Mixture of antifungal heptaene macrolides from Streptomyces griseus or Actinomyces levoris used topically in candidiasis. The antibiotic complex is composed of candicidins A, B, C, and D, of which D is the major component.
An actinomycete from which the antibiotics STREPTOMYCIN, grisein, and CANDICIDIN are obtained.
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Hydrocarbons with more than one double bond. They are a reduced form of POLYYNES.
Amphoteric macrolide antifungal antibiotic from Streptomyces natalensis or S. chattanoogensis. It is used for a variety of fungal infections, mainly topically.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.
Databases devoted to knowledge about PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.
The metabolism of drugs and their mechanisms of action.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
A family of gram-negative bacteria in the class BETAPROTEOBACTERIA. There are at least eight genera.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring in soil and water. Its organisms are generally nonpathogenic, but some species do cause infections of mammals, including humans.
A genus of GOLDEN-BROWN ALGAE in the family Ochromonadaceae, found mostly in freshwater. They bear two unequal FLAGELLA and are heterotrophic.
A species of gram-positive, spherical bacteria whose organisms occur in tetrads and in irregular clusters of tetrads. The primary habitat is mammalian skin.
A genus of SPONGES in the family Dysideidae, in which all skeletal fibers are filled with detritus.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.
Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
A genus of SPONGES in the family Chalinidae characterized by unispicular secondary lines in the choanosomal skeleton.
The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
A physiochemical process which occurs in a wide range of organisms which unlike BASAL METABOLISM is not required for or essential to short-term survivability but to long-term general well-being of the organism.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.
Insulin formulations that contain substances that retard absorption thus extending the time period of action.
An intermediate-acting INSULIN preparation with onset time of 2 hours and duration of 24 hours. It is produced by crystallizing ZINC-insulin-PROTAMINES at neutral pH 7. Thus it is called neutral protamine Hagedorn for inventor Hans Christian Hagedorn.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The injection of solutions into the skin by compressed air devices so that only the solution pierces the skin.
Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.
The forces and principles of action of matter and energy.

Rapamycin (AY-22,989), a new antifungal antibiotic. II. Fermentation, isolation and characterization. (1/28)

Rapamycin is a new antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus NRRL 5491. It was isolated from the mycelium by solvent extraction, purified by silica gel column chromatography and crystallized as a colorless solid which melts at 183 approximately to 185 degrees C and has the empirical formula C56H89NO14. From its characteristic ultraviolet absorption spectrum rapamycin can be classified as a triene. It is highly active against various Candida species, especially Candida albicans. Its activity is compared with that of amphotericin B, candicidin and nystatin.  (+info)

Isolation of mutants deregulated in phosphate control of candicidin biosynthesis. (2/28)

Mutants have been isolated in which phosphate does not inhibit the biosynthesis of candicidin. At high phosphate concentrations, candicidin production by phosphate-deregulated mutants is still inhibited, but to a lesser extent than in the wild type. Some of these mutants are higher candicidin producers than the wild type, not only in phosphate-supplemented medium but also in non-supplemented production medium. The high candicidin production by these mutants is due to (1) a high specific rate of candicidin biosynthesis and (2) an extended production phase. None of the phosphate-deregulated mutants in which uptake of [32P]phosphate was measured was a phosphate-permeability mutant.  (+info)

The candicidin gene cluster from Streptomyces griseus IMRU 3570. (3/28)

A 205 kb DNA region from Streptomyces griseus IMRU 3570, including the candicidin biosynthetic gene cluster, was cloned and partially sequenced. Analysis of the sequenced DNA led to identification of genes encoding part of a modular polyketide synthase (PKS), genes for thioesterase, macrolactone ring modification, mycosamine biosynthesis and attachment to the macrolide ring, candicidin export and regulatory proteins. It represents the first extensive genetic characterization of an aromatic polyene macrolide antibiotic biosynthetic gene cluster. Of particular interest is the presence of the CanP1 loading domain (the first described as responsible for the activation of an aromatic starter unit) and the polypeptide CanP3 (carrying modules for the formation of five out of seven conjugated double bonds). Disruption of the pabAB gene that encodes the starter unit of candicidin abolished its production [which was restored when exogenous p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) was supplied to the culture] and resulted in an enhanced production of another antifungal compound that is barely detected in the wild-type.  (+info)

Solution NMR structure of five representative glycosylated polyene macrolide antibiotics with a sterol-dependent antifungal activity. (4/28)

Glycosylated polyene macrolide antibiotics, as nystatins and amphotericins, are amphiphilic structures known to exert antifungal activity by disrupting the fungal cell membrane, leading to leakage of cellular materials, and cell death. This membrane disruption is strongly influenced by the presence and the exact nature of the membrane sterols. The solution structures of five representative glycosylated members, three tetraenes (pimaricin, nystatin A1 and rimocidin) and two heptaenes (candidin and vacidin A) have been calculated using geometric restraints derived from 1H-NMR data and random searches of their conformational space. Despite a different apparent structural order, the NMR solutions structure indicate that the hydroxyl groups all clustered on one side of the rod-shaped structures, and the glycosyl moieties are structurally conserved both in their conformation and their apparent order. The molecular structures afford an understanding of their selective interaction with the membrane sterols and the design of new polyene macrolides with improved activities.  (+info)

