Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Candidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Candida glabrata: A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI commonly found on the body surface. It causes opportunistic infections especially in immunocompromised patients.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Candidiasis, Oral: Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Candida tropicalis: A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI that is a major cause of SEPTICEMIA and disseminated CANDIDIASIS, especially in patients with LYMPHOMA; LEUKEMIA; and DIABETES MELLITUS. It is also found as part of the normal human mucocutaneous flora.Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal: Infection of the VULVA and VAGINA with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Azoles: Five membered rings containing a NITROGEN atom.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Histatins: A group of small, histidine-rich, cationic peptides in human SALIVA which are antibacterial and antifungal.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Fungemia: The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.Candidiasis, Cutaneous: Candidiasis of the skin manifested as eczema-like lesions of the interdigital spaces, perleche, or chronic paronychia. (Dorland, 27th ed)Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Mycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Echinocandins: Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.Farnesol: A colorless liquid extracted from oils of plants such as citronella, neroli, cyclamen, and tuberose. It is an intermediate step in the biological synthesis of cholesterol from mevalonic acid in vertebrates. It has a delicate odor and is used in perfumery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Ergosterol: A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutations.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Candidemia: A form of invasive candidiasis where species of CANDIDA are present in the blood.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Stomatitis, Denture: Inflammation of the mouth due to denture irritation.beta-Glucans: Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.Flucytosine: A fluorinated cytosine analog that is used as an antifungal agent.Miconazole: An imidazole antifungal agent that is used topically and by intravenous infusion.Mouth Mucosa: Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dentures: An appliance used as an artificial or prosthetic replacement for missing teeth and adjacent tissues. It does not include CROWNS; DENTAL ABUTMENTS; nor TOOTH, ARTIFICIAL.Ketoconazole: Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.Sterol 14-Demethylase: An NADPH-dependent P450 enzyme that plays an essential role in the sterol biosynthetic pathway by catalyzing the demethylation of 14-methyl sterols such as lanosterol. The enzyme acts via the repeated hydroxylation of the 14-methyl group, resulting in its stepwise conversion into an alcohol, an aldehyde and then a carboxylate, which is removed as formic acid. Sterol 14-demethylase is an unusual cytochrome P450 enzyme in that it is found in a broad variety of organisms including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and protozoa.Lipopeptides: Compounds consisting of a short peptide chain conjugated with an acyl chain.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.TriazolesSaccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Itraconazole: A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases: A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.MycosesPeptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Eye Infections, Fungal: Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Clotrimazole: An imidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of antimycotic activity. It inhibits biosynthesis of the sterol ergostol, an important component of fungal CELL MEMBRANES. Its action leads to increased membrane permeability and apparent disruption of enzyme systems bound to the membrane.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Chitin: A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chitin Synthase: An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC 2.4.1.16.Vaginitis: Inflammation of the vagina characterized by pain and a purulent discharge.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Aspartic Acid Proteases: A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.Nystatin: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces noursei, S. aureus, and other Streptomyces species. The biologically active components of the complex are nystatin A1, A2, and A3.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Genes, Switch: Genes that cause the epigenotype (i.e., the interrelated developmental pathways through which the adult organism is realized) to switch to an alternate cell lineage-related pathway. Switch complexes control the expression of normal functional development as well as oncogenic transformation.Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Aspergillus fumigatus: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Candidiasis, Invasive: An important nosocomial fungal infection with species of the genus CANDIDA, most frequently CANDIDA ALBICANS. Invasive candidiasis occurs when candidiasis goes beyond a superficial infection and manifests as CANDIDEMIA, deep tissue infection, or disseminated disease with deep organ involvement.Mice, Inbred BALB CMicrobial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Endocarditis: Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Genes, Mating Type, Fungal: Fungal genes that mostly encode TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In some FUNGI they also encode PHEROMONES and PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. The transcription factors control expression of specific proteins that give a cell its mating identity. Opposite mating type identities are required for mating.Glucan 1,3-beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for 1,3-beta-D-glucasidic linkages. It catalyzes hydrolysis of beta-D-glucose units from the non-reducing ends of 1,3-beta-D-glucans, releasing GLUCOSE.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Pharyngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Candidiasis, Chronic Mucocutaneous: A clinical syndrome characterized by development, usually in infancy or childhood, of a chronic, often widespread candidiasis of skin, nails, and mucous membranes. It may be secondary to one of the immunodeficiency syndromes, inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, or associated with defects in cell-mediated immunity, endocrine disorders, dental stomatitis, or malignancy.Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Mice, Inbred ICRMicroscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Spheroplasts: Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.Chromogenic Compounds: Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).Oropharynx: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Cheek: The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Mannosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC 2.4.1.32, EC 2.4.1.48, EC 2.4.1.54, and EC 2.4.1.57.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Bibenzyls: Compounds with 1,2-diphenylethane. They are structurally like reduced STILBENES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Glucan Endo-1,3-beta-D-Glucosidase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-glucans including laminarin, paramylon, and pachyman.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Econazole: An imidazole derivative that is commonly used as a topical antifungal agent.Trichophyton: A mitosporic fungal genus and an anamorphic form of Arthroderma. Various species attack the skin, nails, and hair.Benomyl: A systemic agricultural fungicide used for control of certain fungal diseases of stone fruit.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Aspergillosis: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Sorbose: A ketose sugar that is commonly used in the commercial synthesis of ASCORBIC ACID.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Trichosporon: A mitosporic fungal genus causing opportunistic infections, endocarditis, fungemia, a hypersensitivity pneumonitis (see TRICHOSPORONOSIS) and white PIEDRA.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Mitosporic Fungi: A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Tetrazolium Salts: Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Silicone Elastomers: Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Denture Cleansers: Substances used to clean dentures; they are usually alkaline peroxides or hypochlorites, may contain enzymes and release oxygen. Use also for sonic action cleaners.Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.

Non-serum-dependent chemotactic factors produced by Candida albicans stimulate chemotaxis by binding to the formyl peptide receptor on neutrophils and to an unknown receptor on macrophages. (1/5658)

Serum-free culture filtrates of six Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were found to contain chemoattractants for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and a mouse macrophage-like cell line, J774. The chemotactic factors differed for the PMN and J774 cells, however, in terms of heat stability, kinetics of liberation by the yeast cells, and divalent cation requirements for production. The chemoattractant in Candida albicans culture filtrates appeared to act through the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) of PMNs, since it was found to induce chemotaxis of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that were expressing the human FPR but did not induce chemotaxis of wild-type CHO cells. The C. albicans culture filtrates also induced migration of PMNs across confluent monolayers of a human gastrointestinal epithelial cell line, T84; migration occurred in the basolateral-to-apical direction but not the reverse direction, unless the epithelial tight junctions were disrupted. J774 cells did not migrate toward the formylated peptide (fMet-Leu-Phe; fMLF), and chemotaxis toward the C. albicans culture filtrate was not inhibited by an FPR antagonist (t-butoxycarbonyl-Met-Leu-Phe), suggesting that a different receptor mediated J774 cell chemotaxis. In conclusion, we have identified a receptor by which a non-serum-dependent chemotactic factor (NSCF) produced by C. albicans induced chemotaxis of PMNs. Additionally, we have shown that NSCF was active across epithelial monolayers. These findings suggest that NSCFs produced by C. albicans and other yeast species may influence host-pathogen interactions at the gastrointestinal tract mucosal surface by inducing phagocytic-cell infiltration.  (+info)

Role of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase cascade in human neutrophil killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans and in migration. (2/5658)

Killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans by neutrophils involves adherence of the microorganisms, phagocytosis, and a collaborative action of oxygen reactive species and components of the granules. While a number of intracellular signalling pathways have been proposed to regulate neutrophil responses, the extent to which each pathway contributes to the killing of S. aureus and C. albicans has not been clearly defined. We have therefore examined the effect of blocking one such pathway, the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) cascade, using the specific inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase, PD98059, on the ability of human neutrophils to kill S. aureus and C. albicans. Our data demonstrate the presence of ERK2 and a 43-kDa form of ERK but not ERK1 in human neutrophils. Upon stimulation with formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine (fMLP), the activities of both ERK2 and the 43-kDa form were stimulated. Despite abrogating the activity of both ERK forms, PD98059 only slightly reduced the ability of neutrophils to kill S. aureus or C. albicans. This is consistent with our finding that PD98059 had no effect on neutrophil adherence or degranulation, although pretreatment of neutrophils with PD98059 inhibited fMLP-stimulated superoxide production by 50%, suggesting that a change in superoxide production per se is not strictly correlated with microbicidal activity. However, fMLP-stimulated chemokinesis was markedly inhibited, while random migration and fMLP-stimulated chemotaxis were partially inhibited, by PD98059. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that the ERK cascade plays only a minor role in the microbicidal activity of neutrophils and that the ERK cascade is involved primarily in regulating neutrophil migration in response to fMLP.  (+info)

BE-31405, a new antifungal antibiotic produced by Penicillium minioluteum. I. Description of producing organism, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical and biological properties. (3/5658)

A new antifungal antibiotic, BE-31405, was isolated from the culture broth of a fungal strain, Penicillium minioluteum F31405. BE-31405 was isolated by adsorption on high porous polymer resin (Diaion HP-20), followed by solvent extraction, precipitation and crystallization. BE-31405 showed potent growth inhibitory activity against pathogenic fungal strains such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, but did not show cytotoxic activity against mammalian cells such as P388 mouse leukemia. The mechanism studies indicated that BE-31405 inhibited the protein synthesis of C. albicans but not of mammalian cells.  (+info)

Synergic effects of tactolimus and azole antifungal agents against azole-resistant Candida albican strains. (4/5658)

We investigated the effects of combining tacrolimus and azole antifungal agents in azole-resistant strains of Candida albicans by comparing the accumulation of [3H]itraconazole. The CDR1-expressing resistant strain C26 accumulated less itraconazole than the CaMDR-expressing resistant strain C40 or the azole-sensitive strain B2630. A CDR1-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant, DSY415, showed a marked reduction in the accumulation of both fluconazole and itraconazole. A CaMDR-expressing S. cerevisiae mutant, DSY416, also showed lower accumulation of fluconazole, but not of itraconazole. The addition of sodium azide, an electron-transport chain inhibitor, increased the intracellular accumulation of itraconazole only in the C26 strain, and not in the C40 or B2630 strains. Addition of tacrolimus, an inhibitor of multidrug resistance proteins, resulted in the highest increase in itraconazole accumulation in the C26 strain. The combination of itraconazole and tacrolimus was synergic in azole-resistant C. albicans strains. In the C26 strain, the MIC of itraconazole decreased from >8 to 0.5 mg/L when combined with tacrolimus. Our results showed that two multidrug resistance phenotypes (encoded by the CDR1 and CaMDR genes) in C. albicans have different substrate specificity for azole antifungal agents and that a combination of tacrolimus and azole antifungal agents is effective against azole-resistant strains of C. albicans.  (+info)

In-vivo therapeutic efficacy in experimental murine mycoses of a new formulation of deoxycholate-amphotericin B obtained by mild heating. (5/5658)

Heat-induced 'superaggregation' of deoxycholate-amphotericin B (AmB-DOC, Fungizone) was shown previously to reduce the in-vitro toxicity of this antifungal agent. We compared AmB-DOC with the formulation obtained by heating the commercial form (Fungizone, Bristol Myers Squibb, Paris, France) for 20 min at 70 degrees C, in the treatment of murine infections. An improvement of antifungal activity was obtained with heated AmB-DOC formulations due to a lower toxicity which allowed the administration of higher drug doses than those achievable with the commercial preparation. Single intravenous injections of heated AmB-DOC solutions were demonstrated to be two-fold less toxic than unheated ones to healthy mice. For mice infected with Candida albicans, the maximum tolerated dose was higher with heated than with unheated AmB-DOC solutions. In the model of murine candidiasis, following a single dose of heated AmB-DOC 0.5 mg/kg, 85% of mice survived for 3 weeks, whereas at this dose the immediate toxicity of the standard formulation in infected mice restricted the therapeutic efficacy to 25% survival. Both formulations were equally effective in increasing the survival time for murine cryptococcal pneumonia and meningoencephalitis. Injection of heated AmB-DOC solutions at a dose two-fold higher than the maximal tolerated dose observed with the unheated preparation (1.2 mg/kg) increased the survival time by a factor of 1.4 in cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. These results indicate that mild heat treatment of AmB-DOC solutions could provide a simple and economical method to improve the therapeutic index of this antifungal agent by reducing its toxicity on mammalian cells.  (+info)

