Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Testing of immune status in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer, immunoproliferative and immunodeficiency disorders, and autoimmune abnormalities. Changes in immune parameters are of special significance before, during and following organ transplantation. Strategies include measurement of tumor antigen and other markers (often by RADIOIMMUNOASSAY), studies of cellular or humoral immunity in cancer etiology, IMMUNOTHERAPY trials, etc.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Carbohydrate antigen elevated in patients with tumors of the breast, ovary, lung, and prostate as well as other disorders. The mucin is expressed normally by most glandular epithelia but shows particularly increased expression in the breast at lactation and in malignancy. It is thus an established serum marker for breast cancer.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
A ganglioside present in abnormally large amounts in the brain and liver due to a deficient biosynthetic enzyme, G(M3):UDP-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Deficiency of this enzyme prevents the formation of G(M2) ganglioside from G(M3) ganglioside and is the cause of an anabolic sphingolipidosis.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A species of AVIPOXVIRUS, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE. Canarypox virus vectors are used in vaccine and immunotherapy research.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A type of human papillomavirus especially associated with malignant tumors of the genital and RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.
Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.
Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.
Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Staphylococcal vaccines are preventive measures against Staphylococcus infections, typically administered to high-risk individuals or those in healthcare settings.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Hemocyanin is a copper-containing protein that transports oxygen in the hemolymph of certain invertebrates, including arthropods and mollusks.
A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS especially associated with malignant tumors of the CERVIX and the RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.
A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) caused by species of SHIGELLA.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
A type of extracellular vesicle, containing RNA and proteins, that is secreted into the extracellular space by EXOCYTOSIS when MULTIVESICULAR BODIES fuse with the PLASMA MEMBRANE.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An attenuated vaccine used to prevent and/or treat HERPES ZOSTER, a disease caused by HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 3.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.
A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.

Systemic administration of rIL-12 synergistically enhances the therapeutic effect of a TNF gene-transduced cancer vaccine. (1/3029)

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent antitumor cytokine, which induces and enhances the activity of natural killer (NK) cells, lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). IL-12 also stimulates IFN-gamma production from both T cells and NK cells. In this study, we transfected methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma (MCA-D) with TNF gene and investigated the therapeutic effect of TNF gene-transduced cancer vaccine and whether the vaccination effect is enhanced by systemic administration of recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12), in a murine model. TNF gene-transduced cancer vaccine or systemic administration of rIL-12 showed slight or moderate inhibition of pre-established tumor. However, simultaneous application of the vaccine and rIL-12 resulted in complete eradication. The cytotoxicity of CTL against parental tumor cells was enhanced with the combination of the vaccine and rIL-12, and IFN-gamma production from spleen cells also increased synergistically. Our findings show that synergistic enhancement of CTL activity and IFN-gamma production could play an important role in the antitumor effect of combination therapy using TNF gene-transduced cancer vaccine and rIL-12.  (+info)

Presentation of renal tumor antigens by human dendritic cells activates tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes against autologous tumor: implications for live kidney cancer vaccines. (2/3029)

The clinical impact of dendritic cells (DCs) in the treatment of human cancer depends on their unique role as the most potent antigen-presenting cells that are capable of priming an antitumor T-cell response. Here, we demonstrate that functional DCs can be generated from peripheral blood of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by culture of monocytes/macrophages (CD14+) in autologous serum containing medium (RPMI) in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin (IL) 4. For testing the capability of RCC-antigen uptake and processing, we loaded these DCs with autologous tumor lysate (TuLy) using liposomes, after which cytometric analysis of the DCs revealed a markedly increased expression of HLA class I antigen and a persistent high expression of class II. The immunogenicity of DC-TuLy was further tested in cultures of renal tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) cultured in low-dose IL-2 (20 Biologic Response Modifier Program units/ml). A synergistic effect of DC-TuLy and IL-2 in stimulating a T cell-dependent immune response was demonstrated by: (a) the increase of growth expansion of TILs (9.4-14.3-fold; day 21); (b) the up-regulation of the CD3+ CD56- TcR+ (both CD4+ and CD8+) cell population; (c) the augmentation of T cell-restricted autologous tumor lysis; and (d) the enhancement of IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and IL-6 mRNA expression by TILs. Taken together, these data implicate that DC-TuLy can activate immunosuppressed TIL via an induction of enhanced antitumor CTL responses associated with production of Thl cells. This indicates a potential role of DC-TuLy vaccines for induction of active immunity in patients with advanced RCC.  (+info)

Melanoma cells present a MAGE-3 epitope to CD4(+) cytotoxic T cells in association with histocompatibility leukocyte antigen DR11. (3/3029)

In this study we used TEPITOPE, a new epitope prediction software, to identify sequence segments on the MAGE-3 protein with promiscuous binding to histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR molecules. Synthetic peptides corresponding to the identified sequences were synthesized and used to propagate CD4(+) T cells from the blood of a healthy donor. CD4(+) T cells strongly recognized MAGE-3281-295 and, to a lesser extent, MAGE-3141-155 and MAGE-3146-160. Moreover, CD4(+) T cells proliferated in the presence of recombinant MAGE-3 after processing and presentation by autologous antigen presenting cells, demonstrating that the MAGE-3 epitopes recognized are naturally processed. CD4(+) T cells, mostly of the T helper 1 type, showed specific lytic activity against HLA-DR11/MAGE-3-positive melanoma cells. Cold target inhibition experiments demonstrated indeed that the CD4(+) T cells recognized MAGE-3281-295 in association with HLA-DR11 on melanoma cells. This is the first evidence that a tumor-specific shared antigen forms CD4(+) T cell epitopes. Furthermore, we validated the use of algorithms for the prediction of promiscuous CD4(+) T cell epitopes, thus opening the possibility of wide application to other tumor-associated antigens. These results have direct implications for cancer immunotherapy in the design of peptide-based vaccines with tumor-specific CD4(+) T cell epitopes.  (+info)

Systemic administration of interleukin 2 enhances the therapeutic efficacy of dendritic cell-based tumor vaccines. (4/3029)

We have reported previously that murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with whole tumor lysates can mediate potent antitumor immune responses both in vitro and in vivo. Because successful therapy was dependent on host immune T cells, we have now evaluated whether the systemic administration of the T cell stimulatory/growth promoting cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) could enhance tumor lysate-pulsed DC-based immunizations to further promote protective immunity toward, and therapeutic rejection of, syngeneic murine tumors. In three separate approaches using a weakly immunogenic sarcoma (MCA-207), the systemic administration of nontoxic doses of recombinant IL-2 (20,000 and 40,000 IU/dose) was capable of mediating significant increases in the potency of DC-based immunizations. IL-2 could augment the efficacy of tumor lysate-pulsed DC to induce protective immunity to lethal tumor challenge as well as enhance splenic cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and interferon-gamma production in these treated mice. Moreover, treatment with the combination of tumor lysate-pulsed DC and IL-2 could also mediate regressions of established pulmonary 3-day micrometastases and 7-day macrometastases as well as established 14- and 28-day s.c. tumors, leading to either significant cure rates or prolongation in overall survival. Collectively, these findings show that nontoxic doses of recombinant IL-2 can potentiate the antitumor effects of tumor lysate-pulsed DC in vivo and provide preclinical rationale for the use of IL-2 in DC-based vaccine strategies in patients with advanced cancer.  (+info)

Cytokine-based tumor cell vaccine is equally effective against parental and isogenic multidrug-resistant myeloma cells: the role of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (5/3029)

Tumor cells that survive initial courses of chemotherapy may do so by acquiring a multidrug-resistant phenotype. This particular mechanism of drug resistance may also confer resistance to physiological effectors of apoptosis that could potentially reduce the efficacy of immune therapies that use these pathways of cell death. We have previously demonstrated high efficacy for a cytokine-based tumor cell vaccine in a murine MPC11 myeloma model. In the present study, the effects of this vaccination were compared in MPC11 cells and their isogenic sublines selected for mdr1/P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR). Immunization with MPC11 cells expressing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) led to long-lasting protection of mice against subcutaneous (sc) challenge with both parental cells or their MDR variants. Similarly, immunization with GM-CSF/IL-12-transfected MDR sublines caused rejection of transplantation of both parental cells and the MDR sublines. Whereas MPC11 cells and their MDR variants were resistant to APO-1/CD95/Fas ligand, the immunization generated potent granzyme B/perforin-secreting cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) that were similarly effective against both parental and isogenic MDR cells. We conclude that MDR mediated by mdr1/Pgp did not interfere with lysis by pore-forming CTLs. Immunotherapy based on pore-forming CTLs may be an attractive approach to the treatment of drug-resistant myeloma.  (+info)

Cancer vaccines. (6/3029)

It has been more than 100 years since the first reported attempts to activate a patient's immune system to eradicate developing cancers. Although a few of the subsequent vaccine studies demonstrated clinically significant treatment effects, active immunotherapy has not yet become an established cancer treatment modality. Two recent advances have allowed the design of more specific cancer vaccine approaches: improved molecular biology techniques and a greater understanding of the mechanisms involved in the activation of T cells. These advances have resulted in improved systemic antitumor immune responses in animal models. Because most tumor antigens recognized by T cells are still not known, the tumor cell itself is the best source of immunizing antigens. For this reason, most vaccine approaches currently being tested in the clinics use whole cancer cells that have been genetically modified to express genes that are now known to be critical mediators of immune system activation. In the future, the molecular definition of tumor-specific antigens that are recognized by activated T cells will allow the development of targeted antigen-specific vaccines for the treatment of patients with cancer.  (+info)

Vaccination with a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding a "self" antigen induces autoimmune vitiligo and tumor cell destruction in mice: requirement for CD4(+) T lymphocytes. (7/3029)

Many human and mouse tumor antigens are normal, nonmutated tissue differentiation antigens. Consequently, immunization with these "self" antigens could induce autoimmunity. When we tried to induce immune responses to five mouse melanocyte differentiation antigens, gp100, MART-1, tyrosinase, and tyrosinase-related proteins (TRP) 1 and TRP-2, we observed striking depigmentation and melanocyte destruction only in the skin of mice inoculated with a vaccinia virus encoding mouse TRP-1. These mice rejected a lethal challenge of B16 melanoma, indicating the immune response against TRP-1 could destroy both normal and malignant melanocytes. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for TRP-1 could not be detected in depigmented mice, but high titers of IgG anti-TRP-1 antibodies were present. Experiments with knockout mice revealed an absolute dependence on major histocompatibility complex class II, but not major histocompatibility complex class I, for the induction of both vitiligo and tumor protection. Together, these results suggest that the deliberate induction of self-reactivity using a recombinant viral vector can lead to tumor destruction, and that in this model, CD4(+) T lymphocytes are an integral part of this process. Vaccine strategies targeting tissue differentiation antigens may be valuable in cancers arising from nonessential cells and organs such as melanocytes, prostate, testis, breast, and ovary.  (+info)

Preclinical development of human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-transfected melanoma cell vaccine using established canine cell lines and normal dogs. (8/3029)

Tumor vaccines and gene therapy have received significant attention as means of increasing cellular and humoral immune responses to cancer. We conducted a pilot study of seven research dogs to determine whether intradermal injection of canine tumor cells transfected via the Accell particle-mediated gene transfer device with the cDNA for human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) would generate biologically relevant levels of protein and result in demonstrable histological changes at sites of vaccination. Tumor cell vaccines of 10(7) irradiated canine melanoma cells were nontoxic, safe, and well tolerated. No significant alterations in blood chemistry values or hematological profiles were detected. A histological review of control vaccine sites revealed inflammatory responses predominated by eosinophils, whereas vaccine sites with hGM-CSF-transfected tumor cells had an influx of neutrophils and macrophages. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of skin biopsies from vaccine sites had local hGM-CSF production (8.68-16.82 ng/site of injection) at 24 hours after injection and detectable levels (0.014-0.081 ng/site) for < or =2 weeks following vaccination. Flow cytometric analysis of hGM-CSF-transfected cells demonstrated < or =25% transfection efficiency, and hGM-CSF levels obtained during time-course assays demonstrated biologically relevant levels for both irradiated and nonirradiated samples. These data demonstrate the in vivo biological activity of irradiated hGM-CSF-transfected canine tumor cells and help provide evidence for a valid translational research model of spontaneous tumors.  (+info)

Cancer vaccines are a type of vaccine designed to stimulate the immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells. They work by introducing cancer-specific antigens, which are proteins or other molecules found on the surface of cancer cells, into the body. The immune system recognizes these antigens as foreign and mounts an immune response against them, which can help to slow the growth of cancer cells or even eliminate them entirely. There are several different types of cancer vaccines, including prophylactic vaccines, which are designed to prevent cancer from developing in the first place, and therapeutic vaccines, which are designed to treat existing cancer. Prophylactic vaccines are typically given to people who are at high risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as those with a family history of the disease or those who have certain genetic mutations. Therapeutic vaccines are given to people who have already been diagnosed with cancer, with the goal of boosting their immune system and helping it to attack cancer cells more effectively. Cancer vaccines are still an active area of research, and while some have shown promise in clinical trials, they are not yet widely available for use in the general population. However, they hold great potential for improving cancer treatment and prevention, and ongoing research is expected to lead to the development of more effective cancer vaccines in the future.

Vaccines are biological preparations that are used to stimulate the immune system to produce a protective response against specific infectious diseases. They contain weakened or inactivated forms of the pathogen or its components, such as proteins or sugars, that trigger an immune response without causing the disease. When a vaccine is administered, the immune system recognizes the foreign substance and produces antibodies to fight it off. This process primes the immune system to recognize and respond more quickly and effectively if the person is later exposed to the actual pathogen. This can prevent or reduce the severity of the disease and help to control its spread in the population. Vaccines are an important tool in public health and have been responsible for the eradication or control of many infectious diseases, such as smallpox, polio, and measles. They are typically given through injection or oral administration and are recommended for individuals of all ages, depending on the disease and the individual's risk factors.

In the medical field, "Vaccines, Inactivated" refers to vaccines that contain viruses or bacteria that have been killed or inactivated, meaning they are no longer able to cause disease. These vaccines stimulate the immune system to produce an immune response without causing the disease itself. Inactivated vaccines are often used to prevent viral diseases such as polio, hepatitis A, and influenza. They are usually given by injection and require two or more doses to provide full protection. Inactivated vaccines are considered safe and effective, and are widely used in vaccination programs around the world.

DNA vaccines are a type of vaccine that uses a small piece of genetic material, usually DNA, to stimulate an immune response in the body. This genetic material is designed to encode a specific protein that is found on the surface of a pathogen, such as a virus or bacteria. When the DNA is introduced into the body, it is taken up by cells and used to produce the protein. The immune system recognizes the protein as foreign and mounts an immune response against it, which can provide protection against future infections by the pathogen. DNA vaccines are still in the experimental stage and have not yet been widely used in humans. However, they have shown promise in preclinical studies and are being investigated as a potential way to prevent a variety of infectious diseases, including influenza, HIV, and malaria. One advantage of DNA vaccines is that they can be easily and quickly produced, and they do not require the use of live or attenuated pathogens, which can be more difficult to work with and may pose a risk of causing disease.

Viral vaccines are a type of vaccine that use a weakened or inactivated form of a virus to stimulate the immune system to produce an immune response against the virus. This immune response can provide protection against future infections with the virus. There are several different types of viral vaccines, including live attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, and subunit vaccines. Live attenuated vaccines use a weakened form of the virus that is still able to replicate, but is not strong enough to cause disease. Inactivated vaccines use a killed form of the virus that is no longer able to replicate. Subunit vaccines use only a small part of the virus, such as a protein or a piece of genetic material, to stimulate an immune response. Viral vaccines are used to prevent a wide range of viral diseases, including influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, and human papillomavirus (HPV). They are typically given by injection, but can also be given by mouth or nose in some cases. Viral vaccines are an important tool in preventing the spread of viral diseases and reducing the number of cases and deaths caused by these diseases. They are generally safe and effective, and are an important part of public health efforts to control the spread of viral diseases.

In the medical field, "Vaccines, Synthetic" refers to vaccines that are made using synthetic or man-made methods, rather than being derived from natural sources such as live or attenuated viruses or bacteria. These vaccines are typically made using recombinant DNA technology, which involves inserting a small piece of genetic material from the pathogen into a harmless host cell, such as a yeast or bacteria, that is then grown in large quantities. The resulting protein is then purified and used to make the vaccine. Synthetic vaccines have several advantages over traditional vaccines, including the ability to produce vaccines quickly and efficiently, the ability to produce vaccines for diseases that are difficult to grow in the laboratory, and the ability to produce vaccines that are safe and effective for people with weakened immune systems or other health conditions. Some examples of synthetic vaccines include the hepatitis B vaccine, the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, and the influenza vaccine.

Vaccines, Subunit are a type of vaccine that contains only a specific part or subunit of a pathogen, such as a protein or sugar molecule, rather than the whole pathogen. These subunits are enough to stimulate an immune response in the body, but they are not capable of causing disease. Subunit vaccines are often used in combination with other vaccine components, such as adjuvants or carriers, to enhance the immune response and improve the effectiveness of the vaccine. Subunit vaccines are generally considered to be safe and effective, and they have been used to prevent a variety of diseases, including hepatitis B, human papillomavirus (HPV), and influenza.

In the medical field, "Vaccines, Combined" refers to vaccines that contain multiple antigens or components of different infectious agents in a single dose. These vaccines are designed to provide protection against multiple diseases with a single injection, which can simplify vaccination schedules and reduce the number of visits to healthcare facilities. Examples of combined vaccines include the MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine, the DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis) vaccine, and the HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccine. These vaccines contain antigens from different viruses or bacteria that are combined in a single formulation to provide comprehensive protection against multiple diseases. Combined vaccines are an important tool in public health efforts to prevent the spread of infectious diseases and protect individuals and communities from illness and disability. They are typically administered to infants, children, and adolescents, and are an essential part of routine vaccination schedules recommended by healthcare providers.

Bacterial vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against bacterial infections. They work by stimulating the immune system to recognize and fight off specific bacteria that cause disease. Bacterial vaccines can be made from live, attenuated bacteria (bacteria that have been weakened so they cannot cause disease), inactivated bacteria (bacteria that have been killed), or pieces of bacteria (such as proteins or polysaccharides) that are recognized by the immune system. Bacterial vaccines are used to prevent a wide range of bacterial infections, including diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, typhoid fever, and meningococcal disease. They are typically given by injection, but some can also be given by mouth. Bacterial vaccines are an important tool in preventing the spread of bacterial infections and reducing the burden of disease in the population.

AIDS vaccines are vaccines designed to prevent the acquisition of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These vaccines aim to stimulate the immune system to recognize and attack HIV, thereby preventing infection or reducing the severity of the disease if infection occurs. There are several types of AIDS vaccines being developed, including preventive vaccines that aim to prevent initial infection and therapeutic vaccines that aim to treat already infected individuals. Preventive vaccines typically use antigens from HIV to stimulate an immune response, while therapeutic vaccines aim to boost the immune system's ability to fight off the virus. Despite significant progress in the development of AIDS vaccines, no vaccine has yet been approved for widespread use. However, several vaccines are currently in clinical trials, and researchers continue to work on developing effective vaccines to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS.

Papillomavirus vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against human papillomavirus (HPV), a group of viruses that can cause various types of cancer, including cervical cancer, anal cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer. There are currently two types of HPV vaccines available: Gardasil and Cervarix. Gardasil is a quadrivalent vaccine that protects against four types of HPV: 6, 11, 16, and 18. These four types of HPV are responsible for the majority of HPV-related cancers and genital warts. Cervarix is a bivalent vaccine that protects against two types of HPV: 16 and 18. These two types of HPV are responsible for about 70% of cervical cancer cases. Both vaccines are given in a series of two or three doses, depending on the manufacturer's recommendations. They are typically given to girls and boys between the ages of 9 and 26, although some countries recommend vaccination for older individuals as well. HPV vaccines are considered to be highly effective in preventing HPV infection and the associated cancers and genital warts. However, they are not a cure for existing HPV infections or cancers, and it is still important for individuals to get regular Pap smear tests to detect any potential cervical cancer.

Vaccines, conjugate are a type of vaccine that uses a carrier protein to enhance the immune response to a specific bacterial or viral pathogen. The carrier protein is usually a protein that is found in the body, such as diphtheria toxin or tetanus toxin, and is conjugated to a small piece of the pathogen, such as a polysaccharide or protein. This conjugation helps the immune system recognize and respond to the pathogen more effectively, particularly in young children whose immune systems may not be as developed as those of adults. Conjugate vaccines are used to prevent a variety of bacterial and viral diseases, including pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and pneumococcal disease.

In the medical field, neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors of cells that can occur in any part of the body. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or difficulty moving the affected area. Examples of benign neoplasms include lipomas (fatty tumors), hemangiomas (vascular tumors), and fibromas (fibrous tumors). Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. They can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and stage of the cancer. Examples of malignant neoplasms include carcinomas (cancers that start in epithelial cells), sarcomas (cancers that start in connective tissue), and leukemias (cancers that start in blood cells). The diagnosis of neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy (the removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope). Treatment options for neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

Malaria vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against the Plasmodium parasite, which causes malaria. Malaria is a serious and often deadly disease that is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. There are several different types of malaria vaccines that are currently being developed and tested, including subunit vaccines, recombinant vaccines, and live-attenuated vaccines. These vaccines aim to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies that can recognize and neutralize the Plasmodium parasite, thereby preventing the development of malaria disease. While there is currently no licensed malaria vaccine available for widespread use, several promising candidates are in various stages of clinical development and testing.

Meningococcal vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against meningococcal disease, which is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis. There are currently two types of meningococcal vaccines available: meningococcal conjugate vaccines and meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines. Meningococcal conjugate vaccines are made by linking the meningococcal bacteria to a carrier protein, which helps the immune system recognize and respond to the bacteria. These vaccines are typically given to children as part of their routine childhood vaccination schedule, and are also recommended for certain high-risk groups, such as college students living in dormitories. Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccines, on the other hand, contain the polysaccharide capsule of the meningococcal bacteria. These vaccines are typically given to older children and adults, and are recommended for certain high-risk groups, such as people with certain medical conditions or people who live or work in close proximity to others. Both types of meningococcal vaccines are highly effective at preventing meningococcal disease, and are an important tool in the prevention of this serious and potentially life-threatening illness.

Hepatitis B vaccines are a type of vaccine that are used to prevent infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV is a serious viral infection that can cause liver damage, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. There are several different types of hepatitis B vaccines available, including recombinant vaccines, plasma-derived vaccines, and adeno-associated virus (AAV) vaccines. These vaccines work by stimulating the body's immune system to produce antibodies that can recognize and neutralize the hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis B vaccines are typically given in a series of three or four injections, with the second and third doses given one to two months and six months after the first dose, respectively.

Measles vaccine is a vaccine that is used to prevent measles, a highly contagious viral infection that can cause serious health complications, particularly in young children. The vaccine is made from a weakened form of the measles virus and is typically given as a shot in the arm or thigh. The measles vaccine is an important tool in preventing the spread of measles and reducing the number of cases of the disease worldwide. It is typically given to children as part of a routine vaccination schedule, usually between the ages of 12 and 15 months, and again between the ages of 4 and 6 years. The measles vaccine is highly effective in preventing measles, with a success rate of over 95%. However, it is important to note that the vaccine does not provide 100% protection against the disease, and there is a small risk of side effects, such as fever, soreness at the injection site, and mild rash. Overall, the measles vaccine is an important tool in preventing the spread of this highly contagious and potentially serious viral infection, and is an important part of public health efforts to protect the health and well-being of individuals and communities around the world.

Pertussis vaccine is a vaccine that is used to prevent the respiratory disease known as pertussis, also called whooping cough. Pertussis is a highly contagious disease that is caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. It is characterized by a severe cough that can last for several weeks, as well as other symptoms such as a runny nose, fever, and vomiting. There are several different types of pertussis vaccines that are available, including whole-cell pertussis vaccines, acellular pertussis vaccines, and combination vaccines that protect against other diseases in addition to pertussis. Whole-cell pertussis vaccines contain killed or inactivated bacteria, while acellular pertussis vaccines contain only certain parts of the bacteria. Combination vaccines contain both pertussis vaccine and other vaccines, such as diphtheria and tetanus vaccines. Pertussis vaccines are typically given to infants and young children as part of their routine childhood vaccination schedule. booster doses may be given later in life to maintain protection against the disease. Pertussis vaccines are generally safe and effective, and have been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of pertussis in vaccinated populations.

Prostatic neoplasms refer to tumors that develop in the prostate gland, which is a small gland located in the male reproductive system. These tumors can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign prostatic neoplasms, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), are the most common type of prostatic neoplasm and are typically associated with an increase in the size of the prostate gland. Malignant prostatic neoplasms, on the other hand, are more serious and can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. The most common type of prostate cancer is adenocarcinoma, which starts in the glandular cells of the prostate. Other types of prostatic neoplasms include sarcomas, which are rare and start in the connective tissue of the prostate, and carcinoid tumors, which are rare and start in the neuroendocrine cells of the prostate.

BCG vaccine is a live attenuated vaccine that is used to prevent tuberculosis (TB) in children and adults. It is made from a strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which is a close relative of the bacterium that causes TB. The vaccine is given by intradermal injection, usually in the left upper arm, and is typically given to infants within the first few weeks of life. It is also sometimes given to adults who are at high risk of developing TB, such as healthcare workers, people with HIV/AIDS, and people who live in areas where TB is common. The BCG vaccine is not 100% effective in preventing TB, but it can help to reduce the severity of the disease if a person who has been vaccinated does develop TB.

Haemophilus vaccines are vaccines that are used to prevent infections caused by Haemophilus bacteria. Haemophilus bacteria are a group of gram-negative bacteria that can cause a variety of infections, including pneumonia, meningitis, and ear infections. There are several different types of Haemophilus vaccines that are available, including: 1. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine: This vaccine is used to prevent infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b, which is a type of Haemophilus bacteria that can cause meningitis, pneumonia, and other serious infections. 2. Haemophilus influenzae type a (Hia) vaccine: This vaccine is used to prevent infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae type a, which is a type of Haemophilus bacteria that can cause meningitis and other serious infections. 3. Haemophilus ducreyi vaccine: This vaccine is used to prevent infections caused by Haemophilus ducreyi, which is a type of Haemophilus bacteria that can cause genital sores (chancroid). Haemophilus vaccines are typically given to children as part of their routine childhood vaccination schedule. They are usually given as a combination vaccine, along with other vaccines such as the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP) vaccine and the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV).

