A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI that is a major cause of SEPTICEMIA and disseminated CANDIDIASIS, especially in patients with LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is also found as part of the normal human mucocutaneous flora.
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI commonly found on the body surface. It causes opportunistic infections especially in immunocompromised patients.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of O-acetylcarnitine from acetyl-CoA plus carnitine. EC
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
A five-carbon sugar alcohol derived from XYLOSE by reduction of the carbonyl group. It is as sweet as sucrose and used as a noncariogenic sweetener.
Enzyme that catalyzes the final step of fatty acid oxidation in which ACETYL COA is released and the CoA ester of a fatty acid two carbons shorter is formed.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetoacetyl-CoA from two molecules of ACETYL COA. Some enzymes called thiolase or thiolase-I have referred to this activity or to the activity of ACETYL-COA C-ACYLTRANSFERASE.
Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
A form of invasive candidiasis where species of CANDIDA are present in the blood.
A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Xylose is a monosaccharide, a type of sugar, that is commonly found in woody plants and fruits, and it is used in medical testing to assess the absorptive capacity of the small intestine.
Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
Mycoses are a group of diseases caused by fungal pathogens that can infect various tissues and organs, potentially leading to localized or systemic symptoms, depending on the immune status of the host.
Compounds consisting of a short peptide chain conjugated with an acyl chain.
An appliance used as an artificial or prosthetic replacement for missing teeth and adjacent tissues. It does not include CROWNS; DENTAL ABUTMENTS; nor TOOTH, ARTIFICIAL.
Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Triazoles are a class of antifungal drugs that contain a triazole ring in their chemical structure and work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of fungal cell membranes, thereby disrupting the integrity and function of the membrane.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.
Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
An enzyme that catalyzes the first and rate-determining steps of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. It acts on COENZYME A derivatives of fatty acids with chain lengths from 8 to 18, using FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE as a cofactor.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. It has a preference for acyl derivatives with carbon chain length from 4 to 16.
A key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. EC
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
Techniques used in microbiology.
Neon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ne, atomic number 10, and atomic weight 20.18. It is found in the earth's crust and atmosphere as an inert, odorless gas and is used in vacuum tubes and incandescent lamps.
A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Infection of the VULVA and VAGINA with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the hydration of unsaturated fatty acyl-CoA to yield beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA. It plays a role in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis, has broad specificity, and is most active with crotonyl-CoA. EC
A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.
A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.
Enzymes that reversibly catalyze the oxidation of a 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA in the presence of NAD. They are key enzymes in the oxidation of fatty acids and in mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.

In vivo activity of micafungin in a persistently neutropenic murine model of disseminated infection caused by Candida tropicalis. (1/114)

Micafungin is a new echinocandin with broad-spectrum in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity against both Aspergillus and Candida species. We compared the activity of micafungin with that of amphotericin B and fluconazole in a persistently immunocompromised murine model of disseminated candidiasis against a strain of Candida tropicalis that was resistant to amphotericin B and fluconazole in vitro. Mice were rendered persistently neutropenic with multiple doses of cyclophosphamide and infected intravenously with C. tropicalis. Mice were treated with either intraperitoneal amphotericin B (0.5-5 mg/kg per dose), oral fluconazole (50 mg/kg twice a day), intravenous micafungin (1-10 mg/kg per dose) or solvent control for 7 days. Mice were killed at 11 days post-infection and kidneys, lungs, brain and liver removed for quantitative culture. Overall mortality in the model was low, with rates varying between 10% and 25% in treatment groups. Micafungin at doses between 2 and 10 mg/kg were the only regimes able to reduce cfu below the level of detection of tissues infected with C. tropicalis. Micafungin was well tolerated by the mice and was much more effective than amphotericin B or fluconazole against an amphotericin B- and fluconazole-resistant C. tropicalis.  (+info)

Candida tropicalis in a neonatal intensive care unit: epidemiologic and molecular analysis of an outbreak of infection with an uncommon neonatal pathogen. (2/114)

From June to July 1998, two episodes of Candida tropicalis fungemia occurred in the Aristotle University neonatal intensive care unit (ICU). To investigate this uncommon event, a prospective study of fungal colonization and infection was conducted. From December 1998 to December 1999, surveillance cultures of the oral cavities and perinea of the 593 of the 781 neonates admitted to the neonatal ICU who were expected to stay for >7 days were performed. Potential environmental reservoirs and possible risk factors for acquisition of C. tropicalis were searched for. Molecular epidemiologic studies by two methods of restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and two methods of random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis were performed. Seventy-two neonates were colonized by yeasts (12.1%), of which 30 were colonized by Candida albicans, 17 were colonized by C. tropicalis, and 5 were colonized by Candida parapsilosis. From December 1998 to December 1999, 10 cases of fungemia occurred; 6 were due to C. parapsilosis, 2 were due to C. tropicalis, 1 was due to Candida glabrata, and 1 was due to Trichosporon asahii (12.8/1,000 admissions). Fungemia occurred more frequently in colonized than in noncolonized neonates (P < 0.0001). Genetic analysis of 11 colonization isolates and the two late blood isolates of C. tropicalis demonstrated two genotypes. One blood isolate and nine colonization isolates belonged to a single type. The fungemia/colonization ratio of C. parapsilosis (3/5) was greater than that of C. tropicalis (2/17, P = 0.05), other non-C. albicans Candida spp. (1/11, P = 0.02), or C. albicans (0/27, P = 0.05). Extensive environmental cultures revealed no common source of C. tropicalis or C. parapsilosis. There was neither prophylactic use of azoles nor other risk factors found for acquisition of C. tropicalis except for total parenteral nutrition. A substantial risk of colonization by non-C. albicans Candida spp. in the neonatal ICU may lead to a preponderance of C. tropicalis as a significant cause of neonatal fungemia.  (+info)

Up-regulation of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation system occurs in butyrate-grown Candida tropicalis following disruption of the gene encoding peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase. (3/114)

In the yeast Candida tropicalis, two thiolase isozymes, peroxisomal acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase and peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, participate in the peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation system. Their individual contributions have been demonstrated in cells grown on butyrate, with C. tropicalis able to grow in the absence of either one. In the present study, a lack of peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase protein resulted in increased expression (up-regulation) of acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase and other peroxisomal proteins, whereas a lack of peroxisomal acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase produced no corresponding effect. Overexpression of the acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase gene did not suppress the up-regulation or the growth retardation on butyrate in cells without peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, even though large amounts of the overexpressed acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase were detected in most of the peroxisomes of butyrate-grown cells. These results provide important evidence of the greater contribution of 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase to the peroxisomal beta-oxidation system than acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase in C. tropicalis and a novel insight into the regulation of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation system.  (+info)

Preclinical assessment of the efficacy of mycograb, a human recombinant antibody against fungal HSP90. (4/114)

Mycograb (NeuTec Pharma plc) is a human genetically recombinant antibody against fungal heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). Antibody to HSP90 is closely associated with recovery in patients with invasive candidiasis who are receiving amphotericin B (AMB). Using in vitro assays developed for efficacy assessment of chemotherapeutic antifungal drugs, Mycograb showed activity against a wide range of yeast species (MICs against Candida albicans [fluconazole [FLC]-sensitive and FLC-resistant strains], Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida parapsilosis, 128 to 256 microg/ml). Mycograb (4 or 8 microg/ml) showed synergy with AMB, the fractional inhibitory index being 0.09 to 0.31. Synergy was not evident with FLC, except for FLC-sensitive C. albicans. Murine kinetics showed that Mycograb at 2 mg/kg produced a maximum concentration of drug in serum of 4.7 microg/ml, a half-life at alpha phase of 3.75 min, a half-life at beta phase of 2.34 h, and an area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to t h of 155 microg. min/ml. Mycograb (2 mg/kg) alone produced significant improvement in murine candidiasis caused by each species: (i). a reduction (Scheffe's test, P < 0.05) in the mean organ colony count for the FLC-resistant strain of C. albicans (kidney, liver, and spleen), C. krusei (liver and spleen), C. glabrata (liver and spleen), C. tropicalis (kidney), and C. parapsilosis (kidney, liver, and spleen) and (ii). a statistically significant increase in the number of negative biopsy specimens (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.05) for C. glabrata (kidney), C. tropicalis (liver and spleen), and C. parapsilosis (liver). AMB (0.6 mg/kg) alone cleared the C. tropicalis infection but failed to clear infections caused by C. albicans, C. krusei, C. glabrata, or C. parapsilosis. Synergy with AMB, defined as an increase (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.05) in the number of negative biopsy specimens compared with those obtained using AMB alone, occurred with the FLC-resistant strain of C. albicans (kidney), C. krusei (spleen), C. glabrata (spleen), and C. parapsilosis (liver and spleen). Only by combining Mycograb with AMB was complete resolution of infection achieved for C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. glabrata.  (+info)

Candida tropicalis expresses two mitochondrial 2-enoyl thioester reductases that are able to form both homodimers and heterodimers. (5/114)

Here we report on the cloning of a Candida tropicalis gene, ETR2, that is closely related to ETR1. Both genes encode enzymatically active 2-enoyl thioester reductases involved in mitochondrial synthesis of fatty acids (fatty acid synthesis type II) and respiratory competence. The 5'- and 3'-flanking (coding) regions of ETR2 and ETR1 are about 90% (97%) identical, indicating that the genes have evolved via gene duplication. The gene products differ in three amino acid residues: Ile67 (Val), Ala92 (Thr), and Lys251 (Arg) in Etr2p (Etr1p). Quantitative PCR analysis and reverse transcriptase-PCR indicated that both genes were expressed about equally in fermenting and ETR1 predominantly respiring yeast cells. Like the situation with ETR1, expression of ETR2 in respiration-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant cells devoid of Ybr026p/Etr1p was able to restore growth on glycerol. Triclosan that is used as an antibacterial agent against fatty acid synthesis type II 2-enoyl thioester reductases inhibited growth of FabI overexpressing mutant yeast cells but was not able to inhibit respiratory growth of the ETR2- or ETR1-complemented mutant yeast cells. Resolving of crystal structures obtained via Etr2p and Etr1p co-crystallization indicated that all possible dimer variants occur in the same asymmetric unit, suggesting that similar dimer formation also takes place in vivo.  (+info)

The European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) survey of candidaemia in Italy: antifungal susceptibility patterns of 261 non-albicans Candida isolates from blood. (6/114)

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 261 non-albicans Candida bloodstream strains isolated during the European Confederation of Medical Mycology survey of candidaemia performed in Lombardia, Italy (September 1997-December 1999). METHODS: In vitro susceptibility to flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole was determined using the broth microdilution method described in the NCCLS M27-A guidelines. Etest strips were used to assess susceptibility to amphotericin B. In vitro findings were correlated with the patient's underlying condition and previous antifungal treatment. RESULTS: MICs (mg/L) at which 90% of the strains were inhibited were, respectively, 2 for flucytosine, 8 for fluconazole, 0.5 for itraconazole, 0.25 for voriconazole and 0.25 for posaconazole. Amphotericin B MIC endpoints were <0.50 mg/L in all the isolates tested. Flucytosine resistance was detected in 19 isolates (7%), mainly among Candida tropicalis strains (30%). Innate or secondary fluconazole resistance was detected in 13 strains (5%). Among the 13 patients with fluconazole-resistant Candida bloodstream infection, three were HIV positive, including one treated with fluconazole for oral candidosis; the four who were HIV negative had received the azole during the 2 weeks preceding the candidaemia. Cross-resistance among fluconazole and other azoles was a rare event. CONCLUSIONS: Resistance is still uncommon in non-albicans Candida species recovered from blood cultures. However, in fungaemias caused by C. tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei, there is a high prevalence of resistance to fluconazole and flucytosine. Fluconazole resistance should be suspected in patients treated previously with azoles, mainly those with advanced HIV infection.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of the CYP52 family of Candida tropicalis ATCC 20336, important for the conversion of fatty acids and alkanes to alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids. (7/114)

