Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Immunotherapy, Adoptive: Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)Cell Engineering: Methods and techniques used to modify or select cells and develop conditions for growing cells for biosynthetic production of molecules (METABOLIC ENGINEERING), for generation of tissue structures and organs in vitro (TISSUE ENGINEERING), or for other BIOENGINEERING research objectives.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Mutant Chimeric Proteins: Proteins produced from GENES that have mutated by the fusing of protein coding regions of more than one gene. Such hybrid proteins are responsible for some instances of ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE and defective biological processes such as NEOPLASMS.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Electroporation: A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.Single-Chain Antibodies: A form of antibodies consisting only of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains (FV FRAGMENTS), connected by a small linker peptide. They are less immunogenic than complete immunoglobulin and thus have potential therapeutic use.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.K562 Cells: An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Lentivirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Immunotherapy, Active: Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Transposases: Enzymes that recombine DNA segments by a process which involves the formation of a synapse between two DNA helices, the cleavage of single strands from each DNA helix and the ligation of a DNA strand from one DNA helix to the other. The resulting DNA structure is called a Holliday junction which can be resolved by DNA REPLICATION or by HOLLIDAY JUNCTION RESOLVASES.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell: A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Mice, Inbred C57BLHLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mice, Inbred BALB CAntigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Desensitization, Immunologic: Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.HLA-A24 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Duffy Blood-Group System: A blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different human groups; amorphic genes are common.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tumor Escape: The ability of tumors to evade destruction by the IMMUNE SYSTEM. Theories concerning possible mechanisms by which this takes place involve both cellular immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and humoral immunity (ANTIBODY FORMATION), and also costimulatory pathways related to CD28 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD28) and CD80 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD80).Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Monitoring, Immunologic: Testing of immune status in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer, immunoproliferative and immunodeficiency disorders, and autoimmune abnormalities. Changes in immune parameters are of special significance before, during and following organ transplantation. Strategies include measurement of tumor antigen and other markers (often by RADIOIMMUNOASSAY), studies of cellular or humoral immunity in cancer etiology, IMMUNOTHERAPY trials, etc.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Models, Immunological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of immune system, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electrical equipment.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Cell SeparationEarly Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase: A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.Tumor Microenvironment: The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 2: A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Injections, Intralesional: Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Cross-Priming: Class I-restricted activation of CD8-POSITIVE LYMPHOCYTES resulting from ANTIGEN PRESENTATION of exogenous ANTIGENS (cross-presentation). This is in contrast to normal activation of these lymphocytes (direct-priming) which results from presentation of endogenous antigens.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.

*Cancer immunotherapy

Cancer vaccine Antigen 5T4 Chimeric antigen receptor Coley's Toxins Combinatorial ablation and immunotherapy Cryoimmunotherapy ... Cell surface receptors are common targets for antibody therapies and include CD20, CD274 and CD279. Once bound to a cancer ... as shown in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Carbohydrate antigens on the surface of cells can be used as targets for immunotherapy. ... What is Cancer Immunotherapy Association for Immunotherapy of Cancer Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer "And Then There Were ...
Variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) belong to the Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) family and mediate adaptive immune responses in the jawless vertebrates, lampreys and hagfish. Boehm, T., McCurley, N., Sutoh, Y., Schorpp, M., Kasahara, M., and Cooper, M.D. (2012). VLR-based adaptive immunity. Annual Review of Immunology 30, 203-220 http://proteopedia.org/wiki/index.php/Variable_lymphocyte_ ...
CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells have antitumor activity in B cell malignancies, but factors that affect toxicity and efficacy have been difficult to define because of differences in lymphodepletion and heterogeneity of CAR-T cells administered to individual patients. We conducted a clinical trial in which CD19 CAR-T cells were manufactured from defined T cell subsets and administered in a 1:1 CD4+/CD8+ ratio of CAR-T cells to 32 adults with relapsed and/or refractory B cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma after cyclophosphamide (Cy)-based lymphodepletion chemotherapy with or without fludarabine (Flu). Patients who received Cy/Flu lymphodepletion had increased CAR-T cell expansion and persistence, and higher response rates [50% complete remission (CR), 72% overall response rate (ORR)] than patients who received Cy-based lymphodepletion without Flu (8% CR, 50% ORR). The CR ...
Title:Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Based Immunotherapy for Cancer. VOLUME: 13 ISSUE: 5. Author(s):Feng Li, Tengfei Zhang, Ling Cao and Yi Zhang*. Affiliation:Biotherapy Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, Biotherapy Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, Biotherapy Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, Biotherapy Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan. Keywords:Cancer immunotherapy, CAR T cells, hematologic malignancies, solid tumor, cancer cells, leukemia.. Abstract:Cancer immunotherapy, a new weapon against cancers by harnessing the patients own immune system, potentiates an extended remission and possibly a cure for cancer. T cells ...
... antigen expressed by neuroblastoma tumor cells and treated patients with this disease. extended, low-level persistence in patients, and such persistence was associated with longer survival. This study is registered at www.clinialtrials.gov as #"type":"clinical-trial","attrs":"text":"NCT00085930″,"term_id":"NCT00085930″NCT00085930. Introduction Adoptively transferred T cells Rabbit Polyclonal to ZADH2 can recognize tumor-associated antigens presented in association with MHC molecules on the cell surface. However, many cancer cells and solid tumors have defects in antigen processing and presentation,1,2 including down-regulation of and/or failure to express MHC molecules.3,4 Introducing tumor-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) into adoptively transferred T cells allows them to recognize tumor-associated antigens in an Resminostat hydrochloride manufacture ...
