdedge.com. Retrieved 26 June 2023. Neha; Kumar, Sampat; Madaan, Vani; Sharma ... Sobel JD, Nyirjesy P (December 2021). "Oteseconazole: an advance in treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis". Future ... Sobel, Jack D.; Nyirjesy, Paul (December 2021). "Oteseconazole: an advance in treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis ...
"Vulvovaginal Candidiasis - STI Treatment Guidelines". www.cdc.gov. 22 July 2021. Retrieved 6 April 2022. "Scynexis Announces ... Placebo in Subjects With Acute Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (Vanish 306)" at ClinicalTrials.gov Portal: Medicine v t e (Source ... Ibrexafungerp, sold under the brand name Brexafemme, is an antifungal medication used to treat vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) ( ... Ibrexafungerp is indicated for the treatment of adult and postmenarchal pediatric females with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). ...
Those metabolism rates show similar results in pregnant vulvovaginal candidiasis, non-pregnant vulvovaginal candidiasis and ... Testing shows that it is a suitable compound for prophylaxis for those that suffer from chronic vulvovaginal candidiasis. ... Terconazole is approved to treat vulvovaginal candidiasis (vaginal thrush). It works as a broad spectrum antifungal and has ... August 2020). "Oral versus intra-vaginal imidazole and triazole anti-fungal treatment of uncomplicated vulvovaginal candidiasis ...
"Risk factors for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis" (PDF).[dead link] Eleanor Yang (5 June 2002). "2 on RB High staff faulted ...
"TOL 463 - AdisInsight". Nyirjesy P, Brookhart C, Lazenby G, Schwebke J, Sobel JD (April 2022). "Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: A ... it is under development as an intravaginal medication for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis. As ... in the Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis and Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: A Randomized, Single-blind, Phase 2, Controlled Trial". ... "Boric acid for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: the clinical evidence". J Womens Health (Larchmt). 20 (8): 1245-55. doi: ...
... is administered intravaginally in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. This bioactive compound was named ...
February 2010). "Biofilm formation on intrauterine devices in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis". Medical ...
Natural Aid by Vaginosis and Vulvovaginal Candidiasis − Enhancement of the Döderlein-Flora with Lactobacilli and GynVaccine]. ... "Over-the-counter antifungal drug misuse associated with patient-diagnosed vulvovaginal candidiasis". Obstetrics and Gynecology ... With Image Section of Vulvovaginal Diseases] (in German). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. doi:10.1007/978-3-662-10739-3. ... Vieira-Baptista P, Bornstein J (2019). "Candidiasis, Bacterial Vaginosis, Trichomoniasis and Other Vaginal Conditions Affecting ...
... clotrimazole is used for vulvovaginal candidiasis (yeast infection) or yeast infections of the skin. For vulvovaginal ... When used to treat vulvovaginal candidiasis (yeast infection), less than 10% of patients have vulvar or vaginal burning ... Throat lozenge preparations are used for oropharyngeal candidiasis (oral thrush) or prevention of oral thrush in people with ... candidiasis, clotrimazole tablets and creams are inserted into the vagina. Topical clotrimazole is usually not effective in ...
"Vulvovaginal Candidiasis". UpToDate. Archived from the original on 1 March 2012. Retrieved 26 February 2012. "Vulvovaginal ... Xie HY, Feng D, Wei DM, Mei L, Chen H, Wang X, Fang F (November 2017). "Probiotics for vulvovaginal candidiasis in non-pregnant ... Nyirjesy P, Brookhart C, Lazenby G, Schwebke J, Sobel JD (April 2022). "Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: A Review of the Evidence for ... Cooke G, Watson C, Smith J, Pirotta M, van Driel ML (2011). "Treatment for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (thrush) ( ...
... is an imidazole antifungal drug, used locally as the nitrate in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. It is ...