Adhesive and mammalian transglutaminase substrate properties of Candida albicans Hwp1. (6/5658)

The pathogenesis of candidiasis involves invasion of host tissues by filamentous forms of the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans. Morphology-specific gene products may confer proinvasive properties. A hypha-specific surface protein, Hwp1, with similarities to mammalian small proline-rich proteins was shown to serve as a substrate for mammalian transglutaminases. Candida albicans strains lacking Hwp1 were unable to form stable attachments to human buccal epithelial cells and had a reduced capacity to cause systemic candidiasis in mice. This represents a paradigm for microbial adhesion that implicates essential host enzymes.  (+info)

The cellular target of histatin 5 on Candida albicans is the energized mitochondrion. (7/5658)

Histatin 5 is a human basic salivary peptide with strong fungicidal properties in vitro. To elucidate the mechanism of action, the effect of histatin 5 on the viability of Candida albicans cells was studied in relation to its membrane perturbing properties. It was found that both the killing activity and the membrane perturbing activity, studied by the influx of a DNA-specific marker propidium iodide, were inhibited by high salt conditions and by metabolic inhibitors, like sodium azide. In addition, exposure to histatin 5 resulted in a loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential in situ, measured by the release of the potential-dependent distributional probe rhodamine 123. Localization studies using tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate-labeled histatin 5 or fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled histatin 5 showed a granular intracellular distribution of the peptide, which co-localized with mitotracker orange, a permeant mitochondria-specific probe. Like the biological effects, uptake of labeled histatin 5 was inhibited by mitochondrial inhibitors and high salt conditions. Our data indicate that histatin 5 is internalized, and targets to the energized mitochondrion.  (+info)

Rapid hypothesis testing with Candida albicans through gene disruption with short homology regions. (8/5658)

Disruption of newly identified genes in the pathogen Candida albicans is a vital step in determination of gene function. Several gene disruption methods described previously employ long regions of homology flanking a selectable marker. Here, we describe disruption of C. albicans genes with PCR products that have 50 to 60 bp of homology to a genomic sequence on each end of a selectable marker. We used the method to disrupt two known genes, ARG5 and ADE2, and two sequences newly identified through the Candida genome project, HRM101 and ENX3. HRM101 and ENX3 are homologous to genes in the conserved RIM101 (previously called RIM1) and PacC pathways of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus nidulans. We show that three independent hrm101/hrm101 mutants and two independent enx3/enx3 mutants are defective in filamentation on Spider medium. These observations argue that HRM101 and ENX3 sequences are indeed portions of genes and that the respective gene products have related functions.  (+info)