BACKGROUND. Targeting CD30 with monoclonal antibodies in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has had profound clinical success. However, adverse events, mainly mediated by the toxin component of the conjugated antibodies, cause treatment discontinuation in many patients. Targeting CD30 with T cells expressing a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) may reduce the side effects and augment antitumor activity. METHODS. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study in which 9 patients with relapsed/refractory HL or ALCL were infused with autologous T cells that were gene-modified with a retroviral vector to express the CD30-specific CAR (CD30.CAR-Ts) encoding the CD28 costimulatory endodomain. Three dose levels, from 0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 CD30.CAR-Ts/m2, were infused without a conditioning regimen. All other ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Lectin and alternative complement-activation pathways, including the key complement components MBL, MASP, Bf, C3, and C1q-like proteins, have been described in lampreys (4-7). However, these animals appear to lack Ig-based Abs and many of the components of an Ig-mediated classical complement-activation pathway. Our present study demonstrates that antisera obtained from lampreys immunized with Gram-negative bacteria, RBCs, or NB4 or HeLa cells displayed clear cytolytic effects on the corresponding bacteria or cells, resulting in rapid cell lysis and ultimate disruption of cell wall integrity; however, antisera cannot effectively kill Gram-positive bacteria. This discrepancy may due to the fact that the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria is made up of a dense layer typically composed of numerous rows of peptidoglycan and molecules of lipoteichoic acid, wall teichoic acid, and surface proteins, which can protect them against complement attack (12, 13). Importantly, the cytolytic effect requires ...
Clinical trial for Lymphocytic Leukemia | Acute | Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma | B-Cell | Leukemia | B-Cell Lymphoma | Chronic | Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia | childhood ALL | Lymphoma , CD19/CD22 Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cells in Children and Young Adults With Recurrent or Refractory CD19/CD22-expressing B Cell Malignancies
BACKGROUND. Targeting CD30 with monoclonal antibodies in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has had profound clinical success. However, adverse events, mainly mediated by the toxin component of the conjugated antibodies, cause treatment discontinuation in many patients. Targeting CD30 with T cells expressing a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) may reduce the side effects and augment antitumor activity. METHODS. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study in which 9 patients with relapsed/refractory HL or ALCL were infused with autologous T cells that were gene-modified with a retroviral vector to express the CD30-specific CAR (CD30.CAR-Ts) encoding the CD28 costimulatory endodomain. Three dose levels, from 0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 CD30.CAR-Ts/m2, were infused without a conditioning regimen. All other ...
BACKGROUND. Targeting CD30 with monoclonal antibodies in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has had profound clinical success. However, adverse events, mainly mediated by the toxin component of the conjugated antibodies, cause treatment discontinuation in many patients. Targeting CD30 with T cells expressing a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) may reduce the side effects and augment antitumor activity. METHODS. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study in which 9 patients with relapsed/refractory HL or ALCL were infused with autologous T cells that were gene-modified with a retroviral vector to express the CD30-specific CAR (CD30.CAR-Ts) encoding the CD28 costimulatory endodomain. Three dose levels, from 0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 CD30.CAR-Ts/m2, were infused without a conditioning regimen. All other ...
BACKGROUND. Targeting CD30 with monoclonal antibodies in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has had profound clinical success. However, adverse events, mainly mediated by the toxin component of the conjugated antibodies, cause treatment discontinuation in many patients. Targeting CD30 with T cells expressing a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) may reduce the side effects and augment antitumor activity. METHODS. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study in which 9 patients with relapsed/refractory HL or ALCL were infused with autologous T cells that were gene-modified with a retroviral vector to express the CD30-specific CAR (CD30.CAR-Ts) encoding the CD28 costimulatory endodomain. Three dose levels, from 0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 CD30.CAR-Ts/m2, were infused without a conditioning regimen. All other ...
BACKGROUND. Targeting CD30 with monoclonal antibodies in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has had profound clinical success. However, adverse events, mainly mediated by the toxin component of the conjugated antibodies, cause treatment discontinuation in many patients. Targeting CD30 with T cells expressing a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) may reduce the side effects and augment antitumor activity. METHODS. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study in which 9 patients with relapsed/refractory HL or ALCL were infused with autologous T cells that were gene-modified with a retroviral vector to express the CD30-specific CAR (CD30.CAR-Ts) encoding the CD28 costimulatory endodomain. Three dose levels, from 0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 CD30.CAR-Ts/m2, were infused without a conditioning regimen. All other ...
BACKGROUND. Targeting CD30 with monoclonal antibodies in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has had profound clinical success. However, adverse events, mainly mediated by the toxin component of the conjugated antibodies, cause treatment discontinuation in many patients. Targeting CD30 with T cells expressing a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) may reduce the side effects and augment antitumor activity. METHODS. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study in which 9 patients with relapsed/refractory HL or ALCL were infused with autologous T cells that were gene-modified with a retroviral vector to express the CD30-specific CAR (CD30.CAR-Ts) encoding the CD28 costimulatory endodomain. Three dose levels, from 0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 CD30.CAR-Ts/m2, were infused without a conditioning regimen. All other ...
BACKGROUND. Targeting CD30 with monoclonal antibodies in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has had profound clinical success. However, adverse events, mainly mediated by the toxin component of the conjugated antibodies, cause treatment discontinuation in many patients. Targeting CD30 with T cells expressing a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) may reduce the side effects and augment antitumor activity. METHODS. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study in which 9 patients with relapsed/refractory HL or ALCL were infused with autologous T cells that were gene-modified with a retroviral vector to express the CD30-specific CAR (CD30.CAR-Ts) encoding the CD28 costimulatory endodomain. Three dose levels, from 0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 CD30.CAR-Ts/m2, were infused without a conditioning regimen. All other ...
BACKGROUND. Targeting CD30 with monoclonal antibodies in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has had profound clinical success. However, adverse events, mainly mediated by the toxin component of the conjugated antibodies, cause treatment discontinuation in many patients. Targeting CD30 with T cells expressing a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) may reduce the side effects and augment antitumor activity. METHODS. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study in which 9 patients with relapsed/refractory HL or ALCL were infused with autologous T cells that were gene-modified with a retroviral vector to express the CD30-specific CAR (CD30.CAR-Ts) encoding the CD28 costimulatory endodomain. Three dose levels, from 0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 CD30.CAR-Ts/m2, were infused without a conditioning regimen. All other ...
The success of adoptive T cell gene transfer for treatment of cancer and HIV is predicated on generating a response that is both durable and safe. We report long-term results from three clinical trials to evaluate gammaretroviral vector-engineered T cells for HIV. The vector encoded a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) composed of CD4 linked to the CD3ζ signaling chain (CD4ζ). CAR T cells were detected in 98% of samples tested for at least 11 years after infusion at frequencies that exceeded average T cell levels after most vaccine approaches. The CD4ζ transgene retained expression and function. There was no evidence of vector-induced immortalization of cells; integration site distributions showed no evidence of persistent clonal expansion or enrichment for integration sites near genes implicated in growth control or transformation. The CD4ζ T cells had stable ...