... oral thrush and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Although provided with oral cavity defenses such as epithelial cells, saliva, ... If an infection involves interdigital candidiasis, paronychia and diaper rash, subject is likely to have cutaneous candidiasis ... Usage of caspofungin will efficiently target against oropharyngeal and oesophageal candidiasis and invasive candidiasis. ... invasive and disseminated candidiasis, gastrointestinal candidiasis and candidemia. C. tropicalis colonization is favoured in ...
Positive Results from First-ever Antifungal Immunotherapy in a Phase 2a Study in Women with Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis ...
Nyirjesy P, Brookhart C, Lazenby G, Schwebke J, Sobel JD (April 2022). "Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: A Review of the Evidence for ... and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) (vaginal yeast infection). It is a boric acid-based vaginal anti-infective enhanced with ... in the Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis and Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: A Randomized, Single-blind, Phase 2, Controlled Trial". ...
Once in their lives around 75% of women will suffer from vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and about 90% of these infections are ... For subtyping of candidiasis, a fungal culture can be performed, followed by a germ tube test in which a sample of fungal ... Candidiasis is, for example, often observed in HIV-infected patients.C. albicans is the most common fungal species isolated ... Approximately 60,000 cases of systemic candidiasis each year in the USA alone lead up to a cost to be between $2-4 billion. The ...
... in the Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis and Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: A Randomized, Single-blind, Phase 2, Controlled Trial". ... Candidiasis (thrush, or a yeast infection). Trichomoniasis, an infection caused by Trichomonas vaginalis. Aerobic vaginitis The ...
... such as oropharyngeal candidiasis (thrush) or vulvovaginal candidiasis (vaginal candidiasis) and subpreputial candidiasis, ... which may cause balanitis, to systemic, such as fungemia and invasive candidiasis. Oral candidiasis is common in elderly ... "Yeast Infections (Candidiasis) in Men and Women". WebMD. 2012-11-12. Retrieved 2014-03-23. Gamaletsou, Maria N.; Rammaert, ... Candida albicans is one of the most commonly isolated species and can cause infections (candidiasis or thrush) in humans and ...
... candidiasis, cutaneous MeSH C01.703.160.180 - candidiasis, oral MeSH C01.703.160.190 - candidiasis, vulvovaginal MeSH C01.703. ... candidiasis, chronic mucocutaneous MeSH C01.539.800.200.105 - candidiasis, cutaneous MeSH C01.539.800.200.110 - ... candidiasis, chronic mucocutaneous MeSH C01.703.295.170 - candidiasis, cutaneous MeSH C01.703.295.182 - chromoblastomycosis ...
... candidiasis, vulvovaginal MeSH C13.371.944.626 - pruritus vulvae MeSH C13.371.944.815 - vulvar lichen sclerosus MeSH C13.371. ... candidiasis, vulvovaginal MeSH C13.703.039.089 - abortion, habitual MeSH C13.703.039.089.339 - uterine cervical incompetence ...
... in the time to relief of symptoms in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis". Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology ...
Vulvovaginal candidiasis, more commonly known as vaginal yeast infection This disambiguation page lists articles associated ...
Roberts, C. L.; Rickard, K.; Kotsiou, G.; Morris, J. M. (2011). "Treatment of asymptomatic vaginal candidiasis in pregnancy to ... Sobel, JD (9 June 2007). "Vulvovaginal candidosis". Lancet. 369 (9577): 1961-71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60917-9. PMID ...
All of the aforementioned local vulvovaginal diseases are easily treated. Often, only shame prevents patients from presenting ... Non-sexually transmitted discharges occur from bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis and thrush or candidiasis. The final ...
Some can be prevented by vulvovaginal health maintenance. Vulvar cancer accounts for about 5% of all gynecological cancers and ... a paraurethral cyst Candidiasis (thrush) Bacterial vaginosis (BV) Genital warts, due to human papilloma virus (HPV) Molluscum ...
Laboratory tests are used to exclude bacterial, viral or yeast infection, and a careful examination of the vulvovaginal area is ... A number of causes may be involved, including subclinical human papillomavirus infection, chronic recurrent candidiasis, or ... "Vestibulodynia" is the term now recognized by the International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease. Provoked ...