Melanoma, Experimental refers to a type of research being conducted to develop new treatments or therapies for melanoma, a type of skin cancer. These experimental treatments may involve the use of new drugs, vaccines, or other interventions that have not yet been approved for use in humans. The goal of this research is to find more effective and safer ways to treat melanoma and improve outcomes for patients with this disease. Experimental melanoma treatments are typically tested in clinical trials, where they are given to a small group of patients to evaluate their safety and effectiveness before they can be approved for widespread use.

Poliovirus vaccine, inactivated is a vaccine used to prevent poliomyelitis, also known as polio. Polio is a highly infectious disease caused by the poliovirus, which can lead to paralysis and even death. The inactivated poliovirus vaccine contains a killed (non-infectious) form of the poliovirus, which triggers the body's immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against future infections. The inactivated poliovirus vaccine is typically given as a series of injections, usually starting at 2 months of age and continuing through the teenage years. It is an important part of global efforts to eradicate polio, which has been largely eliminated through widespread vaccination campaigns. However, the virus continues to circulate in some parts of the world, so vaccination remains crucial to preventing outbreaks.

Rabies vaccines are a type of vaccine used to prevent rabies, a viral disease that can be transmitted to humans and animals through the bite of an infected animal. The vaccine works by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can neutralize the virus if it enters the body. There are several types of rabies vaccines available, including the inactivated rabies vaccine, the live attenuated rabies vaccine, and the recombinant rabies vaccine. These vaccines are typically given in multiple doses over a period of time to ensure that the immune system has enough time to develop a protective response. In some cases, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with rabies vaccine may also be given to individuals who have been exposed to the virus but have not yet developed symptoms.

Rotavirus vaccines are a type of vaccine used to prevent rotavirus infection, which is a highly contagious viral illness that can cause severe diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration, particularly in young children. There are currently two types of rotavirus vaccines available: RotaTeq and Rotarix. These vaccines contain live, weakened strains of the rotavirus that are designed to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the virus. By doing so, the vaccines can help protect against rotavirus infection and its associated symptoms. Rotavirus vaccines are typically given to infants and young children, usually at two, four, and six months of age, with a booster dose at 15-18 months of age.

Cholera vaccines are medical products that are designed to protect individuals against the disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Cholera is a severe diarrheal illness that can cause rapid dehydration and death if left untreated. The disease is typically spread through contaminated water or food, and is most common in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. There are currently two types of cholera vaccines available: oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) and injectable cholera vaccines (ICVs). OCVs are administered orally, and are typically given in a single dose. They are effective in preventing cholera in both adults and children, and are particularly useful in outbreak situations. ICVs, on the other hand, are administered by injection, and are typically given in two doses. They are also effective in preventing cholera, but are less commonly used due to their higher cost and more limited availability. Cholera vaccines are an important tool in the prevention and control of cholera outbreaks, particularly in areas where the disease is endemic. They are also recommended for travelers to areas where cholera is common, as well as for individuals who work in healthcare settings or other high-risk environments.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the breast tissue. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign breast neoplasms are usually not life-threatening, but they can cause discomfort or cosmetic concerns. Malignant breast neoplasms, on the other hand, can spread to other parts of the body and are considered a serious health threat. Some common types of breast neoplasms include fibroadenomas, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma, and invasive lobular carcinoma.

Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the lungs. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Lung neoplasms can occur in any part of the lung, including the bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli. Lung neoplasms can be further classified based on their type, including: 1. Primary lung neoplasms: These are tumors that develop in the lungs and do not spread to other parts of the body. 2. Secondary lung neoplasms: These are tumors that develop in the lungs as a result of cancer that has spread from another part of the body. 3. Benign lung neoplasms: These are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body. 4. Malignant lung neoplasms: These are cancerous tumors that can spread to other parts of the body. Some common types of lung neoplasms include lung adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma. The diagnosis of lung neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging tests, such as chest X-rays and CT scans, and a biopsy to examine a sample of tissue from the tumor. Treatment options for lung neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient.

GP100 is a protein that is expressed on the surface of melanoma cells, which are a type of cancer that originates in the cells that produce pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes. The GP100 protein is a type of melanoma antigen, which is a protein that is found on the surface of cancer cells and can be recognized by the immune system as foreign. Melanoma antigens are being studied as potential targets for cancer immunotherapy, which is a type of treatment that uses the body's own immune system to fight cancer.

Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that begins in the cells that produce the pigment melanin. It is the most dangerous type of skin cancer, as it has the potential to spread to other parts of the body and be difficult to treat. Melanoma can occur in any part of the body, but it most commonly appears on the skin as a new mole or a change in an existing mole. Other signs of melanoma may include a mole that is asymmetrical, has irregular borders, is a different color than the surrounding skin, is larger than a pencil eraser, or has a raised or scaly surface. Melanoma can also occur in the eye, mouth, and other parts of the body, and it is important to see a doctor if you have any concerning changes in your skin or other parts of your body.

Typhoid-Paratyphoid vaccines are vaccines that are used to prevent infections caused by the bacteria Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A, B, and C. These bacteria are responsible for causing typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever, which are serious and potentially life-threatening infections. Typhoid fever is a systemic infection that is characterized by high fever, headache, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. It is caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, which is transmitted through contaminated food or water. Paratyphoid fever is a similar infection that is caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serotypes Paratyphi A, B, and C. It is also transmitted through contaminated food or water. Typhoid-Paratyphoid vaccines are available in several forms, including oral vaccines and injectable vaccines. These vaccines are typically given as a series of doses, with the second and third doses given several weeks after the first dose. The vaccines are effective at preventing typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever, and they are recommended for people who are traveling to areas where these infections are common, as well as for people who work in healthcare settings or other high-risk environments.

Colonic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the colon, which is the final part of the large intestine. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign colonic neoplasms include polyps, which are small, non-cancerous growths that can develop on the inner lining of the colon. Polyps can be further classified as adenomas, which are made up of glandular tissue, or hyperplastic polyps, which are non-glandular. Malignant colonic neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous tumors that can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of colon cancer is adenocarcinoma, which starts in the glandular tissue of the colon. Colonic neoplasms can be detected through various diagnostic tests, including colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and fecal occult blood testing. Treatment options for colonic neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the growth, as well as the overall health of the patient. Early detection and treatment of colonic neoplasms can significantly improve the chances of a successful outcome.

The smallpox vaccine is a live-attenuated vaccine that is used to prevent smallpox, a highly contagious and deadly viral disease. The vaccine is made from a weakened form of the variola virus, which causes smallpox. When administered, the vaccine triggers the body's immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against future infection with the virus. The smallpox vaccine is typically given as a series of two injections, with the second dose given 4-8 weeks after the first. The vaccine can cause side effects, including fever, headache, and a rash, but these are generally mild and temporary. Serious side effects are rare. The smallpox vaccine was one of the most effective vaccines ever developed, and it played a crucial role in the global eradication of smallpox in 1980. However, since smallpox has been eradicated, the vaccine is no longer widely used. It is only available in limited quantities for use in laboratory settings and in the event of a smallpox outbreak.

Ovarian neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the ovaries, which are the female reproductive organs responsible for producing eggs and hormones. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can vary in size, shape, and location within the ovaries. Ovarian neoplasms can be classified based on their histological type, which refers to the type of cells that make up the tumor. Some common types of ovarian neoplasms include epithelial ovarian cancer, germ cell tumors, sex cord-stromal tumors, and stromal tumors. Symptoms of ovarian neoplasms may include abdominal pain, bloating, pelvic pain, and changes in menstrual patterns. However, many ovarian neoplasms are asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally during routine pelvic exams or imaging studies. Diagnosis of ovarian neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound or CT scans, and blood tests to measure levels of certain hormones and tumor markers. A biopsy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis and determine the type and stage of the neoplasm. Treatment for ovarian neoplasms depends on the type, stage, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Options may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Early detection and treatment are crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates for patients with ovarian neoplasms.

Antibodies, viral, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to a viral infection. They are also known as immunoglobulins or antibodies. Viral antibodies are specific to a particular virus and can help to neutralize and eliminate the virus from the body. They are typically detected in the blood or other bodily fluids using laboratory tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) or immunofluorescence assays. The presence of viral antibodies can be used as a diagnostic tool to confirm a viral infection or to determine the immune status of an individual.

Tuberculosis (TB) vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against tuberculosis, a bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs. There are two types of TB vaccines: live attenuated vaccines and subunit vaccines. Live attenuated vaccines contain a weakened form of the TB bacteria that is still able to stimulate an immune response, but is not able to cause disease. The most commonly used live attenuated TB vaccine is the Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, which is given to infants in many countries around the world. Subunit vaccines contain specific parts of the TB bacteria, such as proteins or sugars, that are able to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. Subunit vaccines are still in the development stage and are not yet widely available. Both types of TB vaccines are intended to prevent the development of active TB disease, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. However, they are not effective in treating active TB disease, and are typically given to people who are at high risk of developing the disease, such as healthcare workers, people with HIV/AIDS, and children in high TB incidence areas.

Uterine cervical neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Cervical neoplasms can be classified into different types based on their characteristics and degree of malignancy. The most common type of cervical neoplasm is cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), which is a precancerous condition that can progress to invasive cervical cancer if left untreated. Cervical cancer is a serious health concern worldwide, and it is the fourth most common cancer in women globally. However, with regular screening and appropriate treatment, the prognosis for cervical cancer is generally good when it is detected early.

Neoplasm proteins are proteins that are produced by cancer cells. These proteins are often abnormal and can contribute to the growth and spread of cancer. They can be detected in the blood or other body fluids, and their presence can be used as a diagnostic tool for cancer. Some neoplasm proteins are also being studied as potential targets for cancer treatment.

The Chickenpox Vaccine is a vaccine that is used to prevent chickenpox, a highly contagious viral infection that is caused by the varicella-zoster virus. The vaccine is typically given to children between the ages of 12 and 15 months, although it can also be given to adults who have not previously been infected with the virus or vaccinated against it. The vaccine works by stimulating the body's immune system to produce antibodies that can help protect against the virus. It is generally considered to be safe and effective, and has been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of chickenpox and its complications.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis (DTP) vaccine is a combination vaccine that protects against three infectious diseases: diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (also known as whooping cough). The vaccine is typically given to children as part of their routine childhood immunization schedule, starting at around 2 months of age and continuing through adolescence. Diphtheria is a bacterial infection that can cause severe respiratory and cardiovascular problems, and can be fatal if left untreated. Tetanus is caused by a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and can cause muscle stiffness and spasms, as well as difficulty breathing. Pertussis, or whooping cough, is a highly contagious respiratory infection that can cause severe coughing fits, difficulty breathing, and even death in severe cases. The DTP vaccine is made from killed or weakened forms of the bacteria that cause these diseases, and it stimulates the body's immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against future infections. The vaccine is typically given as a series of three doses, with the second and third doses given at intervals of 4-6 weeks and 6-12 months, respectively.

Antibodies, neoplasm refers to the presence of antibodies in the blood or tissue that are produced by the immune system in response to the presence of cancer cells or other abnormal cells in the body. These antibodies can be detected in the blood or tissue of people with cancer, and they can be used as a diagnostic tool to help identify the type of cancer or to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. In some cases, antibodies may also be used to help treat cancer by targeting and destroying cancer cells.

Mumps vaccine is a vaccine that is used to prevent mumps, a viral infection that causes inflammation of the salivary glands. The vaccine is typically given to children between the ages of 12 and 18 months, although it can also be given to adults who have not been previously vaccinated. The vaccine is usually given as a shot in the arm or leg, and it is usually given in combination with other vaccines, such as measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The mumps vaccine is highly effective at preventing mumps, and it is an important tool in controlling the spread of this disease.

Hepatitis A vaccines are vaccines that are used to prevent infection with the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis, which is a type of liver inflammation that can cause symptoms such as fever, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and jaundice. Hepatitis A can be transmitted through contaminated food or water, or through contact with feces or urine of an infected person. There are two types of hepatitis A vaccines: inactivated and recombinant. Inactivated vaccines contain killed HAV particles, while recombinant vaccines contain a piece of the HAV genome that is produced using genetic engineering techniques. Both types of vaccines are given by injection and are usually given in two doses, with the second dose given several weeks after the first dose. Hepatitis A vaccines are highly effective at preventing infection with HAV. After receiving the vaccine, most people develop immunity to the virus and are protected against future infection. However, it is important to note that the vaccine does not provide protection against other types of hepatitis, such as hepatitis B and C.

HLA-A2 Antigen is a protein found on the surface of cells in the human body. It is a part of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system, which plays a crucial role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. The HLA-A2 Antigen is a specific type of HLA-A protein that is expressed on the surface of cells in the body. It is one of the most widely studied HLA antigens because it is associated with the ability of the immune system to recognize and respond to certain types of viruses, such as the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the human papillomavirus (HPV). In the medical field, the HLA-A2 Antigen is often used as a marker for certain diseases and conditions. For example, it is commonly used in the diagnosis and treatment of certain types of cancer, such as melanoma and lung cancer. It is also used in the development of vaccines and other therapies for these diseases. Overall, the HLA-A2 Antigen plays an important role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to foreign substances, and it is an important marker for certain diseases and conditions in the medical field.

Neoplasm metastasis refers to the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to other parts of the body. This occurs when cancer cells break away from the primary tumor, enter the bloodstream or lymphatic system, and travel to distant organs or tissues, where they can form new tumors. Metastasis is a major cause of cancer-related deaths, as it makes the disease more difficult to treat and increases the risk of complications. The ability of cancer cells to metastasize is a key factor in determining the prognosis for patients with cancer.

The Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine is a combination vaccine that protects against three viral diseases: measles, mumps, and rubella. The vaccine is typically given to children between the ages of 12 months and 18 months, with a second dose given between the ages of 4 and 6 years. The MMR vaccine is an effective way to prevent these diseases, which can cause serious health problems, including pneumonia, brain inflammation, and even death. The vaccine is safe and has been widely used for many years, with a proven track record of preventing the spread of these diseases.

Streptococcal vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against infections caused by Streptococcus bacteria. Streptococcus bacteria are a group of Gram-positive bacteria that can cause a variety of infections, including strep throat, scarlet fever, and pneumonia. There are several different types of streptococcal vaccines that have been developed, including vaccines that target specific types of Streptococcus bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes. These vaccines are typically given to people who are at high risk of developing streptococcal infections, such as young children, older adults, and people with certain medical conditions. Streptococcal vaccines work by stimulating the body's immune system to produce antibodies that can recognize and fight off Streptococcus bacteria. This can help to prevent the bacteria from causing infections, or can help to reduce the severity and duration of infections if they do occur. It is important to note that streptococcal vaccines are not a cure for streptococcal infections, and they may not be effective in everyone. However, they can be an important tool in preventing and controlling the spread of these infections.

Anthrax vaccines are vaccines used to prevent anthrax, a serious bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax can occur in both animals and humans and can cause skin infections, lung infections, and gastrointestinal infections. Anthrax vaccines are typically given as a series of injections and work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against the bacterium. There are several different types of anthrax vaccines, including live attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, and subunit vaccines. Live attenuated vaccines contain a weakened form of the bacterium that is still able to cause an immune response but is not able to cause disease. Inactivated vaccines contain killed or inactivated forms of the bacterium that cannot cause disease. Subunit vaccines contain specific parts of the bacterium that can stimulate an immune response without causing disease. Anthrax vaccines are typically given to people who are at high risk of exposure to the bacterium, such as laboratory workers, veterinarians, and military personnel.

Dengue vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against the dengue virus, which is a mosquito-borne virus that causes dengue fever, a potentially life-threatening illness. There are currently two dengue vaccines that have been approved for use in certain countries: Dengvaxia and DengueShield. These vaccines are given in a series of injections and are intended to provide long-term protection against dengue fever. However, it is important to note that these vaccines are not a cure for dengue fever and do not provide protection against other mosquito-borne illnesses.

Receptor, erbB-2, also known as HER2 or neu, is a protein that is found on the surface of certain cells in the human body. It is a type of receptor tyrosine kinase, which means that it is a protein that is activated when it binds to a specific molecule, called a ligand. In the case of erbB-2, the ligand is a protein called epidermal growth factor (EGF). ErbB-2 is involved in a number of important cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and survival. It is also a key player in the development of certain types of cancer, particularly breast cancer. In some cases, the erbB-2 gene may be overexpressed or mutated, leading to an overabundance of the erbB-2 protein on the surface of cancer cells. This can contribute to the uncontrolled growth and spread of the cancer. There are several ways that doctors can test for erbB-2 overexpression in breast cancer patients. One common method is to use a test called immunohistochemistry (IHC), which involves staining tissue samples with an antibody that binds specifically to the erbB-2 protein. If the erbB-2 protein is present in high levels, the tissue will appear dark under the microscope. Another method is to use a test called fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), which involves using a fluorescent probe to detect the presence of the erbB-2 gene on the cancer cells. If a patient's breast cancer is found to be positive for erbB-2 overexpression, they may be eligible for treatment with drugs called trastuzumab (Herceptin) or pertuzumab (Perjeta), which are designed to target the erbB-2 protein and help to shrink or stop the growth of the cancer. These drugs are often used in combination with other treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

Aluminum hydroxide is a white, odorless, and tasteless powder that is commonly used in the medical field as an antacid and an adsorbent. It works by neutralizing stomach acid and reducing symptoms of heartburn, indigestion, and acid reflux. In addition to its use as an antacid, aluminum hydroxide is also used in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia, a condition characterized by high levels of phosphate in the blood. It works by binding to phosphate and preventing it from being absorbed by the body. Aluminum hydroxide is available over-the-counter as well as by prescription. It is generally considered safe when used as directed, but long-term use at high doses may increase the risk of aluminum toxicity, which can lead to neurological and bone problems.

Vaccines, virosomes are a type of vaccine that uses virosomes, which are small, lipid-bilayer vesicles that contain viral antigens. Virosomes are derived from viruses and are similar in structure to the viral envelope. They are used to deliver viral antigens to the immune system, triggering an immune response that can protect against viral infections. Virosome vaccines are typically made by isolating viral proteins and incorporating them into the virosome membrane. The virosomes are then administered to the body, where they are taken up by immune cells and processed to stimulate an immune response. Virosome vaccines have been shown to be effective in preventing a variety of viral infections, including influenza, hepatitis B, and human papillomavirus (HPV). One advantage of virosome vaccines is that they can be designed to target specific parts of the virus, allowing for a more targeted immune response. They can also be formulated to enhance the immune response, making them more effective than traditional vaccines. However, virosome vaccines are still in the experimental stage and have not yet been widely used in clinical practice.

Glycoconjugates are complex molecules that consist of carbohydrates (sugars) covalently attached to other molecules, such as proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids. In the medical field, glycoconjugates play important roles in various biological processes, including cell signaling, immune response, and disease pathogenesis. Glycoconjugates are found on the surface of cells and in the extracellular matrix, and they can be modified in response to various stimuli. For example, changes in the glycosylation patterns of proteins can affect their function and stability, and altered glycosylation has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. In addition to their biological functions, glycoconjugates are also important targets for drug discovery and development. Many drugs and vaccines target specific glycoconjugates on the surface of cells or viruses, and the development of glycoconjugate-based therapies is an active area of research in the medical field.

Stomach neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the lining of the stomach. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Stomach neoplasms can occur in different parts of the stomach, including the stomach lining, the muscular wall of the stomach, and the glands that produce stomach acid. Some common types of stomach neoplasms include gastric adenocarcinoma (a type of cancer that starts in the glandular cells of the stomach lining), gastric lymphoma (a type of cancer that starts in the lymphatic cells of the stomach), and gastric stromal tumors (benign tumors that develop in the connective tissue of the stomach). Stomach neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and loss of appetite. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging tests (such as endoscopy or CT scan), and biopsy. Treatment for stomach neoplasms depends on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of protein that is produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. It is the most abundant type of immunoglobulin in the blood and is responsible for the majority of the body's defense against infections. IgG is produced by B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. When a B cell encounters a foreign substance, it produces IgG antibodies that can recognize and bind to the substance, marking it for destruction by other immune cells. IgG antibodies can also be transferred from mother to child through the placenta during pregnancy, providing the baby with some protection against infections during the first few months of life. In addition, some vaccines contain IgG antibodies to help stimulate the immune system and provide protection against specific diseases. Overall, IgG is an important component of the immune system and plays a critical role in protecting the body against infections and diseases.

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a type of cytokine, which is a signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is produced by various immune cells, including T cells, natural killer cells, and macrophages, in response to viral or bacterial infections, as well as in response to certain types of cancer. IFN-γ has a wide range of effects on the immune system, including the activation of macrophages and other immune cells, the inhibition of viral replication, and the promotion of T cell differentiation and proliferation. It also plays a role in the regulation of the immune response, helping to prevent excessive inflammation and tissue damage. In the medical field, IFN-γ is used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma. It is also being studied as a potential treatment for other conditions, such as autoimmune diseases and viral infections.

Mucin-1 (MUC1) is a type of protein that is found in the mucus lining of various organs in the human body, including the digestive tract, respiratory tract, and female reproductive system. It is also expressed on the surface of some types of cancer cells, particularly those in the breast, lung, and colon. In the medical field, MUC1 is often studied as a potential biomarker for cancer, as its expression levels can be used to detect and monitor the progression of certain types of cancer. MUC1 is also being investigated as a potential target for cancer therapy, as drugs that can specifically bind to and inhibit MUC1 may be able to selectively kill cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. In addition to its role in cancer, MUC1 is also involved in a number of other physiological processes, including the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, the maintenance of tissue integrity, and the immune response.

Viral hepatitis vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against viral hepatitis, a group of infectious diseases caused by viruses that affect the liver. There are several types of viral hepatitis, including hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. Each of these viruses is caused by a different type of virus and has different modes of transmission and clinical manifestations. Viral hepatitis vaccines are typically made from inactivated or attenuated forms of the virus, or from proteins or other components of the virus that can stimulate an immune response. They are usually given by injection and are designed to provide long-lasting protection against the virus. Viral hepatitis vaccines are an important tool in the prevention of viral hepatitis, particularly in high-risk populations such as healthcare workers, travelers, and people with certain medical conditions. They are also recommended for people who are at increased risk of contracting the virus, such as people who inject drugs, men who have sex with men, and people with chronic liver disease. In summary, viral hepatitis vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against viral hepatitis, a group of infectious diseases caused by viruses that affect the liver. They are made from inactivated or attenuated forms of the virus, or from proteins or other components of the virus, and are given by injection to provide long-lasting protection against the virus.

Poliovirus vaccine, oral is a vaccine used to prevent poliomyelitis, also known as polio. Polio is a highly infectious disease caused by the poliovirus, which can lead to paralysis and even death. The oral poliovirus vaccine is made from a weakened form of the virus that is unable to cause the disease but can stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the virus. The oral poliovirus vaccine is given orally, usually in the form of drops placed on the tongue or mixed with food or drink. It is typically given in combination with other vaccines, such as the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP) vaccine and the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The oral poliovirus vaccine is highly effective in preventing polio and has been instrumental in the global effort to eradicate the disease. However, it is important to note that the vaccine can cause mild side effects, such as fever and diarrhea, in some people.

Antibodies, Bacterial are proteins produced by the immune system in response to bacterial infections. They are also known as bacterial antibodies or bacterial immunoglobulins. These antibodies are specific to bacterial antigens, which are molecules found on the surface of bacteria that trigger an immune response. When the immune system detects a bacterial infection, it produces antibodies that bind to the bacterial antigens and mark them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to neutralize the bacteria and prevent them from causing harm to the body. Bacterial antibodies can be detected in the blood or other bodily fluids using laboratory tests. These tests are often used to diagnose bacterial infections and to monitor the effectiveness of antibiotic treatments.

Yellow Fever Vaccine is a vaccine that is used to prevent yellow fever, a serious viral disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes. The vaccine is made from a weakened form of the yellow fever virus and is given as an injection. It is recommended for people who are traveling to areas where yellow fever is common, as well as for people who work in healthcare or other settings where they may be exposed to the virus. The vaccine is highly effective in preventing yellow fever and is considered safe for most people. However, like all vaccines, it can cause side effects, such as fever, headache, and muscle aches.

A plague vaccine is a type of vaccine that is designed to protect against the plague, which is a serious bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. The vaccine works by stimulating the body's immune system to produce antibodies that can help protect against the bacterium and prevent the development of the disease. There are several different types of plague vaccines that have been developed, including live attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, and subunit vaccines. Live attenuated vaccines contain a weakened form of the bacterium that is still able to stimulate an immune response, while inactivated vaccines contain killed or inactivated forms of the bacterium. Subunit vaccines contain specific pieces of the bacterium that are designed to stimulate an immune response without causing the disease. Plague vaccines are typically given by injection and are usually given in a series of doses to provide the best protection. They are typically given to people who are at high risk of contracting the disease, such as laboratory workers who handle the bacterium or people who live in areas where the disease is common.

HLA-A antigens are a group of proteins that are expressed on the surface of cells in the human immune system. These proteins play a crucial role in the immune response by helping to identify and distinguish between "self" and "non-self" cells. HLA-A antigens are encoded by a group of genes located on chromosome 6, and there are many different variations of these antigens, each with a unique amino acid sequence. These variations, known as alleles, are responsible for the diversity of the HLA-A antigens that are expressed in the human population. HLA-A antigens are important for the proper functioning of the immune system, and they are also used in the field of transplantation to help match donors and recipients for organ and tissue transplants.

Fungal vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against fungal infections. Fungal infections can be caused by a variety of different types of fungi, including Candida, Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, and others. These infections can be serious and even life-threatening, particularly in people with weakened immune systems or underlying health conditions. Fungal vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to recognize and attack specific fungal pathogens. This is typically done by introducing a small piece of the fungus, called an antigen, into the body. The immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign and mounts an immune response against it, which can help to protect against future infections. There are several different types of fungal vaccines that are currently being developed or are in use. Some are designed to protect against specific types of fungi, while others are more broad-spectrum and are intended to protect against a range of different fungal pathogens. Fungal vaccines are typically given by injection, but they can also be given by other routes, such as by inhalation or orally. Fungal vaccines have the potential to be an important tool in the prevention and treatment of fungal infections. However, they are still in the early stages of development and more research is needed to fully understand their effectiveness and safety.