Candida tropicalis ATCC 20336 excretes alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids as a by-product when cultured on n-alkanes or fatty acids as the carbon source. Previously, a beta-oxidation-blocked derivative of ATCC 20336 was constructed which showed a dramatic increase in the production of dicarboxylic acids. This paper describes the next steps in strain improvement, which were directed toward the isolation and characterization of genes encoding the omega-hydroxylase enzymes catalyzing the first step in the omega-oxidation pathway. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) and the accompanying NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (NCP) constitute the hydroxylase complex responsible for the first and rate-limiting step of omega-oxidation of n-alkanes and fatty acids. 10 members of the alkane-inducible P450 gene family (CYP52) of C. tropicalis ATCC20336 as well as the accompanying NCP were cloned and sequenced. The 10 CYP genes represent four unique genes with their putative alleles and two unique genes for which no allelic variant was identified. Of the 10 genes, CYP52A13 and CYP52A14 showed the highest levels of mRNA induction, as determined by quantitative competitive reverse transcription-PCR during fermentation with pure oleic fatty acid (27-fold increase), pure octadecane (32-fold increase), and a mixed fatty acid feed, Emersol 267 (54-fold increase). The allelic pair CYP52A17 and CYP52A18 was also induced under all three conditions but to a lesser extent. Moderate induction of CYP52A12 was observed. These results identify the CYP52 and NCP genes as being involved in alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acid production by C. tropicalis and provide the foundation for biocatalyst improvement.  (+info)

Transformation of fatty acids catalyzed by cytochrome P450 monooxygenase enzymes of Candida tropicalis. (8/114)

Candida tropicalis ATCC 20336 can grow on fatty acids or alkanes as its sole source of carbon and energy, but strains blocked in beta-oxidation convert these substrates to long-chain alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids (diacids), compounds of potential commercial value (Picataggio et al., Biotechnology 10:894-898, 1992). The initial step in the formation of these diacids, which is thought to be rate limiting, is omega-hydroxylation by a cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase. C. tropicalis ATCC 20336 contains a family of CYP genes, and when ATCC 20336 or its derivatives are exposed to oleic acid (C(18:1)), two cytochrome P450s, CYP52A13 and CYP52A17, are consistently strongly induced (Craft et al., this issue). To determine the relative activity of each of these enzymes and their contribution to diacid formation, both cytochrome P450s were expressed separately in insect cells in conjunction with the C. tropicalis cytochrome P450 reductase (NCP). Microsomes prepared from these cells were analyzed for their ability to oxidize fatty acids. CYP52A13 preferentially oxidized oleic acid and other unsaturated acids to omega-hydroxy acids. CYP52A17 also oxidized oleic acid efficiently but converted shorter, saturated fatty acids such as myristic acid (C(14:0)) much more effectively. Both enzymes, in particular CYP52A17, also oxidized omega-hydroxy fatty acids, ultimately generating the alpha,omega-diacid. Consideration of these different specificities and selectivities will help determine which enzymes to amplify in strains blocked for beta-oxidation to enhance the production of dicarboxylic acids. The activity spectrum also identified other potential oxidation targets for commercial development.  (+info)

'Candida tropicalis' is a species of yeast that can be found normally in certain environments, including the human body (such as the skin, mouth, and digestive system). However, it can also cause infections in people with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. These infections can occur in various parts of the body, including the bloodstream, urinary tract, and skin.

Like other Candida species, C. tropicalis is a type of fungus that reproduces by budding, forming oval-shaped cells. It is often resistant to certain antifungal medications, which can make infections more difficult to treat. Proper diagnosis and treatment, usually with antifungal drugs, are essential for managing C. tropicalis infections.

'Candida' is a type of fungus (a form of yeast) that is commonly found on the skin and inside the body, including in the mouth, throat, gut, and vagina, in small amounts. It is a part of the normal microbiota and usually does not cause any problems. However, an overgrowth of Candida can lead to infections known as candidiasis or thrush. Common sites for these infections include the skin, mouth, throat, and genital areas. Some factors that can contribute to Candida overgrowth are a weakened immune system, certain medications (such as antibiotics and corticosteroids), diabetes, pregnancy, poor oral hygiene, and wearing damp or tight-fitting clothing. Common symptoms of candidiasis include itching, redness, pain, and discharge. Treatment typically involves antifungal medication, either topical or oral, depending on the site and severity of the infection.

'Candida albicans' is a species of yeast that is commonly found in the human body, particularly in warm and moist areas such as the mouth, gut, and genital region. It is a part of the normal microbiota and usually does not cause any harm. However, under certain conditions like a weakened immune system, prolonged use of antibiotics or steroids, poor oral hygiene, or diabetes, it can overgrow and cause infections known as candidiasis. These infections can affect various parts of the body including the skin, nails, mouth (thrush), and genital area (yeast infection).

The medical definition of 'Candida albicans' is:

A species of yeast belonging to the genus Candida, which is commonly found as a commensal organism in humans. It can cause opportunistic infections when there is a disruption in the normal microbiota or when the immune system is compromised. The overgrowth of C. albicans can lead to various forms of candidiasis, such as oral thrush, vaginal yeast infection, and invasive candidiasis.

Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by Candida species, most commonly Candida albicans. It can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, mucous membranes (such as the mouth and vagina), and internal organs (like the esophagus, lungs, or blood).

The symptoms of candidiasis depend on the location of the infection:

1. Oral thrush: White patches on the tongue, inner cheeks, gums, or roof of the mouth. These patches may be painful and can bleed slightly when scraped.
2. Vaginal yeast infection: Itching, burning, redness, and swelling of the vagina and vulva; thick, white, odorless discharge from the vagina.
3. Esophageal candidiasis: Difficulty swallowing, pain when swallowing, or feeling like food is "stuck" in the throat.
4. Invasive candidiasis: Fever, chills, and other signs of infection; multiple organ involvement may lead to various symptoms depending on the affected organs.

Risk factors for developing candidiasis include diabetes, HIV/AIDS, use of antibiotics or corticosteroids, pregnancy, poor oral hygiene, and wearing tight-fitting clothing that traps moisture. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, such as fluconazole, nystatin, or clotrimazole, depending on the severity and location of the infection.

Alkanes are a group of saturated hydrocarbons, which are characterized by the presence of single bonds between carbon atoms in their molecular structure. The general formula for alkanes is CnH2n+2, where n represents the number of carbon atoms in the molecule.

The simplest and shortest alkane is methane (CH4), which contains one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms. As the number of carbon atoms increases, the length and complexity of the alkane chain also increase. For example, ethane (C2H6) contains two carbon atoms and six hydrogen atoms, while propane (C3H8) contains three carbon atoms and eight hydrogen atoms.

Alkanes are important components of fossil fuels such as natural gas, crude oil, and coal. They are also used as starting materials in the production of various chemicals and materials, including plastics, fertilizers, and pharmaceuticals. In the medical field, alkanes may be used as anesthetics or as solvents for various medical applications.

Antifungal agents are a type of medication used to treat and prevent fungal infections. These agents work by targeting and disrupting the growth of fungi, which include yeasts, molds, and other types of fungi that can cause illness in humans.

There are several different classes of antifungal agents, including:

1. Azoles: These agents work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of fungal cell membranes. Examples of azole antifungals include fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole.
2. Echinocandins: These agents target the fungal cell wall, disrupting its synthesis and leading to fungal cell death. Examples of echinocandins include caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.
3. Polyenes: These agents bind to ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to fungal cell death. Examples of polyene antifungals include amphotericin B and nystatin.
4. Allylamines: These agents inhibit squalene epoxidase, a key enzyme in ergosterol synthesis. Examples of allylamine antifungals include terbinafine and naftifine.
5. Griseofulvin: This agent disrupts fungal cell division by binding to tubulin, a protein involved in fungal cell mitosis.

Antifungal agents can be administered topically, orally, or intravenously, depending on the severity and location of the infection. It is important to use antifungal agents only as directed by a healthcare professional, as misuse or overuse can lead to resistance and make treatment more difficult.

Fungal drug resistance is a condition where fungi are no longer susceptible to the antifungal drugs that were previously used to treat infections they caused. This can occur due to genetic changes in the fungi that make them less sensitive to the drug's effects, or due to environmental factors that allow the fungi to survive and multiply despite the presence of the drug.

There are several mechanisms by which fungi can develop drug resistance, including:

1. Mutations in genes that encode drug targets: Fungi can acquire mutations in the genes that encode for the proteins or enzymes that the antifungal drugs target. These mutations can alter the structure or function of these targets, making them less susceptible to the drug's effects.
2. Overexpression of efflux pumps: Fungi can increase the expression of genes that encode for efflux pumps, which are proteins that help fungi expel drugs from their cells. This can reduce the intracellular concentration of the drug and make it less effective.
3. Changes in membrane composition: Fungi can alter the composition of their cell membranes to make them less permeable to antifungal drugs, making it more difficult for the drugs to enter the fungal cells and exert their effects.
4. Biofilm formation: Fungi can form biofilms, which are complex communities of microorganisms that adhere to surfaces and are protected by a matrix of extracellular material. Biofilms can make fungi more resistant to antifungal drugs by limiting drug penetration and creating an environment that promotes the development of resistance.

Fungal drug resistance is a significant clinical problem, particularly in patients with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or cancer. It can lead to treatment failures, increased morbidity and mortality, and higher healthcare costs. To address this issue, there is a need for new antifungal drugs, as well as strategies to prevent and manage drug resistance.

Fungemia is the presence of fungi (fungal organisms) in the blood. It's a type of bloodstream infection, which can be serious and life-threatening, particularly for people with weakened immune systems. The fungi that cause fungemia often enter the bloodstream through medical devices like catheters or from a fungal infection somewhere else in the body.

Fungemia is often associated with conditions like candidemia (caused by Candida species) and aspergillemia (caused by Aspergillus species). Symptoms can vary widely but often include fever, chills, and other signs of infection. It's important to diagnose and treat fungemia promptly to prevent serious complications like sepsis.

Fluconazole is an antifungal medication used to treat and prevent various fungal infections, such as candidiasis (yeast infections), cryptococcal meningitis, and other fungal infections that affect the mouth, throat, blood, lungs, genital area, and other parts of the body. It works by inhibiting the growth of fungi that cause these infections. Fluconazole is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and intravenous (IV) solutions, and is typically prescribed to be taken once daily.

The medical definition of Fluconazole can be found in pharmacological or medical dictionaries, which describe it as a triazole antifungal agent that inhibits fungal cytochrome P450-dependent synthesis of ergosterol, a key component of the fungal cell membrane. This results in increased permeability and leakage of cellular contents, ultimately leading to fungal death. Fluconazole has a broad spectrum of activity against various fungi, including Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus, and others.

It is important to note that while Fluconazole is an effective antifungal medication, it may have side effects and interactions with other medications. Therefore, it should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

'Candida glabrata' is a species of yeast that is commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans. It is a member of the genus Candida, which includes several species of fungi that can cause infections in humans. C. glabrata is one of the more common causes of candidiasis, or yeast infections, particularly in the mouth (oral thrush) and genital area. It can also cause invasive candidiasis, a serious systemic infection that can affect various organs and tissues in the body. C. glabrata is often resistant to some of the antifungal drugs commonly used to treat Candida infections, making it more difficult to treat.

Carnitine O-acetyltransferase (COAT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the transport and metabolism of fatty acids within cells. It is also known as carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I).

The primary function of COAT is to catalyze the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to carnitine, forming acetylcarnitine and free CoA. This reaction is essential for the entry of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix, where they undergo beta-oxidation to produce energy in the form of ATP.

