Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)National Cancer Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)United StatesRectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.American Cancer Society: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of cancer through education and research.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Genital Neoplasms, Female: Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.DeoxycytidineGerm-Line Mutation: Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Genes, Neoplasm: Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Receptors, Androgen: Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.JapanPostmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Taxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.MCF-7 Cells: An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Genes, BRCA2: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)BRCA2 Protein: A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.HT29 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Pharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)BRCA1 Protein: The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Mice, Inbred BALB CProto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition: Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
... on human prostate cancer cells". Cancer Res. 65 (20): 9185-9. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-1731. PMID 16230377. Chang YM, Bai L ... is correlated with a worse prognosis for breast cancer. Thus, c-Src plays a key role in the tumor progression of breast cancers ... metastatic breast cancer and prostate cancer. Other tyrosine kinase inhibitor drugs that are in clinical trials include ... This discovery changed the current thinking about cancer from a model wherein cancer is caused by a foreign substance (a viral ...
This etiology is called ectopic or paraneoplastic Cushing's disease and is seen in diseases such as small cell lung cancer. ... 2004). "The prevalence of pituitary adenomas: a systematic review". Cancer. 101 (3): 613-9. doi:10.1002/cncr.20412. PMID ... a small-cell lung cancer. When Cushing's syndrome is caused by an increase of cortisol at the level of the adrenal glands (via ...
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... and lymph nodes of the axilla as a treatment for breast cancer. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women today, and ... who studied internal mammary chain nodal involvement in breast cancer and demonstrated that 33% of 150 breast cancer patients ... Nonetheless, due to Halsted and Meyer's work, it was possible to cure some cases of breast cancer and knowledge of the disease ... Halsted, William S. (1894-11-01). "I. The Results of Operations for the Cure of Cancer of the Breast Performed at the Johns ...
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Young RF & Brechner T. Electrical stimulation of the brain for relief of intractable pain due to cancer. Cancer. 1986;57:1266- ... In: Sykes N, Bennett MI & Yuan C-S. Clinical pain management: Cancer pain. 2nd ed. London: Hodder Arnold; 2008. ISBN 978-0-340- ... One study of seventeen patients with intractable cancer pain found that thirteen were virtually pain-free and only four ...
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He was active in the American Cancer Society and was a consultant to the National Cancer Institute. Bisel was a founding member ... Bisel, Harry F. (1980). "Management of locally advanced and disseminated breast cancer-chemotherapy". Cancer. 46 (S4): 1079- ... Cancer. 36 (6): 1925-1935. doi:10.1002/cncr.2820360601. ISSN 0008-543X. PMID 1203855. Ingle JN, Krook JE, Green SJ, et al. ( ... Cancer Research. 30 (1): 76-8. PMID 4917978. Retrieved 2013-04-09. Ahmann DL, Hahn RG, Bisel HF (November 1972). "A comparative ...
Healey JH, Cancer Pain Management in Orthopedic Surgery. In Encyclopedia of Pain. Editors: R.F. Schmidt and W.d. Willis. ... John H. Healey, MD (born 1952) is an American cancer surgeon, researcher, and expert in the surgical treatment of benign and ... He serves as Chair of the Orthopaedic Service and Stephen P. McDermott Chair in Surgery at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer ... April 2011). "Addition of pamidronate to chemotherapy for the treatment of osteosarcoma". Cancer. 117 (8): 1736-44. doi:10.1002 ...
Cancer; research includes metastasis, cell crosstalk, anti-tumour immunity, and therapeutic resistance and sensitivity. ... cancer, infection and immunity, neurobiology, molecular design, molecular imaging and molecular sensing. Professor Nick ... on commercialising plant-derived proteins and peptides for crop genetic engineering and human antimicrobial and anti-cancer ...
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This gene is frequently mutated in cancer, being one of 127 frequently mutated genes identified in the Cancer Genome Atlas ... Cancer. 15 (3): 152-65. doi:10.1038/nrc3895. PMID 25693834. Xu F, Mao C, Ding Y, Rui C, Wu L, Shi A, Zhang H, Zhang L, Xu Z ( ... Cancer. 12 (9): 599-612. doi:10.1038/nrc3343. PMID 22898539. Ley TJ, Ding L, Walter MJ, McLellan MD, Lamprecht T, Larson DE, et ... After DNMT1 knockout in human cancer cells, these cells were found to retain their inherited methylation pattern, which ...