Papillomavirus infections are a group of viral infections caused by human papillomaviruses (HPVs). These viruses are common and can infect both men and women, although they are more commonly associated with cervical cancer in women. There are over 200 different types of HPV, and some types are more likely to cause cancer than others. HPV infections can cause a range of symptoms, including genital warts, respiratory papillomatosis (growth of warts in the throat and airways), and various types of cancer, including cervical, anal, penile, vulvar, and vaginal cancer. In most cases, HPV infections are asymptomatic and clear on their own within a few years, but some infections can persist and lead to long-term health problems. HPV infections are typically spread through sexual contact, although they can also be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact or from mother to child during childbirth. HPV vaccines are available to prevent infection with certain high-risk types of HPV, and regular screening tests, such as Pap smears and HPV tests, can help detect and treat precancerous changes in the cervix before they become cancerous.

In the medical field, "neoplasm invasiveness" refers to the ability of a cancerous tumor to invade and spread beyond its original site of origin. This can occur through the bloodstream or lymphatic system, or by direct extension into surrounding tissues. The degree of invasiveness of a neoplasm can be an important factor in determining the prognosis and treatment options for a patient. More invasive tumors are generally considered to be more aggressive and may be more difficult to treat. However, the specific characteristics of the tumor, such as its type, stage, and location, as well as the overall health of the patient, can also play a role in determining the prognosis. Invasive neoplasms may also be referred to as malignant tumors, as they have the potential to spread and cause harm to surrounding tissues and organs. Non-invasive neoplasms, on the other hand, are generally considered to be benign and are less likely to spread.

The Rubella Vaccine is a vaccine that is used to prevent rubella, also known as German measles. It is a live-attenuated vaccine that contains a weakened form of the rubella virus. The vaccine is typically given to children between the ages of 12 and 15 months, and then again between the ages of 4 and 6 years. The Rubella Vaccine is an effective way to prevent the spread of rubella, which can cause serious complications, particularly in pregnant women. Rubella can lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, and birth defects in babies if the mother contracts the virus during pregnancy. The vaccine is also effective in preventing the spread of rubella to those who are immune-compromised or who have not been vaccinated. It is important to note that the Rubella Vaccine is not a cure for rubella, but rather a preventative measure to protect against the virus. It is recommended that individuals who have not been vaccinated receive the vaccine to prevent the spread of rubella and protect themselves and others.

Acellular vaccines are vaccines that contain only a small part or fragment of the pathogen that causes a disease, rather than the whole pathogen. These vaccines are made by removing the components of the pathogen that are responsible for causing an immune response, such as toxins or surface proteins. This makes them safer to use than whole-cell vaccines, which can cause side effects such as fever and inflammation. Acellular vaccines are used to prevent a variety of diseases, including pertussis (whooping cough), diphtheria, and tetanus. They are typically given in combination with other vaccines, such as whole-cell pertussis vaccines, to provide comprehensive protection against these diseases. Acellular vaccines are generally considered to be more effective than whole-cell vaccines at preventing the disease they are designed to protect against, and they have fewer side effects.

Pancreatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen behind the stomach. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Pancreatic neoplasms can occur in various parts of the pancreas, including the exocrine gland (which produces digestive enzymes), the endocrine gland (which produces hormones), and the ducts (which carry digestive juices from the pancreas to the small intestine). Symptoms of pancreatic neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and unexplained fatigue. Diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms typically involves imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, or ultrasound, as well as blood tests and biopsies. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the type and stage of the neoplasm.

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are laboratory-made proteins that can mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria. They are produced by genetically engineering cells to produce large quantities of a single type of antibody, which is specific to a particular antigen (a molecule that triggers an immune response). In the medical field, monoclonal antibodies are used to treat a variety of conditions, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infectious diseases. They can be administered intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously, depending on the condition being treated. Monoclonal antibodies work by binding to specific antigens on the surface of cells or pathogens, marking them for destruction by the immune system. They can also block the activity of specific molecules involved in disease processes, such as enzymes or receptors. Overall, monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases, offering targeted and effective therapies with fewer side effects than traditional treatments.

Salmonella vaccines are vaccines used to prevent infections caused by Salmonella bacteria. Salmonella is a type of bacteria that can cause food poisoning and other infections in humans and animals. There are several types of Salmonella vaccines available, including live attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, and subunit vaccines. Live attenuated vaccines contain weakened forms of the Salmonella bacteria that are still able to stimulate an immune response but are not able to cause disease. Inactivated vaccines contain killed or inactivated forms of the Salmonella bacteria that are not able to cause disease. Subunit vaccines contain specific parts of the Salmonella bacteria that are able to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. Salmonella vaccines are typically given to animals, such as poultry and livestock, to prevent them from becoming infected with Salmonella and spreading the bacteria to humans through the food chain. They can also be given to humans to prevent infections in high-risk groups, such as infants, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems.

SAIDS Vaccines refer to vaccines that are designed to prevent or treat HIV/AIDS, the virus that causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV is a highly infectious virus that attacks the immune system, leading to a weakened immune response and making individuals more susceptible to other infections and diseases. There are currently no vaccines that can completely prevent HIV infection, but there are several vaccines that are being developed and tested in clinical trials. These vaccines aim to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies that can neutralize the virus and prevent it from infecting cells. Some of the most promising HIV vaccine candidates are based on a protein called gp120, which is found on the surface of the virus. These vaccines are designed to stimulate the production of antibodies that can recognize and bind to gp120, preventing the virus from entering cells. Other HIV vaccine candidates are based on viral vectors, which are modified viruses that are used to deliver genetic material into cells. These vaccines aim to stimulate the immune system to produce a broad range of antibodies that can recognize and attack different strains of the virus. While there is still much work to be done in the development of effective HIV vaccines, these vaccines hold great promise for preventing and treating this devastating disease.

In the medical field, "Neoplasms, Experimental" refers to the study of neoplasms (abnormal growths of cells) in experimental settings, such as in laboratory animals or in vitro cell cultures. These studies are typically conducted to better understand the underlying mechanisms of neoplasms and to develop new treatments for cancer and other types of neoplastic diseases. Experimental neoplasms may be induced by various factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to carcinogens, or other forms of cellular stress. The results of these studies can provide valuable insights into the biology of neoplasms and help to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

MART-1 (Melanoma Antigen Recognized by T-cells 1) is a protein that is expressed on the surface of some melanoma cells, a type of skin cancer. It is a member of a family of proteins called melanoma differentiation antigens (MDAs), which are thought to play a role in the development and progression of melanoma. MART-1 is recognized by the immune system as foreign, and T-cells that are able to recognize and bind to MART-1 can help to eliminate melanoma cells. As a result, MART-1 has been the subject of research as a potential target for immunotherapy, which is a type of cancer treatment that uses the body's own immune system to fight cancer. Immunotherapy drugs that target MART-1 are still in the experimental stage, and more research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness. However, some early studies have shown promise, and it is hoped that these drugs may one day be used to treat patients with advanced melanoma.

HLA-A24 is a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) that is expressed on the surface of cells in the immune system. It is a type of protein that plays a critical role in the immune response by helping the body to recognize and respond to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. HLA-A24 is a member of the HLA-A serotype, which is one of the three major serotypes of HLA antigens. HLA antigens are encoded by a group of genes located on chromosome 6 and are highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different variations of these antigens. This polymorphism allows the immune system to recognize a wide variety of different foreign substances. HLA-A24 has been associated with a number of different diseases and conditions, including certain types of cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. For example, HLA-A24 has been found to be overrepresented in patients with certain types of cancer, such as melanoma and lung cancer. It has also been associated with an increased risk of developing certain autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. In the medical field, HLA-A24 is often used as a marker to identify individuals who may be at increased risk for certain diseases or conditions. It is also used in the development of vaccines and other therapeutic strategies for these diseases.

Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle (VLPs) are a type of vaccine that uses harmless viral particles to stimulate an immune response in the body. These particles are similar in structure to the virus they are designed to protect against, but they do not contain any infectious material. VLPs are often used to create vaccines for viruses that do not have a live attenuated or inactivated vaccine available. They are also used in combination with other vaccine components to enhance the immune response. VLP vaccines are typically made by using genetic engineering techniques to produce the viral particles in the laboratory. Once the particles are produced, they are purified and formulated into a vaccine that can be administered to humans. Examples of VLP vaccines include the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, which protects against several types of HPV that can cause cervical cancer, and the hepatitis B vaccine, which protects against the hepatitis B virus.

Ebola vaccines are medical products that are designed to protect individuals from the Ebola virus. These vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can recognize and neutralize the Ebola virus. There are currently two Ebola vaccines that have been approved for use in humans: rVSV-ZEBOV and Ad26.ZEBOV. rVSV-ZEBOV is a replication-competent vaccine that uses a modified vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) as the delivery vehicle for the Ebola virus glycoprotein. The vaccine is given as a single dose and has been shown to be highly effective in preventing Ebola virus disease (EVD) in clinical trials. Ad26.ZEBOV is a replication-incompetent vaccine that uses a modified adenovirus as the delivery vehicle for the Ebola virus glycoprotein. The vaccine is given as a single dose and has also been shown to be highly effective in preventing EVD in clinical trials. Both vaccines have been used in large-scale vaccination campaigns in West Africa during the 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak, and have been shown to be safe and effective in preventing EVD. However, it is important to note that no vaccine is 100% effective, and individuals who receive the vaccine may still be at risk of contracting Ebola if they are exposed to the virus.

In the medical field, a peptide fragment refers to a short chain of amino acids that are derived from a larger peptide or protein molecule. Peptide fragments can be generated through various techniques, such as enzymatic digestion or chemical cleavage, and are often used in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Peptide fragments can be used as biomarkers for various diseases, as they may be present in the body at elevated levels in response to specific conditions. For example, certain peptide fragments have been identified as potential biomarkers for cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and cardiovascular disease. In addition, peptide fragments can be used as therapeutic agents themselves. For example, some peptide fragments have been shown to have anti-inflammatory or anti-cancer properties, and are being investigated as potential treatments for various diseases. Overall, peptide fragments play an important role in the medical field, both as diagnostic tools and as potential therapeutic agents.

Influenza, Human, also known as the flu, is a highly contagious respiratory illness caused by the influenza virus. It can cause mild to severe illness, and in some cases, can lead to death. The virus is transmitted through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes, or by touching a surface contaminated with the virus and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes. Symptoms of the flu can include fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills, and fatigue. In severe cases, the flu can lead to pneumonia, which can be life-threatening. The flu is preventable through vaccination, and antiviral medications can be used to treat the illness.

Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) is a protein that is produced by certain types of cancer cells, as well as by normal cells in the embryonic stage of development. It is a glycoprotein that is found in the blood and tissues of the body. In the medical field, CEA is often used as a tumor marker, which means that it can be measured in the blood to help diagnose and monitor certain types of cancer. CEA levels are typically higher in people with cancer than in people without cancer, although they can also be elevated in other conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, liver disease, and smoking. CEA is most commonly used as a tumor marker for colorectal cancer, but it can also be used to monitor the response to treatment and to detect recurrence of the cancer. It is also used as a tumor marker for other types of cancer, such as pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, and lung cancer. It is important to note that while elevated CEA levels can be a sign of cancer, they do not necessarily mean that a person has cancer. Other factors, such as age, gender, and family history, can also affect CEA levels. Therefore, CEA should be interpreted in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical information.

Antibodies, neutralizing are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, such as a virus or bacteria. Neutralizing antibodies are a specific type of antibody that can bind to and neutralize the harmful effects of a pathogen, preventing it from infecting cells or causing damage to the body. Neutralizing antibodies are an important part of the immune response and are often used in medical treatments to help the body fight off infections.

In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.

In the medical field, tissue extracts refer to the preparation of substances obtained from tissues of living organisms, such as animals or humans, by extracting or isolating specific components or compounds. These extracts can be used for various purposes, including research, diagnostic testing, and therapeutic applications. Tissue extracts can be prepared using different methods, such as solvent extraction, enzymatic digestion, or chromatographic separation. The resulting extracts may contain a variety of molecules, including proteins, peptides, lipids, nucleic acids, and small molecules, depending on the tissue source and the extraction method used. Tissue extracts are commonly used in research to study the biological functions of specific molecules or to identify potential biomarkers for diseases. They can also be used in diagnostic testing to detect the presence of specific molecules or to monitor the progression of diseases. In addition, tissue extracts may be used in therapeutic applications, such as the development of drugs or the treatment of diseases, by targeting specific molecules or pathways in the body.

Colorectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the colon or rectum. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Colorectal neoplasms can be further classified into polyps, adenomas, and carcinomas. Polyps are non-cancerous growths that typically arise from the inner lining of the colon or rectum. Adenomas are a type of polyp that have the potential to become cancerous if left untreated. Carcinomas, on the other hand, are cancerous tumors that can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body. Colorectal neoplasms are a common health concern, and regular screening is recommended for individuals at high risk, such as those with a family history of colorectal cancer or those over the age of 50. Early detection and treatment of colorectal neoplasms can significantly improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.

Staphylococcal vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against infections caused by Staphylococcus bacteria. Staphylococcus is a type of bacteria that can cause a wide range of infections, including skin infections, pneumonia, and bloodstream infections. There are several different types of staphylococcal vaccines that are currently available or in development, including vaccines that target specific strains of the bacteria, as well as vaccines that provide broad-spectrum protection against multiple strains. These vaccines are typically given by injection and are intended for use in both healthy individuals and those who are at increased risk of staphylococcal infections, such as healthcare workers and people with weakened immune systems.

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by the cells of the prostate gland in men. It is normally present in small amounts in the blood, but levels can increase if there is an abnormality in the prostate gland, such as cancer. PSA testing is commonly used as a screening tool for prostate cancer, as elevated levels of PSA can indicate the presence of cancerous cells in the prostate gland. However, it is important to note that not all cases of elevated PSA levels are due to cancer, and some men with prostate cancer may have normal PSA levels. Therefore, PSA testing should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical information and diagnostic tests.

Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis (DTaP) vaccines are a combination of three vaccines that are used to protect against three different diseases: diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (also known as whooping cough). These vaccines are typically given to children as part of their routine childhood vaccination schedule, starting at around 2 months of age and continuing through adolescence. The DTaP vaccine is considered to be highly effective in preventing these diseases, and it is an important tool in controlling the spread of these illnesses in the population.

Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental refers to the study of neoplasms (tumors) that occur in the mammary glands of animals, typically laboratory animals such as mice, rats, and rabbits. These studies are conducted in a controlled laboratory setting to understand the development, progression, and potential treatment of mammary tumors in humans. The animals are typically genetically modified or treated with various chemicals or hormones to induce the development of mammary tumors. The results of these studies can provide valuable information for the development of new treatments for breast cancer in humans.

Hemocyanin is a respiratory pigment found in the hemolymph (the circulatory fluid in invertebrates) of certain mollusks, crustaceans, and some arthropods. It is responsible for the transport of oxygen from the gills to the tissues of these organisms. In contrast to hemoglobin, which is the respiratory pigment found in the red blood cells of vertebrates, hemocyanin does not contain iron but instead contains copper ions. It is a large protein complex made up of two subunits, each of which contains a copper ion coordinated by histidine residues. The copper ions in hemocyanin are capable of binding to oxygen molecules, allowing the protein to transport oxygen throughout the body. When oxygen is not needed, the copper ions are released from the protein, allowing it to return to its original form. Hemocyanin is an important biomolecule in the study of comparative physiology and evolution, as it is found in a wide range of invertebrates and has evolved independently in different lineages.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) vaccines are vaccines designed to protect against the cytomegalovirus, a common virus that can cause serious health problems in certain populations, such as pregnant women, newborns, and people with weakened immune systems. There are currently no licensed CMV vaccines available for use in humans, but several vaccine candidates are in various stages of development. CMV is a member of the herpesvirus family and is widespread in the human population, with most people infected by the time they are adults. While most healthy adults can control the virus and remain asymptomatic, CMV can cause serious health problems in certain populations, such as pregnant women, newborns, and people with weakened immune systems. There are several approaches being taken to develop CMV vaccines, including live attenuated vaccines, subunit vaccines, and viral vector vaccines. Live attenuated vaccines use a weakened form of the virus that is still able to stimulate an immune response but is not able to cause disease. Subunit vaccines use pieces of the virus, such as proteins or sugars, to stimulate an immune response. Viral vector vaccines use a harmless virus to deliver pieces of the CMV virus to the immune system. While CMV vaccines are still in development, they have the potential to prevent serious health problems caused by CMV infection, particularly in high-risk populations.

In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.

In the medical field, peptides are short chains of amino acids that are linked together by peptide bonds. They are typically composed of 2-50 amino acids and can be found in a variety of biological molecules, including hormones, neurotransmitters, and enzymes. Peptides play important roles in many physiological processes, including growth and development, immune function, and metabolism. They can also be used as therapeutic agents to treat a variety of medical conditions, such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In the pharmaceutical industry, peptides are often synthesized using chemical methods and are used as drugs or as components of drugs. They can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the specific peptide and the condition being treated.

Poliovirus vaccines are vaccines that are used to prevent poliomyelitis, also known as polio. Polio is a highly infectious disease caused by the poliovirus, which can lead to paralysis and even death. There are three types of poliovirus vaccines: inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), and a combination vaccine that contains both IPV and OPV (IPV+OPV). IPV is made from killed poliovirus and is given by injection, while OPV is made from live, weakened poliovirus and is given by mouth. Both IPV and OPV are highly effective in preventing polio, but OPV is less expensive and easier to administer than IPV. However, OPV can cause vaccine-associated paralytic polio (VAPP) in a small number of cases, so IPV is often preferred in areas with good sanitation and access to clean water.

Genetic predisposition to disease refers to the tendency of an individual to develop a particular disease or condition due to their genetic makeup. It means that certain genes or combinations of genes increase the risk of developing a particular disease or condition. Genetic predisposition to disease is not the same as having the disease itself. It simply means that an individual has a higher likelihood of developing the disease compared to someone without the same genetic predisposition. Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited from parents or can occur due to spontaneous mutations in genes. Some examples of genetic predisposition to disease include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, Huntington's disease, cystic fibrosis, and sickle cell anemia. Understanding genetic predisposition to disease is important in medical practice because it can help identify individuals who are at high risk of developing a particular disease and allow for early intervention and prevention strategies to be implemented.

Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop on the skin. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Skin neoplasms can occur anywhere on the body and can vary in size, shape, and color. Some common types of skin neoplasms include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, and keratosis. These growths can be treated with a variety of methods, including surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. It is important to have any unusual skin growths evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the best course of treatment.

Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) is a protein that plays a critical role in the development and function of white blood cells, particularly granulocytes and macrophages. It is produced by a variety of cells, including bone marrow cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. In the bone marrow, GM-CSF stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into granulocytes and macrophages. These cells are important components of the immune system and play a key role in fighting infections and removing damaged or infected cells from the body. GM-CSF also has a number of other functions in the body, including promoting the survival of granulocytes and macrophages, enhancing their ability to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) pathogens, and stimulating the production of cytokines and other signaling molecules that help to coordinate the immune response. In the medical field, GM-CSF is used as a treatment for a variety of conditions, including cancer, bone marrow suppression, and certain immune disorders. It is typically administered as a recombinant protein, either as a standalone therapy or in combination with other treatments.

Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine (DT vaccine) is a combination vaccine that protects against two serious bacterial infections: diphtheria and tetanus. Diphtheria is a highly contagious bacterial infection that can cause a thick grayish-white membrane to form in the throat, nose, or mouth, which can block breathing and cause serious complications. Tetanus is a bacterial infection that affects the nervous system and can cause muscle stiffness and spasms, particularly in the neck and jaw. The DT vaccine is typically given as a series of two or three doses, with the first dose given at 2 months of age, the second dose at 4-6 months of age, and the third dose at 15-18 months of age. It is also recommended that adults receive a booster dose every 10 years to maintain protection against these diseases. The DT vaccine is an important part of routine childhood immunization schedules and is also recommended for adults who may be at risk of exposure to these diseases, such as healthcare workers and people who work with animals.

Escherichia coli (E. coli) vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against infections caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli. E. coli is a common inhabitant of the human gut and is generally harmless, but some strains can cause serious illness, particularly in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. There are several types of E. coli vaccines that have been developed, including live attenuated vaccines, subunit vaccines, and conjugate vaccines. Live attenuated vaccines contain weakened forms of the bacteria that are still able to stimulate an immune response but are not able to cause disease. Subunit vaccines contain specific parts of the bacteria, such as proteins, that are able to stimulate an immune response. Conjugate vaccines are a type of subunit vaccine that have been modified to improve their ability to stimulate an immune response. E. coli vaccines are typically given by injection and are usually given in combination with other vaccines to protect against a range of bacterial infections. They are an important tool in the prevention of E. coli infections and have been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of these infections in both adults and children.

West Nile Virus (WNV) vaccines are medical products that are designed to protect against the West Nile Virus, which is a mosquito-borne virus that can cause serious illness in humans and animals. These vaccines are typically administered to individuals who are at high risk of exposure to the virus, such as those who work in areas where mosquitoes are prevalent or those who have weakened immune systems. There are currently two types of WNV vaccines that are available: an inactivated vaccine and a live-attenuated vaccine. The inactivated vaccine is made by killing the virus and then injecting it into the body, while the live-attenuated vaccine is made by weakening the virus so that it can no longer cause disease but can still stimulate an immune response. Both types of WNV vaccines have been shown to be effective at preventing WNV infection and reducing the severity of illness in those who do become infected. However, they are not without risks, and individuals who receive these vaccines should be monitored closely for any adverse reactions.

Disease progression refers to the worsening or progression of a disease over time. It is a natural course of events that occurs in many chronic illnesses, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Disease progression can be measured in various ways, such as changes in symptoms, physical examination findings, laboratory test results, or imaging studies. In some cases, disease progression can be slowed or stopped through medical treatment, such as medications, surgery, or radiation therapy. However, in other cases, disease progression may be inevitable, and the focus of treatment may shift from trying to cure the disease to managing symptoms and improving quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for healthcare providers to develop effective treatment plans and to communicate with patients about their condition and prognosis. It can also help patients and their families make informed decisions about their care and treatment options.

Carcinoma is a type of cancer that originates in the epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the surfaces of organs and tissues in the body. Carcinomas can develop in any part of the body, but they are most common in the skin, lungs, breast, prostate, and colon. Carcinomas are classified based on the location and type of epithelial cells from which they originate. For example, a carcinoma that develops in the skin is called a skin carcinoma, while a carcinoma that develops in the lungs is called a lung carcinoma. Carcinomas can be further classified as either non-melanoma skin cancers (such as basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma) or melanoma, which is a more aggressive type of skin cancer that can spread to other parts of the body. Treatment for carcinomas depends on the type and stage of the cancer, as well as the overall health of the patient. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy.

Shigella vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against Shigella bacteria, which are a type of bacteria that can cause a severe form of diarrhea known as shigellosis. Shigella bacteria are highly contagious and can be spread through contaminated food and water, as well as through person-to-person contact. There are currently two types of shigella vaccines that have been approved for use in humans: Shigella vaccine (Dukoral) and Shigella vaccine (Shiron). Both of these vaccines are live attenuated vaccines, which means that they contain weakened forms of the Shigella bacteria that are not able to cause disease but can still stimulate the immune system to produce a protective response. Shigella vaccines are typically given as a single dose and are recommended for people who are at high risk of contracting shigellosis, such as travelers to areas where the disease is common, people who work in healthcare settings, and people who have close contact with people who have shigellosis. They are also sometimes given to people who have weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or cancer. Shigella vaccines have been shown to be effective at preventing shigellosis, and they are an important tool in the fight against this serious and potentially life-threatening disease.

Cytokines are small proteins that are produced by various cells of the immune system, including white blood cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. They play a crucial role in regulating immune responses and inflammation, and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Cytokines can be classified into different groups based on their function, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines, and regulatory cytokines. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), promote inflammation and recruit immune cells to the site of infection or injury. Anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), help to dampen the immune response and prevent excessive inflammation. Regulatory cytokines, such as interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13), help to regulate the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses. Cytokines play a critical role in many diseases, including autoimmune disorders, cancer, and infectious diseases. They are also important in the development of vaccines and immunotherapies.

Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung (NSCLC) is a type of lung cancer that starts in the cells that line the airways or the alveoli (tiny air sacs) in the lungs. NSCLC is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for about 85% of all lung cancer cases. NSCLC is further classified into three subtypes: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma is the most common subtype of NSCLC and is often associated with long-term exposure to tobacco smoke or other environmental factors. Squamous cell carcinoma is also associated with smoking, while large cell carcinoma is less common and can occur in both smokers and non-smokers. Treatment options for NSCLC depend on the stage of the cancer, the patient's overall health, and other factors. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches. The goal of treatment is to remove or destroy the cancer cells and prevent them from spreading to other parts of the body.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that starts in the glandular cells of an organ or tissue. It is one of the most common types of cancer and can occur in many different parts of the body, including the lungs, breast, colon, rectum, pancreas, stomach, and thyroid gland. Adenocarcinomas typically grow slowly and may not cause symptoms in the early stages. However, as the cancer grows, it can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. This can lead to more serious symptoms and a higher risk of complications. Treatment for adenocarcinoma depends on the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the overall health of the patient. Options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches. The goal of treatment is to remove or destroy the cancer cells and prevent them from spreading further.

Urinary bladder neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the urinary bladder. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms include cysts, polyps, and adenomas, while malignant neoplasms are classified as urothelial carcinomas, which are the most common type of bladder cancer. Symptoms of urinary bladder neoplasms may include blood in the urine, frequent urination, pain or burning during urination, and abdominal pain or discomfort. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type, size, and stage of the neoplasm, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Carcinoma, Squamous Cell is a type of cancer that originates in the squamous cells, which are thin, flat cells that line the surface of the body. Squamous cells are found in the skin, mouth, throat, lungs, and other organs. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell can develop in any part of the body where squamous cells are present, but it is most commonly found in the head and neck, lungs, and skin. The exact cause of Squamous Cell Carcinoma is not always clear, but it is often associated with exposure to certain substances, such as tobacco smoke, alcohol, and certain chemicals. It can also develop as a result of chronic inflammation or infection, such as HPV (human papillomavirus) infection in the cervix. Symptoms of Squamous Cell Carcinoma can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but may include a persistent sore or lesion that does not heal, a change in the appearance of the skin or mucous membranes, difficulty swallowing or breathing, and unexplained weight loss. Treatment for Squamous Cell Carcinoma typically involves surgery to remove the tumor, followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. In some cases, targeted therapy or immunotherapy may also be used. The prognosis for Squamous Cell Carcinoma depends on the stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis and the overall health of the patient.