Organizational and mutational analysis of a complete FR-008/candicidin gene cluster encoding a structurally related polyene complex. (5/28)

The complete gene cluster for biosynthesis of a polyene complex, FR-008, spans 137.2 kb of the genome of Streptomyces sp. FR-008 consisting of six genes for a modular PKS and 15 additional genes. The extensive similarity to the partially characterized candicidin gene cluster in Streptomyces griseus IMRU3570, especially for genes involved in mycosamine biosynthesis, prompted us to compare the compounds produced by Streptomyces sp. FR-008 and Streptomyces griseus IMRU3570, and we found that FR-008 and candicidin complex are identical. A model for biosynthesis of a set of four structurally related FR-008/candicidin compounds was proposed. Deletion of the putative regulatory genes abolished antibiotic production, while disruption of putative glycosyltransferase and GDP-ketosugar aminotransferase functionalities led to the productions of a set of nonmycosaminated aglycones and a novel polyene complex with attachment of altered sugar moiety, respectively.  (+info)

Incomplete beta-ketone processing as a mechanism for polyene structural variation in the FR-008/candicidin complex. (6/28)

 (+info)

Selective removal of aberrant extender units by a type II thioesterase for efficient FR-008/candicidin biosynthesis in Streptomyces sp. strain FR-008. (7/28)

 (+info)

Tailoring the P450 monooxygenase gene for FR-008/candicidin biosynthesis. (8/28)

 (+info)