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This includes breast cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. It is given by injection into a vein or by mouth. Common side ... Vinorelbine is approved for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. It is used off-label for other cancers such as ... In most European countries, vinorelbine is approved to treat non-small cell lung cancer and breast cancer. In the United States ... NCI Cancer Bulletin. Feb 23, 2010 [archived 2011-12-11];7(4):6. Jordan, M. A.; Wilson, L. (2004). "Microtubules as a target for ...
Cancer. 85 (8): 1686-93. doi:10.1002/(sici)1097-0142(19990415)85:8. 3.0.co;2-7. PMID 10223561. Jensen, SL; Hagen, K; Shokouh- ... Anal carcinoma is much less common than colorectal cancer. The most common form is squamous cell carcinoma, followed by ...
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Lung Cancer: Usually when a lung cancer spreads to the pleural surface, the cancer has also spread to distant sites making the ... Most ovarian cancers are either ovarian epithelial carcinomas (cancer that begins in the cells on the surface of the ovary) or ... "Development of postoperative intrathoracic chemo-thermotherapy for lung cancer with objective of improving local cure". Cancer ... The chemotherapy bathes the inside of the chest in concentrations that are very effective against the cancer cells but without ...
Cancer. Cardiovascular disease in people with diabetes. Aging (C.elegans and crickets). A 2017 review and meta-analysis found ... Ben Sahra I; Le Marchand Brustel Y; Tanti JF; Bost F (May 2010). "Metformin in cancer therapy: a new perspective for an old ... Malek, M; Aghili, R; Emami, Z; Khamseh, ME (2013). "Risk of Cancer in Diabetes: The Effect of Metformin" (PDF). ISRN ... Malek, M; Aghili, R; Emami, Z; Khamseh, ME (2013). "Risk of Cancer in Diabetes: The Effect of Metformin". ISRN endocrinology. ...
"Breaking down cancer's wall of resistance", by DR Nick Peel, Cancer Research UK, Science blog, August 2014 Molecular and ... "FAK regulates biological processes important for the pathogenesis of cancer". Cancer Metastasis Reviews. 22 (4): 359-74. doi: ... Because of the involvement of FAK in many cancers, drugs that inhibit FAK are being sought and evaluated, e.g. in 2012: PF- ... Cancer. 6 (6): 449-58. doi:10.1038/nrc1886. PMID 16723991. Ndozangue-Touriguine O, Hamelin J, Bréard J (July 2008). " ...
J. Cancer. 100 (1): 28-36. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604817. PMC 2634690 . PMID 19127265. Munster P, Marchion D, Bicaku E, Lacevic M ... Cancer Res. 15 (7): 2488-96. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-1930. PMID 19318486. Hicks CW, Pandya MM, Itin I, Fernandez HH (2011 ... The medication has been tested in the treatment of AIDS and cancer, owing to its histone deacetylase-inhibiting effects. Most ... Cancer. 106 (1): 112-119. doi:10.1002/cncr.21552. PMID 16323176. Archived from the original on 2014-05-22. Fredly H, Gjertsen ...
"Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia - Cancer Stat Facts". seer.cancer.gov. Retrieved 20 December 2017. Kipps, Thomas J.; Stevenson, ... November 1, 2013 F.D.A. Clears New Cancer-Fighting Drug From Roche "FDA approves Zydelig for three types of blood cancers". ... Lymphocytic Leukemia at American Cancer Society General information about CLL from the US National Cancer Institute Cancer.Net ... Of all cancers involving the same class of blood cell, 7% of cases are CLL/SLL. Rates of CLL are somewhat elevated in people ...
Discovery of cancer-causing oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes While the Society spends more on breast cancer than on any ... At the American Cancer Society, we know that detecting breast cancer early, at its most treatable stage, can mean the ... The American Cancer Society works hard to keep breast cancer funding a top priority with our nations lawmakers. Thanks in ... Having cancer is hard. Finding help shouldnt be. Thats why the American Cancer Society offers free programs and services in ...
To lower your risk of kidney and renal pelvis cancers, dont smoke, or quit if you do. Be very careful if you work with the ... When cancer starts in the kidney, it is called kidney and renal pelvis cancer. It can also be called renal cell cancer as that ... Cancer Rates by U.S. State. See rates or numbers of new kidney and renal pelvis cancers or kidney and renal pelvis cancer ... Renal Cell Cancer Treatmentexternal icon (National Cancer Institute). *Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter ...