Background T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have established efficacy in the treatment of B-cell malignancies, but their relevance in solid tumors remains undefined....
General structure of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T tagged: molecular pathology, cancer, tcr, cd28, til, cancer immunotherapy, immunotherapy, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, scfv, itam, immune response, cd3, powerpoint, slide
CC Grand Rounds (1) Treating Hematologic Malignancies with Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells and (2) Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)-Targeted T Cell Therapy for Patients with HPV-Associated Cancers
BACKGROUND. Targeting CD30 with monoclonal antibodies in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has had profound clinical success. However, adverse events, mainly mediated by the toxin component of the conjugated antibodies, cause treatment discontinuation in many patients. Targeting CD30 with T cells expressing a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) may reduce the side effects and augment antitumor activity. METHODS. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study in which 9 patients with relapsed/refractory HL or ALCL were infused with autologous T cells that were gene-modified with a retroviral vector to express the CD30-specific CAR (CD30.CAR-Ts) encoding the CD28 costimulatory endodomain. Three dose levels, from 0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 CD30.CAR-Ts/m2, were infused without a conditioning regimen. All other ...
Tumor immunotherapy with T lymphocytes, which can recognize and destroy malignant cells, has been limited by the ability to isolate and expand T cells restricted to tumor-associated antigens. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) composed of antibody binding domains connected to domains that activate T cells could overcome tolerance by allowing T cells to respond to cell surface antigens; however, to date, lymphocytes engineered to express CARs have demonstrated minimal in vivo expansion and antitumor effects in clinical trials. We report that CAR T cells that target CD19 and contain a costimulatory domain from CD137 and the T cell receptor ζ chain have potent non-cross-resistant clinical activity after infusion in three of three patients treated with advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The engineered T cells expanded ,1000-fold in vivo, trafficked to ...
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has demonstrated proven efficacy in some hematologic cancers. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of LCAR-B38M, a dual epitope-binding CAR T cell therapy directed against 2 distinct B cell maturation antigen epitopes, in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) multiple myeloma (MM). This ongoing phase 1, single-arm, open-label, multicenter study enrolled patients (18 to 80 years) with R/R MM. Lymphodepletion was performed using cyclophosphamide 300 mg/m2. LCAR-B38M CAR T cells (median CAR+ T cells, 0.5 × 106 cells/kg [range, 0.07 to 2.1 × 106]) were infused in 3 separate infusions. The primary objective is to evaluate the safety of LCAR-B38M CAR T cells; the secondary objective is to evaluate the antimyeloma response of the treatment based on the general guidelines of the International Myeloma Working Group. At data cutoff, 57 patients had received LCAR-B38M CAR T cells. All ...
Safety and feasibility of chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in relapsed/ refractory B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma Letter ...
Adaptive immunity. Protein involved in adaptive immunity. Vertebrates can develop a broad and almost infinite repertoire of antigen-specific receptors, which allows vertebrates to recognize almost any potential pathogen or toxin and to mount antigen-specific responses to it. Two types of adaptive immunity systems have evolved in vertebrates in order to generate immune receptor diversity. The jawed vertebrates strategy uses the V(D)JC recombination to achieve combinatorial diversity of immunoglobulin-based B cell receptors and T cell receptors. The jawless vertebrate strategy uses the somatic rearrangements of variable leucine-rich cassettes in the variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs). The hallmarks of an adaptive immune system is the production of antigen-specific recognition receptor by somatic gene rearrangement. The long life of some ...
Recent advances in invertebrate immunology have led to a paradigm shift in our understanding of the ways in which animals respond to immunological challenges. Previously, it was assumed that invertebrate immune response proteins were germ-line encoded and were selected over evolutionary time scales for broad recognition of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). This was originally based on the assumption that immune diversification only occurred in jawed vertebrates through somatic recombination of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene family that employed recombination activating gene (RAG)-mediated rearrangements of gene segments. However, recent studies on invertebrates, jawless vertebrates and higher plants have suggested that diversification of immunological responses may occur in all organisms through a variety of mechanisms. Lampreys and hagfish monoallelically express somatically diversified variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) that contain different numbers and sequences ...
We have shown that VLRA and VLRB are assembled and transcribed in a mutually exclusive manner in hagfish, indicating that VLRA+ and VLRB+ cells belong to distinct lymphocyte populations, as reported for the sea lamprey (Guo et al, 2009). VLR assembly was primarily monoallelic, but diallelic assembly was observed in some cases. In the case of the Ig and TCR genes, V(D)J recombination is regulated tightly at many levels (Schlissel, 2003; Jung & Alt, 2004; Jung et al, 2006; Krangel, 2009). V(D)J recombination activates the transcription of an antigenreceptor gene by placing the promoter and enhancer elements in close proximity. In hagfish, however, transcription was not linked with the assembled allele of the VLR gene; detection of assembled and germline transcripts in a single lymphocyte was common. It seems that VLRA and VLRB gene loci are activated in a mutually exclusive way regarding transcription and gene assembly, the latter of which is regulated primarily by ...
In the past decade, the suppressive effects, mainly through the secretion of IL-10, of regulatory B cells on inflammatory responses have been reported in a variety of immune disorders (33-36). Additionally, immune regulation through the interaction of immune cells with the intrinsic phenotype of regulatory B cells (e.g., CD1dhiCD5+, T2-MZP, Tim-1+, and CD9+) were demonstrated in various diseases, and it plays a critical role in autoimmune diseases (37). In recent studies, functional studies in cancer diseases are emerging (38-40). In particular, the change of the distribution of regulatory B cells in cancer tissue is considered to one of important indicators (8-10). Emerging evidence suggests that regulatory B cells suppress effector immune cells including IFN-γ-producing cytotoxicity cells in various cancer diseases through the secretion of IL-10 (11). Although regulatory B cells have to play the ...
Cancer Lett. 2012 Mar;316(1):1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2011.10.027. Epub 2011 Oct 29. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Review
Genetically engineered T Cell Receptors specific against cancer specific antigens, called Chimeric Antigen Receptors (CARs)[194], are extremely promising and several companies, including Juno Therapeutics, Kite Pharma and Novartis are competing to provide the first marketable solution[195]. This competition has reached extents, that it is sometimes called the CAR T-Cell Race[196]. The promise is huge, as immunotherapy often is the last rescue if all current therapies have failed. The FDA recognized this and awarded the first breakthrough therapy designation to the new drug approval (NDA) filling for CTL019, the anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy developed at the University of Pennsylvania on July 1, 2014[197]. CARs will reprogram the human immune system to specifically recognize cancer cell ...
