Candidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Candidiasis, Oral: Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal: Infection of the VULVA and VAGINA with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA.Candidiasis, Invasive: An important nosocomial fungal infection with species of the genus CANDIDA, most frequently CANDIDA ALBICANS. Invasive candidiasis occurs when candidiasis goes beyond a superficial infection and manifests as CANDIDEMIA, deep tissue infection, or disseminated disease with deep organ involvement.Candidiasis, Cutaneous: Candidiasis of the skin manifested as eczema-like lesions of the interdigital spaces, perleche, or chronic paronychia. (Dorland, 27th ed)Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Candidiasis, Chronic Mucocutaneous: A clinical syndrome characterized by development, usually in infancy or childhood, of a chronic, often widespread candidiasis of skin, nails, and mucous membranes. It may be secondary to one of the immunodeficiency syndromes, inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, or associated with defects in cell-mediated immunity, endocrine disorders, dental stomatitis, or malignancy.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Pharyngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.Esophageal Diseases: Pathological processes in the ESOPHAGUS.Echinocandins: Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Oropharynx: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Clotrimazole: An imidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of antimycotic activity. It inhibits biosynthesis of the sterol ergostol, an important component of fungal CELL MEMBRANES. Its action leads to increased membrane permeability and apparent disruption of enzyme systems bound to the membrane.Fungemia: The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.Lipopeptides: Compounds consisting of a short peptide chain conjugated with an acyl chain.Candidemia: A form of invasive candidiasis where species of CANDIDA are present in the blood.Candida glabrata: A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI commonly found on the body surface. It causes opportunistic infections especially in immunocompromised patients.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Candida tropicalis: A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI that is a major cause of SEPTICEMIA and disseminated CANDIDIASIS, especially in patients with LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is also found as part of the normal human mucocutaneous flora.Vaginitis: Inflammation of the vagina characterized by pain and a purulent discharge.Miconazole: An imidazole antifungal agent that is used topically and by intravenous infusion.Mouth DiseasesPeptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Mouth Mucosa: Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.beta-Glucans: Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.Diaper Rash: A type of irritant dermatitis localized to the area in contact with a diaper and occurring most often as a reaction to prolonged contact with urine, feces, or retained soap or detergent.Polyendocrinopathies, Autoimmune: Autoimmune diseases affecting multiple endocrine organs. Type I is characterized by childhood onset and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS), while type II exhibits any combination of adrenal insufficiency (ADDISON'S DISEASE), lymphocytic thyroiditis (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE;), HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; and gonadal failure. In both types organ-specific ANTIBODIES against a variety of ENDOCRINE GLANDS have been detected. The type II syndrome differs from type I in that it is associated with HLA-A1 and B8 haplotypes, onset is usually in adulthood, and candidiasis is not present.Vaginal Diseases: Pathological processes of the VAGINA.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Mice, Inbred ICRAspergillosis: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.Vulvovaginitis: Inflammation of the VULVA and the VAGINA, characterized by discharge, burning, and PRURITUS.Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Vaginosis, Bacterial: Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.Itraconazole: A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.MycosesTriazolesImmunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Precipitins: Antibodies which elicit IMMUNOPRECIPITATION when combined with antigen.Central Nervous System Fungal Infections: MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME).Nystatin: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces noursei, S. aureus, and other Streptomyces species. The biologically active components of the complex are nystatin A1, A2, and A3.Azoles: Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.Neutropenia: A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.Mycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Aspartic Acid Proteases: A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.Vaginal Discharge: A common gynecologic disorder characterized by an abnormal, nonbloody discharge from the genital tract.Splenic DiseasesLeukoplakia, Hairy: Epithelial hyperplasia of the oral mucosa associated with Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) and found almost exclusively in persons with HIV infection. The lesion consists of a white patch that is often corrugated or hairy.Trichomonas Vaginitis: Inflammation of the vagina, marked by a purulent discharge. This disease is caused by the protozoan TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS.Ketoconazole: Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.Indenes: A family of fused-ring hydrocarbons isolated from coal tar that act as intermediates in various chemical reactions and are used in the production of coumarone-indene resins.Ageusia: Complete or severe loss of the subjective sense of taste, frequently accompanied by OLFACTION DISORDERS.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Histatins: A group of small, histidine-rich, cationic peptides in human SALIVA which are antibacterial and antifungal.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Mice, Inbred BALB CKidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Flucytosine: A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Fusariosis: OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS with the soil fungus FUSARIUM. Typically the infection is limited to the nail plate (ONYCHOMYCOSIS). The infection can however become systemic especially in an IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST (e.g., NEUTROPENIA) and results in cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions, fever, KERATITIS, and pulmonary infections.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.Stomatitis, Denture: Inflammation of the mouth due to denture irritation.Dentures: An appliance used as an artificial or prosthetic replacement for missing teeth and adjacent tissues. It does not include CROWNS; DENTAL ABUTMENTS; nor TOOTH, ARTIFICIAL.Mentha: Mentha is a genus of the mint family (LAMIACEAE). It is known for species having characteristic flavor and aroma.Mice, Inbred CBAAspartic Acid Endopeptidases: A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.Agranulocytosis: A decrease in the number of GRANULOCYTES; (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS).Lung Diseases, Fungal: Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.Stomach Diseases: Pathological processes involving the STOMACH.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Germ-Free Life: Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.Intensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Tea Tree Oil: Essential oil extracted from Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree). It is used as a topical antimicrobial due to the presence of terpineol.Boric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of boric acid either B(OH)3 or, preferably H3BO3.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.Esophagitis: INFLAMMATION, acute or chronic, of the ESOPHAGUS caused by BACTERIA, chemicals, or TRAUMA.Infant, Premature, DiseasesLatex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Agglutinins: Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Vaginal Douching: The washing of the VAGINA cavity or surface with a solution. Agents or drugs can be added to the irrigation solution.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Meningitis, Fungal: Meningitis caused by fungal agents which may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.Cortisone: A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)Melaleuca: A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE. M. alternifolia foliage is a source of TEA TREE OIL. The common name of tea tree also refers to LEPTOSPERMUM or KUNZEA. M. vindifolia is a source of niaouli oil. M. cajuputi and M. leucadendra are sources of cajuput oil.Tongue DiseasesSaliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Cassia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Many species of this genus, including the medicinal C. senna and C. angustifolia, have been reclassified into the Senna genus (SENNA PLANT) and some to CHAMAECRISTA.Cinnamomum aromaticum: A plant species of the genus CINNAMOMUM that contains CINNAMATES and has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL).Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Esophagus: The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Geranium: A plant genus of the family GERANIACEAE. Geranium is also used as a common name for PELARGONIUM.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Immunocompetence: The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.