... of all cancers. Learn more in this issue of Vital Signs. ... These cancers make up 40% of all cancers diagnosed. About 2 in ... There are 13 types of cancer associated with overweight and obesity.. *About 55% of all cancers diagnosed in women and 24% of ... JAMA Viewpoint: Excessive Weight Gain, Obesity, and Cancerexternal icon. *Free Continuing Education (CE) on Cancer and Obesity ... Supporting comprehensive cancer control programs that focus on cancer prevention, education, screening, quality of care, and ...
Staging is the process of finding out how far cancer has spread. This the most important factor in determining prognosis and ... The stage of a cancer describes how much cancer is in the body. It helps determine how serious the cancer is and how best to ... Cancer A-Z Whether you or someone you love has cancer, knowing what to expect can help you cope. From basic information about ... Thyroid Cancer Stages. After someone is diagnosed with thyroid cancer, doctors will try to figure out if it has spread, and if ...
... prevention and treatment of lung cancer is ongoing in many medical centers throughout the world. Find out whats new here. ... Some cancer centers now use this technique to look for early lung cancers, especially if there are no obvious tumors seen with ... Whats New in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Research?. Research into the prevention, early detection, and treatment of lung cancer ... The American Cancer Society is a qualified 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization. Cancer.org is provided courtesy of the Leo and ...
Stanford Medicine Cancer Institute - A National Cancer Institute. Designated Comprehensive Cancer Center Site Nav ... The Stanford Cancer Institute has been designated a Comprehensive Cancer Center by the National Cancer Institute, a part of the ... Stanford Cancer Initiative is an ambitious program to transform the care experience of every cancer patient treated at Stanford ... Stanford Cancer Institute researchers are developing an immune-stimulating vaccine that may remove all traces of cancer once ...
... that cancer patients may want to ask their doctors or other members of their health care team to learn more about their cancer ...
By following their noses, some canines can alert you to life-threatening health issues including cancer, diabetes and seizures. ... In 2006, it released a study in which five trained dogs smelled breath samples from 55 lung cancer patients, 31 breast cancer ... cancer. Findings show that dogs can smell the presence of cancer in various samples, particularly those taken of the breath. ... Sniffing Out Cancer. Over the past few years, several research studies have utilized dogs in the pursuit of one of mankinds ...
... treatment and support provided by Australias peak independent cancer authority. ... Find evidence based cancer information on prevention, research, ... Causes of cancer *Family cancers *Family history and cancer. * ... Lung cancer is the 5th most common cancer in Australia and is still the leading cause of cancer death. Learn more ... November is Lung Cancer Awareness Month. Lung cancer is the 5th most common cancer in Australia and is still the leading cause ...
Get information about bladder cancer risk factors, signs and symptoms, tests to diagnose, prognosis, and stages in this expert- ... the cancer cells in the bone are actually bladder cancer cells. The disease is metastatic bladder cancer, not bone cancer. ... Stages of Bladder Cancer. Key Points. *After bladder cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have ... Stage II bladder cancer. Cancer has spread to the layers of muscle tissue of the bladder.. In stage II, cancer has spread to ...
Beat Cancer Project Beat Cancer Project, Beat Cancer, Cancer research, cancer studies, cancer trials, cancer research ... Beat Cancer Project Search Find out more about the Beat Cancer Project at Cancer Council SA and view our researcher profiles. ... Cancer treatments and your mouth. The aim of treatment for cancer is to destroy or remove cancer cells. The most common ... Cancer support groups Cancer support groups connect people affected by cancer and help them to share their experiences. ...
... painful muscle spasms from a remote cancer, and pain at the site of cancer surgery and radiation. The data from the literature ... The limited literature that suggests adding botulinum toxins to cell culture slows/halts the growth of certain cancer cells is ... This review provides updated information about the effect of botulinum toxin injection on local pain caused by cancer, ... Keywords: botulinum toxin; botulinum neurotoxin; cancer; cancer cells; neuropathic pain; post-surgical pain; parotid gland; ...
Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2018, there ... They are among the most challenging prostate cancer patients to treat: about 150,000 men worldwide each year whose cancer is ... "Its controlled my cancer," he said. "Im so grateful.". Still, some experts said enthusiasm about the new drugs should be ... Prostate Cancer Drugs Can Delay the Spread of the Disease, Trials Show. Order Reprints , Todays Paper , Subscribe ...