The continuously growing natural killer (NK) cell line NK-92 is highly cytotoxic against malignant cells of various origin without affecting normal human cells. Based on this selectivity, the potential of NK-92 cells for adoptive therapy is currently being investigated in phase I clinical studies. To further enhance the antitumoral activity of NK-92 cells and expand the range of tumor entities suitable for NK-92-based therapies, here by transduction with retroviral vectors we have generated genetically modified NK-92 cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors specific either for the tumor-associated ErbB2 (HER2/neu) antigen or the human Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (Ep-CAM). Both antigens are overexpressed by many tumors of epithelial origin. The chimeric antigen receptors consist of either the ErbB2 specific scFv(FRP5) antibody fragment or the Ep-CAM specific ...
Chimeric antigen receptor T-cells are a novel class of anti-cancer therapy in which autologous or allogeneic T-cells are engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor targeting a membrane antigen. In Europe, Tisagenlecleucel (KymriahTM) is approved for the treatment of refractory/relapsed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in children and young adults as well as relapsed/refractory Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma; Axicabtagene ciloleucel (YescartaTM) is approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory high-grade B-cell Lymphoma and Primary Mediastinal B-cell Lymphoma. Both agents are genetically engineered autologous T-cells targeting CD19. These practical recommendations, prepared under the auspices of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, relate to patient care and supply chain management under the following headings: patient eligibility, ...
Abstract. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are generated by fusing the antigen-binding motif of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) with the signal transduction machinery of the T-cell receptor (TCR). The genetic modification of T lymphocytes with chimeric receptors specific for tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) allows for the redirection towards tumor cells. Clinical experience with CAR-redirected T cells suggests that antitumor efficacy associates with some degree of toxicity, especially when TAA expression is shared with healthy tissues. This situation closely resembles the case of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), wherein allorecognition causes both the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Suicide gene therapy, i.e. the genetic induction of a conditional suicide phenotype into donor T cells, enables dissociating the ...
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults and is uniformly lethal. T-cell-based immunotherapy offers a promising platform for treatment given its potential to specifically target tumor tissue while sparing the normal brain. However, the diffuse and infiltrative nature of these tumors in the brain parenchyma may pose an exceptional hurdle to successful immunotherapy in patients. Areas of invasive tumor are thought to reside behind an intact blood brain barrier, isolating them from effective immunosurveillance and thereby predisposing the development of "immunologically silent" tumor peninsulas. Therefore, it remains unclear if adoptively transferred T cells can migrate to and mediate regression in areas of invasive GBM. One barrier has been the lack of a preclinical mouse model that accurately recapitulates the growth patterns of human GBM in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that D-270 MG xenografts exhibit the classical features of GBM and ...
This is a phase 1 dose escalation study designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of CAR modified T cells in patients with relapsed and refractory aggressive B-NHL. Three dose levels (5 x 106 19-28z T cells/kg, 1 x 107 19-28z T cells/kg, and 2 x 107 19-28z T cells/kg) are considered for the MTD ...
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can slow down the replication of HIV-1, leading to an improvement in the survival of HIV-1-infected patients. However, drug toxicities and poor drug administration has led to the emergence of a drug-resistant strain. HIV-1 immunotherapy has been continuously developed, but antibody therapy and HIV vaccines take time to improve its efficiency and have limitations. HIV-1-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-based immunotherapy founded on neutralizing antibodies is now being developed. In HIV-1 therapy, anti-HIV chimeric antigen receptors showed promising data in the suppression of HIV-1 replication; however, autologous transfusion is still a problem. This has led to the development of effective peptides and proteins for an ...
Blood. 2009 Jun 18;113(25):6392-402. doi: 10.1182/blood-2009-03-209650. Epub 2009 Apr 17. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
Patients with some forms of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and multiple myeloma (MM) are not cured with conventional therapy and new approaches are needed. For the last 15 years we have investigated the potential of using a patients own T cells (a type of white blood cell [WBC]) to eradicate the tumor. We have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach in cell culture and animal models of AML and MM. Over the last 5 years we have been preparing to treat patients as part of a Phase I (first in human) clinical trial.. The trial treatment involves collecting the patients own WBCs from the blood by a standard well established and safe process called apheresis. The cells are then cultured in a specialized laboratory (under Good Manufacturing Practice conditions, similar to standards under which pharmaceuticals are produced) over 12 days to convert the cells to specialized tumor-attacking T cells. Early in that culture process the cells are exposed to a virus (that is modified so that it cannot ...
Correction: In Vitro Pre-Clinical Validation of Suicide Gene Modified Anti-CD33 Redirected Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cells for Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Comments, concepts and statistics about Long-term persistence and function of hematopoietic stem cell-derived chimeric antigen receptor T cells in a nonhuman primate model of HIV/AIDS.
Regression of Glioblastoma after Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy Christine E. Brown, Ph.D., Darya Alizadeh, Ph.D., Renate Starr, M.S., Lihong Weng, M.D., Jamie R. Wagner, B.A., Araceli Naranjo, B.A., Julie R. Ostberg, Ph.D., M. Suzette Blanchard, Ph.D., Julie Kilpatrick, M.S.N., Jennifer Simpson, B.A., Anita Kurien, M.B.S., Saul J. Priceman, Ph.D., Xiuli Wang, M.D., Ph.D., Todd…
Ashman, R F., "Lymphocyte receptor movement induced by sheep erythrocyte binding." (1973). Subject Strain Bibliography 1973. 1220 ...
Cytogenetic and molecular investigations of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL) have identified the existence of distinct clinical subgroups. Molecular monitoring of clonal Immunoglobulin and T cell receptor (IG/TR) gene rearrangements has become an important tool in stratification of therapy of ALL. In order to determine whether certain features of the patient-specific rearrangements could hold further prognostic clues or provide information on the cell of origin of ALL, a comprehensive analysis of structural and biological features (V gene usage, coding frame and mutational status and complementarity-determining region -III length) of 473 IG/TR rearrangements identified in 229 adults with ALL was carried out. Distinct variable-gene usage profiles were identified between ALL subgroups, particularly for patients positive for BCR-ABL1 compared to MLL-AFF1 positive leukaemias; suggesting that the former is derived from a more mature B progenitor. Interestingly, occurrence of TRGV1-TRGV8 was ...