Biotyping and virulence properties of skin isolates of Candida parapsilosis. (1/55)

The biotype and virulence of skin isolates of Candida parapsilosis were compared with blood isolates of the same fungus. Morphotype, resistotype, and electrophoretic karyotype determinations did not reveal any special cluster with a unique or dominant pathogenic feature among all of the isolates, regardless of their source. However, all cutaneous isolates had uniformly elevated secretory aspartyl-protease (Sap) activity, more than four times higher than the enzyme activity of the blood isolates. They were also highly vaginopathic in a rat vaginitis model, being significantly more virulent than blood isolates in this infection model. In contrast, skin isolates were nonpathogenic in systemic infection of cyclophosphamide-immunodepressed mice, while some blood isolates were, in this model, highly pathogenic (median survival time, 2 days, with internal organ invasion at autopsy). Finally, skin isolates did not differ, as a whole, from blood isolates in their adherence to plastic. This property was associated with a morphotype, as defined by a colony with continuous fringe, which was present among both skin and blood isolates. While confirming the genetic heterogenicity of C. parapsilosis, our data strongly suggest that the potential of this fungus to cause mucosal disease is associated with Sap production and is substantially distinct from that of systemic invasion.  (+info)

Misexpression of the opaque-phase-specific gene PEP1 (SAP1) in the white phase of Candida albicans confers increased virulence in a mouse model of cutaneous infection. (2/55)