COAT is located on the outer membrane of the mitochondria and functions as a rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid oxidation. Its activity can be inhibited by malonyl-CoA, which is an intermediate in fatty acid synthesis. This inhibition helps regulate the balance between fatty acid oxidation and synthesis, ensuring that cells have enough energy while preventing excessive accumulation of lipids.

Deficiencies or mutations in COAT can lead to various metabolic disorders, such as carnitine palmitoyltransferase I deficiency (CPT I deficiency), which may cause symptoms like muscle weakness, hypoglycemia, and cardiomyopathy. Proper diagnosis and management of these conditions often involve dietary modifications, supplementation with carnitine, and avoidance of fasting to prevent metabolic crises.

Microbodies are small, membrane-bound organelles found in the cells of eukaryotic organisms. They typically measure between 0.2 to 0.5 micrometers in diameter and play a crucial role in various metabolic processes, particularly in the detoxification of harmful substances and the synthesis of lipids.

There are several types of microbodies, including:

1. Peroxisomes: These are the most common type of microbody. They contain enzymes that help break down fatty acids and amino acids, producing hydrogen peroxide as a byproduct. Another set of enzymes within peroxisomes then converts the harmful hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen, thus detoxifying the cell.
2. Glyoxysomes: These microbodies are primarily found in plants and some fungi. They contain enzymes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, a metabolic pathway that helps convert stored fats into carbohydrates during germination.
3. Microbody-like particles (MLPs): These are smaller organelles found in certain protists and algae. Their functions are not well understood but are believed to be involved in lipid metabolism.

It is important to note that microbodies do not have a uniform structure or function across all eukaryotic cells, and their specific roles can vary depending on the organism and cell type.

Xylitol is a type of sugar alcohol used as a sugar substitute in various food and dental products. It has a sweet taste similar to sugar but with fewer calories and less impact on blood sugar levels, making it a popular choice for people with diabetes or those looking to reduce their sugar intake. Xylitol is also known to have dental benefits, as it can help prevent tooth decay by reducing the amount of bacteria in the mouth that cause cavities.

Medically speaking, xylitol is classified as a carbohydrate and has a chemical formula of C5H12O5. It occurs naturally in some fruits and vegetables, but most commercial xylitol is produced from corn cobs or other plant materials through a process called hydrogenation. While generally considered safe for human consumption, it can have a laxative effect in large amounts and may be harmful to dogs, so it's important to keep it out of reach of pets.

Acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase is also known as acyl-CoA synthetase or thiokinase. It is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of fatty acids. Specifically, it catalyzes the formation of an acyl-CoA molecule from a free fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoA).

The reaction catalyzed by Acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase is as follows:


where R-COOH represents a free fatty acid, and R-CO-SCoA is an acyl-CoA molecule.

This enzyme exists in several forms, each specific to different types of fatty acids. Acetyl-CoA C-acyltransferase is essential for the metabolism of fatty acids because it activates them for further breakdown in the cell through a process called beta-oxidation. This enzyme is found in various tissues, including the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue.

Mycological typing techniques are methods used to identify and classify fungi at the species or strain level, based on their unique biological characteristics. These techniques are often used in clinical laboratories to help diagnose fungal infections and determine the most effective treatment approaches.

There are several different mycological typing techniques that may be used, depending on the specific type of fungus being identified and the resources available in the laboratory. Some common methods include:

1. Phenotypic methods: These methods involve observing and measuring the physical characteristics of fungi, such as their growth patterns, colonial morphology, and microscopic features. Examples include macroscopic and microscopic examination, as well as biochemical tests to identify specific metabolic properties.

2. Genotypic methods: These methods involve analyzing the DNA or RNA of fungi to identify unique genetic sequences that can be used to distinguish between different species or strains. Examples include PCR-based methods, such as restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, as well as sequencing-based methods, such as internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST).

3. Proteotypic methods: These methods involve analyzing the proteins expressed by fungi to identify unique protein profiles that can be used to distinguish between different species or strains. Examples include matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS).

Mycological typing techniques are important tools for understanding the epidemiology of fungal infections, tracking outbreaks, and developing effective treatment strategies. By accurately identifying the specific fungi causing an infection, healthcare providers can tailor their treatments to target the most vulnerable aspects of the pathogen, improving patient outcomes and reducing the risk of drug resistance.

Acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase (also known as acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase or just thiolase) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of fatty acids and ketone bodies. Specifically, it catalyzes the reaction that converts two molecules of acetyl-CoA into acetoacetyl-CoA, which is a key step in the breakdown of fatty acids through beta-oxidation.

The enzyme works by bringing together two acetyl-CoA molecules and removing a coenzyme A (CoA) group from one of them, forming a carbon-carbon bond between the two molecules to create acetoacetyl-CoA. This reaction is reversible, meaning that the enzyme can also catalyze the breakdown of acetoacetyl-CoA into two molecules of acetyl-CoA.

There are several different isoforms of Acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase found in various tissues throughout the body, with differing roles and regulation. For example, one isoform is highly expressed in the liver and plays a key role in ketone body metabolism, while another isoform is found in mitochondria and is involved in fatty acid synthesis.

Echinocandins are a class of antifungal medications that inhibit the synthesis of 1,3-β-D-glucan, a key component of the fungal cell wall. This results in osmotic instability and ultimately leads to fungal cell death. Echinocandins are commonly used to treat invasive fungal infections caused by Candida species and Aspergillus species. The three drugs in this class that are approved for use in humans are caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin.

Here's a brief overview of each drug:

1. Caspofungin (Cancidas, Cancidas-W): This is the first echinocandin to be approved for use in humans. It is indicated for the treatment of invasive candidiasis, including candidemia, acute disseminated candidiasis, and other forms of Candida infections. Caspofungin is also approved for the prevention of Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
2. Micafungin (Mycamine): This echinocandin is approved for the treatment of candidemia, esophageal candidiasis, and other forms of Candida infections. It is also used for the prevention of Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
3. Anidulafungin (Eraxis): This echinocandin is approved for the treatment of esophageal candidiasis and candidemia, as well as other forms of Candida infections. It is also used for the prevention of Candida infections in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Echinocandins have a broad spectrum of activity against many fungal species, including those that are resistant to other classes of antifungal medications. They are generally well-tolerated and have a low incidence of drug interactions. However, they should be used with caution in patients with hepatic impairment, as their metabolism may be affected by liver dysfunction.

Mycology is the branch of biology that deals with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and classification, their role in diseases and decomposition processes, and their potential uses in industry, agriculture, and medicine. It involves the examination and identification of various types of fungi, such as yeasts, molds, and mushrooms, and the investigation of their ecological relationships with other organisms and their environments. Mycologists may also study the medical and veterinary importance of fungi, including the diagnosis and treatment of fungal infections, as well as the development of antifungal drugs and vaccines.

Fungal DNA refers to the genetic material present in fungi, which are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as larger organisms like mushrooms. The DNA of fungi, like that of all living organisms, is made up of nucleotides that are arranged in a double helix structure.

Fungal DNA contains the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of fungi. This includes the instructions for making proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of cells, as well as other important molecules such as enzymes and nucleic acids.

Studying fungal DNA can provide valuable insights into the biology and evolution of fungi, as well as their potential uses in medicine, agriculture, and industry. For example, researchers have used genetic engineering techniques to modify the DNA of fungi to produce drugs, biofuels, and other useful products. Additionally, understanding the genetic makeup of pathogenic fungi can help scientists develop new strategies for preventing and treating fungal infections.

Candidemia is a medical condition defined as the presence of the fungus Candida in the bloodstream. It is a type of invasive candidiasis, which occurs when Candida invades normally sterile areas of the body such as the blood, heart, brain, eyes, or bones. Candidemia is usually acquired in healthcare settings and can cause serious illness, especially in people with weakened immune systems. Symptoms may include fever, chills, hypotension, and organ dysfunction. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications.

Flucytosine is an antifungal medication used to treat serious and life-threatening fungal infections, such as cryptococcal meningitis and candidiasis. It works by interfering with the production of DNA and RNA in the fungal cells, which inhibits their growth and reproduction.

The medical definition of Flucytosine is:

A synthetic fluorinated pyrimidine nucleoside analogue that is converted to fluorouracil after uptake into susceptible fungal cells. It is used as an antifungal agent in the treatment of serious systemic fungal infections, particularly those caused by Candida and Cryptococcus neoformans. Flucytosine has both fungistatic and fungicidal activity, depending on the concentration achieved at the site of infection and the susceptibility of the organism.

Flucytosine is available in oral form and is often used in combination with other antifungal agents to increase its effectiveness and prevent the development of resistance. Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and bone marrow suppression. Regular monitoring of blood counts and liver function tests is necessary during treatment to detect any potential toxicity.

Amphotericin B is an antifungal medication used to treat serious and often life-threatening fungal infections. It works by binding to the ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane, creating pores that lead to the loss of essential cell components and ultimately cell death.

The medical definition of Amphotericin B is:

A polyene antifungal agent derived from Streptomyces nodosus, with a broad spectrum of activity against various fungi, including Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, and Histoplasma capsulatum. Amphotericin B is used to treat systemic fungal infections, such as histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, candidiasis, and aspergillosis, among others. It may be administered intravenously or topically, depending on the formulation and the site of infection.

Adverse effects associated with Amphotericin B include infusion-related reactions (such as fever, chills, and hypotension), nephrotoxicity, electrolyte imbalances, and anemia. These side effects are often dose-dependent and may be managed through careful monitoring and adjustment of the dosing regimen.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Xylose is a type of sugar that is commonly found in plants and wood. In the context of medical definitions, xylose is often used in tests to assess the function of the small intestine. The most common test is called the "xylose absorption test," which measures the ability of the small intestine to absorb this sugar.

In this test, a patient is given a small amount of xylose to drink, and then several blood and/or urine samples are collected over the next few hours. The amount of xylose that appears in these samples is measured and used to determine how well the small intestine is absorbing nutrients.

Abnormal results on a xylose absorption test can indicate various gastrointestinal disorders, such as malabsorption syndromes, celiac disease, or bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine.

"Azoles" is a class of antifungal medications that have a similar chemical structure, specifically a five-membered ring containing nitrogen and two carbon atoms (a "azole ring"). The most common azoles used in medicine include:

1. Imidazoles: These include drugs such as clotrimazole, miconazole, and ketoconazole. They are used to treat a variety of fungal infections, including vaginal yeast infections, thrush, and skin infections.
2. Triazoles: These include drugs such as fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. They are also used to treat fungal infections, but have a broader spectrum of activity than imidazoles and are often used for more serious or systemic infections.

Azoles work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of fungal cell membranes. This leads to increased permeability of the cell membrane, which ultimately results in fungal cell death.

While azoles are generally well-tolerated, they can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. In addition, some azoles can interact with other medications and affect liver function, so it's important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting an azole regimen.

Yeasts are single-celled microorganisms that belong to the fungus kingdom. They are characterized by their ability to reproduce asexually through budding or fission, and they obtain nutrients by fermenting sugars and other organic compounds. Some species of yeast can cause infections in humans, known as candidiasis or "yeast infections." These infections can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, mouth, genitals, and internal organs. Common symptoms of a yeast infection may include itching, redness, irritation, and discharge. Yeast infections are typically treated with antifungal medications.

Mycoses are a group of diseases caused by fungal infections. These infections can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, nails, hair, lungs, and internal organs. The severity of mycoses can range from superficial, mild infections to systemic, life-threatening conditions, depending on the type of fungus and the immune status of the infected individual. Some common types of mycoses include candidiasis, dermatophytosis, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, which can be topical or systemic, depending on the location and severity of the infection.

Lipopeptides are a type of molecule that consists of a lipid (fatty acid) tail attached to a small peptide (short chain of amino acids). They are produced naturally by various organisms, including bacteria, and play important roles in cell-to-cell communication, signaling, and as components of bacterial membranes. Some lipopeptides have also been found to have antimicrobial properties and are being studied for their potential use as therapeutic agents.