A method of inducing an immune response against multiple strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which comprises administering to a human or animal an amount of mucoid exopolysaccharide from Pseudomonas aer
The recently identified VLRB antibodies of the agnathan sea lamprey use highly variable leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) that assume a solenoid shape to bind antigens. Solved structures of monoclonal VLRB antibodies complexed to the H-trisaccharide or HEL show that antigens bind to variable residues in the beta-sheets located on the concave surface of specific VLRB antibodies. In this study we screened clones of a lamprey VLR cDNA expression library prepared from animals immunized with human CD4+ T cells to identify a monoclonal VLRB antibody (T32) that bound to human T lymphocytes, but not mouse T cells. Modulation of the expression levels of the TCR/CD3 complex by mouse antibodies did not affect VLR T32 binding. Staining of T cells, tonsilar B cells and malignant B-CLL cells with VLRB T32 and a mouse anti-CD5 mAb (clone UCHT2) demonstrated a diagonal co-staining pattern for each population of the test cells. ...
Common Names: Nurse shark, Common nurse shark, Atlantic nurse shark.. Latin Name: Ginglymostoma cirratum.. Family: Ginglymostomatidae. Identification: Uniformly brown or gray body, paling slightly towards belly. Two dorsal fins of almost equal size close to tail. Head bulbous with small mouth. Mouth has a barbell on each side. Tail narrow with a large upper caudal lobe and no distinct lower lobe.. Size: 5 to 9ft max. 14ft.. Habitat: Found in many environments including reef flats, sandy areas, lagoons, and mangroves. From intertidal to 150ft.. Abundance: This is the most commonly encountered shark on most Caribbean reefs. It can be locally common from Florida to Brazil.. Distribution: On the Atlantic coast of the Americas from Rhode Island to Brazil. Bermuda and the Eastern Atlantic from Senegal to Gabon. Also in the Eastern Pacific from Baja California to Peru.. Behavior: Nocturnal. Sleeps under overhangs of reefs, or in mangroves during the day. Often found sleeping in small groups. At night ...
According to preliminary data from a small phase I study, using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells to target mesothelin in solid tumors is both feasible and safe. The results were reported by Janos Tanyi, MD, PhD, a gynecologic oncologist at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting 2015 in Philadelphia, PA, April 18-22.. CAR T-cell therapy involves genetically engineering a patients T cells to recognize and destroy specific antigens on tumor cells-in this case, mesothelin, which is present in a range of tumor types, including gastric and esophageal cancers. Tanyi and his colleagues had previously delivered CAR-encoding DNA to T cells through electroporation, which uses brief electrical pulses to increase cell permeability. However, "CAR expression was very short-lived, with limited antitumor effects," he said, "and patients ...
Manipulating proliferative, persistent T-cell subsets produces durable antitumor responses. Although adoptive T-cell therapies have yet to be approved by the FDA, this area of cancer immunotherapy is gaining ground "at a torrid pace," says Stanley Riddell, MD, of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Riddell shared his research teams progress in synthesizing and evaluating chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in February.. CAR T-cell therapy involves inserting a synthetic receptor in patients T cells, which then recognize and destroy tumors expressing a specific antigen. So far, researchers have had remarkable success-albeit in small clinical trials-directing this therapy against CD19, which is expressed on the surface of all B cells, including B-cell ...
The CD19 CAR Detection Reagent (Biotin) has been developed for the detection of transduced T cells that are engineered to express CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) on the cell surface, which recognize human CD19 antigen. The CD19 CAR Detection Reagent (Biotin) is an antigen based detection reagent conjugated to biotin. It contains a recombinantly expressed fusion protein consisting of the human CD19 extracellular domains and a specifically mutated human IgG1 Fc region. The engineered CD19 CAR T cells can be detected via the recognition of the CD19 protein, and identified by flow cytometry via anti-biotin fluorochromes. The mutated human IgG1 Fc region of the CD19 CAR Detection Reagent abolishes their binding to Fcγ receptors. This allows for background-free ...
University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA. Manipulating human regulatory T cells (Tregs) offers the opportunity to induce tolerance in a clinical setting. However, low numbers of antigen-specific Tregs and Treg instability upon prolonged expansion have hampered the implementation of Treg-based therapies. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) technology has greatly expedited the generation of tumor antigen- specific effector T (Teff) cells. CARs are synthetic receptors comprising an extracellular antigen-binding domain and an intracellular signaling domain. The latter is commonly a fusion of CD28 and CD3z, allowing for potent T cell activation directly downstream of antigen recognition. Adoption of the CAR platform for Treg engineering represents a promising strategy to generate custom-made antigen-specific Tregs ...
MONDAY, Dec. 11, 2017 (HealthDay News) - Axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel), an autologous anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy and autologous T cells that express a CD19-directed CAR (CTL019) are effective for refractory B-cell lymphomas, according to two studies published online Dec. 10 in the New England Journal of Medicine to coincide with the annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology, held from Dec. 9 to 12 in Atlanta.. Sattva S. Neelapu, M.D., from the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, and colleagues enrolled 111 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma, or transformed follicular lymphoma with refractory disease despite receiving prior therapy. A target dose of 2×106 anti-CD19 CAR T cells/kg body weight was administered to 101 patients. The researchers found that the objective and complete ...
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been developed as a promising therapy for ALL. This technology uses a single chain variable fragment (scFv) designed to recognize the cell surface marker CD19 as a method of treating ALL. CD19 is a molecule found on all B-cells and can be used as a means of distinguishing the potentially malignant B-cell population in the patient. In this therapy, mice are immunized with the CD19 antigen and produce anti-CD19 antibodies. Hybridomas developed from the mouse spleen cells fused to a myeloma cell line can be developed as a source for the cDNA encoding the CD19 specific antibody.[25] The cDNA is sequenced and the sequence encoding the variable heavy and variable light chains of these antibodies are cloned together using a small peptide linker. This resulting sequence encodes the scFv. This ...