If youve been diagnosed with cancer, call us at 800-826-4673. ... City of Hope cancer treatment and research center in Southern ... California is rated a top cancer hospital by USNews. ... Could you have cancer-related PTSD? December 27, 2018. Patient ... City of Hope is a world leader in the research and treatment of cancer, diabetes, and other serious diseases. We deliver ... Founded in 1913, City of Hope is one of only 49 comprehensive cancer centers in the nation, as designated by the National ...
A new study which followed 2,000 women with breast cancer for twenty-years post-diagnosis has revealed that breast cancer is ... "Treatments for breast cancer have improved dramatically in recent years, but unfortunately for some women, their breast cancer ... "Treatments for breast cancer have improved dramatically in recent years, but unfortunately for some women, their breast cancer ... I am a postdoctoral research scientist focusing on childhood cancers and new, targeted cancer therapies. As a survivor of ...
Association of coffee intake with reduced incidence of liver cancer and death from chronic liver disease in the US multiethnic ... Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern ... Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Honolulu, Hawaii.. 3. Division of Gastroenterology, Department of ... Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern ...
... which could be used to improve the accuracy of PSA-based prostate cancer screening tests. ... Until recently, PSA tests for prostate cancer were considered an exemplar of successful early cancer detection leading to ... Precision-Medicine Approach Could Revive Prostate Cancer Test. Accounting for Genetic Variation Between Men Could Make PSA ... "In the few years that PSA testing has become less popular, the use of the test has declined and the number of prostate cancer ...
Cancer incidence was determined by linkage to Utah Cancer Registry records through the Utah Population Database. Hazard ratios ... Copyright © 2019 by the American Association for Cancer Research.. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. eISSN: 1538- ... Neighborhood SES had similar effects for melanoma and prostate cancers, but was not associated with female breast cancer. We ... Results: Females with low Np-SES at birth had lower risk of breast cancer compared to those in the highest Np-SES group (HRQ1/ ...
Learn about cancer and treatment options or cancer drugs, get help coping with cancer, or use the search tool below to find ... BC Cancers mandate covers the full spectrum of cancer care from prevention, screening, diagnosis and treatment, to research ... Prostate Cancer Supportive Care program offers men support from the moment of diagnosis. Prostate Cancer Supportive Care ... Many BC immigrants are not getting screened for breast cancer. New research shows many women with breast cancer dont need ...
Lung cancer is the second most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death for men and women. It is estimated that ... Please note that these links will take you to other sections of Cancer.Net:. *Cancer.Net Mobile: The free Cancer.Net mobile app ... Listen to a Cancer.Net Podcast on Understanding Lung Cancer Screening and find more information about lung cancer screening on ... Metastatic lung cancer. If cancer spreads to another part in the body from where it started, doctors call it metastatic cancer ...
The ads for the metastatic breast cancer drug Verzenio show women in their 50s and 60s looking resolute and indomitable, ... Metastatic breast cancer-also known as stage 4 breast cancer-is a tough, crippling disease that claims 40,000 lives a year and ... But Lillys cancer-drug commercial also is ruffling the feathers of some cancer patients, researchers and consumer advocates. ... So why did Lilly decide to start pitching cancer drugs on TV? A few reasons. First, unlike all of Lillys previous cancer drugs ...
Breast Cancer Care is a UK charity providing support for people living with and beyond breast cancer. Find out how to receive ... 2019 Breast Cancer Care.. Breast Cancer Care is a working name of Breast Cancer Care and Breast Cancer Now, a company limited ... Breast Cancer Care helped me live my life when cancer was busy trying to take it away. And, for that, Ill be forever grateful ... Our merger with Breast Cancer Now We have united to create one charity for everyone affected by breast cancer. ...
In Race for Blood-Based Cancer Detection, More Teams Turn to Epigenetic, Fragment-Based Analysis. Premium ...
Mistletoe extracts are used for a variety of conditions including cancer, HIV, hepatitis, and degenerative joint disease. ... To treat cancer and cancer symptoms. Laboratory and animal studies show some anticancer activity. Some human studies show that ... a mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of Viscum album as complimentary therapy in cancer. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:161. ... cancers. Some studies suggest it may help prolong survival (6) (8) (9) (13), but other study results are mixed (17) (18) (19) ( ...