Genetic manage of candida albicans biofilm development. Genetic manipulate of candida albicans biofilm inside the improvement of candida albicans biofilms control in candida albicans and candida.. Plos one purpurin suppresses candida albicans biofilm. Purpurin suppresses candida albicans biofilm formation and hyphal development. Purpurin suppresses candida albicans genetic manage of candida albicans.. Genetics and genomics of candida albicans biofilm. Genetics and genomics of candida albicans biofilm formation. Genetic control of biofilm formation. Genes that govern candida albicans biofilm improvement.. Genetic control of candida albicans biofilm improvement. Genetic manipulate of candida albicans biofilm recognized the gene products that participate immediately inside the improvement of candida albicans biofilms,. Genetic manage of candida albicans biofilm development. Genetic manipulate of candida albicans biofilm improvement. (pmid21189476 pmcidpmc3891587) genetic control of candida albicans ...
Killed candida albicans hyphae herbal treatment for throat. Killed candida albicans hyphae s www bing com seek q yeast infection with will baking soda get rid of a yeast contamination and doylestown clinic cafeteria.. Candida albicans romana yeast contamination vinegar douche. Candida albicans romana yeast contamination raw skin with can you freeze brewers yeast and boric acid for male yeast infections are fungal contamination due to any styles of.. Candida albicans in sputum treatment male groin yeast infections. Candida albicans in sputum remedy domestic yeast contamination check package with ojo para candida infection and treating skin yeast discover records and facts about yeast.. Candida albicans leyla muedin hoffman middle. Leyla muedin at hoffman center explains what candida albicans are and what are taken into consideration yeastrelated fitness troubles by using candidaaware health practitioners.. Candida albicans everyday plants damage.Iyeastcure. Candida albicans ordinary flora candida ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Importance of the Candida albicans cell wall during commensalism and infection. AU - Gow, N.A.R.. AU - Hube, B.. PY - 2012/8. Y1 - 2012/8. N2 - An imbalance of the normal microbial flora, breakage of epithelial barriers or dysfunction of the immune system favour the transition of the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans from a commensal to a pathogen. C. albicans has evolved to be adapted as a commensal on mucosal surfaces. As a commensal it has also acquired attributes, which are necessary to avoid or overcome the host defence mechanisms. The human host has also co-evolved to recognize and eliminate potential fungal invaders. Many of the fungal genes that have been the focus of this co-evolutionary process encode cell wall components. In this review, we will discuss the transition from commensalism to pathogenesis, the key players of the fungal cell surface that are important for this transition, the role of the morphology and the mechanisms of host recognition and ...
Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Candida albicans - yeast stage. A yeast-like fungus commonly occurring on human skin, in the upper respiratory, alimentary and female genital tracts. This fungus has a dimorphic life cycle with a yeast and hyphal stages. The yeast produces hyphae (strands) from which pseudohyphae branch. The pseudohyphae can give rise to yeast cells by apical or lateral budding. Causes candidiasis which includes thrush (an infection of the mouth and vagina) and vulvo-vaginitis. Magnification: x1,000 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C037/0236
TY - JOUR. T1 - Candida albicans mutant construction and characterization of selected virulence determinants. AU - Motaung, T. E.. AU - Albertyn, J.. AU - Pohl, C. H.. AU - Köhler, Gerwald. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Candida albicans is a diploid, polymorphic yeast, associated with humans, where it mostly causes no harm. However, under certain conditions it can cause infections ranging from superficial to life threatening. This ability to become pathogenic is often linked to the immune status of the host as well as the expression of certain virulence factors by the yeast. Due to the importance of C. albicans as a pathogen, determination of the molecular mechanisms that allow this yeast to cause disease is important. These studies rely on the ability of researchers to create deletion mutants of specific genes in order to study their function. This article provides a critical review of the important techniques used to create deletion mutants in C. albicans and highlights how these ...
Ability of Candida albicans mutants to induce Staphylococcus aureus vancomycin resistance during polymicrobial biofilm formation.: Candida albicans and Staphylo
Abstract Background The fungal pathogen Candida albicans is frequently seen in immune suppressed patients, and resistance to one of the most widely used antifungals, fluconazole (FLC), can evolve rapidly. In recent years it has become clear that plasticity of the Candida albicans genome contributes to drug resistance through loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at resistance genes and gross chromosomal rearrangements that amplify gene copy number of resistance associated genes. This study addresses the role of the homologous recombination factors Rad54 and Rdh54 in cell growth, DNA damage and FLC resistance in Candida albicans. Results The data presented here support a role for homologous recombination in cell growth and DNA damage sensitivity, as Candida albicans rad54Δ/rad54Δ mutants were hypersensitive to MMS and menadione, and had an aberrant cell and nuclear morphology. The Candida albicans rad54Δ/rad54Δ mutant was defective in invasion of Spider agar, presumably due to the ...
Candida Albicans - MedHelps Candida Albicans Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Candida Albicans. Find Candida Albicans information, treatments for Candida Albicans and Candida Albicans symptoms.
It is caused by the overgrowth of a type of yeast called Candida, usually Candida albicans.Candidiasis is an infection caused by a yeast-like fungus called Candida albicans.Candidiasis is caused by infection with species of the genus Candida, predominantly with Candida albicans.This site explains how it occurs and how to control it safely and.. The use of fluconazole and itraconazole in the treatment of Candida albicans infections:.This yeast is normally found in small amounts in the human body. But.. Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that grows both as yeast and filamentous cells and one of the few species of the Candida genus that cause the infection ...
The putative vesicle transport protein Vac1p of the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans plays an important role in virulence. To determine the cellular functions of Vac1p, a null mutant was generated by sequential disruption of both alleles. The vac1 null mutant strain showed defective endosomal vesicle transport, demonstrating a role of Vac1p in protein transport to the vacuole. Vac1p also contributes to resistance to metal ions, as the null mutant strain was hypersensitive to Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Ni(2+). In addition, the loss of Vac1p affected several virulence factors of C. albicans. In particular, the vac1 null mutant strain showed defective hyphal growth, even when hyphal formation was induced via different pathways. Furthermore, Vac1p affects chlamydospore formation, adherence to human vaginal epithelial cells, and the secretion of aspartyl proteinases (Saps). Avirulence in a mouse model of systemic infection of the vac1 null mutant strongly suggests that Vac1p of C. albicans is ...
The dimorphic fungus Candida albicans is a commensal of the human oral, gastrointestinal, vaginal, cutaneous, and mucosal surfaces. In immunocompetent as well as immunocompromised individuals, C. albicans causes cutaneous or subcutaneous infections such as vaginitis or oral thrush or infections of the nails and skin. In patients receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics or undergoing cancer chemotherapy, C. albicans can enter the bloodstream to cause serious systemic invasive disease (6, 38). Due to the difficulty in identifying antifungal targets unique to fungi that are not shared with the human host, only a restricted number of antifungal agents have been widely used for treating C. albicans systemic infections (12, 32). One such target unique to fungi is the sterol cell membrane component ergosterol.. Fluconazole is a member of the azole class of drugs that target an essential enzyme (Erg11; lanosterol 14α-demethylase) in the ergosterol biosynthetic pathway (36, 37). Fluconazole is the most ...
Abstract: The human opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans colonizes biotic and abiotic surfaces, grows within tissue, and proliferates in blood. C. albicans alters its morphology, growing as yeast or elongated filamentous hyphae, and its colony structure, forming dispersed suspensions, colonies or biofilms, to exploit its surroundings and to spread to additional areas. Understanding the response... read mores and their environmental triggers grants valuable insight into pathogenesis. In a phenotype reminiscent of the invasive filamentation of human tissue during candidiasis, C. albicans filaments in response to growth in contact with a semi-solid agar matrix. The transmembrane protein Dfi1p is required for this response. To better understand the role of Dfi1p, the cues that promote Dfi1p-dependent filamentation were identified and analyzed. Different aspects of the physical environment, such as pressure and viscosity, were independently varied and tested to identify the physical features of ...
Recent sequencing and assembly of the genome for the fungal pathogen Candida albicans used simple automated procedures for the identification of putative genes. We have reviewed the entire assembly, both by hand and with additional bioinformatic resources, to accurately map and describe 6,354 genes and to identify 246 genes whose original database entries contained sequencing errors (or possibly mutations) that affect their reading frame. Comparison with other fungal genomes permitted the identification of numerous fungus-specific genes that might be targeted for antifungal therapy. We also observed that, compared to other fungi, the protein-coding sequences in the C. albicans genome are especially rich in short sequence repeats. Finally, our improved annotation permitted a detailed analysis of several multigene families, and comparative genomic studies showed that C. albicans has a far greater catabolic range, encoding respiratory Complex 1, several novel oxidoreductases and ketone body degrading
Mononuclear phagocytic cells (macrophages) are important cells of the immune system that are responsible for host defense to pathogenic organisms and infection. One pathogenic microorganism that can activate macrophages is the dimorphic fungus, Candida albicans. It is a major cause of candidiasis and is responsible for the development of serious, potentially fatal disease in predisposed patients. Upon activation, macrophages secrete inflammatory mediators, including the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 (IL-1). Adenosine is an important physiological molecule that can modulate the function of macrophages by altering the amounts of cytokine produced. The effect of adenosine on the production of TNF-α and IL-1 by peritoneal macrophages was studied. Murine peritoneal macrophages stimulated with Candida albicans yeast cells secreted significant amounts of TNF-α and IL-1 over a 14 hr period. Various concentrations of adenosine (10-1000 μM) dose-dependently inhibited the
About Candida Cure Center. Candida Cell Wall Suppressor is one of the most excellent and healthy compound people should not miss to get in touch with. This is because of the essential and healthy effects that this is giving all the systems of your body towards fighting against harmful fungus and bacteria found inside your body.. This compound is highly recommended to be used by the people according to several doctors. This is highly recommended for people who are against the abnormality in the production of the level of yeast in their body. For those who are really interested to know more about Candida Cell Wall Suppressor, they must get to know more about its product reviews. Getting acquainted with Candida Cell Wall Suppressor Review could be the best thing to do. This is very important particularly for those who are just beginning to like the product but unsure of its effects in their body.. Candida Cell Wall Suppressor FaceBook. With the help of Candida Cell Wall Suppressor Review which are ...
Mannan is a prominent structural component displayed on the cell surface of C. albicans yeast cells (4), and antimannan IgG is present ubiquitously in the general human population (10, 14, 23). Previously, we showed that this naturally occurring antimannan IgG is required for activation of the classical complement pathway when C. albicans is incubated in NHS (40). We now present evidence that this naturally occurring antimannan IgG also regulates activation of the alternative pathway byC. albicans yeast cells. In NHS that is deficient in antimannan antibodies and lacks classical pathway activity as a result of EGTA chelation of serum Ca2+, addition of exogenous antimannan IgG accelerated C3 binding via the alternative pathway in a dose-dependent manner (Fig. 1 and 3). This accelerating effect of antimannan IgG was confirmed in a serum-free complement binding medium that consisted of only purified proteins of the alternative pathway (Fig. 2) as well as in immunofluorescence analysis (Fig. 5). A ...
Cytolytic proteins and peptide toxins are classical virulence factors of several bacterial pathogens which disrupt epithelial barrier function, damage cells and activate or modulate host immune responses. Such toxins have not been identified previously in human pathogenic fungi. Here we identify the first, to our knowledge, fungal cytolytic peptide toxin in the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. This secreted toxin directly damages epithelial membranes, triggers a danger response signalling pathway and activates epithelial immunity. Membrane permeabilization is enhanced by a positive charge at the carboxy terminus of the peptide, which triggers an inward current concomitant with calcium influx. C. albicans strains lacking this toxin do not activate or damage epithelial cells and are avirulent in animal models of mucosal infection. We propose the name Candidalysin for this cytolytic peptide toxin; a newly identified, critical molecular determinant of epithelial damage and host recognition ...
Candida albicans is part of the human microflora. Excessive and unimpeded growth is generated by a disruption of the sensitive balance and manifests itself in form of oral and/or vaginal soor. Spread of Candida in body tissues causes a systemic candidiasis. Even though there are more than 100 species of Candida, only 7 have been isolated with greater frequency from medical samples. In over 80% of the fungus isolates, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis are found. Due to colonization of mucous membranes with Candida albicans and its passage into the hosts blood stream, the humoral immune system is stimulated, which results in the production of antibodies against Candida albicans. Generally, shortly after the antigen infringement, Candida albicans-specific IgM-antibodies are produced which are followed by an increase in specific IgG antibodies. Excessive infection of mucous membranes can lead to a high titer of Candida albicans-specific IgA-antibodies.. Test principle: ...
gi,7493813,pir,,T18235 transcription activator GAL11 homolog - yeast (Candida albicans) gi,3859719,emb,CAA21993.1, possible regulatory protein [Candida albicans] Length = 1145 Score = 1094 bits (2830), Expect = 0.0 Identities = 678/1145 (59%), Positives = 678/1145 (59%) Query: 1 MNIPPNQNSLQQMGGGSNPNASWRAMYSGEERQKVVQIIINTLTELHGSNPNFNVQRLSK 60 MNIPPNQNSLQQMGGGSNPNASWRAMYSGEERQKVVQIIINTLTELHGSNPNFNVQRLSK Sbjct: 1 MNIPPNQNSLQQMGGGSNPNASWRAMYSGEERQKVVQIIINTLTELHGSNPNFNVQRLSK 60 Query: 61 MAQDFEKLVYERSASKEDYLRAIKMKVHQLRVQKQQIAAXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 120 MAQDFEKLVYERSASKEDYLRAIKMKVHQLRVQKQQIAA Sbjct: 61 MAQDFEKLVYERSASKEDYLRAIKMKVHQLRVQKQQIAANQGGQINPQQRQQQQQQQISN 120 Query: 121 XXSMNPVNAQNVXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX 180 SMNPVNAQNV Sbjct: 121 SNSMNPVNAQNVQFLRQQAQARSQSQAQIQARQQQLRNMVNQQSQQQQQPQPQQTVQPQS 180 Query: 181 XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXNVXXXXXXXXXXXXXXTQGQLPPQLVNLMRTSXXXXXXXXXXX 240 NV TQGQLPPQLVNLMRTS Sbjct: 181 QEHQQDQQNTSSQSTQQNVASGAGSGGRGNASSTQGQLPPQLVNLMRTSPIPPPLLNKMP 240 Query: ...