In recent years immunotherapy has revolutionised cancer treatment, and many see it as an attractive, albeit expensive, alternative to chemotherapy. Often it shows fewer side effects and, as BMSs trial showed, can significantly lengthen patients lives. Its most notable indications are malignant melanoma and non-small-cell lung cancer.. BMS isnt alone in trialling new drug combinations for cancer treatment. In January, Merck (MRK) reported a successful study in which patients newly diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer were treated with its immunotherapy drug pembrolizumab (Keytruda) in combination with two chemotherapies. It was granted accelerated approval by the FDA last year, providing that the company conducts additional studies.. Last year the FDA also approved two immunotherapies to treat certain leukaemias and lymphomas. Known as chimeric antigen ...
As was recently reported in Science Translational Medicine, Renier J. Brentjens, MD, and colleagues at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, found that profound molecular remission was rapidly induced in patients with relapsed B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) using autologous T cells targeting the B-cell CD19 antigen.1 The autologous T cells were modified to express a CD-19-specific CD28/CD3ζ second-generation dual-signaling chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) termed 19-28z (19-18z CAR-modified T cells).. Promising outcomes have been reported using CD19-targeted autologous T cells in patients with low-grade B-cell tumors, but to date there had been no reports of outcomes using CD19-targeted adoptive T-cell therapy in patients with relapsed B-cell ALL, which is more aggressive and associated with a worse ...
Lewis B. Silverman, MD. Dana-Farber/Boston Childrens Cancer and Blood Disorders Center has joined a clinical trial of immunotherapy for children with relapsed or treatment-resistant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Led by Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), the trial is one of several nationally that are evaluating cancer immunotherapy, a treatment approach - hailed by Science magazine as their Breakthrough of the Year in 2013 - that triggers a patients immune system to attack his or her cancer cells. Dana-Farber/Boston Childrens is the only site in New England to offer this experimental approach for children and adolescents whose ALL has relapsed multiple times or never gone into remission.. The innovative trial starts with a patients own infection-fighting T-cells. These cells are collected and modified using gene therapy techniques to produce a cancer-hunting protein called ...
Kite Pharma, Inc. is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company. The Company is focused on the development and commercialization of cancer immunotherapy products to target and kill cancer cells. The Company offers engineered autologous cell therapy, which is an approach to the treatment of cancer. Its therapy involves modifying a patients T cells outside the patients body, or ex vivo, causing the T cells to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), or T cell receptors (TCRs), and then reinfusing the engineered T cells back into the patient. Its lead product candidate, KTE-C19, is a CAR-based therapy that targets the CD19 antigen, a protein expressed on the cell surface of B-cell lymphomas and leukemias. The Company is conducting a registrational Phase II clinical trial (ZUMA-1) of KTE-C19 in patients with relapsed or refractory aggressive ...
Basel, August 27, 2018 Novartis today announced that the European Commission (EC) has approved Kymriah® (tisagenlecleucel, formerly CTL019). The approved indications are for the treatment of pediatric and young adult patients up to 25 years of age with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that is refractory, in relapse post-transplant or in second or later relapse; and for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory (r/r) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) after two or more lines of systemic therapy. Kymriah developed in collaboration with the University of Pennsylvania (Penn) is a ground-breaking one-time treatment that uses a patients own T cells to fight cancer, and the only chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy to receive regulatory approval in the EU for these two distinct B-cell malignancies. Kymriah was also the first CAR-T cell therapy ever approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). "The ...
Purpose of review The purpose of this article is to discuss the rationale of targeting CD123 using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells for the treatment of leukemia. AML patients, these CD123 CARs could redirect patient-derived T cell cytolytic activity against their autologous leukemic blasts. When CD34+ cells from normal cord blood were cocultured with CD123 CAR T cells, normal progenitor colony formation was not abolished, suggesting preservation of normal hematopoietic progenitors from CD123 CAR T cell targeting. In line with our results, Tettamanti et al [29] using cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells expressing a first generation CD123 CAR, a CAR without any costimulatory domain. demonstrated robust cytolytic activity against AML cell lines and primary AML patient samples persistence of the CD123 CAR T cells as previously ...
Alan S. Wayne, MD, director of the CCCBD, is the lead principal investigator for this clinical trial that is now open to patients with ALL whose disease is resistant to, or has relapsed following, standard chemotherapy or stem cell transplant. This approach has ushered in a whole new era of cancer immunotherapy, says Wayne, who is also associate director for Pediatric Oncology at the USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center and Professor of Pediatrics at the Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California. In this trial, T cells - a primary type of immune cell - are genetically engineered to recognize the CD19 protein on the surface of leukemia cells. In this approach, the patients own T cells are collected and modified in the laboratory to express what is called a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). The T cells expressing the CAR are then returned to the patient where they can attack ...
Stephen M. Ansell, MD, PhD, chair of the Lymphoma Group at Mayo Clinic, discusses the possibility of blending immunotherapy agents with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy across lymphoma populations.
In a sweeping success for cancer immunotherapy this year, the U.S. Food & Drug Administration approved the first two treatments that use a patients own genetically engineered cells to combat specific kinds of blood cancer.. Both new drugs are CAR T-cell immunotherapies, created by injecting an individuals T cells with DNA that encodes a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). The CAR proteins jut from the immune cells surfaces and direct them to seek and destroy tumor cells.. Some 83% of people treated with the first approved CAR-T drug, Kymriah from Novartis, achieved complete remission-no cancer detected-within three months. More than 50% of people treated with the second drug, Kite Pharmas Yescarta, are in complete remission.. "The excitement is justified; it is a validation of the field," says David Epstein, former CEO of Novartis Pharmaceuticals.. Despite the excitement, many challenges remain ...
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) - anti-CD19 Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy with defined T-cell subsets for ibrutinib-refractory patients: presentation at the international workshop on CLL (iwCLL) 2017
Basel, July 12, 2017 - Novartis announced today that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee (ODAC) unanimously (10-0) recommended approval of CTL019 (tisagenlecleucel), an investigational chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy, for the treatment of relapsed or refractory (r/r) pediatric and young adult patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). "The panels unanimous recommendation in favor of CTL019 moves us closer to potentially delivering the first-ever commercially approved CAR-T cell therapy to patients in need," said Bruno Strigini, CEO, Novartis Oncology. "Were very proud to be expanding new frontiers in cancer treatment by advancing immunocellular therapy for children and young adults with r/r B-cell ALL and other critically ill patients who have limited options. We look forward to working with the FDA as they complete their review." Acute lymphoblastic leukemia comprises ...