This document explains the Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme (PCRMP), PSA testing and evidence against a national ... A raised PSA level can mean a man has prostate cancer but the PSA test can also miss cancer. ... Prostate Cancer UK (PCUK) has convened an independent panel of clinical experts across a broad range of disciplines to develop ... find prostate cancer at an early stage when treatment could provide a cure or extend life ...
  • 29 March 2016 This detailed guide has been updated due to the publication of the revised edition of the Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme in March 2016. (www.gov.uk)
  • And in 2016, the consumer products giant was ordered to pay $55 million to a woman who said Baby Powder contributed to her ovarian cancer. (time.com)
  • Founded in 1913, City of Hope is one of only 49 comprehensive cancer centers in the nation, as designated by the National Cancer Institute. (cityofhope.org)
  • Since 1995, MCR has received financial support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR). (umh.edu)
  • OHSU one of 12 National Cancer Institute-designated centers to receive awards to increase HPV vaccine coverage, a safe and effective means to prevent cervical and other cancers caused by human papillomavirus. (ohsu.edu)
  • Clinical trials are essential to developing new cancer therapies. (stanford.edu)
  • to understand the molecular basis of childhood cancers and to develop more effective therapies for children with cancer, by combining basic research in cell and molecular biology with translational cancer research and clinical trials. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Many things are associated with cancer, but avoiding tobacco use and keeping a healthy weight are among the most important things people can do to lower their risk of getting cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • Although each person's cancer experience is unique, cancers with similar stages tend to have a similar outlook and are often treated in much the same way. (cancer.org)
  • Cancer takes a person's strength, destroys organs and bones, and weakens the body's defenses against other illnesses. (kidshealth.org)
  • This review provides updated information about the effect of botulinum toxin injection on local pain caused by cancer, painful muscle spasms from a remote cancer, and pain at the site of cancer surgery and radiation. (mdpi.com)
  • More than 90% of cases are caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the Sun . This exposure increases the risk of all three main types of skin cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Still, the TSA has repeatedly defined the scanners as "safe," glossing over the accepted scientific view that even low doses of ionizing radiation - the kind beamed directly at the body by the X-ray scanners - increase the risk of cancer. (propublica.org)
  • Even though it's a very small risk, when you expose that number of people, there's a potential for some of them to get cancer," said Kathleen Kaufman, the former radiation management director in Los Angeles County, who brought the prison X-rays to the FDA panel's attention. (propublica.org)
  • Robin Kane, the TSA's assistant administrator for security technology, said that no one would get cancer because the amount of radiation the X-ray scanners emit is minute. (propublica.org)
  • UV radiation- lifetime exposure affects risk of skin cancer. (slideshare.net)
  • Radiation with small radioactive implants placed inside the body, close to the cancer. (ohsu.edu)
  • It's also important to follow recommended screening guidelines, which can help detect certain cancers early. (cancer.org)
  • It is most common in men over the age of 60, although the risk is higher for younger men with a strong family history of certain cancers. (cancer.org.au)
  • For persons less familiar with MCR-ARC or new to cancer reporting, we've included a web site search tool located on the upper right corner of all pages. (umh.edu)
  • In view of its high prevalence in China and the existence of possible interacting environmental factors, China will focus on gastric cancer as a part of the International Cancer Genome Consortium activities. (icgc.org)
  • These drugs inhibit an enzyme step that the body's natural estrogen production requires and so make much less estrogen available to stimulate the cancer. (slate.com)
  • These summaries provide consumer-friendly information about certain drugs that are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat cancer or conditions related to cancer. (healthfinder.gov)
  • Unfortunately, due to shortages of old and off-patent drugs used to cure approximately 85 percent of all children with cancer in the U.S., it is increasingly hard to do. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Anticancer Drugs Anticancer drugs are medicines used to treat various kinds of cancer. (bookrags.com)
  • Chronic inflammation of the pancreas is a major risk factor for cancer. (newscientist.com)
  • The future will look no more like the past than a butterfly resembles a caterpillar,' said NCI Director Andrew von Eschenbach, adding that he sees cancer devolving soon from a killer to a 'chronic, manageable condition. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Less than 5% of all pancreatic cancers are related to underlying chronic pancreatitis. (medscape.com)
  • One of the key mechanisms by which sugar promotes cancer and other chronic disease is through mitochondrial dysfunction . (lewrockwell.com)
  • Insulin resistance in turn is at the heart of most chronic disease, including cancer. (lewrockwell.com)