Polysorbates are a class of nonionic surfactants that are commonly used in the medical field as emulsifiers, solubilizers, and stabilizers. They are composed of a mixture of sorbitan esters and polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers, and are typically derived from vegetable oils such as coconut or palm kernel oil. Polysorbates are used in a variety of medical applications, including as ingredients in parenteral drugs, ophthalmic solutions, and topical creams and lotions. They are also used in the production of medical devices, such as intravenous catheters and implants. One of the key benefits of polysorbates is their ability to improve the solubility and stability of drugs and other active ingredients, making them more effective and easier to use. They are also generally considered to be safe and well-tolerated by patients, although some people may experience skin irritation or other adverse reactions when using products containing polysorbates. Overall, polysorbates play an important role in the development and production of many medical products, and are widely used in the healthcare industry.

Herpes Zoster Vaccine, also known as the Shingrix vaccine, is a vaccine used to prevent shingles, a painful rash caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). The virus that causes shingles is the same virus that causes chickenpox. After a person recovers from chickenpox, the virus remains in their body and can reactivate later in life as shingles. The Herpes Zoster Vaccine is made from a weakened form of the VZV and is given as two doses, several months apart. It is recommended for adults aged 50 years and older, as the risk of shingles increases with age. The vaccine is highly effective in preventing shingles and its complications, such as postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), which is a long-term nerve pain that can occur after shingles.

Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins (IAPs) are a family of proteins that play a critical role in regulating programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis. These proteins are found in all multicellular organisms and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including development, tissue homeostasis, and immune responses. IAPs function by binding to and inhibiting the activity of enzymes that are involved in the execution of apoptosis. Specifically, they target and inhibit caspases, a family of proteases that are responsible for cleaving specific proteins in the cell, leading to the characteristic morphological and biochemical changes associated with apoptosis. IAPs are often overexpressed in cancer cells, where they can contribute to the development and progression of the disease by inhibiting apoptosis and promoting cell survival. As a result, they have become important targets for the development of new cancer therapies.

Membrane proteins are proteins that are embedded within the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane. They play a crucial role in regulating the movement of substances across the membrane, as well as in cell signaling and communication. There are several types of membrane proteins, including integral membrane proteins, which span the entire membrane, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are only in contact with one or both sides of the membrane. Membrane proteins can be classified based on their function, such as transporters, receptors, channels, and enzymes. They are important for many physiological processes, including nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and cell growth and division.

Brucella vaccine is a type of vaccine used to prevent brucellosis, a bacterial infection caused by the Brucella species. The vaccine is typically administered to animals, such as cattle, sheep, and goats, to prevent the spread of the infection to humans through the consumption of contaminated animal products. There are several types of Brucella vaccines available, including live attenuated vaccines, killed vaccines, and subunit vaccines. Live attenuated vaccines contain a weakened form of the bacteria that is still capable of causing an immune response in the animal, but is not able to cause disease. Killed vaccines contain bacteria that have been killed through heat or chemicals, and are also capable of triggering an immune response. Subunit vaccines contain specific parts of the bacteria that are used to stimulate an immune response. In humans, Brucella vaccine is typically used to prevent the spread of the infection to healthcare workers who may be exposed to the bacteria through their work. The vaccine is given as a series of injections, and can provide protection for several years. However, it is important to note that the vaccine is not 100% effective, and individuals who receive the vaccine may still be at risk of contracting brucellosis.

Receptors, estrogen are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to and respond to the hormone estrogen. Estrogen is a sex hormone that is primarily produced by the ovaries in women and by the testes in men. It plays a key role in the development and regulation of the female reproductive system, as well as in the development of secondary sexual characteristics in both men and women. Estrogen receptors are classified into two main types: estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). These receptors are found in a wide variety of tissues throughout the body, including the breast, uterus, bone, and brain. When estrogen binds to its receptors, it triggers a cascade of chemical reactions within the cell that can have a variety of effects, depending on the type of receptor and the tissue in which it is found. In the breast, for example, estrogen receptors play a role in the development and growth of breast tissue, as well as in the regulation of the menstrual cycle. In the uterus, estrogen receptors are involved in the thickening of the uterine lining in preparation for pregnancy. In the bone, estrogen receptors help to maintain bone density and prevent osteoporosis. In the brain, estrogen receptors are involved in a variety of functions, including mood regulation, memory, and learning. Abnormalities in estrogen receptor function or expression have been linked to a number of health conditions, including breast cancer, uterine cancer, osteoporosis, and mood disorders.

Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by genetically engineering bacteria, yeast, or other organisms to express a specific gene. These proteins are typically used in medical research and drug development because they can be produced in large quantities and are often more pure and consistent than proteins that are extracted from natural sources. Recombinant proteins can be used for a variety of purposes in medicine, including as diagnostic tools, therapeutic agents, and research tools. For example, recombinant versions of human proteins such as insulin, growth hormones, and clotting factors are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. Recombinant proteins can also be used to study the function of specific genes and proteins, which can help researchers understand the underlying causes of diseases and develop new treatments.

Tetanus Toxoid is a vaccine that contains a weakened form of the tetanus toxin, which is produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. The vaccine is used to prevent tetanus, a serious and potentially fatal disease that affects the nervous system. Tetanus is caused by the entry of the tetanus toxin into the body, usually through a deep puncture wound or cut that is contaminated with the bacterium. The vaccine works by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can neutralize the tetanus toxin if it enters the body. Tetanus Toxoid is typically given as a series of injections, with the first dose usually given in the early childhood and booster doses given at regular intervals to maintain immunity.

Herpesvirus vaccines are vaccines designed to protect against infections caused by herpesviruses, a group of viruses that includes herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), among others. These viruses are highly prevalent and can cause a range of diseases, including genital herpes, chickenpox, shingles, and infectious mononucleosis. Herpesvirus vaccines are typically designed to stimulate the immune system to recognize and attack the virus, either by introducing a weakened or inactivated form of the virus, or by using viral proteins or other components to trigger an immune response. The goal of these vaccines is to prevent or reduce the severity of herpesvirus infections, which can be highly contagious and can cause significant discomfort and complications. While there are currently no licensed herpesvirus vaccines available for widespread use, there are several vaccines in various stages of development, including vaccines for HSV and VZV. These vaccines are being studied in clinical trials to evaluate their safety and effectiveness, and to determine the optimal dosing and administration schedules.

Leishmaniasis vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against leishmaniasis, a disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. There are several types of leishmaniasis, including cutaneous leishmaniasis, visceral leishmaniasis, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. These diseases are transmitted to humans through the bite of infected sandflies. Leishmaniasis vaccines are still in the experimental stage and are not yet widely available. There are several different approaches being taken to develop leishmaniasis vaccines, including subunit vaccines, live attenuated vaccines, and DNA vaccines. These vaccines aim to stimulate the immune system to recognize and attack the Leishmania parasite, thereby preventing infection or reducing the severity of the disease. While there is still much research to be done, some promising results have been seen in preclinical studies and early-phase clinical trials of leishmaniasis vaccines. However, it is important to note that vaccines are not yet available for all types of leishmaniasis, and more research is needed to develop effective vaccines for all forms of the disease.

Recombinant fusion proteins are proteins that are produced by combining two or more genes in a single molecule. These proteins are typically created using genetic engineering techniques, such as recombinant DNA technology, to insert one or more genes into a host organism, such as bacteria or yeast, which then produces the fusion protein. Fusion proteins are often used in medical research and drug development because they can have unique properties that are not present in the individual proteins that make up the fusion. For example, a fusion protein might be designed to have increased stability, improved solubility, or enhanced targeting to specific cells or tissues. Recombinant fusion proteins have a wide range of applications in medicine, including as therapeutic agents, diagnostic tools, and research reagents. Some examples of recombinant fusion proteins used in medicine include antibodies, growth factors, and cytokines.

Diphtheria toxoid is a vaccine preparation that contains an inactivated form of the diphtheria toxin produced by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae. The toxoid is used to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the diphtheria toxin, which protects against the disease diphtheria. Diphtheria is a highly contagious bacterial infection that can cause severe respiratory and cardiovascular complications, and in severe cases, can be fatal. The diphtheria vaccine is an important part of routine childhood immunization schedules and is also recommended for adults who have not been previously vaccinated or who have not received a booster dose in the past 10 years. The diphtheria toxoid is usually administered as a component of combination vaccines, such as the tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccine or the tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine. These vaccines are given as a series of injections to provide long-lasting protection against diphtheria and other diseases.

Squalene is a naturally occurring, unsaturated hydrocarbon that is found in the bodies of humans and other animals. It is a component of the cell membranes of many types of cells, and it plays a role in the production of cholesterol and other important molecules in the body. In the medical field, squalene is sometimes used as a component of topical medications and skincare products. It is believed to have moisturizing and anti-inflammatory properties, and it may help to protect the skin from damage caused by UV radiation and other environmental factors. Squalene is also used in the production of certain types of vaccines, including the COVID-19 vaccine. In these vaccines, squalene is used to help the immune system recognize and respond to the vaccine's active ingredients. Overall, squalene is an important molecule that plays a number of important roles in the body, and it has a number of potential medical applications.

Neoplasm recurrence, local refers to the return of cancer cells to the original site of the tumor after treatment. This can occur even if the cancer has been completely removed through surgery or other treatments. Local recurrence is typically treated with additional surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, depending on the type and stage of the cancer. It is important to note that local recurrence does not necessarily mean that the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

HLA-DP beta-Chains are a type of protein found on the surface of cells in the human body. They are part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and play a role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. HLA-DP beta-Chains are encoded by genes located on chromosome 6 and are composed of two subunits: an alpha chain and a beta chain. The beta chain is the variable part of the molecule and is responsible for binding to specific antigens, or foreign substances, that are presented to the immune system. The HLA-DP beta-Chains are expressed on the surface of cells in the body, where they can be recognized by T cells, a type of immune cell. When a T cell recognizes an antigen bound to an HLA-DP molecule, it becomes activated and can mount an immune response against the foreign substance. Mutations in the genes encoding HLA-DP beta-Chains can lead to immune disorders, such as type 1 diabetes, where the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.

In the medical field, "alum compounds" typically refer to compounds that contain aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3) as a key ingredient. These compounds are often used as antacids to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn and indigestion. They may also be used as astringents to help reduce swelling and inflammation in the mouth and throat. Alum compounds are available over-the-counter in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and powders. They are generally considered safe for short-term use, but long-term use or high doses may increase the risk of aluminum toxicity, which can lead to health problems such as bone loss, kidney damage, and neurological disorders. It is important to note that while alum compounds may be effective in treating certain conditions, they should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment or advice from a healthcare professional. If you are experiencing symptoms of acid reflux or other digestive issues, it is important to speak with your doctor or a qualified healthcare provider to determine the best course of treatment for your individual needs.

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccines are vaccines designed to prevent or treat infections caused by the herpes simplex virus. HSV is a common virus that can cause infections of the skin and mucous membranes, including genital herpes, cold sores, and oral herpes. There are two types of HSV: HSV-1, which typically causes oral herpes, and HSV-2, which typically causes genital herpes. There are currently no licensed herpes simplex virus vaccines available for use in humans. However, there are several vaccines that are in various stages of development. These vaccines are designed to stimulate the immune system to recognize and attack the herpes simplex virus, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of infections. One approach to developing herpes simplex virus vaccines is to use live attenuated viruses, which are viruses that have been weakened so that they are no longer able to cause disease but can still stimulate an immune response. Another approach is to use subunit vaccines, which contain only a small part of the virus, such as a protein or a piece of the virus's genetic material, to stimulate an immune response. There are also several vaccines that are in development that use a combination of live attenuated viruses and subunit vaccines. These vaccines are designed to stimulate a stronger and more effective immune response than either type of vaccine alone. It is important to note that while there are currently no licensed herpes simplex virus vaccines available, research is ongoing and it is possible that a vaccine may become available in the future.

Papillomavirus E7 proteins are a group of proteins that are encoded by human papillomaviruses (HPVs). These proteins play a critical role in the pathogenesis of HPV-related diseases, particularly cervical cancer. The E7 protein is expressed in the nucleus of infected cells and binds to and inactivates a tumor suppressor protein called pRb (retinoblastoma protein). This inactivation leads to the release of other transcription factors that promote cell proliferation and survival, ultimately contributing to the development of precancerous lesions and cancer. E7 proteins have also been shown to interact with other cellular proteins, including cdk4, cdk6, and cyclin D1, which are involved in cell cycle regulation and can contribute to the development of cancer. Overall, the E7 protein is a key factor in the pathogenesis of HPV-related diseases and is a target for the development of new therapies for these conditions.

Rectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the rectum, which is the final section of the large intestine. These neoplasms can be either benign or malignant, and they can range in size and location within the rectum. Benign rectal neoplasms, also known as polyps, are non-cancerous growths that typically do not spread to other parts of the body. They can be either pedunculated, meaning they have a stalk that attaches them to the rectal wall, or sessile, meaning they are attached directly to the rectal wall. Malignant rectal neoplasms, also known as rectal cancers, are cancerous tumors that can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Rectal cancers can be either adenocarcinomas, which are the most common type, or squamous cell carcinomas, which are less common. Rectal neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including rectal bleeding, changes in bowel habits, pain or discomfort in the rectum, and a feeling of incomplete bowel movements. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy. Treatment options for rectal neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) vaccines are vaccines designed to protect against RSV, a common respiratory virus that can cause severe illness in infants, young children, and older adults. RSV is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections, such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia, in young children and can also cause severe illness in older adults and people with weakened immune systems. There are currently two types of RSV vaccines that have been approved for use: live attenuated vaccines and subunit vaccines. Live attenuated vaccines contain a weakened form of the virus that is still able to replicate but is not as virulent as the wild-type virus. Subunit vaccines contain pieces of the virus, such as proteins, that are not able to replicate but can still stimulate an immune response. RSV vaccines are typically given to high-risk populations, such as infants and young children, to prevent severe illness and hospitalization. They are also being studied for use in older adults and people with weakened immune systems to prevent severe illness and reduce the burden on healthcare systems.

CD80 is a protein that is expressed on the surface of certain cells in the immune system, including antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells and macrophages. CD80 is also known as B7-1, and it plays a critical role in the activation of T cells, which are a type of immune cell that helps to fight off infections and diseases. When an APC encounters a pathogen, it engulfs the pathogen and processes its antigens, which are small pieces of the pathogen that can be recognized by the immune system. The APC then presents these antigens on its surface, along with the CD80 protein, to T cells. This interaction between the APC and the T cell is a key step in the activation of the T cell, which then becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into effector T cells that can directly attack the pathogen or into memory T cells that can provide long-term protection against future infections by the same pathogen. Antigens, CD80 are often used in medical research and as a tool for developing vaccines and other immune-based therapies. They can be used to stimulate the immune system to recognize and attack specific pathogens or cancer cells, or they can be used to suppress the immune system in cases where it is overactive or causing autoimmune diseases.

Membrane glycoproteins are proteins that are attached to the cell membrane through a glycosyl group, which is a complex carbohydrate. These proteins play important roles in cell signaling, cell adhesion, and cell recognition. They are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including immune response, cell growth and differentiation, and nerve transmission. Membrane glycoproteins can be classified into two main types: transmembrane glycoproteins, which span the entire cell membrane, and peripheral glycoproteins, which are located on one side of the membrane.

RNA, Small Interfering (siRNA) is a type of non-coding RNA molecule that plays a role in gene regulation. siRNA is approximately 21-25 nucleotides in length and is derived from double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules. In the medical field, siRNA is used as a tool for gene silencing, which involves inhibiting the expression of specific genes. This is achieved by introducing siRNA molecules that are complementary to the target mRNA sequence, leading to the degradation of the mRNA and subsequent inhibition of protein synthesis. siRNA has potential applications in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, viral infections, and genetic disorders. It is also used in research to study gene function and regulation. However, the use of siRNA in medicine is still in its early stages, and there are several challenges that need to be addressed before it can be widely used in clinical practice.

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic information in living organisms. It is composed of four types of nitrogen-containing molecules called nucleotides, which are arranged in a specific sequence to form the genetic code. Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells in the body, which can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to carcinogens, and hormonal imbalances. In the medical field, DNA and neoplasms are closely related because many types of cancer are caused by mutations in the DNA of cells. These mutations can lead to uncontrolled cell growth and the formation of tumors. DNA analysis is often used to diagnose and treat cancer, as well as to identify individuals who are at increased risk of developing the disease.

Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccines are vaccines that are used to prevent Japanese Encephalitis, a viral infection that can cause inflammation of the brain. The virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito, and it is most common in rural areas of Asia, particularly in Japan, China, and India. There are two types of JE vaccines: inactivated vaccines and live attenuated vaccines. Inactivated vaccines contain killed viruses, while live attenuated vaccines contain weakened viruses that are still able to replicate but are not harmful to humans. Inactivated JE vaccines are usually given as a series of two or three injections, with the second and third doses given one month and six months after the first dose. Live attenuated JE vaccines are usually given as a single dose. Both types of JE vaccines are highly effective in preventing the disease, and they are recommended for people who are at risk of exposure to the virus, such as travelers to areas where the disease is common and people who work in agricultural or veterinary fields.

Cell transformation, neoplastic refers to the process by which normal cells in the body undergo genetic changes that cause them to become cancerous or malignant. This process involves the accumulation of mutations in genes that regulate cell growth, division, and death, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation and the formation of tumors. Neoplastic transformation can occur in any type of cell in the body, and it can be caused by a variety of factors, including exposure to carcinogens, radiation, viruses, and inherited genetic mutations. Once a cell has undergone neoplastic transformation, it can continue to divide and grow uncontrollably, invading nearby tissues and spreading to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. The diagnosis of neoplastic transformation typically involves a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy. Treatment options for neoplastic transformation depend on the type and stage of cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Common treatments include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy.

Endometrial neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the lining of the uterus, known as the endometrium. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Endometrial neoplasms are classified based on their degree of malignancy, with the most common types being endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer. Endometrial hyperplasia is a condition in which the cells in the endometrium grow abnormally, but do not invade into nearby tissues. Endometrial cancer, on the other hand, is a more serious condition in which the abnormal cells invade into nearby tissues and can spread to other parts of the body. Endometrial neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, and pain during sexual intercourse. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy of the endometrial tissue. Treatment for endometrial neoplasms depends on the type, stage, and severity of the condition. Benign neoplasms may be treated with medication, surgery, or a combination of both. Malignant neoplasms may require more aggressive treatment, such as surgery, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. Early detection and treatment are important for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.

In the medical field, "Vaccines, Contraceptive" refers to two different types of medical products that are used for different purposes. 1. Vaccines: Vaccines are biological products that are used to stimulate the body's immune system to produce a response against a specific disease-causing agent, such as a virus or bacteria. Vaccines contain weakened or dead forms of the disease-causing agent or parts of the agent that can trigger an immune response without causing the disease. Vaccines are used to prevent the spread of infectious diseases and are an important tool in public health. 2. Contraceptives: Contraceptives are medical products that are used to prevent pregnancy. They work by preventing the sperm from fertilizing the egg or by preventing the egg from being released from the ovary. Contraceptives can be hormonal or non-hormonal and can be used in a variety of ways, including pills, patches, injections, intrauterine devices (IUDs), and implants. Contraceptives are an important tool in family planning and can help prevent unintended pregnancies and reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections.

In the medical field, "Vaccines, Edible" refers to vaccines that are administered orally, rather than through injection. These vaccines are designed to stimulate an immune response in the body by introducing a small, harmless piece of a virus or bacteria to the digestive system. The immune system recognizes the foreign substance and produces antibodies to fight it off, which can provide protection against future infections by the same virus or bacteria. Edible vaccines have several potential advantages over traditional injectable vaccines, including ease of administration, lower cost, and the ability to reach populations that may have difficulty accessing traditional vaccines, such as children in remote areas or people with mobility issues. However, edible vaccines are still in the experimental stage and have not yet been widely used in clinical practice.

Intramolecular oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze redox reactions within a single molecule. These enzymes are involved in various biological processes, including metabolism, signal transduction, and gene expression. They typically contain a redox-active site that undergoes changes in oxidation state during the catalytic cycle, allowing them to transfer electrons between different parts of the molecule. Examples of intramolecular oxidoreductases include thioredoxins, glutaredoxins, and peroxiredoxins. These enzymes play important roles in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and protecting cells against oxidative stress.

Melanoma-specific antigens (MSAs) are proteins that are produced by melanoma cells and are recognized by the immune system as foreign. These antigens can be used as targets for the development of immunotherapies for the treatment of melanoma, a type of skin cancer. MSAs are thought to play a role in the development and progression of melanoma, and they may also be involved in the immune response to the cancer. There are several different types of MSAs, including tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2), melanoma antigen recognized by T-cells 1 (MART-1), and glycoprotein 100 (gp100). These antigens are often expressed at high levels in melanoma cells, making them attractive targets for immunotherapy.

Tumor suppressor protein p53 is a protein that plays a crucial role in regulating cell growth and preventing the development of cancer. It is encoded by the TP53 gene and is one of the most commonly mutated genes in human cancer. The p53 protein acts as a "guardian of the genome" by detecting DNA damage and initiating a series of cellular responses to repair the damage or trigger programmed cell death (apoptosis) if the damage is too severe. This helps to prevent the accumulation of mutations in the DNA that can lead to the development of cancer. In addition to its role in preventing cancer, p53 also plays a role in regulating cell cycle progression, DNA repair, and the response to cellular stress. Mutations in the TP53 gene can lead to the production of a non-functional or mutated p53 protein, which can result in the loss of these important functions and contribute to the development of cancer. Overall, the p53 protein is a critical regulator of cell growth and survival, and its dysfunction is a common feature of many types of cancer.

Esophageal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the esophagus, which is the muscular tube that carries food from the throat to the stomach. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign esophageal neoplasms include polyps, which are small, non-cancerous growths that can develop on the lining of the esophagus. Other examples of benign neoplasms include leiomyomas, which are smooth muscle tumors, and lipomas, which are fatty tumors. Malignant esophageal neoplasms, on the other hand, are more serious and can be further classified into two main types: squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. Squamous cell carcinomas develop in the squamous cells that line the esophagus, while adenocarcinomas develop in the glandular cells that line the lower part of the esophagus, near the stomach. Esophageal neoplasms can cause a range of symptoms, including difficulty swallowing, chest pain, weight loss, and difficulty breathing. Treatment options for esophageal neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic, also known as Ab2 antibodies, are a type of antibody that is produced in response to the binding of an antigen to an Ab1 antibody. Ab2 antibodies recognize and bind to the unique epitopes on the Ab1 antibody, rather than the original antigen. This type of immune response is known as an anti-idiotypic response, because Ab2 antibodies are directed against the idiotypes of Ab1 antibodies. Anti-idiotypic antibodies can play a role in the regulation of the immune system, as they can bind to and neutralize Ab1 antibodies, preventing them from binding to their target antigens. This can help to prevent an overactive immune response and reduce the risk of autoimmune diseases. Anti-idiotypic antibodies can also be used as a diagnostic tool, as they can be detected in the blood of individuals with certain diseases. In summary, Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic are a type of antibody that is produced in response to the binding of an antigen to an Ab1 antibody, they recognize and bind to the unique epitopes on the Ab1 antibody, and they play a role in the regulation of the immune system and can be used as a diagnostic tool.

Fluorouracil is a chemotherapy drug that is commonly used to treat various types of cancer, including colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and head and neck cancer. It works by interfering with the production of DNA in cancer cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing. Fluorouracil is usually given intravenously or orally, and it can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and fatigue. In some cases, it can also cause more serious side effects, such as mouth sores, skin reactions, and anemia.

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a cytokine that plays a critical role in the immune response to infections and cancer. It is produced by activated immune cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, and acts on other immune cells, such as natural killer cells and T cells, to enhance their ability to kill pathogens and tumor cells. IL-12 is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of two subunits, p35 and p40, which are encoded by separate genes. The p35 subunit is responsible for the biological activity of IL-12, while the p40 subunit is shared with other cytokines, such as IL-23 and IL-27. IL-12 has several important functions in the immune system. It promotes the differentiation of naive T cells into Th1 cells, which produce IFN-γ and other pro-inflammatory cytokines that are important for the clearance of intracellular pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria. IL-12 also enhances the activity of natural killer cells, which are important for the elimination of tumor cells and virally infected cells. In addition to its role in innate and adaptive immunity, IL-12 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and psoriasis, and has been studied as a potential therapeutic agent for cancer and infectious diseases.

Tamoxifen is a medication that is primarily used to treat breast cancer in women. It works by blocking the effects of estrogen, a hormone that can stimulate the growth of breast cancer cells. Tamoxifen is often used as part of a combination therapy, along with other medications or surgery, to treat breast cancer. It can also be used to prevent breast cancer in women who are at high risk of developing the disease, such as those who have a family history of breast cancer or who have certain genetic mutations that increase their risk. Tamoxifen is usually taken orally in the form of tablets, and the dosage and duration of treatment will depend on the individual patient's needs and the type and stage of their breast cancer.

Whooping cough, also known as pertussis, is a highly contagious respiratory infection caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. It is characterized by a series of coughing fits that can last for several weeks, often followed by a whooping sound when the person inhales after a coughing fit. The symptoms of whooping cough typically begin with a runny nose, sneezing, and mild cough. As the infection progresses, the coughing fits become more severe and may be followed by a high-pitched "whoop" sound when the person inhales. The coughing fits can be so severe that they can cause vomiting and loss of consciousness in severe cases. Whooping cough is most common in children, but it can also affect adults. It is highly contagious and can be spread through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The best way to prevent whooping cough is through vaccination, which is recommended for all children and adults.

Cisplatin is a chemotherapy drug that is commonly used to treat various types of cancer, including ovarian, testicular, bladder, and lung cancer. It works by binding to the DNA of cancer cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing. Cisplatin is usually administered intravenously and can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and damage to the kidneys and hearing. It is important to note that cisplatin is not effective for all types of cancer and may not be suitable for everyone. The use of cisplatin should be determined by a healthcare professional based on the individual's specific medical needs and circumstances.

Receptors, Progesterone are proteins found on the surface of cells in the body that bind to the hormone progesterone. These receptors play a crucial role in regulating the menstrual cycle, maintaining pregnancy, and supporting the development of the fetus. When progesterone binds to its receptors, it triggers a series of chemical reactions within the cell that can have a variety of effects, depending on the type of cell and the tissue in which it is found. For example, progesterone receptors in the uterus help to thicken the lining of the uterus in preparation for a potential pregnancy, while receptors in the brain can help to regulate mood and behavior.

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the liver. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign liver neoplasms include hemangiomas, focal nodular hyperplasia, and adenomas. These growths are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant liver neoplasms, on the other hand, are more serious and include primary liver cancer (such as hepatocellular carcinoma) and secondary liver cancer (such as metastatic cancer from other parts of the body). These tumors can grow quickly and spread to other parts of the body, leading to serious health complications. Diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, as well as blood tests and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy.