Couchioplanes caeruleus DSM43634 synthesises 67-121C, an aromatic heptaene macrolide that contains a mannosyl-mycosaminyl disaccharide. An improved draft genome sequence was used to obtain the biosynthetic gene cluster for this antifungal. Bioinformatic analysis of the polyketide synthase indicated 2017 Hot Articles in Molecular Biosystems
The regulation of antibiotic biosynthesis by Streptomyces species is complex, especially for biosynthetic gene clusters with multiple regulatory genes. The biosynthetic gene cluster for the polyene antibiotic candicidin contains four consecutive regulatory genes, which encode regulatory proteins from different families and which form a subcluster within the larger biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces sp. FR-008.... ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC ® 9763™ Designation: NRRL Y-567 [CBS 2978, CBS 5900, CCY 21-4-48, CCY 21-4-54, NCTC 10716, NCTC 7239, NCYC 87, Pattee 6, PCI M-50] Application: Assay of amphotericin Assay of amphotericin B fungizone Assay of anisomycin Assay of antifongine Assay of candicidin Assay of natamycin pimaricin, tennecetin Assay of nystatin fungicidin Media testing Produces arginase Produces ethyl alcohol ethanol Food testing Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Produces histone deacetylase Produces nicotinic acid niacin Sterility testing Susceptibility testing Testing disinfectants Testing fungicides Produces ethanol from saccharified whole corn mash Reference strain for performance testing culture media listed by the ISO TC 34 SC 9 Joint Working Group 5 in the ISO 11133 and by the Working Party on Culture Media of the International Committee on Food Microbiology and Hygiene (ICFMH-WPCM)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC ® 9763™ Designation: NRRL Y-567 [CBS 2978, CBS 5900, CCY 21-4-48, CCY 21-4-54, NCTC 10716, NCTC 7239, NCYC 87, Pattee 6, PCI M-50] Application: Assay of amphotericin Assay of amphotericin B fungizone Assay of anisomycin Assay of antifongine Assay of candicidin Assay of natamycin pimaricin, tennecetin Assay of nystatin fungicidin Media testing Produces arginase Produces ethyl alcohol ethanol Food testing Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Produces histone deacetylase Produces nicotinic acid niacin Sterility testing Susceptibility testing Testing disinfectants Testing fungicides Produces ethanol from saccharified whole corn mash Reference strain for performance testing culture media listed by the ISO TC 34 SC 9 Joint Working Group 5 in the ISO 11133 and by the Working Party on Culture Media of the International Committee on Food Microbiology and Hygiene (ICFMH-WPCM)
ATC code G01 Gynecological antiinfectives and antiseptics is a therapeutic subgroup of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System, a system of alphanumeric codes developed by the WHO for the classification of drugs and other medical products. Subgroup G01 is part of the anatomical group G Genito-urinary system and sex hormones. Codes for veterinary use (ATCvet codes) can be created by placing the letter Q in front of the human ATC code: for example, QG01. ATCvet codes without corresponding human ATC codes are cited with the leading Q in the following list. National issues of the ATC classification may include additional codes not present in this list, which follows the WHO version. G01AA01 Nystatin G01AA02 Natamycin G01AA03 Amphotericin B G01AA04 Candicidin G01AA05 Chloramphenicol G01AA06 Hachimycin G01AA07 Oxytetracycline G01AA08 Carfecillin G01AA09 Mepartricin G01AA10 Clindamycin G01AA11 Pentamycin G01AA51 Nystatin, combinations QG01AA55 Choramphenicol, combinations QG01AA90 ...
Ortiz, Adriana, Ana Esperanza Franco-Molano & Mauricio Bacci Jr. A new species of Leucoagaricus (Agaricaceae) from Colombia. Mycotaxon 106: 371-378. 2008. ABSTRACT: A new taxon of Leucoagaricus is proposed as L. amazonicus. The collection representing this species was collected in the lowlands of the Amazonas Department, Colombia, on a dump produced by ants belonging to Acromyrmex octospinosus. The very particular habitat, the small size and dark brown basidiomata that stain yellowish when bruised, the peronate inferior annulus, and the cheilocystidia which are relatively short, capitate and filled with dense brown contents are some of the features of this species. KEYWORDS: Agaricales, taxonomy, Amazonia ...
Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH
Since being recognized as a new Panamanian species about 15 years ago, much has been learned about the biology of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior, but the genetic basis of their farming lifestyle remained largely unknown. In this report, an international team of researchers has sequenced the genome of A. echinatior, and by comparison to other ant and insect genomes, identified genomic clues to the evolution of fungus farming behavior.. The authors noted that one of the most interesting findings in the genome of this leaf-cutting ant was that there are more genes in two particularly noteworthy gene families. Based on their function in other organisms, we expect them to be involved in mating system adaptations and symbiotic food processing with the fungus, said Dr. Sanne Nygaard of the Copenhagen Centre for Social Evolution, co-lead author of the study.. Nygaard explained that these findings are especially fascinating because known evolutionary changes in the reproductive biology and ...
The social Hymenoptera have distinct larval and adult stages separated by metamorphosis, which implies striking remodeling of external and internal body structures during the pupal stage. This imposes challenges to gut symbionts as existing cultures are lost and may or may not need to be replaced. To elucidate the extent to which metamorphosis interrupts associations between bacteria and hosts, we analysed changes in gut microbiota during development and traced the transmission routes of dominant symbionts from the egg to adult stage in the leaf-cutting ants Acromyrmex echinatior and Atta cephalotes, which are both important functional herbivores in the New World tropics. Bacterial density remained similar across the developmental stages of Acromyrmex, but Atta brood had very low bacterial prevalences suggesting that bacterial gut symbionts are not actively maintained. We found that Wolbachia was the absolute dominant bacterial species across developmental stages in Acromyrmex and we confirmed that Atta