Dentures are defined as a removable dental appliance that replaces missing teeth and surrounding tissues. They are made to resemble your natural teeth and may even enhance your smile. There are two types of dentures - complete and partial. Complete dentures are used when all the teeth are missing, while partial dentures are used when some natural teeth remain.

Complete dentures cover the entire upper or lower jaw, while partial dentures replace one or more missing teeth by attaching to the remaining teeth. Dentures improve chewing ability, speech, and support the facial muscles and structure, preventing sagging of the cheeks and jowls that can occur with missing teeth.

The process of getting dentures usually involves several appointments with a dental professional, who will take impressions and measurements of your mouth to ensure a proper fit and comfortable bite. It may take some time to get used to wearing dentures, but they are an effective solution for restoring a natural-looking smile and improving oral function in people who have lost their teeth.

Oral candidiasis is a medical condition characterized by an infection of the oral mucous membranes caused by the Candida fungus species, most commonly Candida albicans. It is also known as thrush or oral thrush. The infection typically appears as white, creamy, or yellowish patches or plaques on the tongue, inner cheeks, roof of the mouth, gums, and sometimes on the tonsils or back of the throat. These lesions can be painful, causing soreness, burning sensations, and difficulty swallowing. Oral candidiasis can affect people of all ages; however, it is more commonly seen in infants, elderly individuals, and those with weakened immune systems due to illness or medication use. Various factors such as poor oral hygiene, dentures, smoking, dry mouth, and certain medical conditions like diabetes or HIV/AIDS can increase the risk of developing oral candidiasis. Treatment usually involves antifungal medications in the form of topical creams, lozenges, or oral solutions, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the infection.

Chromogenic compounds are substances that can be converted into a colored product through a chemical reaction. These compounds are often used in various diagnostic tests, including microbiological assays and immunoassays, to detect the presence or absence of a specific analyte (such as a particular bacterium, enzyme, or antigen).

In these tests, a chromogenic substrate is added to the sample, and if the target analyte is present, it will react with the substrate and produce a colored product. The intensity of the color can often be correlated with the amount of analyte present in the sample, allowing for quantitative analysis.

Chromogenic compounds are widely used in clinical laboratories because they offer several advantages over other types of diagnostic tests. They are typically easy to use and interpret, and they can provide rapid results with high sensitivity and specificity. Additionally, chromogenic assays can be automated, which can help increase throughput and reduce the potential for human error.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

Triazoles are a class of antifungal medications that have broad-spectrum activity against various fungi, including yeasts, molds, and dermatophytes. They work by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of fungal cell membranes, leading to increased permeability and disruption of fungal growth. Triazoles are commonly used in both systemic and topical formulations for the treatment of various fungal infections, such as candidiasis, aspergillosis, cryptococcosis, and dermatophytoses. Some examples of triazole antifungals include fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole.

Fungal genes refer to the genetic material present in fungi, which are eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as larger organisms like mushrooms. The genetic material of fungi is composed of DNA, just like in other eukaryotes, and is organized into chromosomes located in the nucleus of the cell.

Fungal genes are segments of DNA that contain the information necessary to produce proteins and RNA molecules required for various cellular functions. These genes are transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, which are then translated into proteins by ribosomes in the cytoplasm.

Fungal genomes have been sequenced for many species, revealing a diverse range of genes that encode proteins involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, signaling, and regulation. Comparative genomic analyses have also provided insights into the evolutionary relationships among different fungal lineages and have helped to identify unique genetic features that distinguish fungi from other eukaryotes.

Understanding fungal genes and their functions is essential for advancing our knowledge of fungal biology, as well as for developing new strategies to control fungal pathogens that can cause diseases in humans, animals, and plants.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Fungal proteins are a type of protein that is specifically produced and present in fungi, which are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds. These proteins play various roles in the growth, development, and survival of fungi. They can be involved in the structure and function of fungal cells, metabolism, pathogenesis, and other cellular processes. Some fungal proteins can also have important implications for human health, both in terms of their potential use as therapeutic targets and as allergens or toxins that can cause disease.

Fungal proteins can be classified into different categories based on their functions, such as enzymes, structural proteins, signaling proteins, and toxins. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in fungal cells, while structural proteins provide support and protection for the cell. Signaling proteins are involved in communication between cells and regulation of various cellular processes, and toxins are proteins that can cause harm to other organisms, including humans.

Understanding the structure and function of fungal proteins is important for developing new treatments for fungal infections, as well as for understanding the basic biology of fungi. Research on fungal proteins has led to the development of several antifungal drugs that target specific fungal enzymes or other proteins, providing effective treatment options for a range of fungal diseases. Additionally, further study of fungal proteins may reveal new targets for drug development and help improve our ability to diagnose and treat fungal infections.

"Xenopus" is not a medical term, but it is a genus of highly invasive aquatic frogs native to sub-Saharan Africa. They are often used in scientific research, particularly in developmental biology and genetics. The most commonly studied species is Xenopus laevis, also known as the African clawed frog.

In a medical context, Xenopus might be mentioned when discussing their use in research or as a model organism to study various biological processes or diseases.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Trichosporon is a genus of fungi that are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil, water, and air. They are also part of the normal flora of the human skin and mucous membranes. Some species of Trichosporon can cause various types of infections, mainly in people with weakened immune systems. These infections can range from superficial (e.g., skin and nail) to systemic and invasive, affecting internal organs. The most common Trichosporon-related infection is white piedra, a superficial mycosis that affects the hair shafts.

In a medical context, Trichosporon refers specifically to these fungi with potential pathogenic properties. It's essential to distinguish between the general term "trichosporon" (referring to the genus) and "Trichosporon" as a medically relevant entity causing infections.

Mannans are a type of complex carbohydrate, specifically a heteropolysaccharide, that are found in the cell walls of certain plants, algae, and fungi. They consist of chains of mannose sugars linked together, often with other sugar molecules such as glucose or galactose.

Mannans have various biological functions, including serving as a source of energy for microorganisms that can break them down. In some cases, mannans can also play a role in the immune response and are used as a component of vaccines to stimulate an immune response.

In the context of medicine, mannans may be relevant in certain conditions such as gut dysbiosis or allergic reactions to foods containing mannans. Additionally, some research has explored the potential use of mannans as a delivery vehicle for drugs or other therapeutic agents.

Fungal antigens are substances found on or produced by fungi that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. They can be proteins, polysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system. Fungal antigens can be used in diagnostic tests to identify fungal infections, and they can also be targets of immune responses during fungal infections. In some cases, fungal antigens may contribute to the pathogenesis of fungal diseases by inducing inflammatory or allergic reactions. Examples of fungal antigens include the cell wall components of Candida albicans and the extracellular polysaccharide galactomannan produced by Aspergillus fumigatus.

Acyl-CoA oxidase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the breakdown of fatty acids within the body. It is located in the peroxisomes, which are small organelles found in the cells of living organisms. The primary function of acyl-CoA oxidase is to catalyze the initial step in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids, a process that involves the sequential removal of two-carbon units from fatty acid molecules in the form of acetyl-CoA.

The reaction catalyzed by acyl-CoA oxidase is as follows:

acyl-CoA + FAD → trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA + FADH2 + H+

In this reaction, the enzyme removes a hydrogen atom from the fatty acyl-CoA molecule and transfers it to its cofactor, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). This results in the formation of trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA, FADH2, and a proton. The FADH2 produced during this reaction can then be used to generate ATP through the electron transport chain, while the trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-CoA undergoes further reactions in the beta-oxidation pathway.

There are two main isoforms of acyl-CoA oxidase found in humans: ACOX1 and ACOX2. ACOX1 is primarily responsible for oxidizing straight-chain fatty acids, while ACOX2 specializes in the breakdown of branched-chain fatty acids. Mutations in the genes encoding these enzymes can lead to various metabolic disorders, such as peroxisomal biogenesis disorders and Refsum disease.

Isocitrate lyase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the glyoxylate cycle, a metabolic pathway found in plants, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. This cycle bypasses two steps of the citric acid cycle (TCA cycle) and allows these organisms to grow on two-carbon compounds as their sole carbon source.

Isocitrate lyase specifically catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate into succinate and glyoxylate, which are further processed in the glyoxylate cycle to generate oxaloacetate and other metabolic intermediates. In humans, isocitrate lyase is not typically found in healthy tissues but has been observed in certain pathological conditions such as tumor growth and during periods of nutrient deprivation. It is also involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and steroids in some organisms.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Agar is a substance derived from red algae, specifically from the genera Gelidium and Gracilaria. It is commonly used in microbiology as a solidifying agent for culture media. Agar forms a gel at relatively low temperatures (around 40-45°C) and remains stable at higher temperatures (up to 100°C), making it ideal for preparing various types of culture media.

In addition to its use in microbiology, agar is also used in other scientific research, food industry, and even in some artistic applications due to its unique gelling properties. It is important to note that although agar is often used in the preparation of food, it is not typically consumed as a standalone ingredient by humans or animals.

Microbiological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and analysis of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites. These techniques are essential in fields like medical microbiology, food microbiology, environmental microbiology, and industrial microbiology.

Some common microbiological techniques include:

1. Microbial culturing: This involves growing microorganisms on nutrient-rich media in Petri dishes or test tubes to allow them to multiply. Different types of media are used to culture different types of microorganisms.
2. Staining and microscopy: Various staining techniques, such as Gram stain, acid-fast stain, and methylene blue stain, are used to visualize and identify microorganisms under a microscope.
3. Biochemical testing: These tests involve the use of specific biochemical reactions to identify microorganisms based on their metabolic characteristics. Examples include the catalase test, oxidase test, and sugar fermentation tests.
4. Molecular techniques: These methods are used to identify microorganisms based on their genetic material. Examples include polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing, and gene probes.
5. Serological testing: This involves the use of antibodies or antigens to detect the presence of specific microorganisms in a sample. Examples include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting.
6. Immunofluorescence: This technique uses fluorescent dyes to label antibodies or antigens, allowing for the visualization of microorganisms under a fluorescence microscope.
7. Electron microscopy: This method uses high-powered electron beams to produce detailed images of microorganisms, allowing for the identification and analysis of their structures.

These techniques are critical in diagnosing infectious diseases, monitoring food safety, assessing environmental quality, and developing new drugs and vaccines.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Neon" is not a medical term. Neon is actually a noble gas, the fourth lightest and second most abundant in the Earth's atmosphere. It is used in vacuum tubes and high-voltage indicators, and in advertising signs and neon lamps. If you have any medical terms you would like me to define, please let me know!

'Cryptococcus' is a genus of encapsulated, budding yeast that are found in the environment, particularly in soil and bird droppings. The most common species that causes infection in humans is Cryptococcus neoformans, followed by Cryptococcus gattii.

Infection with Cryptococcus can occur when a person inhales the microscopic yeast cells, which can then lead to lung infections (pneumonia) or disseminated disease, particularly in people with weakened immune systems. The most common form of disseminated cryptococcal infection is meningitis, an inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

Cryptococcal infections can be serious and even life-threatening, especially in individuals with HIV/AIDS or other conditions that weaken the immune system. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, such as amphotericin B and fluconazole.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "industrial waste" is not a term that has a medical definition. Industrial waste is a term used to describe waste produced by industrial activities, such as manufacturing, mining, and construction. It can include a wide variety of materials, including chemicals, metals, soil, and water. Proper management and disposal of industrial waste are important for protecting the environment and public health. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terminology, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

In medical terms, the mouth is officially referred to as the oral cavity. It is the first part of the digestive tract and includes several structures: the lips, vestibule (the space enclosed by the lips and teeth), teeth, gingiva (gums), hard and soft palate, tongue, floor of the mouth, and salivary glands. The mouth is responsible for several functions including speaking, swallowing, breathing, and eating, as it is the initial point of ingestion where food is broken down through mechanical and chemical processes, beginning the digestive process.