The condition is one of exclusion and other vulvovaginal problems should be ruled out. The diagnosis is based on the typical ... candidiasis, herpes, HPV Inflammation: lichen planus Neoplasm: Paget's disease, vulvar carcinoma Neurologic disorder: neuralgia ...
Vulvovaginal atrophy and atrophic vaginitis have been the preferred terms for this condition and cluster of symptoms until ... There is no firm evidence to suggest that eating live yogurt or taking probiotic supplements will prevent candidiasis. Studies ... Portman, D.J.; Gass, M.L.S. (2014). "Genitourinary syndrome of menopause: New terminology for vulvovaginal atrophy from the ... Prevention of candidiasis, the most common type of vaginitis, includes using loose cotton underwear. The vaginal area should be ...
African histoplasmosis Alternariosis Antibiotic candidiasis (iatrogenic candidiasis) Black piedra Candidal intertrigo Candidal ... lichen planus Mucosal lichen planus Peno-gingival syndrome Ulcerative lichen planus Vulvovaginal gingival syndrome Vulvovaginal ... Oral candidiasis (thrush) Otomycosis Perianal candidiasis Perlèche (angular cheilitis) Phaeohyphomycosis Piedra (trichosporosis ... Congenital cutaneous candidiasis Cryptococcosis Dermatophytid Diaper candidiasis Disseminated coccidioidomycosis (coccidioidal ...
CDC - 2021 Sexually Transmitted Infections Treatment Guidelines: Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Statistics. Vaginal candidiasis is ... Who gets vaginal candidiasis?. Vaginal candidiasis is common. Women who are more likely to get vaginal candidiasis include ... Other names for this infection are vaginal candidiasis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, or candidal vaginitis. ... Gonçalves B, Ferreira C, Alves CT, Henriques M, Azeredo J, Silva S. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: epidemiology, microbiology and ...
Cidara Therapeutics Doses First Patient In Phase II Trial Of CD101 Topical To Treat Vulvovaginal Candidiasis - read this ... Cidara Therapeutics Doses First Patient In Phase II Trial Of CD101 Topical To Treat Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Published: Jun 09 ... CD101 topical is being developed for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and the prevention of recurrent VVC (RVVC ... fluconazole for the treatment of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). RADIANT will evaluate two topical formulations of CD101 ...
About 5% of all women will experience chronic or repeated episodes of vulvovaginal candidasis. ... Vulvovaginal candidasis is a common condition involving infection of the vulva and vagina with Candida fungi. ... Symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis include itching, soreness, irritation, vaginal discharge, and pain and discomfort during ... Vulvovaginal candidiasis in posthormonal women: The role of hormone replacement therapy. Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease ...
Vulvovaginal candidiasis: histologi.... Vulvovaginal candidiasis: histologic lesions are primarily polymicrobial and invasive ... The candidiasis group consisted of 35 randomly selected premenopausal women with confirmed vulvovaginal candidiasis (aged 19-37 ... Vulvovaginal candidiasis: histologic lesions are primarily polymicrobial and invasive and do not contain biofilms. Авторы: ... Vulvovaginal candidiasis: histologic lesions are primarily polymicrobial and invasive and do not contain biofilms. Am J Obstet ...
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.. ...
Learn about vulvovaginal candidiasis, a common fungal infection that can cause itching and discomfort. Discover causes, ... Tags Candidiasis, Complications, Over-the-counter medications, Prevention, Symptoms, Treatment, Vulvovaginal Candidiasis, VVC ... Understanding Vulvovaginal Candidiasis: The Itch You Cant Scratch. May 3, 2023. May 3, 2023. by Ria Thorpe ... Symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC):. Source: homage.com.my. *Vulva refers to the external genetelia of the female, ...