Ovalbumin is a protein found in egg whites. It is a major allergen and can cause allergic reactions in some people. In the medical field, ovalbumin is often used as a model antigen for studying allergic reactions and for developing allergy vaccines. It is also used in research to study the structure and function of proteins, as well as in the production of various medical products, such as diagnostic reagents and pharmaceuticals.

Thymoma is a rare type of cancer that originates in the thymus gland, which is located in the upper chest behind the breastbone. The thymus gland is responsible for the development and maturation of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a critical role in the immune system. Thymoma can develop in people of any age, but it is most common in adults between the ages of 40 and 60. The symptoms of thymoma can vary depending on the size and location of the tumor, but they may include chest pain, difficulty breathing, coughing, hoarseness, and swelling of the neck or face. Thymoma is typically diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests, such as CT scans or MRI scans, and a biopsy of the tumor. Treatment options for thymoma may include surgery to remove the tumor, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. The prognosis for thymoma depends on several factors, including the size and location of the tumor, the stage of the cancer, and the overall health of the patient.

Head and neck neoplasms refer to tumors that develop in the head and neck region of the body. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous) and can affect any part of the head and neck, including the mouth, nose, throat, sinuses, salivary glands, thyroid gland, and neck lymph nodes. Head and neck neoplasms can be further classified based on the type of tissue they arise from, such as squamous cell carcinoma (which develops from the squamous cells that line the inside of the mouth and throat), adenoid cystic carcinoma (which develops from the glands that produce mucus), and salivary gland tumors (which develop from the salivary glands). The treatment for head and neck neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. Early detection and treatment are crucial for improving the prognosis and reducing the risk of complications.

Measles is a highly contagious viral infection caused by the measles virus. It is characterized by a fever, cough, runny nose, and a distinctive red rash that spreads from the head to the rest of the body. Measles can also cause complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and blindness. It is primarily spread through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Measles is preventable through vaccination, which is recommended for all children.

Smallpox is a highly contagious and deadly viral disease that has been eradicated worldwide through a global vaccination campaign led by the World Health Organization (WHO). The disease is caused by the Variola virus and is transmitted through the air by coughing, sneezing, or close personal contact with an infected person. Smallpox has two main forms: variola major and variola minor. Variola major is the more severe form and is characterized by high fever, severe headache, and a characteristic rash that spreads all over the body. Variola minor is less severe and has a milder course of illness. Smallpox was a major public health problem for centuries, causing millions of deaths worldwide. The first successful smallpox vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner, and since then, vaccination has been the most effective way to prevent the disease. The last naturally occurring case of smallpox was reported in Somalia in 1977, and the disease was declared eradicated in 1980.

Rickettsial vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against infections caused by rickettsiae, which are a group of bacteria that can cause a range of diseases in humans and animals. These vaccines are typically made from killed or attenuated (weakened) forms of the bacteria, and are administered to individuals who are at risk of exposure to rickettsiae in order to prevent infection. There are several different types of rickettsial vaccines that have been developed, including vaccines for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever, and ehrlichiosis. These vaccines are typically given as an injection and may require multiple doses to be fully effective. They are generally considered to be safe and effective at preventing rickettsial infections, although they may cause some side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site.

Mouth neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the mouth, including the lips, tongue, gums, palate, and throat. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can occur in any part of the mouth. Mouth neoplasms can be further classified based on their type, including: 1. Squamous cell carcinoma: This is the most common type of mouth cancer and usually develops on the lips, tongue, or floor of the mouth. 2. Adenoid cystic carcinoma: This type of cancer usually develops in the salivary glands and can spread to other parts of the mouth and neck. 3. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma: This is a rare type of cancer that develops in the salivary glands and can spread to other parts of the mouth and neck. 4. Basal cell carcinoma: This type of cancer usually develops on the lips and can spread to other parts of the mouth and neck. 5. Melanoma: This is a type of cancer that develops in the melanocytes (pigment-producing cells) of the mouth. Mouth neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including pain, difficulty swallowing, changes in the appearance of the mouth, and bleeding. Treatment options for mouth neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Parainfluenza vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against the parainfluenza viruses, which are a group of respiratory viruses that can cause upper and lower respiratory tract infections in humans. These viruses are similar to the influenza virus, but they are distinct enough to require separate vaccines. There are several different types of parainfluenza vaccines that are available, including live attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, and subunit vaccines. Live attenuated vaccines contain a weakened form of the virus that is still able to replicate, but is not strong enough to cause disease. Inactivated vaccines contain killed or inactivated viruses that are not able to replicate, but can still stimulate an immune response. Subunit vaccines contain specific proteins from the virus that are able to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. Parainfluenza vaccines are typically given to people who are at high risk of developing severe complications from the virus, such as young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems. They are also sometimes given to people who work in settings where they are at high risk of exposure to the virus, such as healthcare workers and day care workers.

Telomerase is an enzyme that is responsible for maintaining the length of telomeres, which are the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes. Telomeres are essential for the proper functioning of chromosomes, as they prevent the loss of genetic information during cell division. In most cells, telomeres shorten with each cell division, eventually leading to cellular senescence or death. However, some cells, such as stem cells and cancer cells, are able to maintain their telomere length through the activity of telomerase. In the medical field, telomerase has been the subject of extensive research due to its potential as a therapeutic target for treating age-related diseases and cancer. For example, activating telomerase in cells has been shown to delay cellular senescence and extend the lifespan of cells in vitro. Additionally, inhibiting telomerase activity has been shown to be effective in treating certain types of cancer, as it can prevent cancer cells from dividing and spreading.

Paclitaxel is a chemotherapy drug that is used to treat various types of cancer, including ovarian, breast, lung, and pancreatic cancer. It works by interfering with the normal functioning of the microtubules, which are structures in the cell that help it divide and grow. By disrupting the microtubules, paclitaxel can slow or stop the growth of cancer cells. It is usually administered intravenously, either alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs.

Neoplasms, hormone-dependent, also known as hormonally dependent neoplasms, are tumors that are influenced by hormones. These tumors are often found in organs that are sensitive to hormones, such as the breast, uterus, prostate, and thyroid gland. Hormones can either stimulate or inhibit the growth of these tumors, depending on the specific hormone and the type of tumor. Hormone-dependent neoplasms can be classified as either estrogen-dependent or progesterone-dependent. Estrogen-dependent neoplasms are tumors that grow in response to estrogen, while progesterone-dependent neoplasms are tumors that grow in response to progesterone. These tumors are often found in women and are associated with hormone replacement therapy, pregnancy, and certain genetic conditions. Hormone-dependent neoplasms can also be classified as androgen-dependent. Androgen-dependent neoplasms are tumors that grow in response to androgens, such as testosterone. These tumors are often found in men and are associated with conditions such as prostate cancer. Treatment for hormone-dependent neoplasms typically involves the use of hormone therapy to block the effects of hormones on the tumor. This can include the use of medications to block the production of hormones or to block the receptors on the tumor cells that respond to hormones. In some cases, surgery or radiation therapy may also be used to treat hormone-dependent neoplasms.

Carcinoma, Small Cell is a type of cancer that begins in the cells of the lungs. It is called "small cell" because the cancer cells are smaller than the normal cells in the lungs. Small cell carcinoma is a fast-growing cancer that spreads quickly to other parts of the body. It is usually treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy, and in some cases, surgery. Small cell carcinoma is more common in men than in women and is often associated with smoking. It is a very aggressive form of cancer and can be difficult to treat.

Rotavirus infections are a common cause of diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. They are caused by a group of viruses called rotaviruses, which are highly contagious and can be transmitted through contaminated food, water, or surfaces. Symptoms of rotavirus infections typically include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, and dehydration. The illness usually lasts for several days to a week, and can be particularly severe in young children who are not fully vaccinated or who have weakened immune systems. Rotavirus infections are preventable through vaccination, which is recommended for all infants and young children. Treatment typically involves rehydration therapy to replace fluids lost due to diarrhea and vomiting, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Histocompatibility antigens class I (HLA class I) are a group of proteins found on the surface of almost all cells in the human body. These proteins play a crucial role in the immune system by presenting pieces of foreign substances, such as viruses or bacteria, to immune cells called T cells. HLA class I antigens are encoded by a group of genes located on chromosome 6. There are several different HLA class I antigens, each with a unique structure and function. The specific HLA class I antigens present on a person's cells can affect their susceptibility to certain diseases, including autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases, and cancer. In the context of transplantation, HLA class I antigens are important because they can trigger an immune response if the donor tissue is not a close match to the recipient's own tissue. This immune response, known as rejection, can lead to the rejection of the transplanted tissue or organ. Therefore, matching HLA class I antigens between the donor and recipient is an important consideration in transplantation.

Genital neoplasms, female refer to tumors or abnormal growths that develop in the female reproductive system, including the ovaries, uterus, cervix, vagina, and vulva. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and can present with a variety of symptoms, including abnormal vaginal bleeding, pain, and swelling. Treatment options for genital neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and age. Early detection and treatment are important for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.

Immunoglobulin idiotypes are unique antigenic determinants present on the surface of antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins). These idiotypes are formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of the antibody molecules and are responsible for the specificity of the antibody for its target antigen. Idiotypes can be further divided into two categories: private idiotypes and public idiotypes. Private idiotypes are unique to each individual and are formed by the random rearrangement of gene segments during B cell development. Public idiotypes, on the other hand, are shared by multiple individuals and are formed by the use of common gene segments. Idiotypes play an important role in the immune system as they can be recognized by other immune cells, such as T cells, and can trigger immune responses. In addition, idiotypes can also be used as a tool for studying the structure and function of antibodies and for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic agents.

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a cytokine, a type of signaling molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is produced by activated T cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the body's defense against infection and disease. IL-2 has several important functions in the immune system. It promotes the growth and differentiation of T cells, which helps to increase the number of immune cells available to fight infection. It also stimulates the production of other cytokines, which can help to amplify the immune response. IL-2 is used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as melanoma and kidney cancer. It works by stimulating the immune system to attack cancer cells. It is typically given as an injection or infusion, and can cause side effects such as fever, chills, and flu-like symptoms. In addition to its use in cancer treatment, IL-2 has also been studied for its potential role in treating other conditions, such as autoimmune diseases and viral infections.

Pseudorabies vaccines are vaccines used to prevent infection with the pseudorabies virus, also known as herpesvirus suid 1 (HVS-1) or swine herpesvirus 1 (SHV-1). This virus is a highly contagious pathogen that can cause severe disease in pigs, including respiratory and neurological symptoms, and can also be transmitted to humans. Pseudorabies vaccines are typically administered to pigs as a liquid or as a powder that is mixed with water or feed. The vaccines contain killed or attenuated forms of the virus, which stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against future infection. There are several different types of pseudorabies vaccines available, including modified live vaccines, killed vaccines, and recombinant subunit vaccines. The choice of vaccine depends on factors such as the age and health of the pigs, the level of risk of infection in the herd, and the regulations in the region where the pigs are being raised. In addition to vaccination, other measures such as good hygiene and biosecurity practices can also help to prevent the spread of pseudorabies in pig herds.

Neoplasms, radiation-induced are abnormal growths of cells that are caused by exposure to ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation is a type of energy that has enough force to remove tightly bound electrons from atoms, causing the atoms to become ionized. This type of radiation is capable of damaging DNA and other cellular structures, which can lead to mutations and the development of cancer. Radiation-induced neoplasms can occur in any part of the body that has been exposed to ionizing radiation, including the skin, lungs, thyroid gland, and bone marrow. The risk of developing a radiation-induced neoplasm increases with the dose of radiation received and the duration of exposure. In addition, certain factors such as age, gender, and genetic predisposition can also affect the risk of developing a radiation-induced neoplasm. Treatment for radiation-induced neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the cancer, as well as the location and extent of the radiation exposure. Options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. It is important for individuals who have been exposed to ionizing radiation to be monitored for the development of radiation-induced neoplasms, as early detection and treatment can improve outcomes.

Bone neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the bones. They can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone neoplasms are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant bone neoplasms can be invasive and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. There are several types of bone neoplasms, including osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and multiple myeloma. These tumors can affect any bone in the body, but they are most commonly found in the long bones of the arms and legs, such as the femur and tibia. Symptoms of bone neoplasms may include pain, swelling, and tenderness in the affected bone, as well as bone fractures that do not heal properly. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests such as X-rays, MRI scans, and CT scans, as well as a biopsy to examine a sample of the tumor tissue. Treatment for bone neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Options may include surgery to remove the tumor, radiation therapy to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy to shrink the tumor, and targeted therapy to block the growth of cancer cells. In some cases, a combination of these treatments may be used.

The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a type of cell surface receptor protein that is found on the surface of cells in the epidermis, as well as in other tissues throughout the body. The EGFR is a member of a family of receptors called receptor tyrosine kinases, which are involved in regulating cell growth, differentiation, and survival. When the EGFR binds to its ligand, a protein called epidermal growth factor (EGF), it triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to the activation of various genes involved in cell growth and proliferation. This process is important for normal tissue growth and repair, but it can also contribute to the development of cancer when the EGFR is overactive or mutated. EGFR inhibitors are a class of drugs that are used to treat certain types of cancer, such as non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck cancer, by blocking the activity of the EGFR and preventing it from signaling downstream genes. These drugs can be used alone or in combination with other treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. They are typically 18-24 nucleotides in length and are transcribed from endogenous genes. In the medical field, miRNAs have been found to be involved in a wide range of biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Dysregulation of miRNA expression has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, and infectious diseases. MiRNAs can act as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors, depending on the target gene they regulate. They can also be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers for various diseases, as well as therapeutic targets for the development of new drugs.

In the medical field, "Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial" refers to abnormal growths or tumors that arise from glandular or epithelial cells. These types of neoplasms can occur in various organs and tissues throughout the body, including the breast, prostate, thyroid, and lungs. Glandular neoplasms are tumors that develop in glands, which are organs that produce and secrete substances such as hormones and enzymes. Examples of glandular neoplasms include breast cancer, prostate cancer, and thyroid cancer. Epithelial neoplasms, on the other hand, are tumors that develop in epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of organs and tissues. Examples of epithelial neoplasms include skin cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer. Both glandular and epithelial neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms typically do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms have the potential to invade nearby tissues and spread to other organs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

Hemagglutinin glycoproteins, also known as HA glycoproteins, are a type of protein found on the surface of influenza viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the ability of the virus to infect host cells. HA glycoproteins are responsible for binding to receptors on the surface of host cells, allowing the virus to enter the cell and replicate. There are 18 different subtypes of HA glycoproteins, which are classified based on their antigenic properties. Each subtype has a unique structure, which allows the immune system to recognize and respond to the virus. HA glycoproteins are also the target of the influenza vaccine, which is designed to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the virus. By recognizing and binding to the HA glycoproteins, these antibodies can prevent the virus from infecting host cells and protect against influenza. In summary, HA glycoproteins are a key component of the influenza virus and play a critical role in its ability to infect host cells. They are also the target of the influenza vaccine and are an important area of research in the development of new treatments for influenza.

Neovascularization, pathologic, refers to the abnormal growth of new blood vessels in the body. This can occur in response to a variety of factors, including injury, inflammation, and certain diseases. In some cases, neovascularization can be a normal part of the healing process, but in other cases it can be a sign of a more serious underlying condition. Pathologic neovascularization is often associated with conditions such as cancer, diabetes, and age-related macular degeneration. It can also be seen in the development of certain types of tumors, where the new blood vessels help to provide the tumor with the nutrients and oxygen it needs to grow. Treatment for pathologic neovascularization may involve medications, laser therapy, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition.

In the medical field, "Neoplasms, Second Primary" refers to the development of a new cancer in a person who has already been diagnosed with one or more primary cancers. This type of cancer is also known as a "metastatic cancer" or a "secondary cancer." When a person develops a second primary cancer, it means that the cancer has spread from its original location to a new part of the body. This can happen through the bloodstream, lymphatic system, or other means of spread. The development of a second primary cancer can be a complex and challenging situation for both the patient and their healthcare team. Treatment options may depend on the type and location of the second cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history.

Poliomyelitis, also known as polio, is a highly infectious viral disease that primarily affects children under the age of 5. The virus is transmitted through contaminated food and water or through contact with an infected person's feces. The symptoms of polio can vary widely, but they often include fever, fatigue, headache, and muscle pain. In some cases, the virus can cause inflammation of the spinal cord or brainstem, leading to paralysis or even death. There are three types of poliovirus: poliovirus 1, poliovirus 2, and poliovirus 3. Poliovirus 1 is the most common and is responsible for the majority of polio cases worldwide. The best way to prevent polio is through vaccination. The inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) are both effective in preventing the disease. It is important to continue to vaccinate children and adults to prevent the spread of polio and to protect vulnerable populations, such as those with weakened immune systems.

Rabies is a viral disease that affects the central nervous system of mammals, including humans. It is caused by the rabies virus, which is transmitted through the saliva of an infected animal, usually through a bite or scratch. The virus attacks the brain and spinal cord, leading to a range of symptoms that can include fever, headache, muscle weakness, and confusion. In its most severe form, rabies can cause delirium, seizures, and ultimately death. The disease is preventable through vaccination, but once symptoms appear, there is no cure. Treatment typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications, such as infection or respiratory failure.

Tumor suppressor proteins are a group of proteins that play a crucial role in regulating cell growth and preventing the development of cancer. These proteins act as brakes on the cell cycle, preventing cells from dividing and multiplying uncontrollably. They also help to repair damaged DNA and prevent the formation of tumors. Tumor suppressor proteins are encoded by genes that are located on specific chromosomes. When these genes are functioning properly, they produce proteins that help to regulate cell growth and prevent the development of cancer. However, when these genes are mutated or damaged, the proteins they produce may not function properly, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and the development of cancer. There are many different tumor suppressor proteins, each with its own specific function. Some of the most well-known tumor suppressor proteins include p53, BRCA1, and BRCA2. These proteins are involved in regulating cell cycle checkpoints, repairing damaged DNA, and preventing the formation of tumors. In summary, tumor suppressor proteins are a group of proteins that play a critical role in regulating cell growth and preventing the development of cancer. When these proteins are functioning properly, they help to maintain the normal balance of cell growth and division, but when they are mutated or damaged, they can contribute to the development of cancer.

Orthomyxoviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae. These viruses are single-stranded RNA viruses that are characterized by their ability to cause both respiratory and systemic infections in humans and animals. The most well-known member of the Orthomyxoviridae family is the influenza virus, which causes seasonal flu outbreaks and pandemics. Other viruses in this family include the parainfluenza viruses, which can cause respiratory infections in humans and animals, and the equine influenza virus, which can cause respiratory infections in horses. Symptoms of Orthomyxoviridae infections can vary depending on the specific virus and the severity of the infection. Common symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, infections can lead to pneumonia, bronchitis, and other complications. Treatment for Orthomyxoviridae infections typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Antiviral medications may also be used to treat certain types of Orthomyxoviridae infections, such as influenza. Vaccines are available to prevent influenza and some other Orthomyxoviridae infections.

In the medical field, precancerous conditions refer to abnormal cells or tissues in the body that have the potential to develop into cancer if left untreated. These conditions are not yet cancerous, but they have the potential to become cancerous if they are not detected and treated early. Examples of precancerous conditions include: 1. Dysplasia: A condition in which cells in a tissue or organ do not grow or develop normally, leading to the formation of abnormal cells. 2. Papillomas: Non-cancerous growths on the skin or in the respiratory tract that can become cancerous if left untreated. 3. Leukoplakia: A white patch or plaque on the lining of the mouth or throat that can be caused by smoking, alcohol, or other irritants and can develop into cancer. 4. Barrett's Esophagus: A condition in which the lining of the esophagus is replaced by cells that are similar to those found in the lining of the stomach. This condition can increase the risk of developing esophageal cancer. 5. Atypical Hyperplasia: A condition in which cells in the cervix grow abnormally and may develop into cervical cancer if left untreated. It is important to note that not all precancerous conditions will develop into cancer, and some may spontaneously regress. However, early detection and treatment of precancerous conditions can significantly reduce the risk of developing cancer.

Deoxycytidine is a nucleoside that is a building block of DNA. It is composed of a deoxyribose sugar, a nitrogenous base (cytosine), and a phosphate group. Deoxycytidine is a key component of the nucleic acid chain that makes up DNA, and it plays a crucial role in the process of DNA replication. In the medical field, deoxycytidine is sometimes used as a medication to treat certain types of cancer, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It works by inhibiting the growth and division of cancer cells.

Protozoan proteins are proteins that are produced by protozoa, which are single-celled organisms that belong to the kingdom Protista. Protozoa are found in a wide range of environments, including soil, water, and the bodies of animals and humans. Protozoan proteins can be of interest in the medical field because some protozoa are pathogenic, meaning they can cause disease in humans and other animals. For example, the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, which causes African sleeping sickness, produces a number of proteins that are important for its survival and replication within the host organism. Protozoan proteins can also be studied as potential targets for the development of new drugs to treat protozoan infections. For example, researchers are exploring the use of antibodies that target specific protozoan proteins to prevent or treat diseases caused by these organisms. In addition to their potential medical applications, protozoan proteins are also of interest to researchers studying the evolution and biology of these organisms. By studying the proteins produced by protozoa, scientists can gain insights into the genetic and biochemical mechanisms that underlie the biology of these organisms.

Gastrointestinal neoplasms refer to tumors or abnormal growths that develop in the lining of the digestive tract, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Gastrointestinal neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the location and size of the tumor. Some common symptoms include abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, nausea and vomiting, weight loss, and anemia. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal neoplasms typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging tests such as endoscopy or CT scans, and biopsy. Treatment options for gastrointestinal neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient. Treatment may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Meningococcal infections are a group of bacterial infections caused by Neisseria meningitidis, a type of bacteria that can cause meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord) and sepsis (blood poisoning). The bacteria can also cause infections of the skin, joints, and other body tissues. Meningococcal infections can be life-threatening if left untreated. Symptoms of meningococcal meningitis can include fever, headache, stiff neck, sensitivity to light, and a rash. Symptoms of meningococcal sepsis can include fever, chills, rapid heartbeat, and confusion. There are several types of meningococcal vaccines available that can help prevent meningococcal infections. These vaccines are recommended for certain high-risk groups, such as infants, children, and young adults. If you suspect you or someone you know may have a meningococcal infection, it is important to seek medical attention immediately.

In the medical field, "Vaccines, Marker" refers to a type of vaccine that uses a specific marker or antigen to stimulate an immune response in the body. A marker is a substance that is unique to a particular disease or condition, and it can be used to identify or track the presence of that disease or condition. In the context of vaccines, a marker is used to identify a specific antigen or protein that is associated with a particular disease or condition. When a vaccine containing a specific marker is administered to a person, the immune system recognizes the marker as foreign and mounts an immune response against it. This immune response can help to protect the person from developing the disease or condition that the marker is associated with. For example, the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine contains markers that are specific to certain strains of HPV. When the vaccine is administered, the immune system recognizes the HPV markers and mounts an immune response against them, which can help to protect the person from developing HPV-related diseases such as cervical cancer. Overall, vaccines that use markers are an important tool in preventing and controlling the spread of infectious diseases.

Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) are a group of proteins that are produced in response to cellular stress, such as heat, oxidative stress, or exposure to toxins. They are also known as stress proteins or chaperones because they help to protect and stabilize other proteins in the cell. HSPs play a crucial role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and preventing the aggregation of misfolded proteins, which can lead to cell damage and death. They also play a role in the immune response, helping to present antigens to immune cells and modulating the activity of immune cells. In the medical field, HSPs are being studied for their potential as diagnostic and therapeutic targets in a variety of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases. They are also being investigated as potential biomarkers for disease progression and as targets for drug development.

DNA primers are short, single-stranded DNA molecules that are used in a variety of molecular biology techniques, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. They are designed to bind to specific regions of a DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of new DNA strands. In PCR, DNA primers are used to amplify specific regions of DNA by providing a starting point for the polymerase enzyme to begin synthesizing new DNA strands. The primers are complementary to the target DNA sequence, and are added to the reaction mixture along with the DNA template, nucleotides, and polymerase enzyme. The polymerase enzyme uses the primers as a template to synthesize new DNA strands, which are then extended by the addition of more nucleotides. This process is repeated multiple times, resulting in the amplification of the target DNA sequence. DNA primers are also used in DNA sequencing to identify the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. In this application, the primers are designed to bind to specific regions of the DNA molecule, and are used to initiate the synthesis of short DNA fragments. The fragments are then sequenced using a variety of techniques, such as Sanger sequencing or next-generation sequencing. Overall, DNA primers are an important tool in molecular biology, and are used in a wide range of applications to study and manipulate DNA.

DNA-binding proteins are a class of proteins that interact with DNA molecules to regulate gene expression. These proteins recognize specific DNA sequences and bind to them, thereby affecting the transcription of genes into messenger RNA (mRNA) and ultimately the production of proteins. DNA-binding proteins play a crucial role in many biological processes, including cell division, differentiation, and development. They can act as activators or repressors of gene expression, depending on the specific DNA sequence they bind to and the cellular context in which they are expressed. Examples of DNA-binding proteins include transcription factors, histones, and non-histone chromosomal proteins. Transcription factors are proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate the transcription of genes by recruiting RNA polymerase and other factors to the promoter region of a gene. Histones are proteins that package DNA into chromatin, and non-histone chromosomal proteins help to organize and regulate chromatin structure. DNA-binding proteins are important targets for drug discovery and development, as they play a central role in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and infectious diseases.

CD40 is a protein found on the surface of certain cells in the immune system, including B cells and dendritic cells. Antigens, CD40 refers to molecules that bind to the CD40 protein on these cells, activating them and triggering an immune response. This can help the immune system to recognize and attack foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. CD40 ligands, which are also known as CD154, are proteins that bind to CD40 and can act as antigens. They are produced by activated T cells and other immune cells and play a role in the activation and differentiation of B cells.

RNA, Neoplasm refers to the presence of abnormal RNA molecules in a neoplasm, which is a mass of abnormal cells that grow uncontrollably in the body. RNA is a type of genetic material that plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression and protein synthesis. In neoplasms, abnormal RNA molecules can be produced due to mutations in the DNA that codes for RNA. These abnormal RNA molecules can affect the normal functioning of cells and contribute to the development and progression of cancer. The detection and analysis of RNA in neoplasms can provide important information about the genetic changes that are occurring in the cells and can help guide the development of targeted therapies for cancer treatment.