Cyclic peptides are a type of peptides in which the N-terminus and C-terminus of the peptide chain are linked to form a circular structure. This is in contrast to linear peptides, which have a straight peptide backbone with a free N-terminus and C-terminus. The cyclization of peptides can occur through various mechanisms, including the formation of an amide bond between the N-terminal amino group and the C-terminal carboxylic acid group (head-to-tail cyclization), or through the formation of a bond between side chain functional groups.

Cyclic peptides have unique structural and chemical properties that make them valuable in medical and therapeutic applications. For example, they are more resistant to degradation by enzymes compared to linear peptides, which can increase their stability and half-life in the body. Additionally, the cyclic structure allows for greater conformational rigidity, which can enhance their binding affinity and specificity to target molecules.

Cyclic peptides have been explored as potential therapeutics for a variety of diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and neurological disorders. They have also been used as tools in basic research to study protein-protein interactions and cell signaling pathways.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a medical condition that refers to an infection in the vagina and vulva caused by Candida fungus, most commonly Candida albicans. This type of infection is also commonly known as a yeast infection. The symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis can include itching, redness, swelling, pain, and soreness in the affected area, as well as thick, white vaginal discharge that may resemble cottage cheese. In some cases, there may also be burning during urination or sexual intercourse. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common condition that affects many women at some point in their lives, and it can be treated with antifungal medications.

Enoyl-CoA hydratase is an enzyme that catalyzes the second step in the fatty acid oxidation process, also known as the beta-oxidation pathway. The systematic name for this reaction is (3R)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydratase.

The function of Enoyl-CoA hydratase is to convert trans-2-enoyl-CoA into 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA by adding a molecule of water (hydration) across the double bond in the substrate. This reaction forms a chiral center, resulting in the production of an (R)-stereoisomer of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA.

The gene that encodes for Enoyl-CoA hydratase is called ECHS1, and mutations in this gene can lead to a rare genetic disorder known as Enoyl-CoA Hydratase Deficiency or ECHS1 Deficiency. This condition affects the breakdown of fatty acids in the body and can cause neurological symptoms such as developmental delay, seizures, and movement disorders.

Itraconazole is an antifungal medication used to treat various fungal infections, including blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and candidiasis. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a vital component of fungal cell membranes, thereby disrupting the integrity and function of these membranes. Itraconazole is available in oral and intravenous forms for systemic use and as a topical solution or cream for localized fungal infections.

Medical Definition:
Itraconazole (i-tra-KON-a-zole): A synthetic triazole antifungal agent used to treat various fungal infections, such as blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and candidiasis. It inhibits the synthesis of ergosterol, a critical component of fungal cell membranes, leading to disruption of their integrity and function. Itraconazole is available in oral (capsule and solution) and intravenous forms for systemic use and as a topical solution or cream for localized fungal infections.

"Aspergillus" is a genus of filamentous fungi (molds) that are widely distributed in the environment. These molds are commonly found in decaying organic matter such as leaf litter, compost piles, and rotting vegetation. They can also be found in indoor environments like air conditioning systems, dust, and building materials.

The medical relevance of Aspergillus comes from the fact that some species can cause a range of diseases in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying lung conditions. The most common disease caused by Aspergillus is called aspergillosis, which can manifest as allergic reactions, lung infections (like pneumonia), and invasive infections that can spread to other parts of the body.

Aspergillus species produce small, airborne spores called conidia, which can be inhaled into the lungs and cause infection. The severity of aspergillosis depends on various factors, including the individual's immune status, the specific Aspergillus species involved, and the extent of fungal invasion in the body.

Common Aspergillus species that can cause human disease include A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, and A. terreus. Preventing exposure to Aspergillus spores and maintaining a healthy immune system are crucial steps in minimizing the risk of aspergillosis.

Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique is a type of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based method used in molecular biology for DNA fingerprinting and genetic diversity analysis. This technique utilizes random primers of arbitrary nucleotide sequences to amplify random segments of genomic DNA. The amplified products are then separated by electrophoresis, and the resulting banding patterns are analyzed.

In RAPD analysis, the randomly chosen primers bind to multiple sites in the genome, and the intervening regions between the primer binding sites are amplified. Since the primer binding sites can vary among individuals within a species or among different species, the resulting amplicons will also differ. These differences in amplicon size and pattern can be used to distinguish between individuals or populations at the DNA level.

RAPD is a relatively simple and cost-effective technique that does not require prior knowledge of the genome sequence. However, it has some limitations, such as low reproducibility and sensitivity to experimental conditions. Despite these limitations, RAPD remains a useful tool for genetic analysis in various fields, including forensics, plant breeding, and microbial identification.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Ketoconazole is an antifungal medication that is primarily used to treat various fungal infections, including those caused by dermatophytes, Candida, and pityrosporum. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of ergosterol, a crucial component of fungal cell membranes, which leads to increased permeability and ultimately results in fungal cell death.

Ketoconazole is available as an oral tablet for systemic use and as a topical cream or shampoo for localized applications. The oral formulation is used to treat severe or invasive fungal infections, while the topical preparations are primarily indicated for skin and scalp infections, such as athlete's foot, ringworm, jock itch, candidiasis, and seborrheic dermatitis.

Common side effects of oral ketoconazole include nausea, vomiting, headache, and altered liver function tests. Rare but serious adverse reactions may include hepatotoxicity, adrenal insufficiency, and interactions with other medications that can affect the metabolism and elimination of drugs. Topical ketoconazole is generally well-tolerated, with local irritation being the most common side effect.

It's important to note that due to its potential for serious liver toxicity and drug-drug interactions, oral ketoconazole has been largely replaced by other antifungal agents, such as fluconazole and itraconazole, which have more favorable safety profiles. Topical ketoconazole remains a valuable option for treating localized fungal infections due to its effectiveness and lower risk of systemic side effects.

3-Hydroxyacyl CoA Dehydrogenases (3-HADs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids. These enzymes catalyze the third step of the beta-oxidation process, which involves the oxidation of 3-hydroxyacyl CoA to 3-ketoacyl CoA. This reaction is an essential part of the energy-generating process that occurs in the mitochondria of cells and allows for the breakdown of fatty acids into smaller molecules, which can then be used to produce ATP, the primary source of cellular energy.

There are several different isoforms of 3-HADs, each with specific substrate preferences and tissue distributions. The most well-known isoform is the mitochondrial 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (M3HD), which is involved in the oxidation of medium and long-chain fatty acids. Other isoforms include the short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD) and the long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD), which are involved in the oxidation of shorter and longer chain fatty acids, respectively.

Deficiencies in 3-HADs can lead to serious metabolic disorders, such as 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (3-HAD deficiency), which is characterized by the accumulation of toxic levels of 3-hydroxyacyl CoAs in the body. Symptoms of this disorder can include hypoglycemia, muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, and developmental delays. Early diagnosis and treatment of 3-HAD deficiency are essential to prevent serious complications and improve outcomes for affected individuals.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

Fungal antibodies are a type of protein called immunoglobulins that are produced by the immune system in response to the presence of fungi in the body. These antibodies are specifically designed to recognize and bind to antigens on the surface of fungal cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells.

There are several types of fungal antibodies, including IgA, IgG, IgM, and IgE, each with a specific role in the immune response. For example, IgG antibodies are the most common type of antibody found in the blood and provide long-term immunity to fungi, while IgE antibodies are associated with allergic reactions to fungi.

Fungal antibodies can be measured in the blood or other bodily fluids to help diagnose fungal infections, monitor the effectiveness of treatment, or assess immune function in individuals who are at risk for fungal infections, such as those with weakened immune systems due to HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplantation.

Biofilms are defined as complex communities of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that adhere to surfaces and are enclosed in a matrix made up of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS matrix is composed of polysaccharides, proteins, DNA, and other molecules that provide structural support and protection to the microorganisms within.

Biofilms can form on both living and non-living surfaces, including medical devices, implants, and biological tissues. They are resistant to antibiotics, disinfectants, and host immune responses, making them difficult to eradicate and a significant cause of persistent infections. Biofilms have been implicated in a wide range of medical conditions, including chronic wounds, urinary tract infections, middle ear infections, and device-related infections.

The formation of biofilms typically involves several stages, including initial attachment, microcolony formation, maturation, and dispersion. Understanding the mechanisms underlying biofilm formation and development is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat biofilm-associated infections.

'Cryptococcus neoformans' is a species of encapsulated, budding yeast that is an important cause of fungal infections in humans and animals. The capsule surrounding the cell wall is composed of polysaccharides and is a key virulence factor, allowing the organism to evade host immune responses. C. neoformans is found worldwide in soil, particularly in association with bird droppings, and can be inhaled, leading to pulmonary infection. In people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, hematological malignancies, or organ transplants, C. neoformans can disseminate from the lungs to other sites, most commonly the central nervous system (CNS), causing meningitis. The infection can also affect other organs, including the skin, bones, and eyes.

The diagnosis of cryptococcosis typically involves microscopic examination and culture of clinical specimens, such as sputum, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), followed by biochemical and molecular identification of the organism. Treatment usually consists of a combination of antifungal medications, such as amphotericin B and fluconazole, along with management of any underlying immunodeficiency. The prognosis of cryptococcosis depends on various factors, including the patient's immune status, the extent and severity of infection, and the timeliness and adequacy of treatment.

"Evaluation studies" is a broad term that refers to the systematic assessment or examination of a program, project, policy, intervention, or product. The goal of an evaluation study is to determine its merits, worth, and value by measuring its effects, efficiency, and impact. There are different types of evaluation studies, including formative evaluations (conducted during the development or implementation of a program to provide feedback for improvement), summative evaluations (conducted at the end of a program to determine its overall effectiveness), process evaluations (focusing on how a program is implemented and delivered), outcome evaluations (assessing the short-term and intermediate effects of a program), and impact evaluations (measuring the long-term and broad consequences of a program).

In medical contexts, evaluation studies are often used to assess the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of new treatments, interventions, or technologies. These studies can help healthcare providers make informed decisions about patient care, guide policymakers in developing evidence-based policies, and promote accountability and transparency in healthcare systems. Examples of evaluation studies in medicine include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compare the outcomes of a new treatment to those of a standard or placebo treatment, observational studies that examine the real-world effectiveness and safety of interventions, and economic evaluations that assess the costs and benefits of different healthcare options.

An immunocompromised host refers to an individual who has a weakened or impaired immune system, making them more susceptible to infections and decreased ability to fight off pathogens. This condition can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developed during one's lifetime).

Acquired immunocompromised states may result from various factors such as medical treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunosuppressive drugs), infections (e.g., HIV/AIDS), chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes, malnutrition, liver disease), or aging.

Immunocompromised hosts are at a higher risk for developing severe and life-threatening infections due to their reduced immune response. Therefore, they require special consideration when it comes to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

Blood is the fluid that circulates in the body of living organisms, carrying oxygen and nutrients to the cells and removing carbon dioxide and other waste products. It is composed of red and white blood cells suspended in a liquid called plasma. The main function of blood is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. It also transports nutrients, hormones, and other substances to the cells and removes waste products from them. Additionally, blood plays a crucial role in the body's immune system by helping to fight infection and disease.

'Acari' is the scientific name for a group of small arthropods that includes ticks and mites. These tiny creatures are characterized by having eight legs, lack antennae or wings, and have a hard exoskeleton. They belong to the class Arachnida, which also includes spiders and scorpions.

Ticks are external parasites that feed on the blood of mammals, birds, and reptiles, and can transmit various diseases such as Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and tick-borne encephalitis. Mites, on the other hand, have diverse habits and lifestyles, with some being parasitic, predacious, or free-living. Some mites are pests that can cause skin irritation and allergies in humans and animals.