Fluconazole Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. 11/09/2022. 11/09/2022. Rachanont Articles. ขนาดการใช้ยา Fluconazole ใน Vulvovaginal ... Candidiasis. ไม่แนะนำให้ใช
Indexed and Abstracted in : SCOPUS, Scimago Journal Ranking, Chemical Abstracts, Excerpta Medica / EMBASE, Google Scholar, CABI Full Text, Index Copernicus, Ulrichs International Periodical Directory, ProQuest, Journalseek & Genamics, PhcogBase, EBSCOHost, Academic Search Complete, Open J-Gate, SciACCESS ...
Vulvovaginal candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common cause of vaginitis among women. In both women with and ... Duerr A, Heilig CM, Meikle SF, Cu-Uvin S, Klein RS, Rompalo A. Incident and persistent vulvovaginal candidiasis among human ... Longitudinal study of mucosal Candida species colonization and candidiasis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- ...
... and Placebo in the Treatment of Acute Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Episodes in Subjects with Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis ( ... Nyirjesy P. Vulvovaginal candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2008 Dec. 22(4):637-52, vi. [QxMD ... Marrazzo J. Vulvovaginal candidiasis. BMJ. 2002 Sep 14. 325(7364):586. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [Full Text]. ... Liu F, Liao Q, Liu Z. Mannose-binding lectin and vulvovaginal candidiasis. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2006 Jan. 92(1):43-7. [QxMD ...
Vulvovaginal Candidiasis is a common fungal infection of the vagina and vulva. Symptoms can include itching, burning, and a ... Vulvovaginal Candidiasis is a common fungal infection of the vagina and vulva. Symptoms can include itching, burning, and a ...
... vulvovaginal answers are found in the Johns Hopkins HIV Guide powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android ... "Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal." Johns Hopkins HIV Guide, 2015. Johns Hopkins Guides, www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_ ... Hopkins_HIV_Guide/545027/3.2/Candidiasis_vulvovaginal. Ross BJ, Monroe AK. Candidiasis, vulvovaginal. Johns Hopkins HIV Guide. ... TY - ELEC T1 - Candidiasis, vulvovaginal ID - 545027 A1 - Ross,Brenda,M.D. AU - Monroe,Anne,M.D. Y1 - 2015/03/28/ BT - Johns ...
... for oral use in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), also known as vaginal yeast infection. Brexafemme which ...
Treatment for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (thrush) answers are found in the Cochrane Abstracts powered by Unbound ... candidiasis__thrush__Edited__no_change_to_conclusions_. Treatment for Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (thrush) [Internet]. ... "Treatment for Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (thrush)." Cochrane Abstracts, Evidence Central, evidence.unboundmedicine.com/ ... vulvovaginal_candidiasis__thrush__Edited__no_change_to_conclusions_ DB - Evidence Central DP - Unbound Medicine ER - ...
Vulvovaginal candidiasis usually presents as pruritus and vulvovaginal erythema. The diagnosis of this infection can be ... An important concern is that women frequently self-diagnose vulvovaginal candidiasis incorrectly.2,23 The CDC2 notes that ... antifungal agents should be done only for recurrence of symptoms in women who have been diagnosed with vulvovaginal candidiasis ... Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis are the most common diseases associated with vaginal discharge. Patients ...
Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. The cell wall of Candida is a complex glycoprotein that depends on the biosynthesis of ergosterol. ... Nyirjesy P. Vulvovaginal candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2008 Dec. 22(4):637-52, vi. [QxMD ... Marrazzo J. Vulvovaginal candidiasis. BMJ. 2002 Sep 14. 325(7364):586. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [Full Text]. ... Uncomplicated sporadic vulvovaginal candidiasis usually is caused by strains of C albicans. Most of these strains exhibit ...
Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is a condition which, though not linked to mortality, can cause complications and ... Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (rVVC) is a condition which, though not linked to mortality, can cause complications and ... Read the full paper here: Candida africana in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) patients: frequency and phenotypic and ...
Drugs for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Industry Professional Survey, Growth, Size, Shares, Forecast, Analysis and Supply Demand to ...