But the story can get more complicated. Imagine a symbiosis with four co-evolving partners: three of them are engaged in a mutualistic relationship, while the fourth one is a parasite. Thats the beautiful case of fungus-growing ants. In their underground nests, the ants grow a mushroom-like fungus by feeding it with plant materials or other organic matter. In turn, the fungus serves as food for the ants (yes, this is agriculture!). But every garden has its pests, and the ants farm is home for the Escovopsis mold. Escovopsis is a specialized pest, found only on the crop of farming ants. To battle the parasite, the ants combine special behaviors and microbial symbionts. These insects carry a bunch of antibiotic-producing actinomycetes in elaborate cuticular crypts, supported by unique exocrine glands. The symbiotic bacteria produce substances that specifically inhibit Escovopsis growth. Although initially identified as Streptomyces, the actinomycete symbionts appear to belong to the ...
Brown DW, Cheung F, Proctor RH, Butchko RA, Zheng L, Lee Y, Utterback T, Smith S, Feldblyum T, Glenn AE, Plattner RD, Kendra DF, Town CD, Whitelaw CA ...
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Defense against biotic or abiotic stresses is one of the benefits of living in symbiosis. Leaf-cutting ants, which live in an obligate mutualism with a fungus, attenuate thermal and desiccation stress of their partner through behavioral responses, by choosing suitable places for fungus-rearing across the soil profile. The underground environment also presents hypoxic (low oxygen) and hypercapnic (high carbon dioxide) conditions, which can negatively influence the symbiont. Here, we investigated whether workers of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex lundii use the CO\(_{2}\) concentration as an orientation cue when selecting a place to locate their fungus garden, and whether they show preferences for specific CO\(_{2}\) concentrations. We also evaluated whether levels preferred by workers for fungus-rearing differ from those selected for themselves. In the laboratory, CO\(_{2}\) preferences were assessed in binary choices between chambers with different CO\(_{2}\) concentrations, by quantifying ...
Description: The substance Filipin III is a polyene macrolide antibiotic and antifungal. It is from streptomyces filipinensis and has a purity of >98%. The pure substance is white or slightly yellow powder which is May be dissolved in methanol (10 mg/mL), ethanol (2 mg/mL) or DMSO (3 mg/mL ...
BIZARRIA JR, RODOLFO... Lack of fungal cultivar fidelity and low virulence of Escovopsis trichodermoides. Fungal Ecology 45 n. p. JUN 2020. Journal article.
[118 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global P-Aminobenzoic Acid Market Research Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. Notes: Production, means the output of P-Aminobenzoic Acid Revenue,...
The solubilization by lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) of three n-alkyl esters of p-aminobenzoic acid has been studied. These esters have a local anaesthetic action. Quantitative studies show that the amount of compound solubilized is proportional to the LPC concentration and that solubilization increases in the order ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl ester. 100MHz nmr studies indicate that the local anaesthetic esters are solubilized in the hydrocarbon interior of the LPC. ...
The present disclosure provides compositions and methods for the biosynthetic production of acetaminophen, p-aminophenol, and p-aminobenzoic acid and the purification of biologically derived acetaminophen.
Symbiont choice has been proposed to play an important role in shaping many symbiotic relationships, including the fungus-growing ant-microbe mutualism. Over millions of years, fungus-growing ants have defended their fungus gardens from specialized parasites with antibiotics produced by an actinomyc …
Leafcutter ants, signature denizens of New World tropical forests, are unique in their ability to harvest fresh leaves to cultivate a nutrient-rich fungus as food.. Now, this mutualism -- a complicated interplay of ants, fungi and a suite of bacteria -- is coming into sharper focus as a team of University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers has published the complete genome of the leafcutter ant, Atta cephalotes.. The study, published today (Feb. 10, 2011) in the journal Public Library of Science (PLoS) Genetics, by an international team led by UW-Madison bacteriology professors Cameron Currie and Garret Suen, illustrates how lifestyle can remake an animals genetic blueprint over the course of evolutionary history.. The genome, the first for a leafcutter ant, reveals that the insect has shed genes that other ant species use to help acquire nutrients. The leafcutter, which cannot survive without its fungus food, has apparently slimmed its genome to get rid of genes it no longer needs due to its ...
FR-900520 and FR-900523, novel neutral macrolide immunosuppressants, were isolated from the cultured broth of Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. yakushimaensis No. 7238. Their molecular formulae were determined as C43H69NO12 and C42H67NO12, respectively. The compounds suppressed immune response in vitro. IC50 values of FR-900520 and FR-900523 for mouse mixed lymphocyte reaction were 0.55 nM and 1.6 nM, respectively. FR-900520, the major component, clearly prolonged skin allograft survival in rats.
Streptomyces griseus EshA protein: developmentally regulated protein, required for sporogenic hyphal branches in Streptomyces griseus; amino acid sequence in first source
Biosynthetic Production of 4-Amino 4-Deoxychorismate (Adc) and [3R,4R]-4-Amino-3-Hydroxycyclohexa-1,5-Diene-1-Carboxylic Acid (3,4-Cha) - The invention relates to a process for the biosynthetic production of 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) performed fermentatively in vivo with a 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase, preferably a PabAB bipartite protein (which may be a fusion protein), at an increased level of activity, thereby obtaining a broth comprising ADC and 4-amino-4-deoxyprephenate (ADP), that are recovered. The invention also relates to a further process of converting the ADP into p-aminophenylalanine. The invention, moreover relates to biosynthetic production of [3R,4R]-4-amino-3-hydroxycyclohexa-1,5-diene-1-carboxylic acid (3,4-CHA), by concerted action of such 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase and of an enzyme capable of converting isochorismate into [5S,6S]-5,6 dihydroxycyclohexa-1,3-diene-1-carboxylic acid (2,3-CHD), preferably a phenazine biosynthesis protein PhzD, including ...