Overall, Acari is a significant group of organisms with medical and veterinary importance due to their ability to transmit diseases and cause other health problems.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

"Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a scientific name used in the field of microbiology. It refers to a species of yeast that is commonly used in various industrial processes, such as baking and brewing. It's also widely used in scientific research due to its genetic tractability and eukaryotic cellular organization.

However, it does have some relevance to medical fields like medicine and nutrition. For example, certain strains of S. cerevisiae are used as probiotics, which can provide health benefits when consumed. They may help support gut health, enhance the immune system, and even assist in the digestion of certain nutrients.

In summary, "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is a species of yeast with various industrial and potential medical applications.

In the genus Candida, there are other species that are similar to Candida tropicalis. Candida albicans is taxonomically close ... Candida tropicalis is a species of yeast in the genus Candida. It is a common pathogen in neutropenic hosts, in whom it may ... Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis: biology, epidemiology, pathogenicity and antifungal resistance". FEMS Microbiology ... Opaque C. tropicalis cells can also form an architecturally complex sexual biofilm. Candida species are very pervasive yeasts ...
... and the human pathogens Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. Parasexuality has become a useful tool for industrial ... "Parasexuality and Ploidy Change in Candida tropicalis." Eukaryotic Cell. 2013 Dec; 12(12): 1629-1640. Alexopoulos CJ, Mims CW, ... "Completion of a parasexual cycle in Candida albicans by induced chromosome loss in tetraploid strains." EMBO J. 2003 May 15;22( ...
Candida tropicalis, Candida maltose, Rhizobium leguminosarum, and Nocardia sp.. These bacteria subsequently employ 1,2-CTD in ... Krug M, Straube G (1986). "Degradation of phenolic compounds by the yeast Candida tropicalis HP 15. II. Some properties of the ... Gomi K, Horiguchi (1988). "Purification and characterization of pyrocatechase from the catechol- assimilating yeast Candida ...
Fermentation is effected by bacteria, fungi, or yeast, especially Candida tropicalis. According to the US Department of Energy ...
This enzyme has been found in the following organisms: Yeast Candida cloacae Candida tropicalis Starmerella bombicola Yarrowia ... "Purification and some properties of alcohol oxidase from alkane-grown Candida tropicalis". The Biochemical Journal. 282 ( Pt 2 ... The enzyme is an octamer of ~46kD subunits (except in C. tropicalis, in which it is a dimer of subunits ~70kD). It is a ... This enzyme can be induced in many Candida yeast strains by growing them on long-chain alkanes as the major food source. Long- ...
... and characterization of a D-arabinitol-specific dehydrogenase from Candida tropicalis". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 196 (3 ... "D-arabitol metabolism in Candida albicans: studies of the biosynthetic pathway and the gene that encodes NAD-dependent D- ...
... encoding an NADH-preferring xylose reductase from Candida parapsilosis, and its functional expression in Candida tropicalis". ... crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of xylose reductase from Candida tropicalis". Acta ... Nidetzky B, Brüggler K, Kratzer R, Mayr P (December 2003). "Multiple forms of xylose reductase in Candida intermedia: ... H-dependent aldose reductase from the xylose-assimilating yeast Candida tenuis. Isolation, characterization and biochemical ...
"Repeat-Associated Fission Yeast-Like Regional Centromeres in the Ascomycetous Budding Yeast Candida tropicalis". PLOS Genetics ... Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 105 (50): 19797-19802. Bibcode: ... Chromosome segregation Candida albicans India portal Biology portal Medicine portal "Faculty - JNCASR". www.jncasr.ac.in. 3 ... Sanyal, K; Carbon, J (1 October 2002). "The CENP-A homolog CaCse4p in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans is a centromere ...
Unlike Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis, C. parapsilosis is not an obligate human pathogen, having been isolated from ... Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis: biology, epidemiology, pathogenicityand antifungal resistance". FEMS Microbiology ... "Comparison of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis adhesive properties and pathogenicity". ... Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis Responsible for Superficial Candidiasis in a Chinese University Hospital". ...
MA Al-Fattani & LJ Douglas (Aug 2006). "Biofilm matrix of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis: chemical composition and ... It is marketed as an enzymatic remedy to treat the yeast infection candida. Having the status of a dietary supplement, its ... Masuoka, J (April 2004). "Surface Glycans of Candida albicans and Other Pathogenic Fungi". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 17 (2 ... but there is no mention of cellulose nor is cellulose mentioned as a cell wall component in candida albicans, the yeast strain ...
"Peroxisomal isocitrate lyase of the n-alkane-assimilating yeast Candida tropicalis: gene analysis and characterization". J. ...
"Peroxisomal isocitrate lyase of the n-alkane-assimilating yeast Candida tropicalis: gene analysis and characterization". ... This is the case for fungi such as Candida albicans, which inhabits the skin, mouth, GI tract, gut and vagina of mammals and ... Lorenz MC, Bender JA, Fink GR (October 2004). "Transcriptional response of Candida albicans upon internalization by macrophages ...
"Genetic evaluation of physiological functions of thiolase isoenzymes in the n-alkalane-assimilating yeast Candida tropicalis". ...
It is now produced by fermentation of long-chain alkanes with a specific strain of Candida tropicalis. Traumatic acid is its ... Brassylic acid can be produced from erucic acid by ozonolysis, but also by microorganisms (Candida sp.) from tridecane. This ...
"Candida tropicalis Etr1p and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ybr026p (Mrf1'p), 2-enoyl thioester reductases essential for ...
Other species of Candida may be pathogenic as well, including Candida stellatoidea, C. tropicalis, C. pseudotropicalis, C. ... Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis. Medium priority Scedosporium spp., Lomentospora prolificans, Coccidioides spp., ... Candida auris, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans. High priority Nakaseomyces glabrata (Candida glabrata), Histoplasma spp ... Candida species cause infections in individuals with deficient immune systems. Candida species tend to be the culprit of most ...
A second analysis of cauim made from rice and manioc also showed the presence of yeasts, chiefly Candida tropicalis. Drink ...
"Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic data of 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase 2 domain of Candida tropicalis peroxisomal ...
It is active against fungi and yeasts such as Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Penicillium ...
... gene from the yeast Candida tropicalis, with CYP Symbol CYP52A1. Ortiz-Álvarez, J; Becerra-Bracho, A; Méndez-Tenorio, A; Murcia ... gene from the yeast Candida tropicalis: identification of a new P450 gene family". Gene. 76 (1): 121-36. doi:10.1016/0378-1119( ...
Paraffin wax can be converted into DDDA on a laboratory scale with a special strain of Candida tropicalis yeast in a multi-step ...
Candida Glabrata and Candida Tropicalis resulting in oral Candidiasis. There are several predisposing factors to fungal ... Oral fungal infections are most commonly caused by different Candida species such as Candida Albicans, ...
Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans. A methanolic extract ... Leaf extracts strongly affect the fungi causing oral candidiasis and skin infections - Candida albicans, ...
Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida thrusei, and Candida stellatoidea. It has also demonstrated cytotoxicity against ...
Extracts of the puffball have also been reported to have antifungal activity against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, ...
... may refer to: Caenorhabditis tropicalis, a species of nematodes Candida tropicalis, a yeast species Cryptotis ... Belize and Guatemala All pages with titles containing Tropicalis This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the ... tropicalis, the tropical small-eared shrew, a very small mammal species found in Mexico, ...
Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, or other species (Candida stellatoidea, Candida ... pseudotropicalis, Candida famata, Candida rugosa, Candida geotrichium, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida guilliermondii). C. ... More Candida is detected in the early morning and the late afternoon. The greatest quantity of Candida species are harbored on ... Oral carriage of Candida is pre-requisite for the development of oral candidiasis. For Candida species to colonize and survive ...
... vaginitis caused by proliferation of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei Bacterial vaginosis: vaginitis caused ... The yeast Candida albicans is the most common cause of vaginitis. Specific forms of vaginal inflammation include the following ... such as gonorrhea and candida infection) Vaginitis is often caused by an infection or the disruption of the healthy vaginal ...
see List of Fusarium species Candida tropicalis Candida parapsilosis Nakaseomyces glabrata Histoplasma capsulatum Histoplasma ... Cryptococcus neoformans Candida auris Aspergillus fumigatus Candida albicans Cryptococcus neoformans Candida auris Aspergillus ... Microsporum audouinii Microsporum canis Phialophora verrucosa Pseudoallescheria boydii Trichophyton rubrum Candida tropicalis ... fumigatus Candida albicans Nakaseomyces glabrata (formerly Candida glabrata) Histoplasma spp. Histoplasma capsulatum ...
To be a species in the genus Candida implies a close relatedness to the type species Candida tropicalis, but it was found ... Candida mesorugosa, Candida neorugosa, Candida pseudorugosa, Candida ranongensis, Candida rugosa and Candida scorzettiae to the ... Candida catenulata is a yeast-form fungus in the phylum Ascomycota. It is distributed globally and commonly found on the skin ... Candida catenulata is a skin and gut microbiome component of humans and animals, soil microbiome fungi, dairy product ...
In the genus Candida, there are other species that are similar to Candida tropicalis. Candida albicans is taxonomically close ... Candida tropicalis is a species of yeast in the genus Candida. It is a common pathogen in neutropenic hosts, in whom it may ... Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis: biology, epidemiology, pathogenicity and antifungal resistance". FEMS Microbiology ... Opaque C. tropicalis cells can also form an architecturally complex sexual biofilm. Candida species are very pervasive yeasts ...
Clonality of Fluconazole-Nonsusceptible Candida tropicalis in Bloodstream Infections, Taiwan, 2011-2017 Pao-Yu Chen, Yu-Chung ... Clonality of Fluconazole-Nonsusceptible Candida tropicalis in Bloodstream Infections, Taiwan, 2011-2017. ... Minimum spanning tree of 350 C. tropicalis isolates from multilocus sequence typing (MLST) data. A) Minimum spanning tree of ... 165 C. tropicalis blood isolates from this studys cohort (Taiwan, 2011-2017) and 185 isolates with fluconazole ...
... protein 3 SHE3) - Gentaur.com - Product info ... Recombinant Candida tropicalis SWI5-dependent HO expression protein 3 (SHE3)[SWI5-dependent HO expression protein 3 (SHE3)] ... Recombinant Xenopus tropicalis DNA repair protein SWI5 homolog (swi5)[DNA repair protein SWI5 homolog (swi5)] ...
Tag: Candida tropicalis. A Fungus May Be Playing A Role In Crohns Disease Author SimaPublished on September 21, 2016. November ... Categories human microbiome, microbesTags Candida tropicalis, Crohns disease, dysbiosis, Escheria coli (E.coli), ... Candida tropicalis) and that these interact in the gut in persons with Crohns disease. In persons with Crohns disease the ... Candida tropicalis) moved in lock step. The presence of all three in the sick family members was significantly higher compared ...
... Gomes ... GOMES JÚNIOR, R. A. Efeitos de compostos naturais, sintéticos e da fototerapia antifúngica sobre Candida tropicalis resistente ... frente a um isolado clinico de Candida tropicalis resistente ao fluconazol. A metodologia empregada para os testes de ... against a clinical isolate of Candida tropicalis resistant to fluconazole. The methodology for susceptibility testing was in ...
Candida tropicalis. *Candida tropicalis (1997). *Candida tropicalis (1998). *Candida tropicalis (1999). *Candida tropicalis ( ...
2 thoughts on "Candida tropicalis exacerbates symptoms of Crohns disease: Study". * Pingback: Crohns disease: Splenda worsens ... Recent studies have shown that the abundance of the fungus Candida tropicalis is significantly higher in the intestine of ... A microscopic fungus called Candida tropicalis triggered gut inflammation and exacerbated symptoms of Crohns disease, in a ... Next, they infected a subset of the mice with C. tropicalis fungi and examined the mouse intestinal tracts and gut bacteria. ...
Infections of the hip with Candida species are extremely rare with only a few reports in the literature. A case of a 76-year- ...
Return to Article Details Biofuel production by Candida tropicalis from orange peels waste using response surface methodology ...
Candida parapsilosis, C. tropicalis). Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger. Fusarium spp. Exophiala spp. ...