Candida albicans WO-1 switches reversibly and at high frequency between a white and an opaque colony-forming phenotype that includes dramatic changes in cell morphology and physiology. A misexpression strategy has been used to investigate the role of the opaque-phase-specific gene PEP1 (SAP1), which encodes a secreted aspartyl proteinase, in the expression of the unique opaque-phase phenotype and phase-specific virulence in two animal models. The PEP1 (SAP1) open reading frame was inserted downstream of the promoter of the white-phase-specific gene WH11 in the transforming vector pCPW7, and the resulting transformants were demonstrated to misexpress PEP1 (SAP1) in the white phase. Misexpression did not confer any of the unique morphological characteristics of the opaque phase to cells in the white phase and had no effect on the switching process. However, misexpression conferred upon white-phase cells the increased capacity of opaque-phase cells to grow in medium in which protein was the sole nitrogen source. Misexpression of PEP1 (SAP1) had no effect on the virulence of white-phase cells in a systemic mouse model, in which white-phase cells were already more virulent than opaque-phase cells. Misexpression did, however, confer upon white-phase cells the dramatic increase in colonization of skin in a cutaneous mouse model that was exhibited by opaque-phase cells. Misexpression of PEP1 (SAP1) conferred upon white-phase cells two dissociable opaque-phase characteristics: increased adhesion and the capacity to cavitate skin. The addition of pepstatin A to the cutaneous model inhibited the latter, but not the former, suggesting that the latter is effected by released enzyme, while the former is effected by cell-associated enzyme.  (+info)

In vitro antifungal activity of KP-103, a novel triazole derivative, and its therapeutic efficacy against experimental plantar tinea pedis and cutaneous candidiasis in guinea pigs. (3/55)

The in vitro activity of KP-103, a novel triazole derivative, against pathogenic fungi that cause dermatomycoses and its therapeutic efficacy against plantar tinea pedis and cutaneous candidiasis in guinea pigs were investigated. MICs were determined by a broth microdilution method with morpholinepropanesulfonic acid-buffered RPMI 1640 medium for Candida species and with Sabouraud dextrose broth for dermatophytes and by an agar dilution method with medium C for Malassezia furfur. KP-103 was the most active of all the drugs tested against Candida albicans (geometric mean [GM] MIC, 0.002 microg/ml), other Candida species including Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata (GM MICs, 0.0039 to 0.0442 microg/ml), and M. furfur (GM MIC, 0.025 microg/ml). KP-103 (1% solution) was highly effective as a treatment for guinea pigs with cutaneous candidiasis and achieved mycological eradication in 8 of the 10 infected animals, whereas none of the imidazoles tested (1% solutions) was effective in even reducing the levels of the infecting fungi. KP-103 was as active as clotrimazole and neticonazole but was less active than lanoconazole and butenafine against Trichophyton rubrum (MIC at which 80% of isolates are inhibited [MIC(80)], 0.125 microg/ml) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (MIC(80), 0.25 microg/ml). However, KP-103 (1% solution) exerted therapeutic efficacy superior to that of neticonazole and comparable to those of lanoconazole and butenafine, yielding negative cultures for all samples from guinea pigs with plantar tinea pedis tested. This suggests that KP-103 has better pharmacokinetic properties in skin tissue than the reference drugs. Because the in vitro activity of KP-103, unlike those of the reference drugs, against T. mentagrophytes was not affected by hair as a keratinic substance, its excellent therapeutic efficacy seems to be attributable to good retention of its antifungal activity in skin tissue, in addition to its potency.  (+info)

Different isoforms of secreted aspartyl proteinases (Sap) are expressed by Candida albicans during oral and cutaneous candidosis in vivo. (4/55)

Distinct isoforms of secreted aspartyl proteinases (Sap) of Candida albicans are important virulence factors for different types of candidosis. Predominant expression of Sap1-3 has been shown to be crucial for superficial infections in experimental mucosal and cutaneous candidosis, whereas Sap4-6 might be important for systemic disease. This in-vivo study investigated Sap expression in two samples from patients with oral candidosis and from cutaneous infection. Two different polyclonal antibodies directed against Sap1-3 and Sap4-6 were used for ultrastructural characterisation of protein localisation and expression. Post-embedding immuno-electron microscopy revealed Sap1-3 and Sap4-6 immunoreactivity in all samples. All C. albicans cells expressed predominantly the proteinases Sap1-3 which were evenly distributed within the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane. In contrast, Sap4-6 labelling was only evident in a few fungal cells. In particular it was localised at the tips of hyphal cells during invasion. These data suggest a different pathogenetic role for Sap1-3 and Sap4-6 during host-fungal interaction.  (+info)