Ten years ago, Cameron Currie, a microbial ecologist then at the University of Toronto in Ontario, Canada, discovered that leaf-cutting ants carry colonies of actinomycete bacteria on their bodies (C. R. Currie et al. Nature 398, 701-704; 1999). The bacteria churn out an antibiotic that protects the ants fungal crops from associated parasitic fungi (such as Escovopsis). On 29 March, Currie, Jon Clardy at the Harvard Medical School in Boston and their colleagues reported that they had isolated and purified one of these antifungals, which they named dentigerumycin, and that it is a chemical that has never been previously reported (D.-C. Oh et al. Nature Chem. Bio. doi: 10.1038/nchembio.159; 2009). The antifungal slowed the growth of a drug-resistant strain of the fungus Candida albicans, which causes yeast infections in people ...
The Species 2000/ITIS Catalogue of Life : 2006 Annual Checklist is a comprehensive index of all known plants, animals, fungi and micro-organisms. It can be used to search multiple databases simultaneously for the scientific name of an organism.
ID C6WDR1_ACTMD Unreviewed; 187 AA. AC C6WDR1; DT 22-SEP-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 22-SEP-2009, sequence version 1. DT 07-JUN-2017, entry version 53. DE RecName: Full=Ferritin {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU361145}; DE EC=1.16.3.2 {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU361145}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Amir_0082 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACU34056.1}; OS Actinosynnema mirum (strain ATCC 29888 / DSM 43827 / NBRC 14064 / IMRU OS 3971). OC Bacteria; Actinobacteria; Pseudonocardiales; Pseudonocardiaceae; OC Actinosynnema. OX NCBI_TaxID=446462 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACU34056.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002213}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACU34056.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002213} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=ATCC 29888 / DSM 43827 / NBRC 14064 / IMRU 3971 RC {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002213}; RX PubMed=21304636; DOI=10.4056/sigs.21137; RA Land M., Lapidus A., Mayilraj S., Chen F., Copeland A., Del Rio T.G., RA Nolan M., Lucas S., Tice H., Cheng J.F., Chertkov O., Bruce D., RA Goodwin ...
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Fr-009 found in: Ceramic Orange Seal ABEC 7 Manufacturer/Model By Series, Ceramic Lightning ABEC 5 Manufacturer/Model By Series, ABU GARCIA 4600C3 ..
TY - JOUR. T1 - Targeting intracellular p-aminobenzoic acid production potentiates the anti-tubercular action of antifolates. AU - Thiede, Joshua M.. AU - Kordus, Shannon Lynn. AU - Turman, Breanna J.. AU - Buonomo, Joseph A.. AU - Aldrich, Courtney C. AU - Minato, Yusuke. AU - Baughn, Anthony D. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Luke Erber for assistance in identification and initial characterization of the pabC mutant strain. This work was supported by a grant from the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center Faculty Research Development Program to A.D.B. and C.C.A., and by startup funds from the University of Minnesota to A.D.B.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - 1 The ability to revitalize and re-purpose existing drugs offers a powerful approach for novel treatment options against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other infectious agents. Antifolates are an underutilized drug class in tuberculosis (TB) therapy, capable of disrupting the biosynthesis of tetrahydrofolate, an essential cellular ...
Detail záznamu - tmRNA of Streptomyces collinus and Streptomyces griseus during the growth and in the presence of antibiotics - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
Haeder, Susanne; Wirth, Rainer; Herz, Hubert; Spiteller, Dieter (2009-03-24). "Candicidin-producing Streptomyces support leaf- ...
Asturias, J. A.; Martín, J. F.; Liras, P (1994). "Biosynthesis and phosphate control of candicidin by Streptomyces acrimycini ...
"Biosynthesis and phosphate control of candicidin by Streptomyces acrimycini JI2236: Effect of amplification of the pabAB gene ...
... candicidin, candidin. Two of these, streptomycin and neomycin, have found extensive application in the treatment of infectious ...
The following polyenes are used as antibiotics for humans: amphotericin B, nystatin, candicidin, pimaricin, methyl partricin, ...
... candicidin, candidin, and others. Waksman, along with graduate student Albert Schatz (1920-2005), discovered streptomycin-a ...
G01AA01 Nystatin G01AA02 Natamycin G01AA03 Amphotericin B G01AA04 Candicidin G01AA05 Chloramphenicol G01AA06 Hachimycin G01AA07 ...
... candicidin MeSH D09.408.477.250 - erythromycin MeSH D09.408.477.250.050 - azithromycin MeSH D09.408.477.250.100 - ...
... candicidin MeSH D02.540.505.187 - epothilones MeSH D02.540.505.250 - erythromycin MeSH D02.540.505.250.050 - azithromycin MeSH ...
Amphotericin B Candicidin Filipin - 35 carbons, binds to cholesterol (toxic) Hamycin Natamycin - 33 carbons, binds well to ...
... candicidin, and candidin. Of these, streptomycin and neomycin found extensive application in the treatment of numerous ...
Candex candicidin (INN) Candin Candistatin candocuronium iodide (INN) candoxatril (INN) candoxatrilat (INN) canertinib (USAN) ...
... candicidin MeSH D04.345.349.156 - cytochalasins MeSH D04.345.349.156.370 - cytochalasin b MeSH D04.345.349.156.450 - ...
This bioactive compound was named candicidin, because of its high activity on Candida albicans. "Product information Candicidin ... Candicidin is an antifungal compound obtained from Streptomyces griseus. It is active against some fungi including Candida ... Waksman SA, Lechevalier HA, Schaffner CP (1965). "Candicidin and other polyenic antifungal antibiotics". Bulletin of the World ... Candicidin is administered intravaginally in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. ...