... and well tolerated treatment option for reducing the incidence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) recurrence in females with a ...
"Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: A review of guideline recommendations",. abstract = "Background: Recurrent vulvovaginal ... Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: A review of guideline recommendations. / Matheson, Alexia; Mazza, Danielle. In: Australian ... Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: A review of guideline recommendations. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and ... N2 - Background: Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a difficult-to-manage condition that affects 5-8% of women of ...
Return to Article Details Chronic vulvovaginal candidiasis: new look at old problem Download Download PDF ...
a reduction in the incidence of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.. Brexafemme is supplied as tablets for oral administration ... Indication 2 - for a reduction in the incidence of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. approved December of 2022 ... for a reduction in the incidence of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC); approved December of 2022 ... for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC); approved June of 2021 ...
The rise in vulvovaginal candidiasis infections in women around the world, rising regulatory approvals for vulvovaginal ... The market for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC) was valued at USD 971.51 million in 2021 and is anticipated to grow at a 4.2% ... candidiasis treatments, and an increase in clinical research ... The market for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC) was valued at USD ... Radical Features of the Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Market Report:. *The report encompasses Vulvovaginal Candidiasis market ...
Vulvovaginal candidiasis was first described in 1849 by Wilkinson. In 1875, Haussmann demonstrated the causative organism in ... Mucosal candidiasis Oral candidiasis (thrush, oropharyngeal candidiasis) Pseudomembranous candidiasis Erythematous candidiasis ... Vaginal candidiasis can cause congenital candidiasis in newborns. In oral candidiasis, simply inspecting the persons mouth for ... disseminated candidiasis) - organ infection by Candida Chronic systemic candidiasis (hepatosplenic candidiasis) - sometimes ...
Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is common in otherwise healthy individuals. Several risk factors were reported to ... blood samples were obtained from 25 patients who had frequent vulvovaginal candidiasis relapses and were diagnosed as RVVC. In ... Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a frequent disease affecting approximately more than %75 of all childbearing women at least once in ... Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is common in otherwise healthy individuals. Several risk factors were reported to ...
2021). Vulvovaginal candidiasis symptom reduction - honey, yogurt-and-honey and clotrimazole vaginal cream - a triple blind ... Vulvovaginal itching can occur for a variety of reasons. Some home remedies may help relieve the itching, but they cannot heal ... The following are some common home remedies that a person can use to soothe vulvovaginal itching:. 1. Bath oil. Sometimes, dry ... Martin Lopez, J. E. (2015). Candidiasis (vulvovaginal).. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4360556/. ...
Vulvovaginal candidiasis. (2015).. https://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/candidiasis.htm. *. What are the disadvantages of using ... People may also refer to it as vaginal thrush, vulvovaginal thrust, or candidiasis. ... Male candidiasis. Although yeast infections are less common in males than in females, males can also get thrush. Thrush can ... In males, thrush is sometimes called male candidiasis. It can affect the head of the penis and the foreskin, causing itching, ...
ClinicalTrials.gov: Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Vaginitis (National ... Yeast infections (candidiasis) happen when too much candida grows in the vagina. Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It ...
... vulvovaginal candidiasis. RTIs include MG, CT, NG, TV, BC, and VVC (syphilis not included). STIs include MG, CT, NG, TV ( ... Clinical practice guidelines for the management of candidiasis: 2009 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin ... Vulvovaginal candidiasis. 199 (81.2). 46 (18.8). 245. 182 (74.3). 63 (25.7). 245. ...
2019). Clinicians use of intravaginal boric acid maintenance therapy for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and bacterial ... Vulvovaginal candidiasis. (2021).. https://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment-guidelines/candidiasis.htm. ... Also called vaginal candidiasis, vaginal yeast infections affect up to 75 percent. of people with a vagina at some point in ... 2011). Boric acid for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: the clinical evidence. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21774671/. ...