Taxoids are a class of natural compounds found in certain plants, particularly in the yew tree family. They are a type of chemotherapy drug that are used to treat various types of cancer, including ovarian, breast, and lung cancer. Taxoids work by interfering with the ability of cancer cells to divide and grow, ultimately leading to their death. The most well-known taxoid is paclitaxel, which is used in the treatment of ovarian and breast cancer. Other taxoids include docetaxel and nab-paclitaxel.

Receptors, Androgen are proteins found on the surface of cells that bind to and respond to androgens, a group of hormones that play a role in the development and maintenance of male characteristics. These receptors are primarily found in the prostate gland, testes, and reproductive organs, but they are also present in other parts of the body, such as the brain, bone, and muscle. Activation of androgen receptors by androgens can lead to a variety of effects, including the growth and development of male reproductive tissues, the maintenance of bone density, and the regulation of metabolism.

Mumps is a viral infection caused by the mumps virus. It is a highly contagious disease that primarily affects children and young adults, although it can occur in people of all ages. The virus is transmitted through respiratory droplets when an infected person talks, coughs, or sneezes. The symptoms of mumps typically include fever, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, and loss of appetite. The most distinctive sign of mumps is swelling of the salivary glands, particularly the parotid glands, which are located in front of the ears. This swelling can cause pain and difficulty swallowing, and may also lead to other complications such as meningitis, encephalitis, and hearing loss. Mumps is usually treated with rest, fluids, and over-the-counter pain relievers. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary. There is no specific antiviral treatment for mumps, but vaccination is the most effective way to prevent the disease. The mumps vaccine is typically given as part of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, which is recommended for children at 12-15 months of age and again at 4-6 years of age.

Lyme disease vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, which is the causative agent of Lyme disease. Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that can cause a range of symptoms, including fever, headache, fatigue, and a characteristic skin rash called erythema migrans. If left untreated, the disease can spread to the joints, heart, and nervous system, leading to more serious complications. There are currently no licensed vaccines available for the prevention of Lyme disease. However, there are several vaccine candidates that are in various stages of development. These vaccines are designed to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies that can recognize and neutralize the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. Some of these vaccines are based on live bacteria that have been weakened or altered in some way, while others are based on proteins or other components of the bacterium. Despite the lack of licensed vaccines, there are several measures that can be taken to reduce the risk of Lyme disease, including avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellent, and wearing protective clothing. If you think you may have been exposed to Lyme disease, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Early diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics can help prevent the disease from spreading and causing more serious complications.

Thyroid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the thyroid gland, which is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the neck. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Thyroid neoplasms can occur in any part of the thyroid gland, but some areas are more prone to developing tumors than others. The most common type of thyroid neoplasm is a thyroid adenoma, which is a benign tumor that arises from the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. Other types of thyroid neoplasms include papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular thyroid carcinoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma, and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the size and location of the tumor, as well as whether it is benign or malignant. Some common symptoms include a lump or swelling in the neck, difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, and a rapid or irregular heartbeat. Diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan, and biopsy of the thyroid tissue. Treatment options for thyroid neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and age. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, or medication to manage symptoms or slow the growth of the tumor.

Tetanus is a serious bacterial infection that affects the nervous system. It is caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani, which is commonly found in soil, dust, and animal feces. Tetanus can be prevented with a vaccine, but if left untreated, it can be fatal. The symptoms of tetanus include muscle stiffness and spasms, particularly in the jaw, neck, and back. These spasms can be so severe that they can cause breathing difficulties and even death. Other symptoms may include fever, sweating, and a sense of general discomfort. Tetanus is treated with antibiotics to kill the bacteria and antitoxins to neutralize the toxins that the bacteria produce. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Viral envelope proteins are proteins that are found on the surface of enveloped viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the viral life cycle, as they are involved in the attachment of the virus to host cells, entry into the host cell, and release of new virus particles from the host cell. There are several different types of viral envelope proteins, including glycoproteins, which are proteins that have attached carbohydrates, and matrix proteins, which help to stabilize the viral envelope. These proteins can be important targets for antiviral drugs, as they are often essential for the virus to infect host cells. In addition to their role in viral infection, viral envelope proteins can also play a role in the pathogenesis of viral diseases. For example, some viral envelope proteins can trigger an immune response in the host, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. Other viral envelope proteins can help the virus evade the host immune system, allowing the virus to persist and cause disease. Overall, viral envelope proteins are important components of enveloped viruses and play a critical role in the viral life cycle and pathogenesis of viral diseases.

Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized are laboratory-made proteins that are designed to mimic the immune system's ability to fight off harmful pathogens. They are created by fusing a human antibody gene to a mouse antibody gene, resulting in a hybrid antibody that is specific to a particular antigen (a protein on the surface of a pathogen). Humanized monoclonal antibodies are designed to be more similar to human antibodies than their fully mouse counterparts, which can cause unwanted immune reactions in humans. They are used in a variety of medical applications, including cancer treatment, autoimmune diseases, and infectious diseases. Monoclonal antibodies are produced in large quantities in the laboratory and can be administered to patients through injection or infusion. They are a type of targeted therapy, meaning that they specifically target a particular antigen on the surface of a pathogen or cancer cell, rather than affecting the entire immune system.

BRCA2 protein is a tumor suppressor gene that plays a crucial role in maintaining genomic stability and preventing the development of cancer. It is one of the two major genes associated with the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome, also known as BRCA1/2-related breast cancer. The BRCA2 protein is involved in DNA repair, specifically in the process of homologous recombination, which is the most accurate way to repair double-strand DNA breaks. When this process fails, cells may accumulate mutations and become cancerous. Mutations in the BRCA2 gene can lead to a loss of function of the BRCA2 protein, making cells more susceptible to DNA damage and increasing the risk of developing cancer. Women with BRCA2 mutations have a significantly higher risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer, as well as other types of cancer such as prostate and pancreatic cancer. BRCA2 testing is often recommended for individuals with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer, particularly if there are multiple cases or early-onset cancers in the family. Genetic counseling is also recommended to help individuals understand the risks and options for managing their risk of cancer.

Pseudomonas vaccines are vaccines that are designed to protect against infections caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative bacterium that can cause a wide range of infections, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and wound infections. It is also a common cause of infections in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with cystic fibrosis or cancer. Pseudomonas vaccines are typically made from killed or inactivated Pseudomonas bacteria, or from proteins or other components of the bacterium that can stimulate an immune response. These vaccines are designed to help the body recognize and fight off Pseudomonas infections by stimulating the production of antibodies and other immune cells that can recognize and attack the bacterium. There are currently no licensed Pseudomonas vaccines available for use in humans. However, there are several Pseudomonas vaccines that are being developed and tested in clinical trials, and it is hoped that some of these vaccines will eventually be approved for use in the future.

Histocompatibility antigens class II are a group of proteins found on the surface of certain cells in the immune system. These proteins play a crucial role in the immune response by presenting foreign substances, such as bacteria or viruses, to immune cells called T cells. The class II antigens are encoded by a group of genes called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes. These genes are located on chromosome 6 in humans and are highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different versions of the genes. This diversity of MHC class II antigens allows the immune system to recognize and respond to a wide variety of foreign substances.

Transcription factors are proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences and controlling the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA. They play a crucial role in the development and function of cells and tissues in the body. In the medical field, transcription factors are often studied as potential targets for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, where their activity is often dysregulated. For example, some transcription factors are overexpressed in certain types of cancer cells, and inhibiting their activity may help to slow or stop the growth of these cells. Transcription factors are also important in the development of stem cells, which have the ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types. By understanding how transcription factors regulate gene expression in stem cells, researchers may be able to develop new therapies for diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. Overall, transcription factors are a critical component of gene regulation and have important implications for the development and treatment of many diseases.

Proto-oncogenes are normal genes that are involved in regulating cell growth and division. When these genes are mutated or overexpressed, they can become oncogenes, which can lead to the development of cancer. Proto-oncogenes are also known as proto-oncogene proteins.

Meningitis, Meningococcal is a serious bacterial infection that affects the protective membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord. It is caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis, which can spread through close contact with an infected person's respiratory secretions, such as saliva or mucus. The symptoms of meningococcal meningitis can include fever, headache, stiff neck, sensitivity to light, nausea and vomiting, and a rash. In severe cases, the infection can lead to seizures, coma, and even death. Meningococcal meningitis is a medical emergency and requires prompt treatment with antibiotics. Vaccines are available to prevent the disease, and it is recommended for certain high-risk groups, such as adolescents and young adults, and people with certain medical conditions or who live in close quarters with others.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of the HIV virus. These antibodies are specific to the HIV virus and can be detected in the blood or other bodily fluids of an individual who has been infected with the virus. The presence of HIV antibodies in the blood is a diagnostic indicator of HIV infection. However, it is important to note that the presence of HIV antibodies does not necessarily mean that an individual is currently infected with the virus. It is possible for an individual to test positive for HIV antibodies if they have previously been infected with the virus, even if they are no longer infected. HIV antibodies can also be used to monitor the progression of HIV infection and the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART). As an individual with HIV receives ART, their HIV viral load (the amount of virus present in the blood) should decrease, and their CD4 T-cell count (a type of white blood cell that is important for fighting infections) should increase. These changes can be monitored through regular blood tests that measure HIV viral load and CD4 T-cell count, as well as through the detection of HIV antibodies.

Nuclear proteins are proteins that are found within the nucleus of a cell. The nucleus is the control center of the cell, where genetic material is stored and regulated. Nuclear proteins play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including DNA replication, transcription, and gene regulation. There are many different types of nuclear proteins, each with its own specific function. Some nuclear proteins are involved in the structure and organization of the nucleus itself, while others are involved in the regulation of gene expression. Nuclear proteins can also interact with other proteins, DNA, and RNA molecules to carry out their functions. In the medical field, nuclear proteins are often studied in the context of diseases such as cancer, where changes in the expression or function of nuclear proteins can contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Additionally, nuclear proteins are important targets for drug development, as they can be targeted to treat a variety of diseases.

Kidney neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the kidneys. These tumors can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Kidney neoplasms are also known as renal neoplasms or renal tumors. There are several types of kidney neoplasms, including: 1. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC): This is the most common type of kidney cancer and accounts for about 80-90% of all kidney neoplasms. 2. Wilms tumor: This is a type of kidney cancer that is most common in children. 3. Angiomyolipoma: This is a benign tumor that is made up of fat, smooth muscle, and blood vessels. 4. Oncocytoma: This is a benign tumor that is made up of cells that resemble normal kidney cells. 5. Papillary renal cell carcinoma: This is a type of kidney cancer that is less common than RCC but has a better prognosis. 6. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma: This is a type of kidney cancer that is the most common in adults and has a poor prognosis. The diagnosis of kidney neoplasms typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, as well as a biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options for kidney neoplasms depend on the type, size, and stage of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or targeted therapy.

Hepatitis B antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. There are two types of hepatitis B antibodies: surface antibodies (anti-HBs) and core antibodies (anti-HBc). Surface antibodies are produced after the body has successfully cleared an HBV infection or has been vaccinated against the virus. They are the antibodies that provide protection against future HBV infections. A positive result for anti-HBs indicates that a person has developed immunity to the virus. Core antibodies are produced during the early stages of an HBV infection and can persist for years after the infection has resolved. A positive result for anti-HBc indicates that a person has been infected with HBV in the past, but it does not necessarily mean that they are currently infected or immune to the virus. In the medical field, hepatitis B antibodies are commonly tested as part of routine blood tests to screen for HBV infection and to determine the effectiveness of vaccination against the virus. They are also used to monitor the progression of chronic HBV infection and to assess the response to antiviral therapy.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infections refer to the presence of the HIV virus in the body. HIV is a retrovirus that attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections and diseases. HIV is transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. The most common modes of transmission include unprotected sexual contact, sharing needles or syringes, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV infections can be diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of the virus or antibodies produced in response to the virus. Once diagnosed, HIV can be managed with antiretroviral therapy (ART), which helps to suppress the virus and prevent the progression of the disease to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). It is important to note that HIV is not the same as AIDS. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS, but not everyone with HIV will develop AIDS. With proper treatment and management, individuals with HIV can live long and healthy lives.

Pharyngeal neoplasms refer to tumors or growths that develop in the pharynx, which is the back of the throat that extends from the nasal cavity to the esophagus. The pharynx is divided into three main sections: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. Pharyngeal neoplasms can be either benign or malignant, and they can occur in any part of the pharynx. Some common types of pharyngeal neoplasms include squamous cell carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and salivary gland tumors. Symptoms of pharyngeal neoplasms may include difficulty swallowing, hoarseness, a persistent sore throat, ear pain, and a lump or mass in the neck. Diagnosis typically involves a physical examination, imaging tests such as CT scans or MRIs, and a biopsy to examine the tissue. Treatment for pharyngeal neoplasms depends on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Bacterial proteins are proteins that are synthesized by bacteria. They are essential for the survival and function of bacteria, and play a variety of roles in bacterial metabolism, growth, and pathogenicity. Bacterial proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, metabolic enzymes, regulatory proteins, and toxins. Structural proteins provide support and shape to the bacterial cell, while metabolic enzymes are involved in the breakdown of nutrients and the synthesis of new molecules. Regulatory proteins control the expression of other genes, and toxins can cause damage to host cells and tissues. Bacterial proteins are of interest in the medical field because they can be used as targets for the development of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They can also be used as diagnostic markers for bacterial infections, and as vaccines to prevent bacterial diseases. Additionally, some bacterial proteins have been shown to have therapeutic potential, such as enzymes that can break down harmful substances in the body or proteins that can stimulate the immune system.

BRCA1 Protein is a tumor suppressor gene that plays a crucial role in maintaining genomic stability and preventing the development of cancer. The BRCA1 gene is located on chromosome 17 and produces a protein that functions as a part of a complex that repairs DNA damage. When the BRCA1 gene is mutated or not functioning properly, the body is less able to repair DNA damage, which can lead to the development of cancer, particularly breast and ovarian cancer. Women with a BRCA1 mutation have a significantly increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer, and may choose to undergo genetic counseling and testing to determine their risk and make informed decisions about their healthcare.

Multiple primary neoplasms, also known as synchronous or metachronous neoplasms, are two or more neoplasms (cancerous or non-cancerous tumors) that occur in the same individual at the same time or at different times. In the medical field, multiple primary neoplasms can occur in different organs or tissues of the body, and they can be either cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign). The occurrence of multiple primary neoplasms can be due to various factors, including genetic predisposition, exposure to environmental toxins, lifestyle factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption, and certain medical conditions such as immunosuppression. The diagnosis of multiple primary neoplasms typically involves a thorough medical history, physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy of the tumors. Treatment options depend on the type, location, and stage of the neoplasms, as well as the overall health of the individual.

HLA-DR antigens are a group of proteins that are expressed on the surface of cells of the immune system. They play a crucial role in the recognition and presentation of antigens to T cells, which is a key step in the immune response. HLA-DR antigens are encoded by the HLA-DR gene, which is located on chromosome 6. There are many different HLA-DR antigens, each with a unique sequence of amino acids that determines its specificity for different antigens. HLA-DR antigens are also known as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR antigens or major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DR antigens.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-akt, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a critical role in various cellular processes, including cell survival, proliferation, and metabolism. It is a member of the Akt family of kinases, which are activated by various growth factors and cytokines. In the context of cancer, c-akt has been shown to be frequently activated in many types of tumors and is often associated with poor prognosis. Activation of c-akt can lead to increased cell survival and resistance to apoptosis, which can contribute to tumor growth and progression. Additionally, c-akt has been implicated in the regulation of angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis, further contributing to the development and progression of cancer. Therefore, the study of c-akt and its role in cancer has become an important area of research in the medical field, with the goal of developing targeted therapies to inhibit its activity and potentially treat cancer.

Diphtheria is a highly contagious bacterial infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is primarily spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person talks, coughs, or sneezes. The bacteria produce a toxin that can damage the respiratory tract, heart, and nervous system. The symptoms of diphtheria can vary depending on the severity of the infection. Early symptoms may include fever, sore throat, and difficulty swallowing. As the infection progresses, a thick gray or white membrane may form on the tonsils or in the throat, which can make breathing difficult. In severe cases, diphtheria can lead to heart failure, paralysis, and even death. Diphtheria is preventable through vaccination. The diphtheria vaccine is typically given as part of the tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, which is recommended for all adults and children. If someone is suspected to have diphtheria, they should be isolated and treated with antibiotics to prevent the spread of the bacteria and reduce the severity of the infection.