It is commonly available without a prescription in various dosage forms, such as a topical cream, ointment, or vaginal suppository. It is also available as an oral troche or throat lozenge as a prescription only. Topically, clotrimazole is used for vulvovaginal candidiasis (yeast infection) or yeast infections of the skin. For vulvovaginal candidiasis (yeast infection), clotrimazole tablets and creams are inserted into the vagina. Topical clotrimazole is usually not effective in treatment of fungal infections of the scalp or nails.[citation needed] When using over-the-counter drug clotrimazole products, use should be discontinued if condition does not improve after treatment for 2 weeks for jock itch or after 4 weeks for athlete's foot or ringworm.[6] Throat lozenge preparations are used for oropharyngeal candidiasis (oral thrush) or prevention of oral thrush in people with neutropenia.[6] Clotrimazole is usually used 5 times daily for 14 days for oral thrush, twice daily for 2 to 8 weeks for ...
... (trade names Oxistat in the US, Oxizole in Canada) is an antifungal medication typically administered in a cream or lotion to treat skin infections, such as athlete's foot, jock itch and ringworm. It can also be prescribed to treat the skin rash known as tinea versicolor, caused by systemic yeast overgrowth (Candida spp.). ...
... has been used for decades in the food industry as a hurdle to fungal outgrowth in dairy products and other foods. Potential advantages for the usage of natamycin might include the replacement of traditional chemical preservatives, a neutral flavor impact, and less dependence on pH for efficacy, as is common with chemical preservatives. It can be applied in a variety of ways: as an aqueous suspension (such as mixed into a brine) sprayed on the product or into which the product is dipped, or in powdered form (along with an anticaking agent such as cellulose) sprinkled on or mixed into the product. While not currently approved for use on meats in the United States, some countries allow natamycin to be applied to the surface of dry and fermented sausages to prevent mold growth on the casing. Also, natamycin is approved for various dairy applications in the United States. More specifically, natamycin is commonly used in products such as cream cheeses, cottage cheese, sour cream, yogurt, ...
... is found primarily in sour milk products, such as koumiss, laban, yogurt, kefir, and some cottage cheeses. The casein in fermented milk is coagulated (curdled) by lactic acid. Lactic acid is also responsible for the sour flavor of sourdough bread. In lists of nutritional information lactic acid might be included under the term "carbohydrate" (or "carbohydrate by difference") because this often includes everything other than water, protein, fat, ash, and ethanol.[37] If this is the case then the calculated food energy may use the standard 4 calories per gram that is often used for all carbohydrates. But in some cases lactic acid is ignored in the calculation.[38] The energy density of lactic acid is 362 kilocalories (1,510 kJ) per 100 g.[39] In beer brewing some styles of beer (sour beer) purposely contain lactic acid. Most commonly this is produced naturally by various strains of bacteria. These bacteria ferment sugars into acids, unlike yeast, which ferment sugar into ethanol. One ...
... is a broad spectrum antiseptic for topical application in the treatment and prevention of wound infection. It may be used in first aid for minor cuts, grazes, burns, abrasions and blisters. Povidone-iodine exhibits longer lasting antiseptic effects than tincture of iodine, due to its slow absorption via soft tissue, making it the choice for longer surgeries. Chlorhexidine provides superior results with equivalent adverse events[7]. Consequently, PVP-I has found broad application in medicine as a surgical scrub; for pre- and post-operative skin cleansing; for the treatment and prevention of infections in wounds, ulcers, cuts and burns; for the treatment of infections in decubitus ulcers and stasis ulcers; in gynecology for vaginitis associated with candidal, trichomonal or mixed infections. For these purposes PVP-I has been formulated at concentrations of 7.5-10.0% in solution, spray, surgical scrub, ointment, and swab dosage forms; however, use of 10% povidone-iodine though ...
This bioactive compound was named candicidin, because of its high activity on Candida albicans. "Product information Candicidin ... Candicidin is an antifungal compound obtained from Streptomyces griseus. It is active against some fungi including Candida ... Waksman SA, Lechevalier HA, Schaffner CP (1965). "Candicidin and other polyenic antifungal antibiotics". Bulletin of the World ... Candicidin is administered intravaginally in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. ...
Here you can find all of the regulations and regulatory lists in which this substance appears, according to the data available to ECHA. This substance has been found in the following regulatory activities (directly, or inheriting the regulatory context of a parent substance):. ...
Biosynthesis of candicidin by Streptomyces acrimycini JI2236 was strongly inhibited by phosphate. p-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA) ... Biosynthesis and phosphate control of candicidin by Streptomyces acrimycini JI2236: effect of amplification of the pabAB gene. ... Formation of PABA synthase and candicidin production was equally sensitive to phosphate regulation in transformants with the ... synthase activity, required for the synthesis of PABA, a candicidin precursor, was reduced by 72% in cells grown in medium ...
Crucially, disrupting the candicidin and antimycin gene clusters in the same strain had no effect on bioactivity against a co- ... Candicidin-producing Streptomyces support leaf-cutting ants to protect their fungus garden against the pathogenic fungus ... However, candicidin and antimycins likely offer protection against other microfungal weeds that infect the attine fungal ...