  • CD101 topical is being developed for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and the prevention of recurrent VVC (RVVC), a prevalent mucosal infection. (biospace.com)
  • The recent demonstration of a vaginal biofilm in bacterial vaginosis and its postulated importance in the pathogenesis of recurrent bacterial vaginosis, including relative resistance to therapy, has led to the hypothesis that biofilms are crucial for the development of vulvovaginal candidiasis. (interlabservice.ru)
  • Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (rVVC) is a condition which, though not linked to mortality, can cause complications and significant psychological, physical and monetary costs. (fungaleducation.org)
  • Some women with recurrent candidal infections opt for treatment with over-the-counter (OTC) medications, which generally are highly effective for candidiasis. (medscape.com)
  • In considering treatment, distinguishing between sporadic and recurrent episodes of vulvovaginal candidiasis is of great importance. (medscape.com)
  • Oteseconazole (Vivjoa ® ), an orally administered azole antifungal, is a valuable, efficacious, and well tolerated treatment option for reducing the incidence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) recurrence in females with a history of recurrent VVC (RVVC) who are not of reproductive potential. (figshare.com)
  • Background: Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a difficult-to-manage condition that affects 5-8% of women of reproductive age. (monash.edu)
  • Is human dectin-1 Y238X gene polymorphism related to susceptibility to recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis? (ac.ir)
  • Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is common in otherwise healthy individuals. (ac.ir)
  • Up to 8% of women in various populations experience more than three or four episodes within one year, which is regarded as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). (unime.it)
  • Materials and Methods: In the current study, blood samples were obtained from 25 patients who had frequent vulvovaginal candidiasis relapses and were diagnosed as RVVC. (ac.ir)
  • Candidiasis is an infection caused by a yeast (a type of fungus) called Candida . (cdc.gov)
  • Vulvovaginal candidasis is a common condition involving infection of the vulva and vagina with Candida fungi. (knowthecause.com)
  • Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by yeasts from the family candida, which is the most common fungus to affect humans. (drtanandpartners.com)
  • Candidiasis is a fungal infection due to any type of Candida (a type of yeast). (wikipedia.org)
  • Background and Purpose: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a frequent disease affecting approximately more than %75 of all childbearing women at least once in their lifetime by overgrowth of opportunistic Candida species. (ac.ir)
  • Yeast infections (candidiasis) happen when too much candida grows in the vagina. (medlineplus.gov)
  • a) candidiasis causes a wide range of infections, b) invasive and systemic infections has high lethal rate, c) the number of patients prone to various fungal diseases (e.g. candidiasis) is increasing, d) new molecular biological techniques are used to identify Candida species in VVC isolates (1). (jogcr.com)
  • Candidiasis encompasses a wide variety of clinical syndromes caused by Candida . (jogcr.com)
  • Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) was slightly high in Aden and Candida albicans was the most common causative agent of VVC. (ejua.net)
  • In patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis, sertaconazole as a single-dose ovule or tablet was effective in the eradication of Candida spp. (curehunter.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Syngonanthus nitens (S. nitens) extract that was not loaded (E) or loaded (SE) into a liquid crystal precursor system (S) for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) with Candida albicans. (who.int)
  • Candidiasis is skin and mucous membrane infection with Candida species, most commonly Candida albicans . (msdmanuals.com)
  • Candidiasis Candidiasis is infection by Candida species (most often C. albicans ), manifested by mucocutaneous lesions, fungemia, and sometimes focal infection of multiple sites. (msdmanuals.com)
  • SAN DIEGO--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Cidara Therapeutics, Inc. (Nasdaq:CDTX), a biotechnology company developing novel anti-infectives and immunotherapies to treat fungal and other infections, today announced that the first patient has been dosed in RADIANT, a Phase 2 clinical trial comparing the safety and tolerability of the novel echinocandin, CD101, to standard-of-care fluconazole for the treatment of acute vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). (biospace.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines recommend using only topical antifungal products to treat pregnant women with vulvovaginal yeast infections. (biospace.com)