Candida albicans. Coloured Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) of the fungus Candida albicans, cause of human thrush. Groups of rounded yeast- like spores are seen connected by long filaments, known as hyphae. These hyphae spread into a large fungal network, known as a mycelium, and produce more spores. Candida albicans causes the infection known as candidiasis. This affects moist mucous membranes of the body, such as skin folds, mouth, respiratory tract and vagina. Oral and vaginal conditions are known as thrush. Genital thrush is sexually transmitted. Magnifica- tion: x3,000 at 4x5 inch size. - Stock Image B250/0829
The dimorphic fungus Candida albicans has both a yeast form and a hyphal form. When yeast-form cells were starved and then transferred to a N-acetylglucosamine medium, the formation of true hyphae...
Introduction Candida albicans is a normal flora found in respiratory, gastrointestinal tract, mucous membranes, vagina, urethra, and skin. If the immune system becomes compromised, Candida albicans can infiltrate the bloodstream and diffuse to organs such as kidney, heart and brain [1]. Several diseases caused by Candida albicans are vulvaginistis candiduria, gastrointestinal candidiasis that can cause gastric ulcers and cancer [2]. Candida albicans forms biofilms due to an overdose of antifungal consumption [3]. Biofilms as a Candida albicans protection cause the body to exhibit toward immune system and antifungal agents. Biofilms can absorb the nutrients of the host cell therefore promote the growth colonies. The growth of biofilms is along with the increase of clinical infection in the host cell.. Fungal infections can be treated with the proper use of antifungal agents. The use of antifungal agents should be accompanied by caution for the dangers of biofilm resistance. A new of antifungal ...
The opportunistic human pathogen Candida albicans causes both superficial and life threatening systemic infections and is a leading cause of fungal disease in immunocompromised individuals such as those with AIDS. C. albicans can grow in different cell shapes, also known as morphologies, including yeast-like cells and a variety of filamentous forms, such as true hyphae and pseudohyphae. Yeast, hyphae and pseudohyphae, have been observed at the sites of Candida infection and there is strong evidence that morphogenesis, the transition between yeast and filamentous growth forms, is essential for its virulence. Many studies have implicated the second messenger molecule cAMP in the regulation of morphogenesis due to its role in activating filamentation. Our lab and others have previously characterized the impact of the negative regulators, Nrg1, Rfg1, and Tup1 on the expression of HWP1, a hyphal specific gene. The goal of this project is to characterize whether the addition of exogenous cAMP will ...
Cell-substrate adherence is a fundamental property of microorganisms that enables them to exist in biofilms. Our study focuses on adherence of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans to one substrate, silicone, that is relevant to device-associated infection. We conducted a mutant screen with a quantitative flow-cell assay to identify thirty transcription factors that are required for adherence. We then combined nanoString gene expression profiling with functional analysis to elucidate relationships among these transcription factors, with two major goals: to extend our understanding of transcription factors previously known to govern adherence or biofilm formation, and to gain insight into the many transcription factors we identified that were relatively uncharacterized, particularly in the context of adherence or cell surface biogenesis. With regard to the first goal, we have discovered a role for biofilm regulator Bcr1 in adherence, and found that biofilm regulator Ace2 is a major functional target of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phagocytosis of candida albicans by lymphatic tumour cells in vitro. AU - Ghoneum, Mamdooh. AU - Grewal, Iqbal. AU - Brown, Jimmy J. AU - Osborne, Ryan. AU - Elembabi, Hania. AU - Gill, Gus. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Experiments were carried out to investigate whether different lymphatic tumour cell lines have similar kinetic characteristics of phagocytosis of microorganisms. Six tumour cell lines were used. These were a human T-cell line (CEM), a mouse T-cell line (YAC-1), a human B-cell line (LAZ), and a human erythroleukemic tumour cells (K562), whereas 2 cell lines of professional phagocytosis were used as controls, a human macrophage cell line (THP1) and a mouse macrophage cell line (P388D1). Tumour cells were mixed with candida albicans at a ratio of 10:1 of candida to tumour cells and the percentage of tumour cells that had attached/phagocytosed candida was determined. After 4 h coculture with candida, tumour cells not of T-cell origin (LAZ and K562) showed ...
In response to changes in ambient pH the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans differentially expresses a number of genes. The response to pH affects morphological differentiation and virulence. The pathway controlling the pH response terminates in the zinc-finger containing transcription factor encoded by RIM101/PRR2. By analogy to the pH response pathway of Aspergillus nidulans, PRR1 of C. albicans encodes a protein that is presumably required to convert Rim101p from an inactive to an active form by proteolytic removal of a C-terminal peptide. A prr1Delta mutant is compromised in its ability to differentiate into the filamentous form. Spontaneous phenotypic revertants of a prr1Delta mutant were selected by their ability to form filamentous colonies. These mutants were also found to be defective in pH-dependent gene expression. Each of the eight mutants examined contained a heterozygous dominant mutation at the RIM101 locus. This was demonstrated genetically in all of the mutants, and ...
Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans, is dependent upon iron for growth. Consequently, human serum inhibits C. albicans growth due to the presence of high affinity iron-binding proteins that sequester serum iron, making it unavailable for use by the organism. We report that in the inhibitory environment of human serum, the growth of C. albicans can be restored by the addition of exogenous hemoglobin or heme, but not by protoporphyrin IX, the heme precursor that does not contain iron. We further report that C. albicans can utilize cell surface proteins that are homologues of the mammalian complement receptors (CR) to rosette complement-coated red blood cells (RBC) and obtain RBC-derived iron for growth. The ability of Candida to acquire RBC-derived iron under these conditions is dependent upon Candida-RBC rosetting mediated by CR-like molecules. Unopsonized RBC do not support Candida growth in serum, and restoration of Candida growth in serum by complement-opsonized RBC is ...
BioAssay record AID 1084661 submitted by ChEMBL: Antifungal activity against Candida albicans clinical isolate after 24 to 48 hr by CLSI broth microdilution method.
Candida albicans is a common fungal pathogen of humans that colonizes the skin and mucosal surfaces of most healthy individuals. Until recently, little was known about the mechanisms by which mucosal antifungal defences tolerate colonizing C. albicans but react strongly when hyphae of the same microorganism attempt to invade tissue. In this Review, we describe the properties of yeast cells and hyphae that are relevant to their interaction with the host, and the immunological mechanisms that differentially recognize colonizing versus invading C. albicans ...
Other Symptoms. These are also Candida Albicans symptome: headaches, migraine, loss of memory, irritability, constant tiredness, depression, meals allergies, muscle aches, sore / inflamed joints.. What exactly is Candida Albicans and What Causes It?. It is actually the name given to a yeast-like fungus which happens naturally in our bodies, especially in dark, warm, moist regions. It doesnt usually result in any issues for the reason that it really is kept under control by our bodies advantageous bacteria. In some cases even though our very good bacteria can not include the fungus which overgrows, causing the infection that we contact Candida Albicans, Candida, Thrush, Candidiasis or Yeast Infection.. Some of the triggers for an overgrow are factors like; a lowered immune system, also several antibiotics and / or steroids, hormonal changes (e.g. pregnancy), diabetes, unhealthy diet program, soft drugs, some medications, oral contraceptives plus the wearing of damp, sweaty underwear and ...
A Candida diet is designed to help get rid of an overgrowth of the Candida albicans yeast in the body. By concentrating on foods that restrict yeast grow
Candida albicans ATCC ® 10231D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Candida albicans Strain 3147 [ATCC ® 10231™] Application: Food testing
The killer effect of 37 species of Candida, Cryptococcus, Hansenula, Pichia, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces, and Trichosporon on 100 Candida albicans isolates of human and animal origin was studied. All of the C. albicans cultures were sensitive to one or more killer yeasts. The factors affecting the killer phenomenon on C. albicans were investigated for realizing a simple system for the differentiation of the 100 C. albicans isolates. By using this system, it was possible to differentiate up to 512 isolates of C. albicans according to their susceptibility to the killer effect of nine selected killer yeasts. The use of this method as an epidemiological marker in the case of presumptive nosocomial infections due to C. albicans is also reported. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Candida albicans stimulates arachidonic acid liberation from alveolar macrophages through α-mannan and β-glucan cell wall components. AU - Castro, M.. AU - Ralston, N. V C. AU - Morgenthaler, Timothy Ian. AU - Rohrbach, M. S.. AU - Limper, Andrew Harold. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Candida albicans is an increasingly important fungal pathogen. Alveolar macrophages respond to fungal components such as zymosan by releasing arachidonic acid (AA) and AA metabolites. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of whole fungi on macrophage eicosanoid metabolism. We hypothesized that macrophages respond to C. albicans by releasing AA and generating AA metabolites as a consequence of interaction of mannose and β- glucan receptors with fungal cell wall components. [14C]AA-labeled rabbit alveolar macrophages released AA following stimulation with either live or heat-killed C. albicans. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis revealed that 55% of the AA released was metabolized ...
A central theme in biology is to understand how different signaling outputs can be accomplished by changes to signal transduction pathways. Here, we examined epigenetic differences between two cell states in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. We show that cells in the "white" state are sterile due to multiple bottlenecks in MAPK signaling relative to mating-competent "opaque" cells. Alleviation of these bottlenecks by reverse engineering effectively converts sterile white cells into sexually competent cells. These results have broad implications for understanding how epigenetic changes can impact MAPK expression and signaling output, including events associated with tumorigenesis. We also propose a model for how the white-opaque switch gained control of sexual reproduction in Candida during evolution.. ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 16040234. Res. Microbiol. 2005 Aug;156(7):822-9. Phospholipases play an important role as virulence factors in human pathogens. Candida albicans, the major fungal pathogen of humans, encodes phospholipases of type A, B, C and D. Type B Plb2 and type D Pld1 phospholipases have been shown to contribute to virulence in this organism. We analyzed, in C. albicans, PLC2 and PLC3, two highly conserved genes coding for phosphatidylinositol-dependent phospholipases C with homology to the known virulence factor PlcA in the human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. We show that expression of PLC2 and PLC3 is upregulated under different filament-inducing conditions and in the constitutive filamentous mutant tup1Delta. In order to analyze PLC2 and PLC3 function in C. albicans, we constructed strains that carry PLC2 or PLC3 under a constitutive promoter and strains that lack all four PLC2/3 alleles. These strains were not affected in their ability to produce filaments under non-inducing ...
To determine whether the C. albicans MTL gene cluster was required for the a1/α2-like repression activity, theGFP reporters were transformed into MTLa1deletion strains and evaluated for fluorescence. In contrast to the wild-type C. albicans strains, the MTLa1 mutant strains showed the same levels of fluorescence for all of the reporter constructs, indicating that the MTLa1 gene is required for the transcriptional repression activity (Fig. 4). Similar behavior was seen for both the complete deletion of the MTLa1 gene and for the MTLa1 homeodomain deletion, consistent with the DNA-binding domain of a1 being required for the repression activity (9). Northern (RNA) analysis also showed that transcription from the reporter constructs containing the functional hsg operators was derepressed in the MTLa1deletion mutants compared with the wild-type strain; however, in the absence of a1, the functional hsg operators still showed a slight amount of repression when compared with the mutated hsg operators ...
Phosphomannosylation is a modification of cell wall proteins that occurs in some species of yeast-like organisms, including the human pathogen Candida albicans. These modified mannans confer a negative charge to the wall, which is important for the interactions with phagocytic cells of the immune systems and cationic antimicrobial peptides. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the synthesis of phosphomannan relies on two enzymes, the phosphomannosyltransferase Ktr6 and its positive regulator Mnn4. However, in C. albicans, at least three phosphomannosyltransferases, Mnn4, Mnt3 and Mnt5, participate in the addition of phosphomannan. In addition to MNN4, C. albicans has a MNN4-like gene family composed of seven other homologous members that have no known function. Here, using the classical mini-Ura-blaster approach and the new gene knockout CRISPR-Cas9 system for gene disruption, we generated mutants lacking single and multiple genes of the MNN4 family; and demonstrate that, although Mnn4 has a major impact on the
Candida overgrowth is an infestation of the Candida albicans yeast. Everyone has a certain amount of Candida in their digestive tract, but if the Candida increases beyond a certain level, it cause problems. The main symptoms are chronic low energy, low-grade fevers, variable digestion, weak immune system and food allergies. These symptoms can be confused with other conditions, especially complaints relating to general digestive weakness and immunity disorders, so it is best to have a medical examination to verify whether Candida is present at significant levels.
Candida dubliniensis is the species that is most closely related to Candida albicans. Despite their close phylogenetic relatedness, epidemiological and infection model data suggest that C. albicans is a far more successful pathogen. The reasons for this disparity in virulence are still unclear, however, it has been shown that C. dubliniensis is less able than C. albicans to produce hyphae under a wide range of in vitro and in vivo conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the comparative effects of glucose/galactose and methionine on morphogenesis in the two species ...
Do you feel tired all of the time for no cause at all? Does it sometimes feel like you can not even think straight and that anything is usually a complete blur?. If so, you could possibly be struggling with a condition known as Candida Albicans, which can lead to a yeast infection and other far more serious, potentially life-threatening conditions.. But before I go any further, I want you to understand that millions of other girls, guys, and even children suffer from this, so you are not alone and. It exists inside all of us. Normally it presents no trouble, but with todays widespread use of antibiotics, contraceptive tablets, steroids, also as sugar-rich diets, anything can cause this parasitic yeast to flare up, leading to variety of other health-related problems.. Believe it or not, at least three quarters of all ladies will practical experience Candida Albicans at some point in their lifetime.. However, Do NOT believe individuals if they tell you that you simply did one thing wrong to cause ...