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A lung cancer vaccine is a cancer vaccine for lung cancer. Lung cancer vaccine may also refer to: CimaVax-EGF, the first ... therapeutic cancer vaccine developed to target lung cancer Stimuvax, which had promising results from a phase IIB trial for ... inoperable lung cancer This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Lung cancer vaccine. If an internal ...
The dendritic cell-based cancer vaccine is an innovation in therapeutic strategy for cancer patients. Dendritic cells (DCs) are ... cancer, or autoimmune disease.[citation needed] Sipuleucel-T is the first DCs- based cancer vaccine for men with asymptomatic ... We can used specific TAAs, tumor lysates, created DC-cancer cell fusions, electroporation/transfection of DCs with total cancer ... Palucka, Karolina; Banchereau, Jacques (2012-03-22). "Cancer immunotherapy via dendritic cells". Nature Reviews. Cancer. 12 (4 ...
... is a type of vaccine used to treat existing cancer. Cancerous cells usually cannot be ... Several cancer vaccine approaches induce durable CD4+ T cell responses and have promising clinical activity. This kind of ... elimination of CD8+ T cells from mice at least partially abrogates anti-tumor immunity induced by most cancer vaccines. ... to cancerous cells through cancer vaccine injection. CD4+ T cells promote anti-tumor immunity through numerous mechanisms, ...
Pertussis vaccine Pneumococcal vaccine "Whole cell vaccine". National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 14 October 2022. Bridget P., ... "Cellular Cancer Vaccines: an Update on the Development of Vaccines Generated from Cell Surface Antigens". Journal of Cancer. 1 ... "Cellular Cancer Vaccines: an Update on the Development of Vaccines Generated from Cell Surface Antigens". Journal of Cancer. 1 ... "Cancer vaccines". Novel Approaches and Strategies for Biologics, Vaccines and Cancer Therapies: 365-388. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12- ...
Fiedler K, Lazzaro S, Lutz J, Rauch S, Heidenreich R (2016). "MRNA Cancer Vaccines". Current Strategies in Cancer Gene Therapy ... Gritstone bio started in 2021 a phase 1 trial of an saRNA COVID-19 vaccine, used as a booster vaccine. The vaccine is designed ... mRNA vaccines offer specific advantages over traditional vaccines. Because mRNA vaccines are not constructed from an active ... In addition to sharing the advantages of theoretical DNA vaccines over established traditional vaccines, mRNA vaccines also ...
doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.11.058. PMID 19388175. Lowe (2008). "Plasmid DNA as Prophylactic and Therapeutic vaccines for Cancer ... The subgroup of genetic vaccines encompass viral vector vaccines, RNA vaccines and DNA vaccines. Viral vector vaccines use a ... Examples include IPV (polio vaccine), hepatitis A vaccine, rabies vaccine and most influenza vaccines. Toxoid vaccines are made ... RNA vaccines and DNA vaccines are examples of third generation vaccines. In 2016 a DNA vaccine for the Zika virus began testing ...
Bookchin, Debbie (7 July 2004). "Vaccine scandal revives cancer fear". New Scientist. NIH/National Cancer Institute (2004-08-25 ... "Did the Polio Vaccine Cause Cancer?". Factcheck.org. Retrieved 4 Mar 2020. "Historical Safety Concerns , Vaccine Safety , CDC ... Grady, Denise (2002-10-23). "Study Is Unsure on Tainted Polio Vaccine's Cancer Role". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. ... Ratner, the Health Commissioner of Oak Park at the time the Salk vaccine was introduced, had kept these vials of vaccine in a ...
Currently, there are about 369 cancer vaccine studies ongoing all around the world. There are three cancer therapeutic vaccines ... Allo means 'other'. Allogeneic vaccines are primarily cancer vaccines which are made from a different individual's cancer cells ... vaccine) to train them to differentiate and fight cancer cells. Therapeutic vaccines are a new form of vaccines that are mostly ... Madan RA, Gulley JL, Fojo T, Dahut WL (2010). "Therapeutic cancer vaccines in prostate cancer: the paradox of improved survival ...
"Peptide-Based Cancer Vaccine Strategies and Clinical Results". In Thomas S (ed.). Vaccine Design. Methods in Molecular Biology ... Peptide vaccines are the latest step in the evolution of vaccines. Compared with the traditional vaccines such as the whole ... Peptide-based synthetic vaccines (epitope vaccines) are subunit vaccines made from peptides. The peptides mimic the epitopes of ... E75, GP2, and AE37 are three different HER2/neu-derived single-peptide vaccines to treat breast cancer. HER2/neu usually has ...
Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the National Cancer Institute Dictionary of Cancer Terms, Cancer vaccines, All stub ... ALVAC-CEA vaccine is a cancer vaccine containing a canary pox virus (ALVAC) combined with the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) ... "Combination Chemotherapy and ALVAC-CEA/B7.1 Vaccine in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer". Clinical Cancer Research. ... ALVAC-CEA vaccine entry in the public domain NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms This article incorporates public domain material ...
... vaccine Alzheimer's disease amyloid protein vaccine Breast cancer vaccine Ovarian cancer vaccine Prostate cancer vaccine ... vaccine Caries vaccine Gonorrhea vaccine Ehrlichiosis vaccine Helicobacter pylori vaccine Leprosy vaccine Lyme disease vaccine ... vaccine Tularemia vaccine Yersinia pestis vaccine Chagas disease vaccine Hookworm vaccine Leishmaniasis vaccine Malaria vaccine ... encephalitis virus vaccine for humans Enterovirus 71 vaccine Epstein-Barr vaccine H5N1 vaccine Hepatitis C vaccine HIV vaccine ...
"Simian Virus 40 (SV40), Polio Vaccine, and Cancer". Vaccine Safety. Centers for Disease Control. 22 April 2004. Archived from ... Inactivated vaccines, Live vaccines, Vaccines, World Health Organization essential medicines (vaccines), Wikipedia medicine ... To combat this, the WHO in 2016, decided to switch from the trivalent polio vaccine to the bivalent polio vaccine. This vaccine ... There are two types of vaccine: inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and oral polio vaccine (OPV). When the IPV (injection) is used ...
It is estimated that HPV vaccines may prevent 70% of cervical cancer, 80% of anal cancer, 60% of vaginal cancer, 40% of vulvar ... Cancer vaccines, Gynaecological cancer, Infectious causes of cancer, Papillomavirus, Wikipedia medicine articles ready to ... Vaccines that protect against more of the types common in cancers would prevent more cancers, and be less subject to regional ... doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.03.032. PMID 22939017. SAPA (15 May 2013). "Schoolgirls to get cancer vaccine". ioL News. Archived ...
... for cancer and the documented efficacy of KLH as a superior carrier protein for cancer vaccines are creating a significant ... "Cancer Vaccines". Archived from the original on 2008-10-25. Retrieved 2008-05-19. "Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin Knowledge Base". ... breast and bladder cancer. These vaccines contain specific tumor-associated antigens conjugated to KLH to stimulate anti-tumor ... CRM197 KLH is being tested in a variety of cancer vaccines, including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, cutaneous melanoma, ...
Melief CJ, van Hall T, Arens R, Ossendorp F, van der Burg SH (September 2015). "Therapeutic cancer vaccines". The Journal of ... Breast cancer - is cancer that develops from breast tissue. Signs of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change ... Bladder cancer - is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder. It is a disease in which ... Cervical cancer - is a cancer arising from the cervix. It is due to the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to ...
... has been the "standard of care for patients with bladder cancer (NMIBC)" since 1977. By 2014 there were more than ... A number of cancer vaccines use BCG as an additive to provide an initial stimulation of the person's immune systems.[citation ... The US biotech company Vaccinogen is evaluating BCG as an adjuvant to autologous tumour cells used as a cancer vaccine in stage ... Previously, the vaccine was also given at ages 8 and 15, although this is no longer common practice. Philippines: BCG vaccine ...
In cancer vaccines, the goal is to generate an immune response to these antigens through a vaccine. Currently, only one vaccine ... National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 14 October 2023. "What are Cancer Vaccines?". Cancer.Net. 30 September 2013. Retrieved 15 ... Nivolumab is approved to treat melanoma, lung cancer, kidney cancer, bladder cancer, head and neck cancer, and Hodgkin's ... Treatment vaccines: also known as therapeutic cancer vaccines, help the immune system learn to recognize and react to mutant ...
"A Cancer Vaccine is Born". Rochester Review. University of Rochester. 68 (3). "Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines". National ... "Who invented the VLP cervical cancer vaccines?". J Natl Cancer Inst. 98 (7): 433. doi:10.1093/jnci/djj144. PMID 16595773. ... Cervarix is a vaccine against certain types of cancer-causing human papillomavirus (HPV). Cervarix is designed to prevent ... "Vaccine vs cervical cancer virus launched in Manila". GMA Network. Associated Press. 25 August 2007. Archived from the original ...
HPV vaccines, developed in the early 21st century, reduce the risk of cervical cancer by preventing infections from the main ... HPV vaccines, such as Gardasil and Cervarix, reduce the incidence of cervical cancer, by inoculating against the viral strains ... "Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines". National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD. 29 December 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2014. Kurman ... In 2008, cervical cancer was the third-most common cancer in women worldwide, with rates varying geographically from less than ...
The vaccine is targeted againsted cancer antigens: it activates T cells, which induces and maintains immunity. These vaccines ... "Blood Cancer UK , The Road to Beating Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia". Blood Cancer UK. Retrieved 2023-04-02. The origins of ... Stevenson, Freda K. (2009-07-16). "Turning Genes Into Cancer Vaccines". Discovery Medicine. 5 (25): 37-42. PMID 20704921. " ... Stevenson became interested in cancer immunology: the use of Immunoglobulin (antibodies) to attack cancer cells. She focussed ...
This vaccine is designed to control and train the body's immune system to fight the cancer. Cancer is characterized by an ... "Targeting the Heterogeneity of Cancer with Individualized Neoepitope Vaccine". Clin Cancer Res. 22 (8): 1885-1896. doi:10.1158/ ... The production of vaccines tailored to match a person's individual constellation of cancer mutations has become a new field of ... The intended output is an on-demand vaccine with a unique composition tailored to the patient's individual cancer mutanome. The ...
... lung cancer and other dangerous cancers. Şahin and his team established strategies that allow different layers of mRNA vaccine ... stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, ... Since mRNA vaccines can be easily designed to target any antigen, the team could use the mutation fingerprint of cancers for ... The versatile nature of their mRNA technology and the groundwork Sahin's team had done in the area of cancer vaccines allowed ...
... a Zika virus vaccine funded by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority, and three cancer vaccines. The ... "Precision medicine meets cancer vaccines". Nature Medicine. June 16, 2023. Bafaloukos, Dimitrios (2023). "Evolution and ... a cancer vaccine. In July 2023, the company entered into an agreement with the Chinese government to develop mRNA drugs for ... primarily mRNA vaccines. These vaccines use a copy of a molecule called messenger RNA (mRNA) to carry instructions for proteins ...
Colon cancer vaccines: an update". In Vivo. 24 (5): 607-628. PMID 20952724. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, Forman D, Mathers C, ... Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer, colon cancer, or rectal cancer, is the development of cancer from the ... Stage IV rectal cancer is treated similar to stage IV colon cancer. Stage IV colorectal cancer due to peritoneal carcinomatosis ... The polyp to cancer progression sequence is the classical model of colorectal cancer pathogenesis. The polyp to cancer sequence ...
... vaccine development; cancer immuno-therapy; emerging and infectious zoonotic diseases; and diseases of the lung, respiratory ...
"Researchers Aim to Develop Cancer Vaccines , News , Drug Discovery and Development Magazine". Archived from the original on ... "Nanoparticles in Vaccine Delivery". AAPS Blog. Archived from the original on 2015-02-24. Retrieved 2015-02-24. "University of ... Salem was an American Cancer Society Research Scholar from 2009 to 2013. Salem is currently the leader of the Experimental ... "Pharmacy researcher to use American Cancer Society grant for melanoma research". Archived from the original on 2015-02-18. ...
... the biology and treatment of pancreatic cancer, molecular cancer vaccines, gene therapy and the translation of laboratory ... Mary Anne Chute Lynch (26 December 1999). "A New Generation of Cancer Vaccines - New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved ... Lewis JJ (October 2004). "Therapeutic cancer vaccines: using unique antigens". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... and the potential use of vaccines in pancreatic cancer. Lewis has authored over 200 scientific publications, which include work ...
McNamara MA, Nair SK, Holl EK (2015). "RNA-Based Vaccines in Cancer Immunotherapy". Journal of Immunology Research. 2015: ... Zhao L, Seth A, Wibowo N, Zhao CX, Mitter N, Yu C, Middelberg AP (January 2014). "Nanoparticle vaccines". Vaccine. 32 (3): 327- ... An important application is the development of mRNA vaccines, of which the first authorized were COVID-19 vaccines (such as ... Pardi N, Weissman D (2017). "Nucleoside Modified mRNA Vaccines for Infectious Diseases". RNA Vaccines. Methods in Molecular ...
Slovin SF, Keding SJ, Ragupathi G (August 2005). "Carbohydrate vaccines as immunotherapy for cancer". Immunology and Cell ... Fernández-Tejada A, Haynes BF, Danishefsky SJ (June 2015). "Designing synthetic vaccines for HIV". Expert Review of Vaccines. ... Pinho SS, Reis CA (September 2015). "Glycosylation in cancer: mechanisms and clinical implications". Nature Reviews. Cancer. 15 ... and developing therapeutic cancer vaccines and other targeted therapies. Some mechanisms of action include using the glycan for ...
HPV and hepatitis B vaccines can help prevent cancer. ... Risk Factors and Cancerplus icon *Alcohol and Cancerplus icon * ... The HPV vaccine can prevent several kinds of cancer, and the hepatitis B vaccine can help prevent liver cancer. ... The HPV vaccine does not substitute for routine cervical cancer screening tests (Pap and HPV tests), according to recommended ... Some cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), a very common sexually transmitted infection. The HPV vaccine protects ...
... the patients who benefited most from the vaccine had previously responded to immunotherapy. ... Another study relating to ovarian cancer is in the recruitment phase. The researchers seek to evaluate the vaccine alone or in ... Cite this: Therapeutic Vaccine Shows Promise in Treating Lung Cancer - Medscape - Sep 19, 2023. ... news Gaps in Breast Cancer Receptor Testing for Certain Groups * 2001/viewarticle/nci-task-force-issues-rectal-cancer-trial- ...
Human Papillomavirus Prevalence in Oropharyngeal Cancer before Vaccine Introduction, United States Martin Steinau. , Mona ... Human Papillomavirus Prevalence in Oropharyngeal Cancer before Vaccine Introduction, United States. ... Michigan Cancer Surveillance Program, Lansing, Michigan, USA (G. Copeland); Los Angeles Cancer Registry, Los Angeles, ... 1Members of HPV Typing of Cancers Workgroup who contributed to this study are listed at the end of this article. ...
... the water we drink and the medicines and vaccines that treat and protect us. The Organization aims to provide every child, ... "Cervical cancer is the 2nd most frequent cancer among women in Sierra Leone. The introduction of the HPV vaccine is a momentous ... According to the Sierra Leone Cancer registry, cervical cancer is the second most common, and number one killer, of all cancers ... Despite the HPV vaccine providing a proven and safe tool to protect women and girls against HPV and the risk of cervical cancer ...
Learn how physician-scientists at MSK are sparking new hope for pancreatic cancer patients with mRNA vaccine technology. ... MSK mRNA Pancreatic Cancer Vaccine Trial Shows Promising Results. Learn how MSK researchers are deploying mRNA vaccines against ... IRB 19-039: Study of Personalized Tumor Vaccines (PCVs) and a PD-L1 Blocker in Patients With Pancreatic Cancer That Can be ... Learn how physician-scientists at MSK are sparking new hope for pancreatic cancer patients with mRNA vaccine technology. ...
... of oral cancers in the United States are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Heres what you need to know to protect your ... The HPV vaccine also prevents a high percentage of other HPV-related cancers. For example, the virus causes oral cancer-in the ... Unlike cervical cancer, there is no test to screen for oral cancer or any other HPV-associated cancer. HPV-associated oral ... I survived tonsil cancer: Heres why this dad of 3 wants every kid to get the HPV vaccine. By Jason Mendelsohn ...
The first vaccine to protect against most cervical cancer has won federal approval. ... Cancer. FDA approves first vaccine for cervical cancer. The first vaccine to protect against most cervical cancer has won ... GlaxoSmithKline PLC is also developing an HPV vaccine.. "Merck is proud to be the leader in cervical cancer vaccine research ... Merck is expected to market Gardasil as a cancer, rather than an STD, vaccine. It remains unclear how widespread will be the ...
Feline and Canine Cancer Causing Vaccines. For several years a growing number of felines have developed cancerous tumors at the ... I have had too many cat owners come to me with felines that have gotten cancer from vaccines. If your felines are indoors then ... Although the Rabies vaccine is required by law you can decide not to have them administered to your pets .I asked my allopathic ... Vaccines such as distemper, rabies and feline leukemia have caused these tumors in what statistics are showing to be anywhere ...
Allow those who want the vaccine to receive it. Allow those who dont want the vaccine the freedom to refuse it. If the vaccine ... Allow those who want the vaccine to receive it. Allow those who dont want the vaccine the freedom to refuse it. If the vaccine ... So I am very pro-vaccine.. I am in the 1b group in Texas and have already had the first dose at UTSW where I get my cancer ... So I am very pro-vaccine.. I am in the 1b group in Texas and have already had the first dose at UTSW where I get my cancer ...
Vaccines Moderna/Merck cancer vaccine shows promise in trials In positive sign for field, personalized mRNA vaccine reduced ... In an encouraging development for the concept of using vaccines to fight cancer, a personalized messenger RNA (mRNA) cancer ... Some vaccines to treat cancer are already approved, but they havent shown a substantial survival benefit, and not all have a ... The Moderna-Merck cancer vaccine was only tested in patients with melanoma, and melanoma "is not typical," Allen says. It has ...
Cancer patients have many reasons to want to get vaccinated against COVID-19, including having a greater risk of serious ... Do Cancer Patients Want the COVID-19 Vaccine?. Hester Hill Schnipper, LICSW, OSW-C Program Manager Emeritus, Oncology, Social ... Some hospitals and cancer centers have supplies of vaccines, but not all do. Some patients who are being treated at one of the ... Instead, they all want to get the vaccine ASAP. I think of a single father and widower who was diagnosed with cancer who is ...
The first cancer vaccine Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) was licensed last year for use in prostate cancer patients unresponsive to ... The new vaccine approach was found to be highly effective at pre-clinical stage in treating a range of cancers in murine models ... The immune system can also protect us against tumours and in theory a vaccine approach should be effective against cancer. In ... Scientists in Trinity College Dublin, Ireland, have developed a new vaccine to treat cancer at the pre-clinical level. The ...
... they had all discovered that nagalase enzyme protein was being added to vaccines which were then administrated ... And theyre PUTTING it in our vaccines!!. This prevents the body from utilizing the Vitamin D necessary to fight cancer and ... The post Doctors Who Discovered Cancer Enzymes in Vaccines all Found Murdered appeared first on Philosophers Stone. ... Nagalese is what prevents vitamin D from being produced in the body, which is the bodys main defense to naturally kill cancer ...
Medical investigators have begun to see some light at the end of a long tunnel that may lead to a vaccine against lung cancer. ... has begun such tests on the lung cancer vaccine. The company also has started Phase II trials with a prostate cancer vaccine ... Custom-tailored vaccines. The next step is to carry out trials of the vaccine with patients in earlier stages of lung cancer ... The eventual goal is to develop a vaccine that will not just add more years to the lives of lung cancer and other cancer ...
"As weve seen with cervical cancer, although it may deal with 70 percent of cancers of the cervix, the vaccine doesnt deal ... who developed a vaccine for cervical cancer is set to outline a breakthrough which could pave the way for a skin cancer vaccine ... "A vaccine is not a replacement for prevention," he said.. David Currow, the head of Cancer Australia, a government body which ... "And so it is with a vaccine related to skin cancer. The message is still that one of the most powerful things that we can do is ...
Despite low awareness of HPV infection, the majority of respondents would recommend or are ready to receive the HPV vaccine, ... There is an important heterogeneity in cervical cancer screening frequency and coverage. ... Eighty-seven percent agreed that HPV vaccines could prevent cervical cancer, 73% that the vaccine has to be administered before ... Human papilloma virus vaccine and cervical cancer screening acceptability among adults in Quebec, Canada BMC Public Health. ...
Biologics and recombinant antibodies have advanced the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases. Messenger RNA technology ... United States: Biopharmaceutical Innovation: "Unleashing The Bodys Immune System, From MRNA Vaccines To Cancer Cures" (Podcast ... from mRNA Vaccines to Cancer Cures," Milbank partner David Gindler, head of the Intellectual Property Litigation and Licensing ... Messenger RNA technology - an essential part of the newly developed Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines - promises a new ...
Cleveland Clinic is in the early stages of a trial that will look at a preventative breast cancer vaccine. ... Could this vaccine ever be adapted or modified to be a preventative vaccine for other types of cancers? Could this expand ... Cleveland Clinic Cancer Center. Cleveland Clinic Cancer Center provides world-class care to patients with cancer and is at the ... which is approved for treating triple negative breast cancer. So it kind of fits well with our theme of a cancer vaccine to ...
These mRNA [vaccines] promote cancer… and inhibit [the immune system from suppressing cancers.] ... These mRNA [vaccines] promote cancer… and inhibit [the immune system from suppressing cancers.] "… cancer rates [are] ... These mRNA [vaccines] promote cancer… and inhibit [the immune system from suppressing cancers.] "… cancer rates [are] ... "In every country in the world that mass vaccinated, cancer rates are skyrocketing. [… mRNA vaccines] cause heart damage via the ...
... and predictors of intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccine among cancer patients in Eastern China: A cross-sectional survey. ... This study provided preliminary estimates of the rates of vaccine acceptance and vaccine hesitancy among cancer patients in ... CONCLUSION: This study provided preliminary estimates of the rates of vaccine acceptance and vaccine hesitancy among cancer ... Cancer KW - Intention KW - Knowledge KW - Predictors KW - Vaccine KW - Vaccine hesitancy SP - 34 EP - 44 JF - Journal of ...
Compare And Make An Enquiry With Other Healthcare Facilities That Provide Cervical Cancer Vaccine (gardasil / Cervarix) ... Compare The Cost Of Cervical Cancer Vaccine (gardasil / Cervarix). Search, ... During 2008 and 2009 the UK has seen the widespread use of two new vaccines to prevent cancer of the cervix (neck of the womb ... Compare the cost of cervical cancer vaccine (gardasil / cervarix) abroad. ...
The Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Screen (VACCS) project was a cervical cancer vaccine implementation study, which also provided ... The Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Screen (VACCS) project: Linking cervical cancer screening to HPV vaccination in the South-West ... Cervical cancer knowledge. Knowledge scores for cervical cancer symptoms, screening and vaccines for the total group before and ... Linking cervical cancer screening to the cervical cancer vaccine was possible by providing women the opportunity to self-sample ...
The same vaccines can cost more than $100 in developed countries and the previous lowest public sector price was $13 per dose. ... Thanks to the GAVI Alliance, the poorest countries will now have access to a sustainable supply of HPV vaccines for as low as ... vaccines will help ensure millions of girls in developing countries can be protected against cervical cancer. ... Cancer should not be about where you are born. Last year, GAVIs decision to provide HPV vaccine support to poorer countries ...
A recent School of Biomedical Sciences grad wants to improve the chances of survival for cancer patients. ... Michael Donkor, PhD, created a vaccine that stops the spread of breast cancer to the lungs. The project, which he conducted for ... "We identified the lung as one of the most frequent sites of cancer metastasis and engineered a vaccine based on nanotechnology ... "Every country has felt the bad effects of cancer," he said. "It means we have to up our game. Most of the treatments for cancer ...
Cervical cancer is a cancer that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at the top ... cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... A vaccine is available to protect against the HPV types that cause most cervical cancer in women. The vaccine is:. *Recommended ... Cervical cancer is a cancer that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that opens at the top ...
The incidence of colorectal cancer has been rising dramatically following economic development and industrialization. ... Colon and rectal cancer incidence was negligible before 1900. ... www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research/cancer-facts-and ... Vaccine. Class Summary. HPV is associated with about 90% of anal cancer. In a study of homosexual males, HPV vaccine was shown ... Vaccine efficacy mediated by humoral immune responses following immunization series. Indicated for prevention of anal cancer ...
A cervical cancer patient shares how she survived the disease and why people should get the HPV vaccine. ... Cervical cancer survivor urges young people to get HPV vaccine. After her cancer diagnosis at 26, Lily Taylor finds strength ... or know someone with cervical cancer. She also spreads awareness of the HPV vaccine and cervical cancer and has her own support ... Dont be ashamed to get the vaccine or to have your children vaccinated, she advises. HPV and cervical cancer can be ...
Guideline] National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Central Nervous System Cancers ... encoded search term (Brain Cancer Treatment Protocols) and Brain Cancer Treatment Protocols What to Read Next on Medscape ... Head and Neck Cancer - Resection and Neck Dissection * Microarray Technologies in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Head and Neck ... Brain Cancer Treatment Protocols Updated: Mar 01, 2023 * Author: Jeffrey N Bruce, MD; Chief Editor: Herbert H Engelhard, III, ...
  • Some cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), a very common sexually transmitted infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Human papillomavirus vaccine is an effective means of preventing cervical cancer. (who.int)
  • Many people associate human papillomavirus (HPV) with cervical cancer. (healthychildren.org)
  • A human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been approved for use in Canada and is commercially available now. (nih.gov)
  • Women who were vaccinated against the human papillomavirus (HPV) at the age of 12-13 were now 87 per cent less likely to develop cervical cancer than an unvaccinated person, the researchers found. (euronews.com)
  • Most cervical cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine helps protect against infection by the strains of HPV that are most likely to cause the following: Cervical cancer, vaginal cancer, and vulvar cancer in. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Precisely, this involves the administration of full that there is low cervical cancer screening behavior at human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to 90% of girls at different areas in subtropican regions ( Nyangasi et al. (who.int)
  • ABSTRACT Studies have suggested a possible link between breast cancer pathogenesis and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. (who.int)
  • Do Cancer Patients Want the COVID-19 Vaccine? (bidmc.org)
  • As the COVID-19 Vaccine becomes accessible throughout the United States, many questions have arisen, especially for cancer patients. (sharecancersupport.org)
  • Please join Dr. Joshua A. Hill from Fred Hutch Cancer Research Center, a physician who specializes in the treatment of infectious diseases in cancer patients, as he explains the COVID-19 Vaccine in relation to cancer patients and their treatment. (sharecancersupport.org)
  • however, whether cancer patients should take COVID-19 vaccine remains unknown. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • following a review of similar studies previously published in the scientific literature, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A total of 24 variables including demographic characteristics, clinical status of cancer, impact of COVID-19 pandemic on study participants, patients' knowledge about the COVID-19 vaccine, and attitude towards the vaccine, had significant differences between the "vaccine hesitancy" population and "vaccine acceptance" population. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The intention to receive the COVID-19 vaccine was impacted by factors such as patient occupation, alcohol consumption, and some parts of knowledge about and attitude towards COVID-19 vaccine. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A 12-member global COVID-19 Vaccine in Pediatric Oncology Working Group made up of physicians and nurses from all world regions met weekly from March to July 2021. (bvsalud.org)
  • Top COVID-19 vaccine -related questions could be answered using available information. (bvsalud.org)
  • To find COVID-19 vaccine locations near you, search vaccines.gov , text your zip code to 438829, or call 1-800-232-0233. (cdc.gov)
  • According to the Sierra Leone Cancer registry, cervical cancer is the second most common, and number one killer, of all cancers among women aged between 14 and 44 years old - and in 2021, approximately 504 new cases of this deadly cancer were diagnosed. (who.int)
  • Globally, more than 270,000 women die of cervical at a late stage, which makes management difficult (WHO, cancer, where the majority are residents of low- and 2021). (who.int)
  • 2019). According prevention, infuence social norms, and facilitate behavior to The Global Cancer Observatory (2021), cervical change among selected individuals or sub-populations to cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among prevent cervical cancer (Abraham et. (who.int)
  • However, some adults age 27 through 45 years who are not already vaccinated may decide to get the HPV vaccine after speaking with their doctor about their risk for new HPV infections and the possible benefits of vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2019, 191 of 194 Member States had the three-dose series in their national vaccination schedule and 85% of the world's infants received three doses of the vaccine. (who.int)
  • The Government of Sierra Leone wholeheartedly welcomes the introduction of the HPV vaccination drive and urges all to support girls ten years of age to be vaccinated and thus preventing them from cervical cancer and its consequences during the course of their entire lives", said Dr Austin Demby, Minister of Health and Sanitation. (who.int)
  • More than 55 percent of the 194 WHO Member States have introduced HPV vaccination, however in West and Central Africa the HPV vaccine has been introduced in only eight countries. (who.int)
  • The vaccination non-profit GAVI is providing about $250,000 for operation costs for the first year of the pilot project, in addition to in-kind contributions of vaccines, Vichit said. (phnompenhpost.com)
  • I have told my story on Capitol Hill at a congressional briefing to increase HPV vaccination rates and end HPV-related cancers. (healthychildren.org)
  • Eighty-seven percent agreed that HPV vaccines could prevent cervical cancer, 73% that the vaccine has to be administered before the onset of sexual activity, 89% would recommend vaccination to their daughters and nieces. (nih.gov)
  • It's been incredible to see the impact of HPV vaccination, and now we can prove it prevented hundreds of women from developing cancer in England," said the study's lead author, cancer specialist Peter Sasieni from King's College London. (euronews.com)
  • The study's lead author Sasieni said the findings showed that vaccination programmes could all but stamp out some cancers. (euronews.com)
  • Together with researchers from the UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) and the National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service (NCRAS), the study's authors estimated that the vaccination programme had prevented around 450 cases of cervical cancers during the 11 year period from 2008 to 2019. (euronews.com)
  • It is recommended to develop individualized vaccination plans that meet the healthcare needs of cancer patients. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • As many as 93% of cervical cancers could be prevented by screening and HPV vaccination. (medlineplus.gov)
  • With the theme, vaccines bring us closer, World Immunization Week shows how vaccination connects us to the people, goals and moments that matter most, helping improve the health of everyone everywhere throughout life. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this trial, 219 patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive the vaccine or standard-of-care chemotherapy (80% received docetaxel). (medscape.com)
  • The cost of Gardasil and the difficulty of getting young girls in to see a doctor three times in six months to receive the vaccine could pose problems, said Cynthia Dailard, senior public policy analyst at the Guttmacher Institute, which focuses on sexual and reproductive health. (nbcnews.com)
  • Different studies have reported between a quarter and a half of the population want to delay or never receive the vaccine. (bidmc.org)
  • 25 years, 91% would agree to receive the vaccine if it is publicly funded, but only 72% would agree to pay $100/dose. (nih.gov)
  • But in other ways, the jab is similar to mRNA vaccines for COVID-19. (acs.org)
  • The two most successful coronavirus vaccines developed in the U.S. - the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines - are both mRNA vaccines. (nextgov.com)
  • We spoke to her about the future of mRNA vaccines for The Conversation Weekly podcast. (nextgov.com)
  • The mRNA vaccines did not work very well at first. (nextgov.com)
  • But about seven or eight years ago, mRNA vaccines started to take the lead. (nextgov.com)
  • DNA and mRNA vaccines are much better at producing T cells than are normal vaccines. (nextgov.com)
  • These mRNA [vaccines] promote cancer… and inhibit [the immune system from suppressing cancers. (bitchute.com)
  • mRNA vaccines] cause heart damage via the spike protein. (bitchute.com)
  • mRNA vaccines cause] neurological damage like stroke, [like bleeding in the brain], neuropathy, Guillain-Barré Syndrome [rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system]. (bitchute.com)
  • mRNA vaccines cause] 'blood clots'… larger than we have ever seen… that don't respond to blood thinners, and do NOT… dissolve. (bitchute.com)
  • mRNA vaccines cause immune system problems] like multi-system inflammatory [syndrome]. (bitchute.com)
  • For example, only 1 in 10 people who need assistive products has access to 1 Diseases affecting small numbers of patients, including diseases of genetic origin, infrequent forms of cancer, autoimmune diseases, toxic and/or infectious diseases, and congenital deformities. (who.int)
  • Some vaccines to treat cancer are already approved, but they haven't shown a substantial survival benefit, and not all have a clear mechanism of action, says Andrew Allen, CEO of Gritstone Bio , which is developing vaccines for cancer as well as infectious diseases . (acs.org)
  • Vaccines for infectious diseases are highly effective at generating immune responses that prevent infection with bacteria or viruses. (tcd.ie)
  • This discovery really prompted additional thinking about how researchers could use nucleic acid vaccines not just for infectious diseases, but also for immunotherapy to treat cancers and chronic infectious diseases - like HIV, hepatitis B and herpes - as well as autoimmune disorders and even for gene therapy. (nextgov.com)