Quantification of Candida albicans actin mRNA by the LightCycler system as a means of assessing viability in a model of cutaneous candidiasis. (5/55)

The LightCycler system (two-step reverse transcription-PCR-fluorescent hybridization [LC RT-PCR-FH]) was used to quantify Candida albicans actin mRNA as a means of assessing its viability in a reconstituted skin model of cutaneous candidiasis following the application of an antimycotic. A 192-bp ACT exon fragment was ligated into the pCR2.1 plasmid vector, and dilutions of the cloned insert (pACT; 4.092 kb) were used as the standard reference template. The LC RT-PCR-FH system could detect 1 fg of pACT, equivalent to 2.2 copies of the plasmid. The ACT exon-based PCR primers and FH probes were C. albicans specific, and electrophoretic analysis of the LC RT-PCR-FH assay product showed a 174-bp band in agarose gel. The number of copies of C. albicans ACT mRNA per milligram of tissue decreased with increasing amounts of amorolfine applied to a C. albicans-infected skin model, showing a reduction in viability. Detection and quantification of ACT mRNA in tissue by the LC RT-PCR-FH assay corresponded with cultural isolation of C. albicans from samples. The ACT mRNA-targeted LC RT-PCR-FH assay represents a sensitive, specific, rapid, and quantitative means of assessing the viability of C. albicans in infected tissue. This method may also be useful in evaluating the therapeutic efficacies of antifungal drugs in the treatment of various forms of candidiasis and other fungal diseases.  (+info)

Revisiting the source of candidemia: skin or gut? (6/55)

The source of candidemia has been the subject of considerable debate, with some suggesting a origin in the gastrointestinal tract and others suggesting a skin origin. To evaluate the potential sources of candidemia, we performed a computerized search of the MEDLINE database for studies published from January 1966 through September 2000 and we identified relevant abstracts presented at national meetings. We reviewed the literature with special emphasis on studies that used appropriate definitions, evaluated both gut and skin as sources, and conducted molecular-relatedness studies. Among 203 candidemia studies published, we identified 21 that evaluated a specific source for candidemia and only 5 that performed molecular typing. Those studies and additional experimental, epidemiologic, and molecular-relatedness studies strongly suggested that the gut is an important source of candidemia, and studies that supported the skin as a source for this infection were surprisingly incomplete.  (+info)

Cytokine expression induced by Candida albicans in a model of cutaneous candidosis based on reconstituted human epidermis. (7/55)

Skin equivalents based on reconstituted human epidermis have been used recently to establish models for allergic/irritant contact dermatitis and cutaneous candidosis. In the present study the cytokine expression pattern and the morphological alterations in experimental cutaneous candidosis were investigated by RT-PCR and histological analysis. In experimental cutaneous C albicans infection the mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-1a, IL-1beta, IL-8, GM-CSF, Exodus-2, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and PSL (P-selectin ligand) were upregulated. Cytokine profile and histological features of infected skin (separation of keratinocytes, oedema, vacuolisation) were comparable to that seen in experimental contact dermatitis. These immunomodulatory and morphological similarities might reflect a common pathogenesis factor in both diseases.  (+info)

Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism and serum lipids in patients with superficial fungal disease. (8/55)

Superficial mycosis, including dermatophytic infections, tinea versicolor, and cutaneous candidiasis is mostly limited to the outer layers of the skin, nails, and mucous membranes. In this study, Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) polymorphism and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were compared between 42 patients with superficial fungal disease and 27 control subjects. Both the patients and controls were found to be normolipemic. The patients with superficial fungal disease had significantly higher concentrations of high-density cholesterol (HDL) compared to the control group (p=0.0462). However, there was no difference in the serum triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol concentrations. A significantly higher incidence of heterozygosity E2/3 was found in the patients (p=0.0228), and significantly lower incidence of homozygosity E3/3 in all patients, and those with candidiasis and dermatophytosis (p=0.0139, 0.0194 and 0.0337, respectively) compared to the control group. The E3/4 genotype differences between patients and controls were not statistically significant. There were slight differences in the allele frequencies between the two groups, but these did not reach statistically significant levels. It was concluded that the presence of apoE2/3 genotype, high HDL-cholesterol levels and the absence of apoE3/3 genotype can be regarded as risk factors for superficial fungal disease, especially dermatophytosis.  (+info)