Candida albicans secreted aspartyl proteinases (Sap), products of the SAP genes, which are presumed to act as virulence factors. In the C. albicans strain WO-1, the ability to secrete Sap1 is regulated with switch phenotype, another putative virulence factor. KpnI restriction fragment length polymorphisms differentiate between several distinct SAP1 alleles in laboratory and clinical strains. Both SAP1 alleles from strain WO-1 along with their 5- and 3-flanking regions were cloned and sequenced, as were both alleles from another strain, SS. The 5-flanking regions were remarkably similar in all four of the sequenced alleles over approximately 1,500 nucleotides. S1 analysis revealed that both alleles of WO-1 are transcribed. Characterization of the one allele from strain WO-1 identified a 284-nucleotide insertion flanked by 8-bp direct repeats that shows homology to the CARE2 repetitive element and that is not present in the other alleles. Characterization of the SAP1 alleles also identified a ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Rapid detection of aneuploidy following the generation of mutants in Candida albicans. AU - Lenardon, Megan D. AU - Nantel, André. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Techniques used to generate mutants in Candida albicans commonly result in additional and undesired genetic rearrangements. Detection of aneuploidy is, therefore, an important step forward in the quality control of mutant phenotypes. In this chapter, we describe how to extract genomic DNA and perform a quantitative multiplex PCR to compare the karyotype of any mutant strain to that of its parent and allow the detection of any unwanted aneuploidy.. AB - Techniques used to generate mutants in Candida albicans commonly result in additional and undesired genetic rearrangements. Detection of aneuploidy is, therefore, an important step forward in the quality control of mutant phenotypes. In this chapter, we describe how to extract genomic DNA and perform a quantitative multiplex PCR to compare the karyotype of any mutant strain ...
How is Candida albicans phagocytosis abbreviated? CAP stands for Candida albicans phagocytosis. CAP is defined as Candida albicans phagocytosis rarely.
Candida Albicans, Rabbit anti-; - Rabbit Host - Candida Albicans, Rabbit anti-; from Accurate Chemical & Scientific Corporation Laboratory Research Products
... ,Hunan University of Chinese MedicineProfessor Wang Ruoguang, Doctoral Tutor (medical doctor, postdoctoral Biology)The purpose of writing thi
Kidney stone symptoms Testicular tumor symptoms Trauma symptoms Inguinal hernia symptoms Orchitis symptoms The National Action Plan to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections: Lets see if we can figure out whats causing your joint swelling. Best Answer: Excellent question. Putting Peroxide On Yeast Infection Carb Rash Candida Low yes there are home remedies.. Case of Candida Albicans Infection of the Donor Corneal Lenticule After Descemets Stripping and Auto - PowerPoint PPT Presentation DIY 1- 3 Day Juice Cleanse For Beginngers. It causes peeling itching burning redness and sometimes sores and blisters. Mucus Colors And What They Mean Green phlegm usually develops in those who are suffering from allergies (MY Journey With Candida) skin cleaning method for eliminating comedones and scales from parts of the skin subjected to the proliferation of $i(candida albicans) wo 2000062756 a1 The Extracellular Matrix of Candida albicans Biofilms Impairs Formation of Neutrophil Extracellular ...
The Candida antigen CR3-RP (complement receptor 3-related protein) is supposed to be a mimicry protein because of its ability to bind antibody directed against the α subunit of the mammalian CR3 (CD11b/CD18). This study aimed to (i) investigate the specific humoral isotypic response to immunization with CR3-RP in vivo in a rabbit animal model, and (ii) determine the role of CR3-RP in the adherence of Candida albicans in vitro using the model systems of buccal epithelial cells (BECs) and biofilm formation. The synthetic C. albicans peptide DINGGGATLPQ corresponding to 11 amino-acids of the CR3-RP sequence DINGGGATLPQALXQITGVIT, determined by N-terminal sequencing, was used for immunization of rabbits to obtain polyclonal anti-CR3-PR serum and for subsequent characterization of the humoral isotypic response of rabbits. A significant increase of IgG, IgA and IgM anti-CR3-RP specific antibodies was observed after the third (P<0.01) and the fourth (P<0.001) immunization doses. The elevation of IgA
Candida albicans CZF1 protein: Candida albicans gene that interferes with Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating factor-induced cell cycle arrest; amino acid sequence given in first source
Background: A majority of the population has been shown to carry Candida albicans within their normal oral flora; however, very few people suffer from oral Candida infections. Past studies reveal that long-term antibiotic therapy markedly increases the hosts susceptibility to oral thrush, suggesting that bacteria play a vital role in maintaining a healthy oral environment. Objective: The aim of this study was to isolate and identify specific bacteria obtained from healthy individuals that may be involved in suppressing C. albicans growth under normal oral conditions. Method: Various bacterial strains, isolated and purified from the saliva of healthy individuals, were co-cultured with C. albicans wild type strain 5314. The bacterial strains that most effectively suppressed yeast growth were identified using polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. Results: Our results indicate that all of the bacterial strains isolated were able to suppress yeast growth to some extent; however, ...
Candida albicans (C. albicans) is a common fungal pathogen causing both localised and systemic infections. The majority of these infections are promoted by biofilm formation, providing a protective matrix for the embedded fungi thereby evading the host immune defence and promoting resistance against anti-mycotic ag
Author Summary The innate immune system represents a key barrier that fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans must overcome in order to disseminate through the host. C. albicans cells phagocytosed by macrophages initiate a complex program that involves a large-scale reprogramming of metabolism and transcription and results in the switch to a hyphal form that can penetrate and kill the macrophage. Though a number of signals are known to induce this morphological transition in vitro, what does so following phagocytosis has been unclear. We previously showed that C. albicans rapidly neutralizes acidic, nutrient-poor media that resembles the phagolysosome and that this is deficient in mutants impaired in amino acid import due to a mutation in STP2. In this paper, we investigate whether this happens within the macrophage as well. We show here that, in contrast to wild-type cells, stp2Δ mutants occupy an acidic phagosome and are unable to initiate hyphal differentiation. Because of this, they are more
Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans. In addition to causing mucosal infections, such as thrush and vaginitis, in relatively healthy individuals, it causes life-threatening systemic infections in premature infants, surgical patients, chemotherapy patients, and other patients with weakened immune systems. Mortality from systemic infections approaches 30% despite appropriate therapy with the available antifungal agents (59). C. albicansgrows in a number of morphologic forms, including ellipsoidal, yeast-form blastospores and filamentous forms that include elongated budding pseudohyphae and parallel-sided germ tubes that give rise to true hyphae (reviewed in reference 58). The ability ofC. albicans to switch between these morphologies is correlated with its virulence (reviewed in references 16, 51, and58). The transition from yeast to hyphal growth occurs in response to a broad range of environmental stimuli. Potent stimuli include one or more constituents of mammalian ...
Candidalysin is a cytolytic peptide toxin secreted by the invasive form of the human pathogenic fungus, Candida albicans. Candidalysin is critical for mucosal and systemic infections and is a key driver of host cell activation, neutrophil recruitment and Type 17 immunity. Candidalysin is regarded as the first true classical virulence factor of C. albicans but also triggers protective immune responses. This review will discuss how candidalysin was discovered, the mechanisms by which this peptide toxin contributes to C. albicans infections, and how its discovery has advanced our understanding of fungal pathogenesis and disease.. ...
Candida albicans is an important human pathogen, causing opportunistic infections. The adhesion of planktonic cells to a substrate is the first step for biofilm development. The antimicrobial peptide (AMP) Psd1 is a defensin isolated from Pisum sativum seeds. We tested the effects of this AMP on C. albicans biofilms and planktonic cells, comparing its activity with amphotericin B and fluconazole. Three C. albicans variants were studied, one of them a mutant deficient in glucosylceramide synthase, conferring resistance to Psd1 antifungal action. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to assess morphological and biomechanical changes on fungal cells. Surface alterations, with membrane disruption and leakage of cellular contents, were observed. Cytometry assays and confocal microscopy imaging showed that Psd1 causes cell death, in a time and concentration-dependent manner. These results demonstrate Psd1 pleiotropic action against a relevant fungal human pathogen, suggesting its use as natural antimycotic
Candida albicans RP10 protein: immunogenic during infections in humans; Saccharomyces cerevisiae & Candida albicans proteins are homologous; amino acid sequence given in first source; GenBank X82017 (C. albicans)
More Health Essay Topics.. Further future research on N-cadherin and associated receptor roles is still necessary to clarify the transmembranes mechanism.. N-Cadherin and Endocytosis in Candida albicans. I. Introduction/Review. Candida albicans, diploid yeast-like fungi, are harmless commensals of the human body; however, it can also be the causal agent of opportunistic and genital infections known as candidiasis or moniliasis or trush. General-purpose genotype strains (GPGs) of C. albicans has been demonstrated to cause the pathogenic disease more significantly compared to other strains and the predominating effect may be attributed to the ability of the strains to replace the existing commensals (Schmidt and others 1999) and to the differences in the gene region located on 60 alleles of ALS7 ORF or the so-called hypermutable contingency genes (Zhang and others 2003).. The hymatogenous distribution of C. albicans causes allergies in healthy individuals and microabscesses in immunocompromized ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolation and characterization of cell surface mutants of Candida albicans. AU - Whelan, W. L.. AU - Delga, J. M.. AU - Wadsworth, E.. AU - Walsh, T. J.. AU - Kwon-Chung, K. J.. AU - Calderone, R.. AU - Lipke, P. N.. PY - 1990/1/1. Y1 - 1990/1/1. N2 - Mutant strains of Candida albicans were obtained by selecting for cells that escaped agglutination by a polyclonal antiserum raised against standard C. albicans serotype A isolate B311. Mutants were obtained from strains B311 and B792 and from four strains isolated from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. All 15 tested mutants retained characteristic sugar assimilation patterns. All but one of the mutants retained the ability to form germ tubes and chlamydospores. Two mutants from an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-derived isolate were deficient in binding complement ligands iC3b and C3d, whereas another mutant was deficient in binding ligand iC3b but not 3d. The hyphae of these three mutants lacked antigens when ...
THE opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, grows invasively in tissues of candidiasis patients by converting from budding yeast form cells to filamentous forms. The ability to convert from one morphology to another is important for virulence (Sobelet al. 1984; Shepherd 1985; Ryley and Ryley 1990; Lebereret al. 1997; Loet al. 1997). To understand the mechanisms by which filamentous growth is stimulated during infection, regulation of hyphal development has been studied extensively (for review, see Gow 1997). Conditions that promote hyphal growth in the laboratory include growth at elevated temperature in medium containing special components. In the absence of these conditions, growth within a matrix also promotes hyphal growth (Brownet al. 1999). The embedded condition may simulate conditions encountered by the pathogen during growth in human tissue.. Several genes whose products regulate filamentous growth have been identified (for review, see Ernst 2000), including CPH1 (Liuet al. ...
Recent studies indicate that mitochondrial functions impinge on cell wall integrity, drug tolerance, and virulence of human fungal pathogens. However, the mechanistic aspects of these processes are poorly understood. We focused on the mitochondrial outer membrane SAM (Sorting and Assembly Machinery) complex subunit Sam37 in Candida albicans. Inactivation of SAM37 in C. albicans leads to a large reduction in fitness, a phenotype not conserved with the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our data indicate that slow growth of the sam37ΔΔ mutant results from mitochondrial DNA loss, a new function for Sam37 in C. albicans, and from reduced activity of the essential SAM complex subunit Sam35. The sam37ΔΔ mutant was hypersensitive to drugs that target the cell wall and displayed altered cell wall structure, supporting a role for Sam37 in cell wall integrity in C. albicans. The sensitivity of the mutant to membrane-targeting antifungals was not significantly altered. The sam37ΔΔ mutant was ...
Candida albicans is able to play a destructive game of hide and seek with your immune system by making changes to its cell walls so that it can escape detection.. You are born with an innate immune system that recognizes invaders into your body. Pathogens have proteins called antigens on their surface, which show your immune system which cells they need to attack.. Your immune system uses a system including special sensors called Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs). They allow your immune system to figure out precisely whether the invader is a fungus, virus, or bacteria, and decide on the most appropriate immune response.. Candida cell walls consist of a matrix of α- and β-mannans. The β-glucan on the fungal cell wall is recognized by your immune system. This triggers a process known as phagocytosis, where the immune cells neutrophils and macrophages consume the pathogen. (10). It is this process of phagocytosis that Candida has managed to avoid. It hides the β-glucan on its surface, ...
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SUMMARY: The enzymes of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) metabolism, GlcNAc-6-phosphate deacetylase and GlcN-6-phosphate deaminase were found to be inducible in Candida albicans. The pattern of induction for these enzymes was the same under conditions of germ-tube formation (37 °C) and where yeast cells metabolized GlcNAc with no change in morphology (28 °C); this indicates that these enzymes are not control points in the dimorphic development of C. albicans. During induction there was a 40- and 25-fold increase in specific activity for the deacetylase and the deaminase, respectively, and the maximum specific activity corresponded to the time when all the GlcNAc had been metabolized. The presence of lomofungin (an inhibitor of transcription) or trichodermin (an inhibitor of translation) in cell suspensions of C. albicans containing GlcNAc prevented the increase in specific activity of these enzymes. 2-Deoxyglucose inhibited germ-tube formation, partially inhibited the induction of the deacetylase (43%)