Candicidin is administered intravaginally in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. ... Candicidin is an antifungal compound obtained from Streptomyces griseus.It is active against some fungi including Candida ... Candicidin is an antifungal agent used in the treatment of Streptomyves natalenesis. ...
a) The prescription-dispensing requirements of section503(b)(1)(B) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act are not necessary for the protection of the public health with respect to the following drugs subject to new drug applications: (1) N -Acetyl-p -aminophenol (acetaminophen, p -hydroxy-acetanilid) preparations meeting all the following conditions: (i) The N -acetyl-p -aminophenol is prepared, with or without other drugs, in tablet or other dosage form suitable for oral use in self-medication, and containing no drug limited to prescription sale under the provisions of section 503(b)(1) of the act. (ii) The N -acetyl-p -aminophenol and all other components of the preparation meet their professed standards of identity, strength, quality, and purity. (iii) If the preparation is a new drug, an application pursuant to section 505 (b) of the act is approved for it. (iv) The preparation contains not more than 0.325 gram (5 grains) of N -acetyl-p -aminophenol per dosage unit, or if it is in ...
a) A number of active ingredients have been present in OTC drug products for various uses, as described below. However, based on evidence currently available, there are inadequate data to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness of these ingredients for the specified uses: (1) Topical acne drug products. Alcloxa Alkyl isoquinolinium bromide Aluminum chlorohydrex Aluminum hydroxide Benzocaine Benzoic acid Boric acid Calcium polysulfide Calcium thiosulfate Camphor Chloroxylenol Cloxyquin Coal tar Dibenzothiophene Estrone Magnesium aluminum silicate Magnesium sulfate Phenol Phenolate sodium Phenyl salicylate Povidone-iodine Pyrilamine maleate Resorcinol (as single ingredient) Resorcinol monoacetate (as single ingredient) Salicylic acid (over 2 up to 5 percent) Sodium borate Sodium thiosulfate Tetracaine hydrochloride Thymol Vitamin E Zinc oxide Zinc stearate Zinc sulfide. (2) Anticaries drug products - (i) Approved as of May 7, 1991. Hydrogen fluoride Sodium carbonate Sodium ...
ii) Any ingredients labeled with any of the following or similar claims. Instant protection or protection immediately upon application. Claims for "all-day" protection or extended wear claims citing a specific number of hours of protection that is inconsistent with the directions for application in 21 CFR 201.327. (30) [Reserved] (b) Any OTC drug product that is labeled, represented, or promoted for the uses specified and containing any active ingredient(s) as specified in paragraph (a) of this section is regarded as a new drug within the meaning of section 210(p) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act), for which an approved new drug application under section 505 of the Act and part 314 of this chapter is required for marketing. In the absence of an approved new drug application, such product is also misbranded under section 502 of the Act. (c) Clinical investigations designed to obtain evidence that any drug product labeled, represented, or promoted for the OTC uses and ...
Assay of amphotericin Assay of amphotericin B fungizone Assay of anisomycin Assay of antifongine Assay of candicidin Assay of ... Assay of candicidin. Assay of natamycin pimaricin, tennecetin. Assay of nystatin fungicidin ...
Enzymology of the polyenes pimaricin and candicidin biosynthesis.. Martín JF, Aparicio JF. ...
Candicidin. The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Candicidin is combined with Perhexiline.. Withdrawn. ...
Candicidin. Used in the topical treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.. DB01211. Clarithromycin. An alternative medication for ...
Candicidin D, 40-de. methyl-3,7-dideoxo-. 3,7-dihydroxy-N47-m. ethyl-5-oxo-, methy. l ester, cyclic 15,. 19-hemiacetal ...
2009) Candicidin biosynthesis gene cluster is widely distributed among Streptomyces spp. isolated from the sediments and the ... Similarly, candicidin macrolides were synthesized by the majority of the Streptomyces isolates from the three Acromyrmex ... 2009) Candicidin-producing Streptomyces support leaf-cutting ants to protect their fungus garden against the pathogenic fungus ... Because antimycins A1-A4 (4-7), actinomycins, and valinomycins as well as the previously identified candicidin macrolides (11) ...
G01AA04 Candicidin G01AA05 Chloramphenicol G01AA06 Hachimycin G01AA07 Oxytetracycline G01AA08 Carfecillin G01AA09 Mepartricin ...
Used to be called candicidin.) A new preparation, broad spectrum, systemic effects. Contains oils of oregano, clove, artemesia ...
Candicidin biosynthetic gene cluster is widely distributed among Streptomyces spp. isolated from the sediments and the neuston ...
7.1.3.2 Candicidin. 7.1.3.3 Hamycin. 7.1.3.4 Natamycin. 7.1.3.5 Others. 7.1.4 Allylamines. 7.1.4.1 Lamisil. 7.1.4.2 Terbinafine ...
... candicidin, mepartricin, natamycin, and nystatin), allylamines (e.g., butenafine, and naftifine), imidazoles (e.g., bifonazole ... Candicidin; Carbol-Fuchsin; Chlordantoin; Ciclopirox; Ciclopirox Olamine; Cilofungin; Cisconazole; Clotrimazole; Cuprimyxin; ...
Campelo, A. B., and Gil, J. A. (2002). The candicidin gene cluster from Streptomyces griseus IMRU 3570. Microbiology 148, 51-59 ... 2003). Organizational and mutational analysis of a complete FR-008/candicidin gene cluster encoding a structurally related ... SM17 appears to possess a candicidin, an antimycin, and a polycyclic tetramate macrolactam cluster (SGR PTMs) (Figure 4 and ... such as smBGCs potentially encoding the production of candicidin, antimycin, SGR PTMs, surugamides, and mannopeptimycin, in ...
Vanobid - ointment, vaginal (0.6mg/gm) - Candicidin (Levorin) * Vanobid - tablet, vaginal (3mg) - Candicidin (Levorin) ...
Phosphate control of pabS gene transcription during candicidin biosynthesis. Gene 93 : 79-84. ... At least for candicidin in S. griseus, oxytetracycline in S. rimosus, and pimaricin in S. natalensis, phosphate control is ...
The candicidin gene cluster from Streptomyces griseus IMRU 3570. Microbiology48:51-59. ... Phosphate control of pabS gene transcription during candicidin biosynthesis. Gene93:79-84. ... which encodes the candicidin precursor-forming enzyme p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase (3), and expression of the ... in addition to PABA synthase in the candicidin gene cluster (6, 9) or the complete pimaricin gene cluster (2). A question that ...