BACKGROUND. Targeting CD30 with monoclonal antibodies in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has had profound clinical success. However, adverse events, mainly mediated by the toxin component of the conjugated antibodies, cause treatment discontinuation in many patients. Targeting CD30 with T cells expressing a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) may reduce the side effects and augment antitumor activity. METHODS. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study in which 9 patients with relapsed/refractory HL or ALCL were infused with autologous T cells that were gene-modified with a retroviral vector to express the CD30-specific CAR (CD30.CAR-Ts) encoding the CD28 costimulatory endodomain. Three dose levels, from 0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 CD30.CAR-Ts/m2, were infused without a conditioning regimen. All other ...
BACKGROUND. Targeting CD30 with monoclonal antibodies in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) has had profound clinical success. However, adverse events, mainly mediated by the toxin component of the conjugated antibodies, cause treatment discontinuation in many patients. Targeting CD30 with T cells expressing a CD30-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) may reduce the side effects and augment antitumor activity. METHODS. We conducted a phase I dose escalation study in which 9 patients with relapsed/refractory HL or ALCL were infused with autologous T cells that were gene-modified with a retroviral vector to express the CD30-specific CAR (CD30.CAR-Ts) encoding the CD28 costimulatory endodomain. Three dose levels, from 0.2 × 108 to 2 × 108 CD30.CAR-Ts/m2, were infused without a conditioning regimen. All other ...
Intellicyt Corporation®, Part of the Sartorius Group. 5700 Pasadena Ave. NE, Albuquerque, NM 87113. A critical process in bio-manufacturing of adoptive cell therapies such chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T and tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapies is the ex vivo expansion of T cells. Recent clinical studies show a correlation between in vivo expansion and persistence of infused T cells and patient outcomes. Additional studies show that a subset of functional memory T cells including T memory stem cells (Tscm), central memory T cells (Tcm) and other less differentiated T cell subsets are responsible for the majority of in vivo expansion and persistence leading to increased anti-tumor responses. This suggests that ex vivo protocols generating higher percentages of Tscm and Tcm in the total cell product will lead to significant clinical improvements in adoptive cell therapies. To address the need to monitor T cell phenotype and function for improved ex ...
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive brain cancer with poor prognosis with traditional treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which often leave lasting and pervasive damage to the individual. GBM cells upregulate the surface protein interleukin 13 receptor subunit alpha-2 (IL13Rα2), which can be targeted as a novel immunotherapeutic marker for the immune response to be initiated. In this study, IL13Rα2 is targeted using a first generation chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that contains an intracellular zeta chain domain. However, a limitation to this approach is that the tumor microenvironment exhausts the T cells that interact with the tumor through a receptor-mediated response. Programmed Death Ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a molecule that is expressed on cancerous cells that binds to the Programmed Death 1 (PD-1) on T cells. When the ligand binds to PD-1 on T cells, there is ...
A clinical trial is underway to examine the role of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for children and young adults with relapsed or refractory HER-2-positive central nervous system tumors. "[Although] survival rates have improved for pediatric …. Date : 2018-07-20T08:00:00.000 ...
Categories: Medicine, Life Sciences DOI: 10.17160/josha.6.5.565 Languages: English From March 23 to 27 2019 the 45th Annual Meeting of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 2019 was held in Frankfurt, Germany. Along with the common topics of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) such as improvements in conditioning regimens, treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and reducing the risk of malignant relapse, a particular emphasis of the meeting was put on the rapidly expanding field of chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR T cells). The following article poses a personal selection of recent developments covered at the meeting. ...
On August 30th, 2017, the FDA approved the first CAR T-Cell Therapy, Kymriah™, for children and young adults up to age 25 with B-cell Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia that is refractory or in second or greater relapse. There has been an urgent need for novel treatment options that improve outcomes for patients with relapsed or refractory (r/r) B-cell precursor ALL, whose prognosis is poor. Patients often undergo multiple treatments including chemotherapy, radiation, targeted therapy or stem cell transplant, yet less than 10% of patients survive five years.. The FDA approval of Kymriah™ is based on the results of the pivotal open-label, multicenter, single-arm Phase II ELIANA trial, the first pediatric global CAR-T cell therapy registration trial, examining patients in 25 centers in the US, EU, Canada, Australia and Japan. In this study, 68 patients were infused and 63 were evaluable for efficacy. Results show 83% of patients who received treatment with Kymriah™ achieved complete remission or ...
Nurse shark definition, any of several sharks of the family Orectolobidae, especially Ginglymostoma cirratum, occurring in shallow waters from Rhode Island to Brazil and the Gulf of California to Ecuador. See more.
Chimpanzees have got orthologs of the six, fixed, functional human genes. cytoplasmic tails. Systematic mutagenesis showed that each substitution contributes changes in cell-surface expression. The combination of residues present in Patr-AL appears unique, but each individual residue is present in other primate MHC class I molecules, notably MHC-E, the most ancient of Gusb the functional human MHC class I molecules. INTRODUCTION The selective pressures imposed by diverse, fast-evolving pathogens cause the MHC class I genes of their mammalian hosts also to evolve rapidly (1). As a consequence there is considerable species-specific character to gene families. Characteristics shared by most mammalian species are highly polymorphic classical MHC class I molecules that engage highly variable types of lymphocyte receptor and conserved non-classical MHC class I molecules that engage conserved types of lymphocyte receptors. Of the six human genes that are functional, and are highly ...
The blood cells of cancer patients, reprogrammed by doctors to attack their leukemia and re-infused back into the patients veins, led to complete remissions in 27 of 30 people. Thats especially exciting because those patients had failed all conventional treatments. Not all of the remissions lasted. Nineteen patients in the study remain in remission 2 to 24 months later, and 15 of them didnt need any additional treatment. Seven patients relapsed between 6 months and 9 months after their infusion; those included three people whose cancers spread beyond the blood cells the new treatment targets. Five patients left the study for alternative therapy. The numbers are remarkable because these patients had cancer return as many as four times before they joined the study, including some whose cancer had returned after stem cell transplants. For this method, the researchers harvest a patients T cells using a process like blood transfusion. Then the ...