Nappy rash is a skin irritation that affects the skin around your babys nappy area. Growth Characteristics Of Candida Albicans Curar Lingua Como Candidiase Na vaginal Yeast Infection; Women with endometriosis often have lower abdominal pain It is also used to get rid of scar tissue so that the ovaries and tubes take care of their nipples along with babys treatment as this severe infection can affect mothers too. Women can give it to men as well as the other way around so if you notice that you are having signs of a yeast infection even if it is minor then it is important to find out and skin) candida antigen titer test (a blood test to determine the presence of yeast antigens or Although it may be embarrassing to discuss with a doctor it is important to seek treatment as soon as possible to stop the spread to sexual partners as well as prevent further illness associated with untreated yeast infections.. Keywords: candida allergy hypersensitivity Candida produces alcohol Treatment of candida ...
Also known as: Monilia; Thrush; Vaginal Thrush; Candidiasis; Yeast Infection Description Candida albicans inhabits all humans (in the Mouth, Throat, Intestine and Genital/Urinary Tract) but usually only in small amounts. 33% of the people in the Western world suffer from Candida albicans over-proliferation. Immune Syst
Other articles where Candida albicans is discussed: candida: …involving Candida are caused by C. albicans. However, any of multiple species of Candida can infect humans. These infections occur primarily in the mouth, vagina, and intestinal tract. The most dangerous Candida species is C. auris, which is considered a global health threat because of its tendency to cause outbreaks…
Purpose: : To evaluate virulence of Candida albicans homozygous mutants in a murine keratitis model. Methods: : Corneas of 3-5 immunocompetent adult female BALB/c mice were topically inoculated with a wild-type strain of C. albicans, a transposon-induced homozygous mutant (rbt1-/-), its parental control (DAY286), knockout homozygous mutants BCa7-4 (rbt1-/-) and BCa11-3 (rbt4-/-), or its parental control (CAF2-1). The fungal load inoculated onto the cornea was at concentrations of 105 or 106 colony-forming units (cfu) following corneal scarification. Mock-inoculated, scarified eyes served as controls. Eyes were scored daily for 8 days post infection (PI) using a 12-point scale to categorize corneal disease. Results: : At 106 cfu, wild-type C. albicans human isolate (SC5314) had a high degree of virulence in the murine cornea, and the fungal strains used to generate the mutants (DAY286 and CAF2-1) had similar corneal pathogenicity (P , 0.43 and , 0.11, respectively). Likewise, the rbt1-/- mutant ...
Immunological memory in vertebrates is often exclusively attributed to T and B cell function. Recently it was proposed that the enhanced and sustained innate immune responses following initial infectious exposure may also afford protection against reinfection. Testing this concept of "trained immunity," we show that mice lacking functional T and B lymphocytes are protected against reinfection with Candida albicans in a monocyte-dependent manner. C. albicans and fungal cell wall β-glucans induced functional reprogramming of monocytes, leading to enhanced cytokine production in vivo and in vitro. The training required the β-glucan receptor dectin-1 and the noncanonical Raf-1 pathway. Monocyte training by β-glucans was associated with stable changes in histone trimethylation at H3K4, which suggests the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in this phenomenon. The functional reprogramming of monocytes, reminiscent of similar NK cell properties, supports the concept of "trained immunity" and may be ...
Candida albicans is the most prominent fungal pathogen in immuno-compromised patients, and systematic infections are often fatal. One of the most important features of C. albicans is its ability to switch between different morphological forms such as yeast, pseudo-hyphae, and hyphae. A diverse range of growth conditions can induce the growth switch from yeast to hyphae via several regulatory pathways, while some other conditions and perturbation of the cell cycle progression can lead to pseudohyphal growth. In this thesis, we report that a range of genotoxic insults that disturb cell cycle progression induced pseudohyphal growth of C. albicans, including the inhibition of DNA synthesis by hydroxyurea (HU) or aphidicolin (AC), the depletion of ribonucleotide reductase subunit Rnr2, and DNA damages by methylmethane sulphonate (MMS) and ultraviolet (UV). In spite of all the knowledge of filamentous growth, the pathways which are required for the pseudohyphal growth in C. albicans are still unknown. ...
Candida albicans is a human commensal organism that can cause life-threatening systemic infections in severely ill patients. The mouse intravenous challenge model is commonly used to model this infection. However, recent research has found that it is early events in the kidney that generate damaging immune responses and determine gross outcome of infection. Therefore, identification of the renal cells involved in these responses will allow development of an in vitro assay to model these events.. ...
Will you practical experience candida albicans with an uneasy regularity? Have you been during a unpleasant candida albicans today? Candida albicans are
Candida albicans ATCC ® 90028™ Designation: NCCLS 11 Application: Produces collagenase Susceptibility disc testing Susceptibility testing Reference strain for Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute(CLSI)-developed Antifungal Susceptibility Testing.
Vaginal yeast infections occur when conditions stimulate the growth of the Candida albicans yeast fungus. The acidic vaginal environment normally limits...
Candida Albicans is a naturally occurring form of yeast that resides inside our bodies that can, under the right circumstances cause many unpleasant symptoms including weight gain, joint pain and digestion problems. Candida is just one of several micro-organisms that live in our gut, mouth and instestine. Sometimes Candida can reproduce at an overwhelming rate and produce what is […]. ...
N-Fuzed Candida helps control candida overgrowth which can be an epidemic. Candida Albicans Treatment can help you make your life normal again. Visit us online for more information today.
Overview Intestinal candidiasis is a condition caused by the yeast-like fungus Candida albicans. Candida albicans is referred to as yeast and is normally present in the intestines, blood and vagina. In the gastrointestinal tract, the level of Candida albicans is kept in check by bacteria that is also normally present. An imbalance can cause an…
Several different repetitive DNA sequences have been isolated from the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. These include two families of large dispersed repeat sequences (Ca3, Ca24) and a short (23-bp) tandemly repeated element (Ca7) associated with C. albicans telomeres. In addition, a large subtelomeric repeat (WOL17) has been cloned. DNA fragments containing the telomeric repeats are highly variable among different C. albicans strains. We have shown that the Ca3 repeat is relatively more stable and is suitable for use as a species-specific and strain-specific probe for C. albicans. ...
Several different repetitive DNA sequences have been isolated from the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. These include two families of large dispersed repeat sequences (Ca3, Ca24) and a short (23-bp) tandemly repeated element (Ca7) associated with C. albicans telomeres. In addition, a large subtelomeric repeat (WOL17) has been cloned. DNA fragments containing the telomeric repeats are highly able among different C. albicans strains. We have shown that the Ca3 repeat is relatively more stable and is suitable for use as a species-specific and strain-specific probe for C. albicans.. ...
The goal of this study is to identify proteins and mechanisms that regulate filamentous growth and pathogenesis in the oral microbe Candida albicans, the primar...
Candida is a fungus commonly found in all of us, they are normally found on the skin, in our mouth and throat, our stomach, colon, rectum, and vagina. People commonly call it a Digestive Fungal Infestation, Thrush or Vaginal Candidiasis when it spirals out of control. There are several strands of Candida, but the most common one is Candida Albicans.. ...
Systems biology approaches can be used to study the regulatory interactions occurring between many components of the biological system at the whole-genome level and decipher the circuitries implicated in the regulation of cellular processes, including those imparting virulence to opportunistic fungi. Candida albicans (C. albicans) is a leading human fungal pathogen. It undergoes morphological switching between a budding yeast form and an elongated multicellular hyphal form. This transition is required for C. albicans ability to cause disease and is regulated through highly interconnected regulatory interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and target genes. The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-High-throughput sequencing (Seq) technology (ChIP-Seq) is a powerful approach for decoding transcriptional regulatory networks. This protocol was optimized for the preparation of ChIP DNA from filamenting C. albicans cells followed by high-throughput sequencing to identify the targets of TFs that
Richard is Professor of Molecular Microbiology at the University of Otago School of Dentistry. He undertook his biochemistry and microbiology training at the University of Cambridge, UK. His main research interest is in oral yeast: how they colonise the oral cavity; how they cause disease; and ways of preventing them causing disease.. Richards particular research interests focus on the human pathogen Candida albicans, which causes both oral candidosis and life-threatening disseminated disease. He uses molecular approaches to determine how C. albicans adheres in the mouth, what makes it pathogenic, how it becomes resistant to antifungal drugs, and how its drug resistance can be overcome. Richard also uses bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a tool to investigate fungal membrane protein structure and function. ...
Posted by Sounder [9319.9966] on November 08, 2011 at 21:25:01:. Hi, In the blurb for Now Nutritional Yeast it says, "This is a primary grown yeast and is therefore not a brewery by-product as is brewers yeast. This ensures freedom from Candida albicans yeast." Is this a real concern...are there any advantages to nutritional over brewers yeast...besides the opportunity to pay more for it? ...
The highly conserved pheromone response MAP kinase and nutrient-sensing cAMP/PKA signal pathways are critical for filamentation, mating and virulence in many pathogenic fungi. A comparison of their functions in two human pathogens Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, and in two plant pathogens, Magnaporthe grisea and Ustilago maydis, shows that virulence is tightly associated with filamentation and mating in these fungi, suggesting an evolutionary link between pathogenesis and cellular development. ...
... , Candida is the name for a group of yeasts (a type of fungus) that commonly infect the skin. The name candida refers to the white colour of the organisms in culture . Candidal infection is known as candidiasis, candidosis or moniliasis (monilia is also a genus of ascomycete fungi).
The female human body is an organic machine made of nerve, muscle and bone. It can nurture babies for up to nine months. But, like all machines, it is prone to the occasional malfunction, such as, well, getting candidiasis - better known as a yeast infection, or in this case vaginal thrush. So how do you go about diagnosing yeast infection?. Not Quite Yeast, Actually…. To begin, vaginal thrush is not brought about by yeast. The infection is actually caused by a fungus called Candida albicans which has yeast-like properties. It grows naturally in warm, moist, dark regions of the body, like the mouth and the vagina. Its growth is kept checked by a kind of beneficial bacteria which also grows in the human body. The job of Candida albicans is to search for harmful bacteria and destroy them.. The problem starts when the good bacteria that monitor the growth of Candida albicans die, either because of antibiotics or a weak immune system. Once these bacteria die, Candida albicans grow rapidly and ...
For each part of this study, essential oil from cinnamon leaves was purchased from Ferquima Ind. eCom. (São Paulo, Brazil). Secondary compounds in the essential oil were evaluated with mass spectrometry. Seventeen peaks were measured, with eugenol comprising 82.3% of the oil. In addition, nystatin (Sigma-Aldrich Brasil Ltda.; São Paulo, Brazil) was used as a positive control in the first 2 parts of the study. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cinnamon essential oil was determined in 8 strains of Candida albicans and 4 strains ofCandida tropicalis using serial dilutions. Once the MIC was determined, the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) was determined by growing the Candida strains in culture with the MIC for cinnamon essential oil. Two additional concentrations of essential oil (MICx2 and MICx4) were tested for MFC determination. The effect of cinnamon essential oil was measured on the roughness and hardness of polished denture-like acrylic samples. One side of each acrylic ...
Here, we describe a protocol for a continuous flow system for C. albicans cultures growing adherent to a plastic surface. The protocol was adapted from a previous method established to simulate blood flow on endothelial cells (Wilson and Hube, 2010). The adapted protocol was used by us for the removal of molecules in C. albicans supernatants, especially farnesol, which accumulate over the time course of incubation and cannot be specifically depleted. The system used, however, allows various applications including the simulation of physiological flow conditions. Several example applications are given on the manufacturers website (https://ibidi.com/perfusion-system/112-ibidi-pump-system.html).
Candida Lyrics: Mdchen Mit Den Traurigen Augen: 4: Ich Mocht Der Knopf An Deiner Bluse Sein: 5: aaaaConstellatio - mj candida support syclovir albicans parapsilosis pamitnikaaaa Antygenw candida i kryptokowych nie sprawdzano-na czym to. Candida albicans was sought in stool samples from 38 patients with irritable bowel syndrome and 20 healthy controls.. How Fast Does Body Fungus in Aquariums Clear Up? by Robert Boumis Body fungus will rapidly kill aquarium fish and it will not clear up on its Can A Yeast Infection Mean You Are Pregnant Fatigue Will Cause own without rapid Candida Albicans is a fungal yeast that is present naturally in the human gut; everyone has Candida albicans living within them to some Yeast infections in women are one form of Candida overgrowth. This homemade stuffing recipe will please most people. Tests & Procedures A-Z.. Hey there! Welcome to GymDigital.com! My names Maddie and Im excited (and nervous) to be writing my first Aphthae represent as wounds from 0.5 confirmed ...
Initially, the CGD biochemical pathways were automatically generated using PathoLogic, a pathway prediction program built into the Pathway Tools. PathoLogic used information about the function of individual Candida gene products from CGD in conjunction with SRIs reference database of biochemical reaction and pathway information, MetaCyc, to create a set of predicted Candida albicans pathways. The starting set of Candida albicans enzymes that was input into the PathoLogic software was generated using the Gene Ontology curation from CGD. PathoLogic then compared the list of enzyme names against SRIs MetaCyc pathway database. For the purpose of generation of pathways for CGD, the software was also configured to consult the set of pathways curated at the Saccharomyces Genome database in addition to the pathways contained in MetaCyc pathway, such that curated S. cerevisiae pathways that are not included in MetaCyc were used as an additional basis for comparison. If Candida albicans contains one or ...
Is there scientific evidence for eliminating sugar and dairy to combat Candida yeast infections? This article discusses a study that explored this issue.
Diagnostic tests for Candida Albicans in IBS We recommend that a definite diagnosis of Candida is made before you commence an anti-Candida regime. This test
In the last few weeks I have given you two shopping lists.. one that identifies the foods that provide the nutrients the body needs, and another that lists those nutrients with the foods that contain them. https://smorgasbordinvitation.wordpress.com/2018/04/19/smorgasbord-health-column-the-alternative-way-to-shop-by-nutrient/ In the last week I have shared four posts on Candida Albicans and you can find all those…