  • The rise in vulvovaginal candidiasis infections in women around the world, rising regulatory approvals for vulvovaginal candidiasis treatments, and an increase in clinical research studies into vulvovaginal candidiasis treatments are key factors propelling this market's revenue growth. (mrbusinestech.com)
  • Also called vaginal candidiasis, vaginal yeast infections affect up to 75 percent of people with a vagina at some point in their lifetime. (healthline.com)
  • Candidiasis is the second most common cause of vaginal infections in the US. (jogcr.com)
  • Association of intermediate Nugent Score and bacterial vaginosis with sexually transmitted infections and vulvovaginal candidiasis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conclusion We observed that the dysbiosis in vaginal microbiota , with an increase in Nugent scoring, was significantly associated with an increased risk for the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections and vulvovaginal candidiasis . (bvsalud.org)
  • Mice were inoculated with three separate vulvovaginal infections of 5 x 10(4) cells/mL C. albicans, and histological evaluation, a myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay. (unime.it)
  • It is also used in the treatment of a wide range of other fungal infections such as lung related fungal infections, oral fungal infections and candidiasis. (healthstatus.com)
  • Most candidal infections are of the skin and mucous membranes, but invasive candidiasis is common among patients who are immunosuppressed and can be life threatening. (msdmanuals.com)
  • We investigated the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis due to C. africana in an STD clinic in India and analysed the genetic relatedness of these C. africana isolates with those outside India. (mcmaster.ca)
  • The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis among women suffering vaginitis. (ejua.net)
  • Direct microscopic examination (10% KOH), culture on SDA, germ tube test and gram staining were used to determine the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis and to differentiate between C.albicans and non-albicans species. (ejua.net)
  • No statistically significant association between the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis and educational level and marital status. (ejua.net)
  • In acute vulvovaginal candidiasis, vulvar pruritus and burning are the main symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • Other names for this infection are vaginal candidiasis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, or candidal vaginitis. (cdc.gov)
  • Out of 120 women, 25 (20.8%) were diagnosed with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and 95 (79.2%) with non-candidal vaginitis. (ejua.net)
  • Symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis include itching, soreness, irritation, vaginal discharge, and pain and discomfort during urinatation and/or sexual intercourse. (knowthecause.com)
  • However, self medication with OTC preparations should be advised only for women who have been diagnosed previously with vulvovaginal candidiasis and who have a recurrence of the same symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • Signs and symptoms of candidiasis vary depending on the area affected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Signs and symptoms of candidiasis in the skin include itching, irritation, and chafing or broken skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms are usually a thick, white vaginal discharge and vulvovaginal pruritus that is often. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The incidence of hospital-acquired, invasive candidiasis increased 10-fold over the decade of the 1980s. (cdc.gov)
  • The clinical picture of chronic, persistent vulvovaginal candidiasis differs in that it includes marked edema and lichenification of the vulva with poorly defined margins. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical samples were collected from 70 women aged 40-50 years old, married with children and referred for chronic vulvovaginal complaints. (ajbls.com)
  • About 5% of all women will experience chronic or repeated episodes of vulvovaginal candidasis. (knowthecause.com)
  • Patients with chronic candidiasis are usually older and obese and often have long-standing diabetes mellitus. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis typically affects the nails, skin, and oropharynx. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Oropharyngeal candidiasis is a common sign of local or systemic immunosuppression. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The common term for candidiasis in the vagina is a vaginal yeast infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Vulvovaginal Candidiasis is a common fungal infection of the vagina and vulva. (borderfreesupply.com)
  • Scynexis Inc.,. announced that the FDA has approved Brexafemme(ibrexafungerp tablets), for oral use in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), also known as vaginal yeast infection. (medicalupdateonline.com)