  • How can a vaccine treat cancers or chronic infectious diseases? (nextgov.com)
  • We are in the era where no one should suffer or die from diseases that are preventable with the use of vaccines. (who.int)
  • My hope was to draw attention to a diagnosis I had never heard of-and protect hundreds of thousands of boys and girls from HPV preventable cancers. (healthychildren.org)
  • I share my story often so that parents and grandparents understand that they have the ability-and in my opinion the responsibility-to protect their kids and grandkids from HPV preventable cancers. (healthychildren.org)
  • I want to protect the planet from HPV preventable cancers. (healthychildren.org)
  • doctors estimate that about 40% of cancers are preventable. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Nevertheless, it is one of the most preventable and cancer prevention services through advocacy and curable forms of cancer if diagnosed early and effectively providing information about cervical cancer prevention managed. (who.int)
  • That means about 228 million children are vulnerable right now to deadly vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles, yellow fever and polio. (bvsalud.org)
  • Merck is proud to be the leader in cervical cancer vaccine research and development," said Richard Clark, the company's chief executive officer and president. (nbcnews.com)
  • Frazer, a University of Queensland researcher who developed the cervical cancer vaccine Gardasil, said it was not yet known how many skin cancers were caused by the virus. (trend.az)
  • Moderna and Merck & Co. jointly developed a cancer vaccine. (acs.org)
  • In an encouraging development for the concept of using vaccines to fight cancer, a personalized messenger RNA (mRNA) cancer vaccine jointly developed by Moderna and Merck Co. has shown positive results in a randomized Phase 2 clinical trial, the companies announced Dec. 13. (acs.org)
  • Moderna and Merck say they are the first companies to show efficacy in a randomized clinical trial for an investigational mRNA-based cancer treatment. (acs.org)
  • The Moderna/Merck vaccine is personalized, meaning the mRNA sequences it delivers are tailored to each patient. (acs.org)
  • Finally we have three vaccines, Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and Johnson & Johnson/Janssen, that have received emergency approval from the FDA and are being widely distributed in our country. (bidmc.org)
  • This type of vaccine has been in the works for about 30 years . (nextgov.com)
  • Global cancer vaccines market segmentation by type of vaccine: Preventive Cancer Vaccines, Therapeutic Cancer Vaccines. (pharmiweb.com)
  • They had an HLA-A2 phenotype, as determined by a blood draw to determine whether their immune system could respond to the vaccine. (medscape.com)
  • The inference is that, in many cases, cancers that arise within our bodies are controlled or even eradicated by an immune response before they can cause us harm. (newstatesman.com)
  • First, many cancers acquire mutations that enable them to switch off or circumvent immune system responses that would otherwise make them vulnerable to attack. (newstatesman.com)
  • Our scientists pursue every aspect of cancer research-from exploring the biology of genes and cells, to developing immune-based treatments, uncovering the causes of metastasis, and more. (mskcc.org)
  • I personally do not vaccinate my felines for fear of cancer and destroying their natural immune system. (felineinstincts.com)
  • So the idea here is that we develop an immune response to an antigen expressed on the cancer cells. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • In the preclinical models it was possible to develop an immune response with a vaccine against this alpha-lactalbumin and prevent breast cancer. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The immune system can also protect us against tumours and in theory a vaccine approach should be effective against cancer. (tcd.ie)
  • Eighteen of the 25 patients who received the vaccine showed signs that it stimulated their body's natural immune system to mount a heightened attack against the tumors. (harvard.edu)
  • In 18 of 25 patients (72 percent), evidence indicates that such a customized vaccine initiated an immune attack on the tumors, and did so without any harmful side effects. (harvard.edu)
  • The idea of using genetic material to produce an immune response has opened up a world of research and potential medical uses far out of reach of traditional vaccines. (nextgov.com)
  • If your immune system can recognize and see those better, it will attack the cancer cells and eliminate them from the body . (nextgov.com)
  • Similar to the way nucleic acid vaccines can train the immune system to eliminate cancer cells, they can be used to train our immune cells to recognize and eliminate chronically infected cells. (nextgov.com)
  • This research has led to the development of a potential new treatment for EBV cancers - a therapeutic vaccine to alert the immune system of patients with an EBV-related cancer to attack the cancer cells. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • The Food and Drug Administration on Thursday approved use of the vaccine, Gardasil, for use in girls and women ages 9 to 26. (nbcnews.com)
  • Gardasil, manufactured by Merck & Co. Inc., protects against the two types of HPV responsible for about 70 percent of cervical cancer cases. (nbcnews.com)
  • Clinical trials showed Gardasil prevented 100 percent of cervical cancer related to the two HPV strains in women who had not been previously infected, Merck said. (nbcnews.com)
  • Merck is expected to market Gardasil as a cancer, rather than an STD, vaccine. (nbcnews.com)
  • The target age for receiving Gardasil is low because the vaccine works best when given to girls before they begin having sex and run the risk of HPV infection. (nbcnews.com)
  • A newer vaccine, Gardasil, was introduced in 2012. (euronews.com)
  • Following its promising findings concerning early-stage melanoma , pancreatic cancer , ENT cancers, and HPV-associated anogenital cancer, the company-funded phase 3 Atalante-1 trial has shown the benefits of the Tedopi (OSE2101) vaccine in treating patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer who are on their second or third line of treatment. (medscape.com)
  • What does it take to help create the first-of-its-kind vaccine for pancreatic cancer? (mskcc.org)
  • Learn how physician-scientists at MSK are sparking new hope for pancreatic cancer patients with mRNA vaccine technology. (mskcc.org)
  • FREETOWN, Sierra Leone - 03 October 2022 - In a move to protect adolescent girls from cervical cancer, the Government of Sierra Leone today introduced the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine to the routine immunisation schedule and launched the start of a campaign to reach 153,991 girls with the vaccine. (who.int)
  • Pediatr Blood Cancer;69(12): e29985, 2022 12. (bvsalud.org)
  • As we've seen with cervical cancer, although it may deal with 70 percent of cancers of the cervix, the vaccine doesn't deal with the other 30 percent," he told ABC radio. (trend.az)
  • Cervical cancer is a cancer that starts in the cervix. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Women who have had their cervix removed at the time of hysterectomy no longer need Pap tests, unless the hysterectomy was done for cervical cancer or pre-cancer in which cases screening should be continued. (medlineplus.gov)
  • She also spreads awareness of the HPV vaccine and cervical cancer and has her own support group in Minnesota called At Your Cervix MN. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer develops in the cervix (the lower part of the uterus). (msdmanuals.com)
  • The HPV vaccine also limited the development of precancerous cervical cells, leading to 17,235 fewer cases of cervical carcinoma than would be expected in vaccinated cohorts in England. (euronews.com)
  • SINGAPORE - A few months after releasing its phase 1 and 2 data, OSE Immunotherapeutics, which is based in Nantes, France, has announced positive results for its therapeutic vaccine to treat cancer. (medscape.com)
  • The results suggest that Tedopi is the most developmentally advanced therapeutic vaccine for cancer. (medscape.com)
  • The vaccine may not protect people already infected and may increase their risk of the kind of lesions that can lead to cervical cancer, the FDA has said. (nbcnews.com)
  • In the U.S., regular Pap smears often detect precancerous lesions and early cancer. (nbcnews.com)
  • A study by Nielsen et al examined trends in incidence of anal cancer and high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia in Denmark from 1978-2008 and found that HPV vaccines may be a vital factor in the prevention of anal cancer and its precursor lesions. (medscape.com)
  • Latest global immunisation coverage data shows that just 12% of girls globally are receiving the crucial vaccine with immunisation campaigns particularly disrupted by lockdowns and school closures. (who.int)
  • The introduction of the HPV vaccine in Sierra Leone comes after several months of thorough planning led by the Ministry of Health and Sanitation's National Immunisation Programme. (who.int)
  • With today's launch, Sierra Leone joins the group of regional pacesetters introducing the HPV vaccine into routine immunisation programs as a key strategy to prevent mortality and morbidity due to cervical cancer. (who.int)
  • The HPV immunisation programme has successfully almost eliminated cervical cancer in women born since September 1, 1995," the researchers said. (euronews.com)
  • Present in the room are Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General, Dr Maria Van Kerkhove, Technical Lead on COVID-19, Dr Kate O'Brien, Director for Immunisation, Vaccines and Biologicals, and Dr Ann Lindstrom, the Head of the Immunisation Programme of WHO. (bvsalud.org)
  • But even as COVID-19 vaccines give us hope of light at the end of the tunnel the pandemic has caused several disruptions to immunisation services around the world. (bvsalud.org)
  • Safe, effective, quality-assured and affordable vaccines, medicines, medical devices, in vitro diagnostics and assistive products are necessary for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer and other noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes, and rare and orphan diseases, as well as the monitoring, rehabilitation and palliative care of individuals with these conditions. (who.int)
  • Hepatitis B vaccine prevents hepatitis B-related cancers and other diseases. (who.int)
  • T cell responses are very important for identifying cells infected with chronic diseases and aberrant cancer cells. (nextgov.com)
  • There are dozens of ongoing trials testing the efficacy of mRNA or DNA vaccines to treat cancers or chronic diseases. (nextgov.com)
  • Thanks to vaccines smallpox is now in the history books, polio has been pushed to the brink of eradication and once-feared diseases like diphtheria, tetanus and meningitis are now easily prevented. (bvsalud.org)
  • This report presents progress made in implementing resolution WHA70.12 (2017) on cancer prevention and control in the context of an integrated approach, on and access to health products for rare and orphan diseases1 (part A) and in implementing resolution WHA72.8 (2019) on improving the transparency of markets for medicines, vaccines, and other health products (part B). (who.int)
  • The Cancer Vaccine report is segmented into distinct key regions, with revenue(Million), Cancer Vaccine market sales and growth Rate(%) from 2019 to 2028 (forecast).Geographically, Cancer Vaccine report covering the regions (North America, Europe, Latin America, Asia Pacific, and the Middle East & Africa). (pharmiweb.com)
  • The forecasts period section of Cancer Vaccine report includes 2019-2028 financials, supply chain trends, key developments, technological innovations, apart from future strategies, mergers & acquisitions, and market footprint. (pharmiweb.com)
  • It protects against nine strains of HPV which cause cervical cancers, as well as genital warts and cancers of the neck, head, anus and genitals, the NHS said. (euronews.com)
  • The vaccine will protect the girls from cervical cancer in the future, he said, and mortality rates would also decrease as a result. (phnompenhpost.com)
  • This year we have already seen the power of vaccines in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. (euronews.com)
  • The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in 2020 evolved into a global pandemic , and COVID-19 vaccines became rapidly available, including for pediatric patients . (bvsalud.org)
  • Now safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines have been developed in record time, bringing us closer to ending the pandemic. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and other important oncology-focused organizations all say that cancer patients should be a high priority group to receive the vaccinations. (bidmc.org)
  • Some hospitals and cancer centers have supplies of vaccines, but not all do. (bidmc.org)
  • The supplement is sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Proposed strategies to enhance cervical cancer screening were: sensitization of the population, recruitment of more competent staff, testing centers should be located closed to the target population, less embarrassing screening methods should be used, health care workers should demonstrate positive attitudes during care, female staff should manage the screening units, screening cost should be subsidized. (who.int)
  • The HPV virus is a contributing factor that can lead to cervical cancer among women later in life. (phnompenhpost.com)
  • Certain types of HPV are more likely to lead to cervical cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The new vaccine would target papillomavirus, a common infection which can turn abnormal cells into cancer. (trend.az)
  • My entire career has been focussed on understanding the interaction between papillomavirus and the cancers," Frazer said. (trend.az)
  • RÉSUMÉ Des études ont suggéré qu'un lien était possible entre la pathogénèse du cancer du sein et l'infection à papillomavirus humain. (who.int)
  • L'étude menée en Iraq a utilisé la méthode d'hybridation in situ pour déterminer la fréquence du papillomavirus humain et pour son génotypage dans les échantillons de tissus prélevés auprès de 129 patientes ayant reçu un diagnostic de cancer du sein malin, de 24 patientes porteuses d'une tumeur du sein bénigne et de 20 femmes témoins en bonne santé. (who.int)
  • A platinum-based antineoplastic agent used in combination with an infusion of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer in patients with recurrence or progression following initial treatment with irinotecan, 5-FU, and leucovorin. (medscape.com)
  • Indicated as a first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer. (medscape.com)
  • Indicated to treat colorectal cancer that has metastasized following standard chemotherapy. (medscape.com)
  • Colorectal Cancer Screening Early diagnosis of colorectal cancer depends on routine screening, which should typically begin at age 45 for people who are at average risk of developing colorectal cancer and continue until. (msdmanuals.com)
  • found during screening can decrease the chance of developing colorectal cancer. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The HPV vaccine can prevent several kinds of cancer, and the hepatitis B vaccine can help prevent liver cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • The hepatitis B vaccine is available for all age groups to prevent HBV infection. (cdc.gov)
  • For many years, the University of Birmingham has been at the leading edge of research on Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and its link to certain cancers. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • is part of secondary prevention of certain cancers. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Reducing the risk of certain cancers may be possible through dietary and other lifestyle changes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The data from Atalante-1 were presented at the World Conference on Lung Cancer and were simultaneously published in Annals of Oncology . (medscape.com)
  • In the Atalante-1 trial, participants had locally advanced (unresectable and not eligible for radiotherapy) or metastatic (without alteration of the EGFR and ALK genes) non-small cell lung cancer that was resistant to previous immunotherapy. (medscape.com)
  • Glenn Dranoff (right) and Thomas Lynch are part of a team working on the development of a new type of lung cancer vaccine. (harvard.edu)
  • Medical investigators have begun to see some light at the end of a long tunnel that may lead to a vaccine against lung cancer. (harvard.edu)
  • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in North America and Europe. (harvard.edu)
  • Lung cancer is so hard to deal with because, in most patients, it has already spread beyond the lungs before it is detected," says Glenn Dranoff, associate professor of medicine at the Harvard Medical School. (harvard.edu)
  • Dranoff, who led the team, says he is not aware of any other academia group working on this type of lung-cancer vaccine. (harvard.edu)
  • The next step is to carry out trials of the vaccine with patients in earlier stages of lung cancer and melanoma. (harvard.edu)
  • This may seem a startling claim, but it sits squarely within a new area of cancer therapeutics that has been gathering momentum over the past decade: immunotherapy. (newstatesman.com)
  • For these patients, the risk of death was reduced by 41% with the vaccine in comparison with chemotherapy. (medscape.com)
  • Fewer serious adverse effects were reported with the vaccine than with chemotherapy (11.4% with Tedopi and 35.1% with docetaxel). (medscape.com)
  • Change in patients' overall well-being was delayed in the vaccine group: 3.3 months in the chemotherapy arm vs 9 months in the vaccine arm. (medscape.com)
  • So we don't have any specific targets for triple-negative breast cancer, and we're stuck with chemotherapy at the moment. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The use of as many chemotherapy drugs as possible is recommended to maximize the effect of adjuvant therapies for colon and rectal cancer. (medscape.com)
  • For colon and rectal cancer, bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy is also indicated in patients with unresectable synchronous metastases. (medscape.com)
  • So I'm a Medical Oncologist at the Cleveland Clinic, with a particularly interest in breast cancer, sarcoma and clinical trials. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The vaccine has also passed safety trials for melanoma," Dranoff says, "and we have begun testing it on ovarian cancer and leukemia patients. (harvard.edu)
  • Professor Ian Frazer told The Sunday Telegraph that tests of the vaccine on animals had proven successful and that human trials could begin as soon as next year, AFP reported. (trend.az)
  • For a very long time DNA vaccines took the front seat, and the very first clinical trials were with a DNA vaccine . (nextgov.com)
  • The researchers hope to do this sooner by getting additional scientific data from the trials by using the very latest 'cutting edge' techniques and are currently raising funds with Cancer Research UK to do this. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Over the past two years, BioNTech has gone from obscure biotechnology outfit to near-household name thanks to its partnership with the US pharmaceutical giant Pfizer in creating one of the world's most successful Covid vaccines. (newstatesman.com)
  • Today marks the start of World Immunization Week at a time when the world's attention is focused on vaccines as never before. (bvsalud.org)
  • The HPV test can identify the high-risk types of HPV that are known to cause cervical cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The first-ever study of the UK's HPV vaccine programme found that the jab prevented thousands of cases of cancers and precancerous cells in the years since it was first offered to children. (euronews.com)
  • That is why it is important for women to get regular Pap smears, so that precancerous cells can be removed before they can become cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Ministry of Health and Sanitation (MoHS) - with support from Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (Gavi), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and World Health Organization (WHO) - will administer HPV vaccines nationwide through schools, targeting 153,991 10-year-old girls, who will each receive two doses over a six-month period. (who.int)
  • Today's launch should be celebrated as a first step towards protecting girls in Sierra Leone from cervical cancer and providing them with a better chance of living longer, healthier lives and reaching their full potential," said Thabani Maphosa, the Managing Director of Country Programmes at Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. (who.int)
  • In 2014, a Gavi-supported HPV vaccine pilot project was undertaken in Bo District. (who.int)
  • The press conference will include two special guests today and those are Henrietta Fore, UNICEF Director, and Dr Seth Berkley, CEO of GAVI, the vaccine alliance. (bvsalud.org)
  • A vaccine is not a replacement for prevention," he said. (trend.az)
  • In a study of homosexual males, HPV vaccine was shown to be 78% effective in prevention of HPV 16- and 18-related anal intraepithelial neoplasms. (medscape.com)
  • Concurrent treatment with adjuvant temozolomide and alternating electric fields is a National Comprehensive Cancer Network category 1 recommendation for treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastoma in patients 70 years of age or younger who have a good performance status (PS), and is considered a reasonable treatment option for patients older than 70 years of age with good PS. (medscape.com)
  • The first cancer vaccine Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) was licensed last year for use in prostate cancer patients unresponsive to hormone treatment. (tcd.ie)
  • Global cancer vaccines market segmentation by indication: Cervical Cancer, Prostate Cancer, Others. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The HPV vaccine also prevents a high percentage of other HPV-related cancers. (healthychildren.org)
  • Nagalese is what prevents vitamin D from being produced in the body, which is the body's main defense to naturally kill cancer cells. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • This prevents the body from utilizing the Vitamin D necessary to fight cancer and prevent autism . (beforeitsnews.com)
  • Global cancer vaccines market segmentation by technology: Dendritic Cells (DC) Cancer Vaccines, Recombinant Cancer Vaccines, Antigen/Adjuvant Cancer Vaccines, Whole Cell Cancer Vaccines, Viral Vector & DNA Cancer Vaccines. (pharmiweb.com)
  • HPV vaccine also is recommended for everyone through age 26 years, if they are not vaccinated already. (cdc.gov)
  • The number of countries introducing the vaccine has increased in recent years, but low- and lower-middle-income countries still lag behind. (who.int)
  • Many scientific studies have shown that if we start to vaccinate against HPV, in 15 to 20 years, we will reduce the incidence of cervical cancer," he said, adding that cervical cancer usually emerges in women between 40 and 45 years of age. (phnompenhpost.com)
  • After a person is infected with the HPV virus, it can take years for oral cancer to develop. (healthychildren.org)
  • A few years after beating cancer, I decided to launch www.SupermanHPV.com to provide inspiration and information for those diagnosed and/or researching HPV, the HPV vaccine, and HPV related cancers. (healthychildren.org)
  • And in the past few years, HPV mouth and throat cancers have surpassed cervical cancer. (healthychildren.org)
  • For several years a growing number of felines have developed cancerous tumors at the location site of vaccines. (felineinstincts.com)
  • Frazer, who will deliver his findings to the Australian Health and Medical Research Congress on Monday, said a skin cancer vaccine could be available in five to 10 years. (trend.az)
  • Deborah Fuller is a microbiologist at the University of Washington who has been studying genetic vaccines for more than 20 years. (nextgov.com)
  • That's what it was like for Lily Taylor, now 32, who was diagnosed with cervical cancer six years ago. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Five years later, she is cancer free and happy to have her strength, and sense of humor, back. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This vaccine assessment tool applies to children and adolescents from birth through 18 years old. (cdc.gov)
  • In the past 15 years new vaccines have been approved to prevent cervical cancer, malaria and Ebola. (bvsalud.org)
  • It was tested in people with stage 3/4 melanoma who had their tumors removed but had a higher chance of the cancer returning due to features of their melanoma, said Michelle Brown, Moderna's program director for oncology, in a Dec. 14 roundtable with reporters. (acs.org)
  • The same vaccine is also being studied for treatment of melanoma, prostate, and other cancers. (harvard.edu)
  • He and other team members originally developed it to treat patients with advanced melanoma, a skin cancer that becomes lethal if allowed to spread. (harvard.edu)
  • It didn't have the power we would have liked, but it helped us understand that the people who benefited the most from the vaccine were patients who had responded to immunotherapy in the past. (medscape.com)
  • In this study of 219 patients, we realized that just half of patients really benefited from the vaccine: those who had previously responded to immunotherapy," said Besse. (medscape.com)
  • and document A72/17, Access to medicines and vaccines. (who.int)
  • Bringing forward this lifesaving scientific advance is yet another testament to Merck's long-standing mission to research and develop novel vaccines and medicines that can greatly improve public health. (nbcnews.com)
  • The vaccine also blocks infection by two other strains responsible for 90 percent of genital wart cases. (nbcnews.com)
  • Despite low awareness of HPV infection, the majority of respondents would recommend or are ready to receive the HPV vaccine, but the cost could prevent its acceptability. (nih.gov)
  • Cervical cancer usually results from infection. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Globally, cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women with an estimated 266,000 deaths and 528,000 new cases each year. (who.int)
  • We know it causes at least five percent of all cancers globally. (trend.az)
  • The findings are published this month online in Cancer Research , the leading journal of The American Association of Cancer Research. (tcd.ie)
  • These remarkable findings confirm that the HPV vaccine saves lives by dramatically reducing cervical cancer rates among women. (euronews.com)
  • It gives the summary of the Cancer Vaccine market share study of main regions in key countries such as North America, Asia-Pacific, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East, and Africa. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Despite the HPV vaccine providing a proven and safe tool to protect women and girls against HPV and the risk of cervical cancer, global coverage rates among 15-year-old girls remain low at 15 percent with two doses on average. (who.int)
  • More people die of it than of breast, prostate, and colon cancer combined. (harvard.edu)
  • I wear my mask faithfully, maintain social distance, and wash my hands whenever I come from outside our home and before eating, especially when we take food out from a restaurant," said David, a colon cancer survivor. (cdc.gov)
  • Decreasing fat intake appears to reduce the risk of breast and colon cancers. (msdmanuals.com)
  • But HPV also causes vaginal, vulvar, cervical, penile and anal precancers and cancers, and mouth and throat cancers. (healthychildren.org)
  • HPV is associated with about 90% of anal cancer. (medscape.com)
  • Does the HPV Vaccine Prevent Oral Cancer? (healthychildren.org)
  • Vince Tuohy is an immunologist, a PhD immunologist, who did preclinical work in a breast cancer model, showing that a breast cancer vaccine could prevent breast cancer in this animal model. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • And it is intended to prevent recurrence of cancer rather than prevent cancer in the first place. (acs.org)
  • The vaccine is therapeutic rather than preventive, designed to allow patients to live longer, not to prevent the disease. (harvard.edu)
  • If we can prevent their malignancy from reappearing and spreading, then the vaccine would be a success. (harvard.edu)
  • It would be used on children aged between 10 and 12 to prevent them from developing skin cancer -- a disease which causes some 1,600 deaths in Australia each year. (trend.az)
  • David Currow, the head of Cancer Australia, a government body which assists with research and education, warned that the vaccine may not prevent all skin cancers. (trend.az)
  • Have you ever heard of a vaccine or shot to prevent cervical cancer? (cdc.gov)
  • Cleveland Clinic medical oncologist and principal investigator, G. Thomas Budd, MD, joins the Cancer Advances podcast to discuss the trial origins and what we are looking to accomplish. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Cancer Advances, a Cleveland Clinic podcast for medical professionals, exploring the latest innovative research and clinical advances in the field of oncology. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • You'll also get a FREE podcast loaded with tips, information & advice on ovarian cancer. (sharecancersupport.org)
  • The vaccine does not eliminate the need for regular screening. (nbcnews.com)
  • The HPV vaccine protects against the types of HPV that most often cause these cancers. (cdc.gov)
  • The HPV vaccine protects against the types of HPV that can cause oral cancers. (healthychildren.org)
  • This study in Iraq used in situ hybridization to detect the frequency and genotyping of HPV in tissue specimens from 129 patients diagnosed with malignant breast cancer, 24 with benign breast tumours and 20 healthy controls. (who.int)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of women on cervical cancer and strategies to enhance its screening uptake in the city of Bamenda, Cameroon. (who.int)
  • Equally, population-screening programmes like breast mammography, aiming to detect cancer at an early stage before symptoms develop, pick up many more malignancies than would be expected from the incidence of clinical disease. (newstatesman.com)
  • Symptoms of oral cancer include a long-lasting sore throat, earaches, hoarseness, swollen lymph nodes, pain when swallowing and unexplained weight loss. (healthychildren.org)
  • Screening for Cancer Screening tests are used to detect the possibility that a disease is present before symptoms occur. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Screening for Cervical Cancer Sometimes doctors recommend screening tests, which are tests that are done to look for disorders in people who have no symptoms. (msdmanuals.com)
  • mRNA COVID-19 vaccines, such as Moderna's SpikeVax or Pfizer and BioNTech's Comirnaty, introduce to the body a piece of mRNA that encodes for a SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. (acs.org)
  • The vaccine is effective for patients who express the HLA-A2 gene, which is present in around half of the population. (medscape.com)
  • The vaccine also allowed patients to maintain a better quality of life. (medscape.com)
  • Our world-class doctors are dedicated to treating patients with cancer. (mskcc.org)
  • Cleveland Clinic recently opened a clinical trial to determine the maximum tolerated dose of a vaccine in patients with non-metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Since this is going to be primarily targeting initially triple-negative breast cancer, remind us what percentage of patients with breast cancer would have triple-negative breast cancer. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • The other thing about triple-negative breast cancer is that it's the most common type of breast cancer in patients who have BRCA1 mutations. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • This profound clinical benefit for patients really substantiates the idea of a personalized cancer vaccine," Brown said in the roundtable. (acs.org)
  • Their review of medical research found that cancer patients were twice as likely to die from COVID-19 as were people without cancer. (bidmc.org)
  • In Massachusetts, cancer patients are currently fairly far down the list in Phase 2 of distribution, although cancer is at the top of the list for co-morbidities or pre-existing conditions. (bidmc.org)
  • Some patients who are being treated at one of the supplied hospitals have received calls or emails to register for a vaccine, but those invitations are usually limited to people who fall into the other approved groups (e.g. over 65). (bidmc.org)
  • Given the reported numbers of people who are reluctant to be vaccinated, I find it very interesting that we personally aren't hearing of cancer patients expressing this concern. (bidmc.org)
  • The discovery has been patented and there are plans to develop the vaccine for clinical use for cancer patients. (tcd.ie)
  • A trial vaccine given to 25 patients in advanced stages of the disease has produced what researchers call "encouraging results. (harvard.edu)
  • Our goal is to evaluate the vaccine on patients who have localized tumors removed by surgery. (harvard.edu)
  • A total of 2158 cancer patients were enrolled in this study. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • This study provided preliminary estimates of the rates of vaccine acceptance and vaccine hesitancy among cancer patients in Eastern China. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Working with Cancer Research UK, the Birmingham research team have already tested the vaccine in a small number of patients with an EBV-related head and neck cancer. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • We aimed to answer these questions and give recommendations applicable for use in pediatric patients with cancer by healthcare professionals and the public. (bvsalud.org)
  • The detection of high-oncogenic HPV genotypes in patients with breast cancer supports the hypothesis of an etiologic role for the virus in breast cancer development. (who.int)
  • However, girls and younger women who are already sexually active can still be protected by the vaccine if they've never been infected. (medlineplus.gov)
  • About 70% of oral cancers are caused by HPV in the U.S. The virus spreads to the mouth by oral sex, and possibly can spread in other ways. (healthychildren.org)
  • The experimenters, who work at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and several other Harvard-affiliated hospitals in Boston, reported their results in the Feb. 15 issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology. (harvard.edu)
  • How long have gene-based vaccines been in development? (nextgov.com)
  • In December 2020, the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) issued a plea that people with cancer receive the vaccines as soon as possible. (bidmc.org)
  • Both of us work with people who are currently being treated for cancer as well as with people who have completed active cancer treatment and are considered to be in the same risk pool as the rest of the population. (bidmc.org)
  • People who are receiving aggressive chemo or other cancer therapy are advised to speak with their doctors and probably wait until their cell counts/blood counts have normalized. (bidmc.org)
  • Close to 400,000 people are diagnosed with skin cancer in the sunburnt country each year, and Frazer said that even if the vaccine worked on humans, people should not stop protecting themselves from the sun. (trend.az)
  • It helps to take Cancer Vaccine business people a decisive judgment by having complete in-depth of a market. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Assuming most people continue to get the HPV vaccine and go for screening, cervical cancer will become a rare disease," he said. (euronews.com)
  • The vaccine could help the 200,000 people diagnosed with an EBV-related cancer each year. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Although the vast majority of people experience no long-term ill effects from EBV, this virus is connected to 200,000 cases of cancer each year. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • In addition to the pain and treatment, Lily also had to deal with losing her hair, not being able to give birth to children someday, and judgmental comments from people who didn't know much about the HPV vaccine or cervical cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • She's an active member of cervivor.org, an advocacy resource and community of people who have, have had, or know someone with cervical cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, not all people who are exposed to carcinogens or who have other risk factors develop cancer. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Also, individual people have different risks for developing different cancers. (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, some general strategies do reduce the risk of cancer or cancer complications in many people. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Further, primary large-scale and secondary research data of Cancer Vaccine were collected to structure the Cancer Vaccine report and it offers the key statistic forecasts, in terms of revenue(Mn). (pharmiweb.com)
  • Vaccines such as distemper, rabies and feline leukemia have caused these tumors in what statistics are showing to be anywhere from 1 in 1,000 to 1 in 10,000 vaccine injections. (felineinstincts.com)