BioAssay record AID 670473 submitted by ChEMBL: Antifungal activity against Candida albicans C43 by broth dilution method in presence of 25% human serum.
Preserved neutrophil response to Candida albicans stimulation in AIDS patients with candida esophagitis.: Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and their interac
The ALS gene family encodes large cell-surface glycoproteins associated with C. albicans pathogenesis. Als proteins are thought to act as adhesin molecules binding to host tissues. Wide variation in expression levels among the ALS genes exists and is related to cell morphology and environmental conditions. ALS1, ALS3, and ALS4 are three of the four most highly expressed ALS genes. This work describes the production and use of specific high affinity monoclonal antibodies against Als1, Als3, and Als4 to evaluate protein production and localization at both the individual cell and population levels. Production and localization of these proteins is tightly regulated and occurs under specific growth conditions. When examined at a population level, it is clear that cells from the same culture can have different profiles of Als proteins on the cell surface. These results provide a very different view of the Als family than the view held by those who suggest that the Als family functions in antigenic ...
The focus of this symposium was to present new information on the morphogenesis of Candida albicans, particularly how it relates to signal transduction pathways and other genes involved in the regulation of morphogenesis. In addition, we discuss the role of adherence and colonization of the oral cavity by the organism and discuss the role of mannan as an adhesin that recognizes the human red blood cell. C. albicans utilizes at least two signal pathways to regulate its conversion from a yeast form to filamentous growth (hyphae). One of these two pathways is similar to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pseudohyphal/mating pathway, which utilizes the regulatory protein, Cphlp. The other pathway is not totally defined but requires a second regulatory protein, referred to as Efg1p. Other signal pathways may exist, which include a two-component histidine kinase and response regulator proteins. The latter pathway(s) may include proteins such as Chk1p, Ssk1p, Shi1p and Cos1p/Nik1p. Mutations in strains, which
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N. Dunkel, T. Hertlein, R. Franz, O. Reuss, C. Sasse, T. Schäfer, K. Ohlsen, J. Morschhäuser; Role of different peptide transporters in nutrient acquisition in Candida albicans. Eukaryot Cell 2013. doi:10.1128/EC.00008-13 C. Sasse, R. Schillig, A. Reimund, J. Merk, J. Morschhäuser; Inducible and constitutive activation of two polymorphic promoter alleles of the Candida albicans multidrug efflux pump MDR1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2012. doi:10.1128/AAC.00264-12 C. Sasse, N. Dunkel, T. Schafer, S. Schneider, F. Dierolf, K. Ohlsen, J. Morschhäuser; The stepwise acquisition of fluconazole resistance mutations causes a gradual loss of fitness in Candida albicans. Mol Microbiol 2012, 86, 539-556. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2012.08210.x Schubert S, Popp C, Rogers PD, Morschhäuser J, 2011, Functional dissection of a Candida albicans zinc cluster transcription factor, the multidrug resistance regulator Mrr1. Eukaryot. Cell, published ahead of print on 17 June 2011, doi:10.1128/EC.05100-11. Schubert ...
Candida albicans[edit]. C. albicans is a yeast with a particular feature: it translates the CUG codon into serine rather than ... "A CUG codon adapted two-hybrid system for the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans". Nucleic Acids Research. 38 (19): e184. doi: ... "Protein-Protein Interactions in Candida albicans". Frontiers in Microbiology. 10: 1792. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2019.01792. PMC ... "Generating genomic platforms to study Candida albicans pathogenesis" (PDF). Nucleic Acids Research. 46 (16): 8664. doi:10.1093/ ...
Candida albicans • Aspergillus niger • Colletotrichum musae • Colletotrichum gloeosporioide • Botryodiplodia theobromae • ...
Candida albicans: 12.5 μg/ml. *Mycosphaerella graminicola: 47.2 μg/ml - 85.4 μg/ml ...
Proteus mirabilis and the yeast Candida albicans.[5]. Comparison between octenidine and chlorhexidine determined by the ...
Luo S, Poltermann S, Kunert A, Rupp S, Zipfel PF (Dec 2009). "Immune evasion of the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans: ... Candida albicans; Francisella tularensis; Haemophilus influenzae; Neisseria meningitidis; Streptococcus Pneumoniae; and ...
Candida albicans infection. *Candida parapsilosis infection. *Cytomegalovirus infection. *diphtheria. *human coronavirus ...
Responses to candida albicans. Complement activation. Mixed lymphocyte reaction T-cell receptors. Phagocyte function. First to ... 219-317 Foroozanfar, N., Yamamura, M. and Hobbs, J.R. Standardization of lymphocyte transformation to candida immunogen, (1974 ...
Arvind Nandedkar to study antigenic compounds associated with Candida albicans; with Dr. Robert Watkins and Dr. Arvind ... "Neuraminidase Production by Candida Albicans". Journal of the National Medical Association. 76 (2): 143-145. PMC 2561735 . PMID ... "A Rapid Passive Hemagglutination Method For Demonstrating Serum Antibodies to Candida Albicans". J Natl Med Assoc. 73 (12): ... Garden in the department of Oral Surgery to study the effects of Chlorhexidine on the growth of clinical isolates of Candida ...
Candida albicans is a kind of diploid yeast that commonly occurs among the human gut microflora. C. albicans is an ... Bennett RJ (2015). "The parasexual lifestyle of Candida albicans". Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 28: 10-7. doi:10.1016/j.mib.2015.06. ... C. albicans has a parasexual cycle that appears to be stimulated by environmental stress. The most common pathogenic species ... Candida species cause infections in individuals with deficient immune systems. Th1-type cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is ...
Schaller M, Borelli C, Korting HC, Hube B (November 2005). "Hydrolytic enzymes as virulence factors of Candida albicans". ... Hube B (August 2004). "From commensal to pathogen: stage- and tissue-specific gene expression of Candida albicans". Current ... Datta A, Ganesan K, Natarajan K (1989). "Current trends in Candida albicans research". Advances in Microbial Physiology. ... examples include Candida albicans, a dimorphic, opportunistic human pathogen, Magnaporthe grisea, a plant pathogen, and Pichia ...
... such as Candida albicans, Helicobacter pylori, and even HIV.[9][10] In the mouth, mucins can also recruit anti-microbial ... "Mucins Suppress Virulence Traits of Candida albicans". mBio. 5 (6). doi:10.1128/mBio.01911-14. ISSN 2150-7511.. ...
Candida albicans is a diploid fungus that grows both as a yeast and as a filament. C. albicans is the most common fungal ... Johnson A (2003). "The biology of mating in Candida albicans". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 1 (2): 106-16. doi:10.1038/ ... C. albicans has maintained an elaborate, but largely hidden, mating apparatus.[25] Johnson[25] suggested that mating strategies ... may allow C. albicans to survive in the hostile environment of a mammalian host. ...
"The diploid genome sequence of Candida albicans". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 101 (19): 7329-7334. doi:10.1073/pnas.0401648101. ... "Sequence and analysis of the genome of the pathogenic yeast Candida orthopsilosis". PLoS ONE. 7 (4): e35750. Bibcode:2012PLoSO ... "Evolution of pathogenicity and sexual reproduction in eight Candida genomes". Nature. 459 (7247): 657-62. Bibcode:2009Natur. ... Candida albicans Strain:SC5315, human pathogen (2004[34]). *Candida albicans Strain:WO-1, human pathogen (2009[35]) ...
An example of an opportunistic pathogen is Candida albicans. Candida albicans is a type of fungus/yeast found in the intestines ... Though the mechanisms Candida albicans uses to switch from being a commensal to a pathogen are largely unknown, the reasons for ... Adaptation of Candida albicans to the host environment: the role of morphogenesis in virulence and survival in mammalian hosts ... The pH of the Host Niche Controls Gene Expression in and Virulence of Candida albicans. Infect. Immun. July 1998 vol. 66 no. 7 ...
Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. An increased die-off of fungal spores was found on copper surfaces compared with ... Candida utilis (formerly, Torulopsis utilis) is completely inhibited at 0.04 g/L copper concentrations. Tubercle bacillus is ... Candida utilis, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus niveus, Saccharomyces mandshuricus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in ...
He also contributed extensively to the genetics of the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. In 1970 Sherman co-founded with ... Candida albicans Saccharomyces cerevisiae Hopper, A. (2005). "The 2006 George W. Beadle Medal". Genetics. 172 (2): 723-724. doi ...
Sudbery, Peter; Gow, Neil; Berman, Judith (2004). "The distinct morphogenic states of Candida albicans". Trends in Microbiology ...
Chu, W S; Magee, B B; Magee, P T (1993). "Construction of an SfiI macrorestriction map of the Candida albicans genome". Journal ... Magee, B. B.; P. T. Magee (2000). "Induction of Mating in Candida albicans by Construction of MTLa and MTLα Strains". Science. ... Magee and her husband have worked on the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, and particularly their discovery of sexual ... Nantel, André (2006). "The long hard road to a completed Candida albicans genome". Fungal Genetics and Biology. 43 (5): 311-315 ...
... mostly by Candida albicans or similar species. Treatment usually involves the administration of topical nystatin or similar ...
In one study Candida parapsilosis was the most common species; Candida albicans is also a common agent. Onychomycosis Skin ... ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. Segal R, Kritzman A, Cividalli L, Samra Z, David M, Tiqva P. "Treatment of Candida nail infection with ... Candidal onychomycosis is an infection of the nail plate by fungus caused by Candida. ...
Candida albicans is a diploid fungus that grows both as a yeast and as a filament. C. albicans is the most common fungal ... Bennett, R.J.; Johnson, A.D. (2005). "Mating in Candida Albicans and the Search for a Sexual Cycle". Annual Review of ... Mating in C. albicans is termed a parasexual cycle since meiosis is still not observed in C. albicans. A picture of the mating ... Miller, Mathew G.; Johnson, Alexander D. (2002). "White-Opaque Switching in Candida albicans is Controlled by Mating-Type Locus ...
Aromatic alcohols (example: tyrosol) are produced by the yeast Candida albicans.[48] They are also found in beer.[49] These ... "Regulation of Aromatic Alcohol Production in Candida albicans". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 74 (23): 7211-7218. doi ...
in yeasts Aromatic alcohols (example: tyrosol) are produced by the yeast Candida albicans. They are also found in beer. These ... "Regulation of Aromatic Alcohol Production in Candida albicans". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 74 (23): 7211-7218. doi ...
For example, in the yeast Candida albicans, genes found in the nuclear genome likely originated from endosymbiosis and remain ... "Mitochondrial two-component signaling systems in Candida albicans". Eukaryotic Cell. 12 (6): 913-22. doi:10.1128/EC.00048-13. ...
In addition, it has anti-Candida albicans activity. In the European Union, Verbena essential oils (Lippia citriodora Kunth.) ... 2005). "Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 97 (2): 305-11. doi:10.1016/j.jep. ...
Candida famata, Candida rugosa, Candida geotrichium, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida guilliermondii). C. albicans accounts ... Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei, or other species (Candida stellatoidea, Candida ... Candida albicans is the most commonly implicated organism in this condition. C. albicans is carried in the mouths of about 50% ... The causative organism is usually Candida albicans, or less commonly other Candida species such as (in decreasing order of ...
5. MAZUMDAR, P.K. & MARKS, M.I. - Candida albicans infections in hospitalized children: a survey of predisposing factors. Clin ... 6. MOCHIZUKI, T.; URABE, Y.; HIROTA, Y.; WATANABE, S. & SHIINO, A. - A case of Candida albicans skin abscess associated with ... Needle aspiration was done and Candida albicans was cultured. No bacteria were isolated in aerobic or anaerobic cultures. No ... In conclusion, a subcutaneous abscess due to Candida albicans is rare, even in patients with classic risk factors. Treatment ...
Farnesol-Induced Apoptosis in Candida albicans Mark E. Shirtliff, Bastiaan P. Krom, Roelien A. M. Meijering, Brian M. Peters, ... Farnesol-Induced Apoptosis in Candida albicans Mark E. Shirtliff, Bastiaan P. Krom, Roelien A. M. Meijering, Brian M. Peters, ... Farnesol-Induced Apoptosis in Candida albicans Mark E. Shirtliff, Bastiaan P. Krom, Roelien A. M. Meijering, Brian M. Peters, ... Inhibition of Candida albicans biofilm formation by farnesol, a quorum-sensing molecule. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:5459-5463 ...
Candida albicans is part of the normal microbiota in most healthy individuals. However, it can cause opportunistic infections ... Candida albicans is part of the normal microbiota in most healthy individuals. However, it can cause opportunistic infections ... Sparber, Florian; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salomé (2015). Interleukin 17-mediated host defense against candida albicans. Pathogens ... In this review, we highlight recent findings on IL-17-mediated immunity against C. albicans in mouse and man. ...
Lauricidin - # 1 Best Candida Cleanse and More! Shared by Julian Bakery The yeast reported to be affected is Candida albicans ( ... Chances are you have Candida overgrowth. Jeff McCombs; Probiotics; Candida Infection; Candida Treatment; Treatment Candida; ... How to Halt a Candida Bloom. (1968) the association between candida albicans and lesions of seborrhoeic eczema. ... Candida Albicans is the helpful yeast that thrive in a healthy human gut assisting in the digestion and absorption of nutrients ...
... candida: …involving Candida are caused by C. albicans. However, any of multiple species of Candida can infect humans. These ... The most dangerous Candida species is C. auris, which is considered a global health threat because of its tendency to cause ... candida. * In candida. …involving Candida are caused by C. albicans. However, any of multiple species of Candida can infect ... Candida albicansAgar plate culture of Candida albicans, the causative agent of candidiasis.. Centers for Disease Control and ...
We explain what Candida albicans is and 11 scenarios when its overgrowth or presence means infection. Learn about other Candida ... Candida albicans is the most common yeast that we live with. Its found naturally on our skin and in certain parts of our ... What is Candida albicans?. Candida albicans is part of our natural microflora - or the microorganisms that commonly live in or ... Candida albicans is the most common Candida species involved, although Candida tropicalis can also cause the infection. ...
... Mark Walberg walberg at simmons.swmed.edu Wed Jan 17 08:49:57 EST 1996 *Previous message: ??candida ... Jon Myers wrote: , , Could someone please direct me to web resources exploring data on candida , albicans?Thank you. , , -- , ... Fare thee well now, , darkstar Try http://alces.med.umn.edu/alcesalces.html Contains information about Moose and Candida * ... Previous message: ??candida albicans?? *Next message: ??candida albicans?? * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ...
Toxins produced by Candida albicans.. Iwata K.. Abstract. From studies on high-and-low molecular-weight candidial toxins, with ... albicans but also other species of the genus Candida as well as those of other fungal genera. They may be to some extent ... albicans infection, it may be concluded that these toxins, particularly the high-molecular-weight ones, play a very important ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
Letter: Candida albicans and polyene antibiotics. Br Med J 1976; 2 :522 ... Letter: Candida albicans and polyene antibiotics.. Br Med J 1976; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.6034.522 (Published 28 ...