Candida albicans - most common species causing @ 60% of human yeast infections • Candida glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis ... Candida glabrata is only Candida species @ 4 µM in size and does NOT form pseudohyphae - this species breaks all the Candida ... Candida species • Candida species (@ 10 infect humans) • Yeast are normal flora in GI, GU and skin • Opportunistic pathogen ... Inhibited fungi include: • Trichosporon beigelii • Candida tropicalis • Cryptococcus neoformans • Yeast phase of Blastomyces • ...
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Candida parapsilosis, C. tropicalis). Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger. Fusarium spp. Exophiala spp. ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of SQS inhibitors on Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and ... Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis. Also, the morphological alterations induced in the yeasts by the experimental ... Candida parapsilopsis strains. Ten arylquinuclidines that act as SQS inhibitors were tested as antiproliferative agents against ... three ATCC strains and 54 clinical isolates of Candida albicans, ... such as Candida parapsilopsis and Candida tropicalis, is ...
Candida tropicalis is the fourth main infective agent of Candida species in several developing nations and leads to the ... which showed biofilm activity in 74% of Candida isolates.48 It was interpreted that 25 (45.46%) of Candida tropicalis isolates ... Mycological profile of Candida isolates isolated from Candidemia cases (n=70).. Candida species. Species Distribution. (%). ... While the Amphotericin B resistance was interpreted in only 1 (1.43%) isolate of C.tropicalis and the rest 98.57% of Candida ...
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Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Cryptococcus gattii, and Cryptococcus neoformans). EO showed moderate ... Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Cryptococcus gattii, and Cryptococcus neoformans). ... Candida albicans is a major cause of bloodstream infection which may present as sepsis and septic shock - major causes of ... Trofa et al., 2008; Menezes et al., 2012). C. tropicalis is ... 2000) against Candida tropicalis yeast. It was found to have an ...
Honey as a strategy to fight Candida tropicalis in mixed-biofilms with Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Jan 20, 2020. ...
Antifungal and biofilm inhibitory effect of lemongrass essential oil on biofilm forming by Candida tropicalis.Aug 26, 2019. ...
The range of infection with Candida species varies from a benign local mucosal membrane infection to disseminated disease. ... The Candida fungus is both normal flora and an invasive pathogen. ... Isolated Candida species included C tropicalis (48.4%), C albicans (29.7%), Candida guilliermondii (14.1%), C krusei (6.3%), ... Candida species distribution varies from country to country in Europe; however, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis tend ...
... caused by Candida glabrata has been observed. The objective of this literature review was to study the epidemiology, drug ... Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis: Biology, Epidemiology, Pathogenicity and Antifungal Resistance. FEMS Microbiol. ... Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model System To Assess Candida glabrata, Candida nivariensis, and Candida bracarensis Virulence and ... Savastano, C.; de Oliveira Silva, E.; Gonçalves, L.L.; Nery, J.M.; Silva, N.C.; Dias, A.L.T. Candida glabrata among Candida spp ...
Categories: Candida tropicalis Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
Candida tropicalis, Anistreplase (APSAC), Cacao, Pinus ponderosa, type 6,11,16,18 human papillomavirus vaccine L1 (Gardasil), ... Cannabis, Candida albicans, Capsicum, rosin (pine resin), diphenylguanidine, Cocos, Coffee, Clostridium tetani, Esocidae, Zea ...
Fungal IVDA IE is usually caused by Candida parapsilosis or Candida tropicalis. ... Candida infective endocarditis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008 Jul. 27(7):519-29. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [Full Text]. ... Candida Infectious Endocarditis and Implantable Cardiac Device Infections. Mycopathologia. 2023 Jun 5. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... The Mortality Attributable to Candidemia in C. auris Is Higher than That in Other Candida Species: Myth or Reality?. J Fungi ( ...
gi,5763522,dbj,BAA83483.1, acyl-CoA oxidase [Candida tropicalis]. Match: gi,17373073,sp,P08790,CAO1_CANTR. score: 176.8. e- ... gi,66058,pir,,OXCKX4 acyl-CoA oxidase (EC POX4, peroxisomal - yeast (Candida tropicalis) gi,170912,gb,AAA34.... ... gi,66057,pir,,OXCKX acyl-CoA oxidase (EC AOx, peroxisomal - yeast (Candida tropicalis) gi,225549,prf,,13062.... ... gi,66061,pir,,OXCKX5 acyl-CoA oxidase (EC POX5, peroxisomal - yeast (Candida tropicalis). ...
Candida tropicalis K - 1 38-40 5,0-5,5 Candida parapsilosis M - 96 32-37 5,0-5,5 ...
Malik, Shamim; Giacoia, George P.: Candida Tropicalis Empyema Associated with Acquired Gastropleural Fistula in a Newborn ...
Cellular Analysis and Comparative Transcriptomics Reveal the Tolerance Mechanisms of Candida tropicalis Toward Phenol ...
Among the nondermatophytes, the yeast Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, aspergillus, and other molds may be responsible. It ... Dermatophytes (T. rubrum) seem to have the best response rate followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida comes last. ... The most frequent fungus found among treated patients was T. rubrum (in 108 patients or 82.3%), followed by Candida (in 19 ... J. Frucht-Pery, M. Mor, R. Evron, A. Lewis, and H. Zauberman, "The effect of the ArF excimer laser on Candida albicans in vitro ...
  • Of the total 70 clinical Candida isolates, the most predominant organism isolated was found to be C. tropicalis 27 (38.57%) which is succeeded by 19 (27.14%) C. albicans , 13 (18.57%) C. parapsilosis , 6 (8.57%) C. glabrata, and 5 (7.14%) C. krusei respectively. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • however, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis tend to be the most common isolates after Candida albicans in invasive candidiasis. (medscape.com)
  • Echinocandin- og azoleresistens i Candida , primært i Candida albicans, C. glabrata og C. tropicalis . (ssi.dk)
  • RESULTS: Ninety-five yeasts isolates were analyzed, including 40 Candida albicans, 31 Candida glabrata, 24 Candida tropicalis. (who.int)
  • The isolated yeasts were: Candida albicans (sixty-two isolates), Candida tropicalis (four isolates), Candida glabrata (two isolates), Candida parapsilosis (two isolates), Candida krusei (one isolate) and Trichosporon pullulans (one isolate). (scielo.br)
  • Foram isoladas leveduras em setenta e duas amostras clínicas, sendo sessenta e duas de Candida albicans, quatro de C. tropicalis, duas de C. glabrata, duas de C. parapsilosis, uma de C. krusei e uma de Trichosporon pullulans. (scielo.br)
  • However, over the past decades the incidence of infections caused by other Candida species including C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei and other genera such as Trichosporon and Cryptococcus has been reported (6,9,21). (scielo.br)
  • Nystatin is an antibiotic which is both fungistatic and fungicidal in vitro against a wide variety of yeasts and yeast-like fungi, including Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondi, C. pseudotropicalis, C. krusei, Torulopsis glabrata, Tricophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes. (nih.gov)
  • Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. guilhermondii were seeded into antibacterial (cefepime, meropenem, vancomycin, and piperacillin- tazobactam) gradient plates produced in Mueller-Hinton Agar. (bvsalud.org)
  • Antifungal activity of EO and fractions were tested by a broth microdilution method, whereby minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined against several fungal organisms (Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Cryptococcus gattii, and Cryptococcus neoformans). (researchgate.net)
  • However, other species of Candida (C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondi, C. krusei, and C. stellatoides) become quite resistant on treatment with nystatin and simultaneously become cross resistant to amphotericin as well. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusions: API 20C AUX presented the best agreement with molecular random identification and CHROMagar showed good agreement for C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. dubliniensis and C. krusei identification. (bvsalud.org)
  • The CHROMagar Candida differential medium is commonly used to isolate and identify presumptive C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. (bvsalud.org)
  • Con el antiguo criterio, cinco aislados resultaron resistentes al fluconazol (10%), dos fueron C. krusei con resistencia natural, dos C. tropicalis y uno C. albicans. (bvsalud.org)
  • Candida tropicalis is a species of yeast in the genus Candida. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the genus Candida, there are other species that are similar to Candida tropicalis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The identification of species in the genus Candida relies on morphological and physiological features. (wikipedia.org)
  • Candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused by several species of fungi of the genus Candida, often found is the microbiota, on the skin, gastrointestinal tract and mucous cavities of the human beings birth. (fiocruz.br)
  • Infections of the hip with Candida species are extremely rare with only a few reports in the literature. (bmj.com)
  • Although Candida albicans is the species most frequently isolated from those patients, being responsible for more than half of candidiasis cases, the incidence of other species, such as Candida parapsilopsis and Candida tropicalis , is increasing [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Candida tropicalis is the fourth main infective agent of Candida species in several developing nations and leads to the greatest fatality rate among the non-albicans Candida (NAC) species that cause candidemia. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • Candida species causing bloodstream infections (BSIs) are also called candidemia which exists mostly as a pervasive type of invasive candidiasis. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • 2 C. tropicalis is the fourth main infective agent of Candida species in several developing nations and contributes the greatest fatality rate among the NAC species that cause candidemia. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • C. tropicalis is considered the first and most predominant species causing candidemia in growing nations, wherein an enormous number of cases are treated by Fluconazole as a consequence of the outrageous price of echinocandins. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • All of these multiple virulence factors could raise BSIs of Candida species by escape mechanism which is part of the defence system in order to impair the host tissue. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • 12 The manifestation of virulence factors of Candida species can be differentiated based on species, type of infection, geographical region, host reaction and stage, and the site of infection. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • The range of infection with Candida species varies from a benign local mucosal membrane infection to disseminated disease. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] There is an increasing shift toward infections caused by non- albicans Candida species, which now cause 40%-60% of reported cases. (medscape.com)
  • In Europe, Candida species are the sixth to tenth most common cause of bloodstream infections. (medscape.com)
  • however, unlike in North America, C parapsilosis is the second most common Candida species in many Latin American countries. (medscape.com)
  • Candida palmioleophila: Characterization of a Previously Overlooked Pathogen and Its Unique Susceptibility Profile in Comparison with Five Related Species. (ssi.dk)
  • Infection is caused by Candida species, primarily Candida albicans . (medscape.com)
  • Other species, such as Candida tropicalis and Candida stellatoidea , more often appear in persons who are severely immunocompromised. (medscape.com)
  • The isolation of species of Candida in oral candidiasis has been shown to increased with the advance of HIV infection. (scielo.br)
  • Nyamyc® (Nystatin Topical Powder, USP) is indicated in the treatment of cutaneous or mucocutaneous mycotic infections caused by Candida albicans and other susceptible Candida species. (nih.gov)
  • Aim: To measure the agreement of methods for identification of Candida species in oral cavity samples, comparing the CHROMagar Candida, microculture, API 20C AUX and RAPD techniques. (bvsalud.org)
  • Candida species are commensal microorganisms of the oral cavity. (bvsalud.org)
  • There is a variety of methods for identifying Candida species from clinical samples in the oral cavity 5 . (bvsalud.org)
  • A study of 159 clinical isolates of Candida species identified by the very similar kit API® Candida AUX (BioMerieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) reported that 12 isolates (7.5%) were incorrectly identified 10-11 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Methods based on molecular markers are useful not only for phenotyping, but also for differentiation of Candida species 15-16 . (bvsalud.org)
  • It is used for genetic characterization of a range of organisms, plants, animals or microorganisms, including Candida species, for different purposes 18-21 . (bvsalud.org)
  • The sensitivity, specificity and resolution of the OPE-18 primer for identification of Candida species has been reported and could be used for epidemiological Candida identification 11,22 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Due to scarce information about presumptive, biochemical and molecular agreement on Candida identification, this study aimed to measure the assertive correlation between the presumptive identification of Candida species from oral cavity using CHROMagar Candida , microculture, API® 20C Aux and OPE-18 genotyping. (bvsalud.org)