Example: Candicidin ointment.. NASAL OINTMENTS. These are used in the topical treatment of nasal mucosa. Drugs get. absorbed ...
Anhydrous candicidin foam compositions US4174295A (en) * 1976-08-13. 1979-11-13. Montedison S.P.A.. Aerosol propellant ... Anhydrous candicidin foam compositions US4174295A (en) * 1976-08-13. 1979-11-13. Montedison S.P.A.. Aerosol propellant ...
Anhydrous candicidin foam compositions US5082667A (en) 1992-01-21. Solid pharmaceutical dosage in tablet triturate form and ...
... and candicidin; anti-parastic compounds such as antimonials. These biological agents include without limitation vinca alkaloids ...
Lechevalier, H., R. F. Acker, C. T. Corke, C. M. Haenseler and S. A. Waksman: Candicidin, A New Antifungal Antibiotic. ... Vining, L. C, W. A. Taber and F. J. Gregory: The Candidin-Candicidin Group of Antifungal Antibiotics. Antibiotics Annu.1954- ... Taber, W. A. and L. C. Vining: A Comparison of the Antifungal Antibiotics Candidin, Ascosin, Candicidin, and Trichomycin. ...
2. any of a group of antibiotic antifungal agents with similar structure, such as amphotericin b, candicidin, or nystatin; they ...
We have constructed a strain of S. albus S4 in which the antimycin, candicidin, albaflavenone, surugamide and fredericamycin ... McLean TC, Hoskisson PA, Seipke RF (2016) Coordinate regulation of antimycin and candicidin biosynthesis. mSphere 1:e00305-16. ... 2014). We mutated these five BGCs using conventional marker exchange mutagenesis (candicidin), PCR-targeted recombineering ( ... candicidin and antimycin) as well as compounds yet to be characterised (Myronovskyi et al. 2018). Relatively recently, we ...
  • Candicidin is an antifungal compound obtained from Streptomyces griseus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biosynthesis and phosphate control of candicidin by Streptomyces acrimycini JI2236: effect of amplification of the pabAB gene. (nih.gov)
  • Biosynthesis of candicidin by Streptomyces acrimycini JI2236 was strongly inhibited by phosphate. (nih.gov)
  • 11 ) identified the antifungal candicidin macrolides that are produced by a large number of Streptomyces symbionts isolated from three different leaf-cutting ant species ( A. octospinosus , A. echinatior , and A. volcanus ). (pnas.org)
  • 13 ) detected, besides the presence of the previously characterized candicidin polyene macrolide-producing Streptomyces ( 11 ), a Pseudonocardia symbiont that produces a nystatin-like polyene macrolide. (pnas.org)
  • A Hierarchical Network of Four Regulatory Genes Controlling Production of the Polyene Antibiotic Candicidin in Streptomyces sp. (asm.org)
  • The biosynthetic gene cluster for the polyene antibiotic candicidin contains four consecutive regulatory genes, which encode regulatory proteins from different families and which form a subcluster within the larger biosynthetic gene cluster in Streptomyces sp. (asm.org)
  • Consistent with this idea, a Streptomyces species associated with the higher attine Acromyrmex octospinosus was recently shown to produce the well-known antifungal candicidin. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Candicidin production is widespread in environmental isolates of Streptomyces , so this could either be an environmental contaminant or evidence of recruitment of useful actinomycetes from the environment. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In order to test these possibilities we isolated bacteria from a geographically distinct population of A. octospinosus and identified a candicidin-producing Streptomyces species, which suggests that they are common mutualists of attine ants, most probably recruited from the environment. (beds.ac.uk)
  • [25575546] Production of the antibiotic FR-008/candicidin in Streptomyces sp. (go.jp)
  • includes amphotericin B, nystatin and candicidin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Its activity is compared with that of amphotericin B, candicidin and nystatin. (go.jp)
  • To cure an oral yeast infection there are a lot of drugs available: Candicidin, Ketoconazole, Triazoles, Amphotericin B, Nystatin. (yeastcurefast.com)
  • Other polyene antibiotics like primaricin, hamycin, trichomycinare and candicidin have been used to a limited extent, for the treatment of localized mycotic infections. (scialert.net)
  • [14652074] Organizational and mutational analysis of a complete FR-008/candicidin gene cluster encoding a structurally related polyene complex. (go.jp)
  • [19362642] Enzymology of the polyenes pimaricin and candicidin biosynthesis. (go.jp)
  • [23324745] In vivo investigation of the substrate recognition capability and activity affecting amino acid residues of glycosyltransferase FscMI in the biosynthesis of candicidin. (go.jp)
  • 2016. Coordinate regulation of antimycin and candicidin biosynthesis. (ryanseipkelab.com)
  • An actinomycete from which the antibiotics STREPTOMYCIN, grisein, and CANDICIDIN are obtained. (healthmatics.info)
  • Formation of PABA synthase and candicidin production was equally sensitive to phosphate regulation in transformants with the pabAB than in the untransformed S. acrimycini strain. (nih.gov)
  • We therefore strongly advocate the use of candicidin instead of darodipine in patients with high risks during acataract surgery yesterday and to those references with minimal response to the effect of mydriatic drops. (conservationhawaii.org)
  • This bioactive compound was named candicidin, because of its high activity on Candida albicans. (wikipedia.org)
  • p-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA) synthase activity, required for the synthesis of PABA, a candicidin precursor, was reduced by 72% in cells grown in medium supplemented with 7.5 mM phosphate. (nih.gov)
  • Candicidin is administered intravaginally in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Candicidin is an antifungal agent used in the treatment of Streptomyves natalenesis. (rspharmchem.com)
  • three of the transformants synthesized higher levels of PABA synthase and two transformants produced more candicidin than control cultures transformed with pIJ699. (nih.gov)