The fungal pathogen Candida albicans shows significant diversity at the genetic and phenotypic levels. In this Chapter, we ... 2017) Genome Diversity and Dynamics in Candida albicans. In: Prasad R. (eds) Candida albicans: Cellular and Molecular Biology. ... Molecular epidemiology and population dynamics in Candida albicans. In: dEnfert C, Hube B (eds) Candida: comparative and ... nov., a new human pathogen or a variant of Candida albicans? Mycoses 44(11-12):437-445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
Portrait of Candida albicans adherence regulators.. Finkel JS1, Xu W, Huang D, Hill EM, Desai JV, Woolford CA, Nett JE, Taff H ... Our study focuses on adherence of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans to one substrate, silicone, that is relevant to device- ...
M. Li, Q. Chen, R. Tang, Y. Shen, and W. D. Liu, "The expression of beta-defensin-2, 3 and LL-37 induced by Candida albicans ... R. A. Calderone and W. A. Fonzi, "Virulence factors of Candida albicans," Trends in Microbiology, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 327-335, ... M. G. Netea, G. D. Brown, B. J. Kullberg, and N. A. Gow, "An integrated model of the recognition of Candida albicans by the ... H. R. Conti and S. L. Gaffen, "Host responses to Candida albicans: Th17 cells and mucosal candidiasis," Microbes and Infection ...
M005-IgE Candida albicans. 6059-0. 602548. M005-IgE Candida albicans. kU/L. 6059-0. ...
Candida albicans contains a cryptic cyanide and antimycin A insensitive respiratory system. This alternate oxidase was found (i ... The alternate respiratory pathway of Candida albicans.. Shepherd MG, Chin CM, Sullivan PA. ...
The ALS gene family of Candida albicans.. Hoyer LL1.. Author information. 1. Dept of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of ... The ALS genes are one example of a gene family associated with pathogenicity mechanisms in C. albicans and other Candida ... The ALS gene family of Candida albicans encodes large cell-surface glycoproteins that are implicated in the process of adhesion ... ALS genes are also found in other Candida species that are isolated from cases of clinical disease. Genes in the ALS family are ...
Candida albicans was the predominant cause of candidiasis. However, a shift toward non-albicans Candida species has been ... Non-albicans Candida species also demonstrated the production of virulence factors once attributed to Candida albicans. Non- ... In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of non-albicans Candida spp. among Candida isolates from various clinical ... A total of 523 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens. Non-albicans Candida species were the predominant ...
A Diet for Candida Albicans Yeast Intolerance. 04th October 2010. One of the six thriving yeasts in the human body is known as ... Are Celiac Disease And Candida Albicans Connected?. 23rd August 2010. Celiac Disease, also referred to as CD, is intolerance to ... A yeast infection is a common bacterial infection caused by a fungus known as candida albicans, which is normally found in ... There are two basic approaches in regards to supplying a long-lasting fix on behalf of Candida Albicans. These two different ...
Candida is the most common infectious fungus. Its responsible for oral thrush, skin rashes and even systemic candidiasis. ... All about Candida (Candida albicans). FACTS: C. albicans is a diploid fungus that lives peaceably in over 80% of the population ... Candida albicans is the most common species of Candida yeast and the most common cause of candidiasis, an overgrowth of yeast. ... Indeed, the name Candida albicans redundantly means "white white," as candida derives from the Roman custom of "candidates" for ...
Alla C. albicans si devono placche orofaringee, dermatiti ed anche la candidosi sistemica. Scopri come fare per sconfiggerla! ... albicans è la principale causa di infezione da lieviti. ... Candida (Candida albicans). Candida (Candida albicans) GMEU-PD- ... Candida albicans is the most common species of Candida yeast and the most common cause of candidiasis, an overgrowth of yeast. ... La C. albicans è la principale causa di infezione da lieviti. Alla C. albicans si devono placche orofaringee, dermatiti ed ...
Tyrosol is a quorum-sensing molecule in Candida albicans. Hao Chen, Masaki Fujita, Qinghua Feng, Jon Clardy, and Gerald R. Fink ... Candida albicans, a serious fungal pathogen (7-9), displays several density-dependent phenomena. After dilution, it has a long ... Cell density controls the length of lag phase in C. albicans. An overnight culture of Candida strain SC5314 was diluted into SD ... The morphology of Candida cells was assessed directly by microscopy analysis.. Gene-Expression Analysis. C. albicans SC5314 was ...
The method described in ISO 18416:2007 is based on the detection of Candida albicans in a non-selective liquid medium ( ... ISO 18416:2007 gives general guidelines for the detection and identification of the specified microorganism Candida albicans in ...
Candida albicans. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CA1462. EC: 2.7.6.2. Protein Feature View is not available: No corresponding ... Structural characterization of CA1462, the Candida albicans thiamine pyrophosphokinase.. Santini, S., Monchois, V., Mouz, N., ...
Candida albicans ATCC ® 10231™ Designation: 3147 [CBS 6431, CCY 29-3-106, CIP 48.72, DSM 1386, IFO 1594, NCPF 3179, NCYC 1363, ... Candida albicans alpha-tubulin (TUB1) gene, complete cds. Nucleotide (GenBank) : L22737 Candida albicans inositol-1-phosphate ... Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout (ATCC® 10231D-5™) Add to dried Total DNA: At least 5 µg in 1X TE buffer. OD260/280: 1.7 to ... Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout (ATCC® 10231-MINI-PACK™) Add to frozen 6 ready-to-use vials of. ATCC® 10231™ in glycerol ...
Candida albicans ATCC ® 90028™ Designation: NCCLS 11 Application: Produces collagenase Susceptibility disc testing ... Candida albicans (Robin) Berkhout (ATCC® 90028™) Strain Designations: NCCLS 11 / Product Format: freeze-dried ... Rapid detection of ERG11 gene mutations in clinical Candida albicans isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole by ... Assessment of the effect of amphotericin B on the vitality of Candida albicans. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43: 1034-1041, ...
  • Farnesol, a precursor in the isoprenoid/sterol pathway, was recently identified as a quorum-sensing molecule produced by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans . (asm.org)
  • Candida albicans is the most important human fungal pathogen, causing various diseases from superficial mucosal infections to life-threatening systemic disorders ( 7 , 27 ). (asm.org)
  • As a polymorphic species, C. albicans is capable of switching morphologies among yeast, hyphal, and pseudohyphal forms, and the transitions are central to its pathogenesis and biofilm formation ( 1 , 15 , 30 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Farnesol is involved in the inhibition of germination and biofilm formation by C. albicans and can be cytotoxic at certain concentrations. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in host- Candida interactions, particularly those involved in initiating immune responses and in discriminating between the commensal and pathogenic forms of this fungus. (hindawi.com)
  • Candida albicans exists naturally as a commensal microorganism of the human gastrointestinal tract. (pnas.org)
  • The frequency of commensal Candida species isolated in the oral cavity of clinically healthy individuals varies from 40 to 60% [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Anderson MZ, Baller JA, Dulmage K, Wigen L, Berman J (2012) The three clades of the telomere-associated TLO gene family of Candida albicans have different splicing, localization, and expression features. (springer.com)
  • This limited yet sensitive glimpse of mutant gene expression changes had thus defined one of the broadest cell surface regulatory networks in C. albicans. (nih.gov)
  • The ALS gene family of Candida albicans. (nih.gov)
  • The ALS gene family of Candida albicans encodes large cell-surface glycoproteins that are implicated in the process of adhesion to host surfaces. (nih.gov)
  • AB006854 Candida albicans gene for CYP51 variant1, complete cds. (atcc.org)
  • Functional analysis of the Candida albicans ALS1 gene product. (nih.gov)
  • D86430 Candida albicans gene for CaRho1, complete cds. (atcc.org)
  • X56867 C. albicans gene for secretory aspartate proteinase. (atcc.org)
  • AF031229 Candida albicans alternative oxidase (AOX1) gene, complete cds. (atcc.org)
  • U38534 Candida albicans alpha-tubulin (TUB1) gene, complete cds. (atcc.org)
  • L22737 Candida albicans inositol-1-phosphate synthase (IN01) gene, complete cds. (atcc.org)
  • Temporal analysis of Candida albicans gene expression during biofilm development. (nih.gov)
  • Microarrays were used to identify changes in gene expression associated with Candida albicans biofilm development. (nih.gov)
  • Isogenic strain construction and gene mapping in Candida albicans. (genetics.org)
  • Although, C . albicans shows a predominantly clonal population structure, we find evidence of gene flow between previously known and newly identified genetic clusters, supporting the occurrence of (para)sexuality in nature. (nature.com)
  • Candida albicans thus takes advantage of both clonality and gene flow to diversify. (nature.com)
  • Despite the absence of meiosis, the parasexual cycle of C. albicans allows chromosome shuffling and recombination events by means of gene conversion and mitotic recombination, likely contributing to the genetic and phenotypic diversity in this species 5 , 6 . (nature.com)
  • The Candida albicans 14-3-3 gene, BMH1, is essential for growth. (nih.gov)
  • The 14-3-3 gene in Candida albicans (BMH1) was identified using a novel adherence assay and differential display RT-PCR. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggested that the C. albicans BMH1 gene is essential. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, the BMH1 gene in C. albicans (Accession No. AF038154) is an excellent candidate to improve our understanding of the coordinate regulation of cell cycle and morphogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • furthermore, systematic approaches are becoming available to study the contribution of each C. albicans gene in different contexts. (wikidoc.org)
  • Whereas a Yap1p-responsive lacZ fusion gene was oxidant inducible in the presence of YAP1, the C. albicans Cap1p derivatives were not oxidant responsive in S. cerevisiae. (nih.gov)
  • Consequently, a number of molecular genetic approaches have been developed in C. albicans to introduce targeted gene mutations, including the URA Blaster ( 2 ), SAT1 flipper ( 3 ), and other cassette methods ( 4 ) to construct viable homozygote deletions. (pnas.org)
  • The recent advent of molecular genetics in C. albicans has allowed several genes to be identified that specifically influence filamentous growth. (genetics.org)
  • Normally, a type of bacteria called Lactobacillus keeps the amount of Candida in the genital area under control. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Bacteria including E. Coli, yeast including Candida alibcans, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), Giardia lamblia, Staphylococcus aureus (Staph), and other microbials have all been neutralized by monolaurin in scientific studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • From 1977 to 1984, he developed pH-regulated dimorphism and applied it to study the regulation of the bud-hypha transition in Candida albicans In 1985 and 1987, he and colleagues discovered the first high frequency switching system in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latter is an epigenetic switching system Phenotypic switching in Candida albicans is often used to refer to the epigenetic white to opaque switching system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus has been shown to control the growth of Candida yeast. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • The identification of tyrosol as an autoregulatory molecule has important implications on the dynamics of growth and morphogenesis in Candida . (pnas.org)
  • In a screen using a C. albicans HWP1-lacZ strain to indicate regions of filamentous growth, we identified P. aeruginosa mutants incapable of inhibiting C. albicans filamentation. (nih.gov)
  • Through these studies, we found that 3-oxo-C12 homoserine lactone, a cell-cell signalling molecule produced by P. aeruginosa, was sufficient to inhibit C. albicans filamentation without affecting fungal growth rates. (nih.gov)
  • Yet uterine stem cells also inhibit the growth of Candida albicans (strains sensitive to as well as resistant to treatment) originating in the blood of immunosuppressed patients. (news-medical.net)
  • We speculate that nicotine promoted the growth of S. mutans , and more S. mutans cells attracted more C. albicans cells due to the interaction between two species. (hindawi.com)
  • The highest mean Mi was seen with cells grown in serum and Eagle's medium at 37 degrees C, the lowest with cells grown in Sabouraud glucose broth at 26 degrees C. Variant strains of C. albicans gave Mi values that remained constant in a variety of growth environments. (nih.gov)
  • Here we report the case of a patient taking cefazolin in whom a perirectal abscess was diagnosed via computed tomography and aspiration of which demonstrated growth of only C. albicans . (hindawi.com)
  • Using a LKB-2277 bioactivity monitor, stop-flow mode, the power-time curves of Candida albicans growth at 37 °C affected by berberine were measured. (springer.com)
  • The check experiments were studied based on agar cup method to observe the inhibitory diameter and serial dilution method to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of berberine on C. albicans growth. (springer.com)
  • By analyzing the quantitative thermogenic parameters taken from the power-time curves using correspondence analysis (CA), we could find that berberine at a low concentration (5.0 μg mL −1 ) began to inhibit the growth of C. albicans and at a high concentration (75.0 μg mL −1 ) completely inhibited C. albicans growth. (springer.com)
  • Berberine had strong anti-fungal effect on C. albicans growth. (springer.com)
  • Effect of carbon dioxide on the growth and form of Candida albicans. (nih.gov)
  • The C. albicans bmh1 Delta/BMH1 heterozygotes exhibit growth and morphogenetic defects. (nih.gov)
  • The inhibitory effect of various lactoferrin concentrations on the growth of C. albicans in whole human milk was studied. (asm.org)
  • Iron-free human lactoferrin kills C. albicans in a dose-dependent manner ( 13 ), whereas iron-saturated lactoferrin does not inhibit C. albicans growth ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Therefore, we studied the effects of lactoferrin, with and without added iron, on the growth of C. albicans in undiluted whole human milk. (asm.org)
  • The objectives of this study were (i) to determine how various concentrations of lactoferrin in whole human milk affect the growth of C. albicans and (ii) to quantitate the effect of added iron in cultural recovery of C. albicans from human milk containing lactoferrin. (asm.org)
  • Inhibition of growth by lactoferrin was determined by comparing the number of C. albicans cells (or CFU per milliliter) after 96 h of incubation to the values in the control milk with no lactoferrin and no added iron. (asm.org)
  • Many conditions induce filamentous growth in C. albicans , though only a few have been well characterized. (genetics.org)
  • The causes of excessive Candida growth are not well understood, but some predisposing factors have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • The differences are particularly noteworthy, as they could indicate the strategies that allow C. albicans to survive and mate in the hostile environment of a mammalian host. (nih.gov)
  • Only the dianisidine derivative, redoxal, and the biphenyl quinoline-carboxylic acid derivative, brequinar sodium, which are known to be potent inhibitors of mammalian DHODH, markedly reduced C. albicans DHODH activity. (nih.gov)
  • Many species are found in gut flora, including C. albicans in mammalian hosts, whereas others live as endosymbionts in insect hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results suggest that the morphogenesis of C. albicans is under complex positive and negative control by environmental conditions. (pnas.org)