  • In healthy (immunocompetent) persons, candidiasis is usually a localized infection of the skin, fingernails or toenails (onychomycosis), or mucosal membranes, including the oral cavity and pharynx (thrush), esophagus, and the genitalia (vagina, penis, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background & Objective: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common vaginal yeast infection in women. (jogcr.com)
  • Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is considered the second most common vaginal infection. (unime.it)
  • Background: Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC) is an extremely common infection in women of all strata of society. (journalcra.com)
  • The market for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis (VVC) was valued at USD 971.51 million in 2021 and is anticipated to grow at a 4.2% CAGR in terms of revenue during the projected period. (mrbusinestech.com)
  • S. officinalis in the form of vaginal tablet, alone and when combined with Clotrimazole, can treat the Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In a cross-sectional study, vaginal tissue biopsies were obtained from 35 women with clinically, microscopically, and culture-proven vulvovaginal candidiasis and compared with specimens obtained from 25 healthy women and 30 women with active bacterial vaginosis. (interlabservice.ru)
  • The majority of uncomplicated vulvovaginal complaints (e.g. bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis) can be detected with uncomplicated basic infectiological tests and can usually be treated effectively without requiring further diagnostic procedures. (thieme-connect.de)
  • Individuals at risk for invasive candidiasis include low birth weight babies, people recovering from surgery, people admitted to intensive care units, and those with an otherwise compromised immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you have vaginal candidiasis, likely you will use antifungal medicine to treat it. (cdc.gov)
  • The study concluded that we can formulate a novel antifungal agent of natural origin from S. cerevisiae which could be used as a cheaper alternative for the therapeutic management of vulvovaginal candidiasis. (ajbls.com)
  • Over-the-counter (OTC) medications are generally highly effective for treating candidiasis. (drtanandpartners.com)
  • This report comprehensively analyzes the impact of the pandemic on the Vulvovaginal Candidiasis market and its major segments. (mrbusinestech.com)
  • The overview of the global Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Market has helped understand the market transformation during the time of the pandemic. (healthcarenewsreports.com)
  • A number of antimycotic regimens are available for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis, including with oral and topical agents. (medscape.com)
  • Brexafemme (ibrexafungerp) (MW, 922) is indicated for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis . (medscape.com)
  • Uncomplicated sporadic vulvovaginal candidiasis usually is caused by strains of C albicans . (medscape.com)
  • Candidiasis occurs most commonly in intertriginous areas such as the axillae, groin, and gluteal folds (eg, diaper rash), in digital web spaces, on the glans penis, and beneath the breasts. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Vulvovaginal candidiasis in posthormonal women: The role of hormone replacement therapy. (knowthecause.com)
  • Use of estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal and perimenopausal women may increase risk of vulvovaginal candidiasis. (knowthecause.com)
  • Studies on women treating themselves for candidiasis revealed a 28% accuracy rate. (medscape.com)
  • Although not statistically significant, vulvovaginal candidiasis tended to be more prevalent among women with 25-34 years. (ejua.net)
  • Vulvovaginal candidiasis is common among women. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The Pearson correlation coefficient showed that 16.9% of the women had oral herpes and oral candidiasis. (bvsalud.org)
  • associated to vulvovaginal candidiasis and compared their efficacy to other therapeutic alternatives. (ajbls.com)
  • of those with oral candidiasis, 15% also had vaginal candidiasis, but there was also no significant correlation between these diseases (χ2 = 0.558, p = 0.455). (bvsalud.org)
  • Vaginal candidiasis is common. (cdc.gov)
  • 2 An estimated 1.4 million outpatient visits for vaginal candidiasis occur annually. (cdc.gov)
  • Vulvovaginal itching can occur for a variety of reasons. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It offers expert interview records, research findings, Vulvovaginal Candidiasis research data source. (healthcarenewsreports.com)
  • The present study aimed at clarifying the histopathology of vulvovaginal candidiasis including the presence or absence of vaginal biofilm. (interlabservice.ru)
  • The Vulvovaginal Candidiasis market report additionally provides details such as import/export consumption, supply and demand figures, cost, price, revenue, and gross margins. (healthcarenewsreports.com)
  • In this article, we will explore everything you need to know about vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), also known as vaginal thrush. (drtanandpartners.com)