  • Candida /species/control. (bvsalud.org)
  • Candidiasis is infection by Candida species (most often C. albicans ), manifested by mucocutaneous lesions, fungemia, and sometimes focal infection of multiple sites. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Etiology Candidiasis is skin and mucous membrane infection with Candida species, most commonly Candida albicans . (msdmanuals.com)
  • Candida species are a major cause of systemic fungal infections and are the most common cause of fungal infections in patients who are immunocompromised. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Disseminated candidiasis Candidiasis is infection by Candida species (most often C. albicans ), manifested by mucocutaneous lesions, fungemia, and sometimes focal infection of multiple sites. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In the history of fungi, the name of genus Candida, derived from the family Debaryomycetaceae, comes from the Latin term "candidus" which has the meaning of "glowing white" and also refers to as smooth and glistering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Next, they infected a subset of the mice with C. tropicalis fungi and examined the mouse intestinal tracts and gut bacteria. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • Researchers discovered mice infected with C. tropicalis fungi had intensified Crohn's disease symptoms, compared to uninfected mice. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • The resultant cotton celluloses provided a total kill of 10(8)-10(9) CFU/mL for Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacteria), Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive bacteria), and Candida tropicalis (fungi) in 3 min, 10(6)-10(7) PFU/mL for the MS2 virus in 5 min, and 10(6)-10(7) spores/mL for Bacillus subtilis in 4 h. (cdc.gov)
  • Minimum spanning tree of 350 C. tropicalis isolates from multilocus sequence typing (MLST) data. (cdc.gov)
  • A) Minimum spanning tree of 165 C. tropicalis blood isolates from this study's cohort (Taiwan, 2011-2017) and 185 isolates with fluconazole nonsusceptibility from the central C. tropicalis MLST global database ( https://pubmlst.org/ctropicalis ). (cdc.gov)
  • Ten arylquinuclidines that act as SQS inhibitors were tested as antiproliferative agents against three ATCC strains and 54 clinical isolates of Candida albicans , Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Seventy clinically known Candida isolates are isolated in positively flagged blood samples from BacT/ALERT 3D from various wards. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • Among the70 Candida isolates, 49 (70%) showed hemolysin production, 43 (61.42%) isolates demonstrated phospholipase activity, 34 (48.57%) showed coagulase activity and 55 (78.57%) isolates showed biofilm production by crystal violet assay. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • A high level of Fluconazole resistance has been observed in 23 (32.85%) Candida isolates in comparison with other antimicrobials utilized in this study. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • The higher MIC value of: ≥ 64 µg/mL Fluconazole was shown by 4 (57.14%) isolates of C. tropicalis by broth microdilution method. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • 7 On the other hand, isolates of C. tropicalis have spread globally, and since 2010, this situation has particularly become debatable in the Asia-Pacific area. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • therefore, Candida accounts for proportionately more fungal corneal isolates at temperate latitudes. (medscape.com)
  • Posttreatment Antifungal Resistance among Colonizing Candida Isolates in Candidemia Patients: Results from a Systematic Multicenter Study. (ssi.dk)
  • Anti-fungal susceptibility profile of Candida spp isolates by the microdilution method. (bvsalud.org)
  • The objective of this study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fluconazole and amphotericin B in Candida isolates in clinically significant samples from hospitalized patients in Paraguay from May 2010 to August 2011 using the old and new criteria for fluconazole. (bvsalud.org)
  • Among the nondermatophytes, the yeast Candida albicans , Candida tropicalis , aspergillus , and other molds may be responsible. (hindawi.com)
  • Molekylære resistensmekanismer i patogene gær og skimler ( Candida og Aspergillus ). (ssi.dk)
  • In the present study we evaluated the antifungal activity of Ruthenium-pyrocatechol complex (RPC) against a clinical isolate of Candida tropicalis resistant to fluconazole. (fiocruz.br)
  • El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM) del fluconazol y anfotericina B de aislados de Candida de pacientes ambulatorios y hospitalizados en Paraguay de mayo del 2010 a agosto del 2011, aplicando criterios nuevos y antiguos para el fluconazolYeast infections are very important because of their relatively high frequency and increased resistance to antifungal agents, especially to azole derivatives, and in particular, to fluconazole. (bvsalud.org)
  • The researchers found strong fungal-bacterial interactions in those with Crohn's disease: two bacteria ( Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens ) and one fungus ( Candida tropicalis ) moved in lock step . (lactobacto.com)
  • Recent studies have shown that the abundance of the fungus Candida tropicalis is significantly higher in the intestine of Crohn's disease patients compared to healthy people. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • We speculate that infection with the fungus C. tropicalis may play a role in triggering flares during Crohn's disease and that anti-fungal therapy may be beneficial in Crohn's disease patients. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • The researchers suggest C. tropicalis fungus may trigger gut inflammation by modulating levels of other gut bacteria. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • The Candida fungus is both normal flora and an invasive pathogen. (medscape.com)
  • According to the new study, C. tropicalis infection may intensify this malfunction. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • Candida is the third or fourth most common cause of nosocomial bloodstream infection in the United States, accounting for 8%-10% of all bloodstream infections. (medscape.com)
  • Furthermore, Candida tropicalis infection has also increased in frequency. (medscape.com)
  • [ 4 ] When the local ecology is disturbed, or where there is an immune defect, Candida overgrowth may lead to an opportunistic infection. (medscape.com)
  • The extensive utilization of antifungal agents increases C.tropicalis antifungal resistance, especially to azoles, which would ultimately result in the treatment failure of candidemia. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • 3 , 4 Echinocandins, polyenes, pyrimidine, allylamine, and azoles are the most common antifungal agents available for the treatment of topical Candida spp. (dovepress.com)
  • Di Martino investigated how C. tropicalis and other gut microorganisms may influence intestinal inflammation. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • Vinegar as an antimicrobial agent for control of Candida spp. (thejcdp.com)
  • Un 40% de esos trabajos han sido publicados en revistas del primer cuartil entre las que destacan New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Lancet Infectious Diseases, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Journal Clinical Microbiology, Journal Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Mayo Clinic Proceedings y Malaria Journal. (unav.edu)
  • Antifungal and biofilm inhibitory effect of lemongrass essential oil on biofilm forming by Candida tropicalis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Candida is a unicellular yeast whose cells reproduce by budding. (medscape.com)
  • However, a dramatic rise in pan azole-resistance and Amphotericin B resistance of C. tropicalis was shown in the majority of studies conducted on candidemia studies. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • Stepwise emergence of azole, echinocandin and amphotericin B multidrug resistance in vivo in Candida albicans orchestrated by multiple genetic alterations. (ssi.dk)
  • Our previous studies have found that Candida tropicalis ( C. tropicalis ) can promote CRC tumor growth and chemotherapy resistance to oxaliplatin by regulating mismatch repair system. (jcancer.org)
  • Whether C. tropicalis participates in the progression of CRC and immunotherapy resistance through regulating the tumor cell-intrinsic PD-1 remains to be further elucidated. (jcancer.org)
  • On repeated subculturing with increasing levels of nystatin, Candida albicans does not develop resistance to nystatin. (nih.gov)
  • Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and coconut soap used as disinfecting agents in the reduction of denture stomatitis, Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. (thejcdp.com)
  • Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans colonization in patients wearing dental prosthesis. (thejcdp.com)
  • Efeitos de compostos naturais, sintéticos e da fototerapia antifúngica sobre Candida tropicalis resistente ao fluconazol. (fiocruz.br)
  • No presente estudo avaliou-se a atividade antifúngica do complexo Rutênio-pirocatecol (RPC) frente a um isolado clinico de Candida tropicalis resistente ao fluconazol. (fiocruz.br)
  • Las infecciones por levaduras tienen gran importancia debido a su relativa alta frecuencia e incremento de la resistencia a los antifúngicos, especialmente a los derivados azólicos y, en particular, al fluconazol. (bvsalud.org)
  • We discovered that experimental mice infected with C. tropicalis were more susceptible to intestinal inflammation compared to uninfected mice," Di Martino said. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • The defunct genera Oidium and Monilia were used to represent the genus Candida. (wikipedia.org)
  • Especie de HONGOS MITOSPORICOS que es una causa principal de SEPTICEMIA y de CANDIDIASIS diseminada, especialmente en pacientes con LINFOMA, LEUCEMIA y DIABETES. (bvsalud.org)
  • 5 In comparison to other continents, tropical Asia and Latin America have the relatively greatest proportion of candidemia caused by C. tropicalis . (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • C. tropicalis (38%) is the commonest organism in India among candidemia cases. (microbiologyjournal.org)
  • In one study, non- albicans Candida accounted for 70% of candidemia cases in a northern Indian pediatric ICU. (medscape.com)
  • La réanimation agressive, la prise en charge nutritionnelle, l'excision chirur- gicale complète des plaies infectées, la fermeture rapide des plaies, les greffes et la mise au point d'une chimiothérapie locale et systémique efficace ont permis d'améliorer grandement le taux de morbidité et de mortalité chez les patients brûlés. (who.int)
  • The actual minimum inhibitory concentration of AMB-NPs against Candida albicans was significantly lower than that of free AMB, and AMB-NPs were less toxic on blood cells. (dovepress.com)
  • Treatment of invasive Candida infections is often complicated by high toxicity, low tolerability or a narrow spectrum of activity of the current antifungal drugs as well as an increase in the incidence of azole-resistant strains [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Said Di Martino, "We found that high levels of C. Tropicalis increases the abundance of harmful proteobacteria in the intestine, such as E. coli, disrupting the normal balance of the gut bacteria and creating a dysbiosis, a key element that triggers intestinal inflammation. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • The findings suggest anti-fungal medications could combat debilitating symptoms of the disease by lowering gut levels of C. tropicalis. (outbreaknewstoday.com)
  • C. tropicalis is easily identified using phenotypic and molecular methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • En mayo de 2007 obtuve el Certificate of Training in Molecular Biological Techniques en el Department of Molecular Biology y desde Junio de 2008 a Junio de 2009 completé el Certificate in Clinical Research en el Center for Translational Science Activities en Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester Minnesota. (unav.edu)
  • Secreted aspartyl proteinases (SAPs) are hydrolytic enzymes secreted by Candida that contribute to virulence by degrading host cell mebranes and molecular mediators of host immunity. (medscape.com)
  • glabratain equal proportion (20%),C.tropicalis(16%) andC. (bvsalud.org)
  • Effectiveness of microwave disinfection of complete dentures on the treatment of Candida-related denture stomatitis. (thejcdp.com)
  • Combining autophagy inhibitor with C. tropicalis treatment partly blocked the CRC tumor growth and reversed the downregulation of PD-1. (jcancer.org)
  • A candidíase é uma infecção oportunista provocada por diversas espécies de fungos do gênero Candida, frequentemente encontrados integrando a microbiota, da superfície cutânea, no trato gastrointestinal e cavidades mucosas do ser humano desde o seu nascimento. (fiocruz.br)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of SQS inhibitors on Candida albicans , Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Efficacy of commercial and household denture cleansers against Candida albicans adherent to acrylic denture base resin: an in vitro study. (thejcdp.com)
  • In this study, we first found that high concentrations of C. tropicalis promote tumor growth in cell cultures and xenografts. (jcancer.org)
  • Candida albicans is taxonomically close to C. tropicalis sharing many pathogenic traits whereas C. maltosa and C. sake are physiologically similar to C. tropicalis but they can be differentiated by the growth at 35 °C (only C. sake showing negative) and assimilation of soluble starch (only C. tropicalis showing positive starch assimilation). (wikipedia.org)
  • C. tropicalis reproduces asexually by the production of blastoconidia through budding. (wikipedia.org)