CAR T細胞免疫療法也並非是完美的療法,須注意的是「細胞因子風暴(免疫風暴)」,其為此療法在臨床應上最主要的不良反應。此風暴產生的原因是當CAR-T細胞在殺死癌細胞時,會釋放許多蛋白(即:細胞因子),其作用是啟動更多的...
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
News Analysis Love in the Scientific Literature There are countless ways for scientists to say, "I love you." Naming a slime-mold beetle after your wife (and another after your ex-wife) is, apparently, one of them. ...
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The ability of an organism to modulate its feeding behavior is an important focus of feeding ecology studies. Modulation is the ability to distinctly and consistently alter a behavior to accommodate different stimuli. The goal of this study was to examine the ability of the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum to modulate its food capture behavior with different sizes and types of food items. This was carried out through kinematic and electromyographic analysis. Eight sub-adult specimens of G. cirratum were filmed feeding on two different food types (squid and fish) and sizes (gape size and larger than gape size). Filming consisted of high-speed videography utilizing a low-light digital video system. Kinematic variables related to lower jaw movement, mouth width, and head angle were measured from video footage. Up to twelve muscles in each of six specimens were implanted with bipolar electrodes to measure the onset and duration of motor activity. There were no significant differences between food sizes
Stock video footage A nurse shark in the creek swims away in the current with the camera.. 00:00:14 . From $50. Royalty free. Download now on Pond5 |||
Lymphoid V(D)J recombination: nucleotide insertion at signal joints as well as coding joints.: The coding regions of antigen receptor genes assembled by variabl
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy harnesses the power of the patients own immune system to combat cancer. In theory, CAR-T cell therapy is simple; extract the patients own T-cells, modify them with a viral vector to express an artificial chimeric receptor specific for a cancer antigen, and re-infuse the cells back into the patient. […]. [Read More] ...
The integration of spatial data with knowledge about protein activity is crucial for understanding signal transduction pathways. Herein, we used time‐lapse confocal microscopy for real‐time analysis of the spatial regulation of PKD during physiological conditions of lymphocyte activation and, importantly, integrated localization and catalytic activity data. Antigen receptor signalling initiates at the plasma membrane, but then must be transmitted into the cell interior and the nucleus. The present report identifies PKD as a signalling molecule that functions to amplify and disseminate antigen receptor‐induced signals away from the plasma membrane. The intracellular localization of PKD is regulated dynamically by antigen receptors: the BCR and the FcϵR1 induce the rapid activation and recruitment of PKD to the plasma membrane of B lymphocytes and mast cells. There are several striking features about this ...
Extant cyclostomes are jawless vertebrates and include hagfishes and lampreys. They are the closest extant relatives to jawed vertebrates (often called gnathostomes, which also include jawless...
MalaCards based summary : Car T Cell Therapy-Associated Cytokine Release Syndrome, is also known as chimeric antigen receptor-t cell therapy-associated cytokine release syndrome. Affiliated tissues include t cells and bone ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Eric J Gapud, Baeck-Seung Lee, Grace K Mahowald, Craig H Bassing, Barry P Sleckman].
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited have entered an exclusive license agreement and research agreement to develop and market chimeric antigen receptor-directed natural killer-cell therapies.. ...
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We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
Buy, download and read Tumor Immunology ebook online in PDF format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and Mobile readers. Author: Giorgio Parmiani; Michael T. Lotze. ISBN: 9780203301852. Publisher: CRC Press. Recent advances in immunology and molecular biology have resulted in new therapeutic approaches being generated and implemented in cancer clinics. The discovery of new antigens, mechanisms of antigen
So this is a nurse shark that I saw while snorkelling in the Keys. To get this shot I had to freedive down about 15 feet with a disposable underwater camera. I must say, that I find this snorkelling to be quite a lot of fun and if I do it much more I may become addicted. The sheer amount of living creatures of all sorts down there was amazing. If I could spend a few hours out there at a time I think I would get my fix ...
See what Merve Çınar (mervecinar01) has discovered on Pinterest, the worlds biggest collection of everybodys favorite things.
See what Tufan Özpınar (tufanzpnar) has discovered on Pinterest, the worlds biggest collection of everybodys favorite things.
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Již od cyklu Paristory (1967) se Pavel Jasanský (nar. 1938) profiloval jako fotograf s výjimečnou empatií a postřehem. Ten uplatnil i ve volné
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3-(2-Methoxy-benzylidene)-3H-indol-2-ol | C16H13NO2 | CID 672251 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.

Gordon J. Freeman, PhD - Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Boston, MAGordon J. Freeman, PhD - Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Boston, MA

Chimeric antigen receptor T cells secreting anti-PD-L1 antibodies more effectively regress renal cell carcinoma in a humanized ... Checkpoint blockade cancer immunotherapy targets tumour-specific mutant antigens. Nature. 2014 Nov 27; 515(7528):577-81.. View ... Tumour CD274 (PD-L1) expression and T cells in colorectal cancer. Gut. 2017 08; 66(8):1463-1473.. View in: PubMed. Roemer MG, ... A New B7:CD28 Family Checkpoint Target for Cancer Immunotherapy: HHLA2. Clin Cancer Res. 2015 May 15; 21(10):2201-3.. View in: ...
more infohttps://www.dana-farber.org/find-a-doctor/gordon-j-freeman/

Cancer immunotherapy - WikipediaCancer immunotherapy - Wikipedia

Cancer vaccine Antigen 5T4 Chimeric antigen receptor Coleys Toxins Combinatorial ablation and immunotherapy Cryoimmunotherapy ... Cell surface receptors are common targets for antibody therapies and include CD20, CD274 and CD279. Once bound to a cancer ... as shown in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Carbohydrate antigens on the surface of cells can be used as targets for immunotherapy. ... What is Cancer Immunotherapy Association for Immunotherapy of Cancer Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer "And Then There Were ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cancer_immunotherapy

Frontiers | Melanoma Vaccines and Modulation of the Immune System in the Clinical Setting: Building from New Realities |...Frontiers | Melanoma Vaccines and Modulation of the Immune System in the Clinical Setting: Building from New Realities |...

... have opened new hopes about the installment of immunotherapy as a new modality to treat cancer. ... New advances in the comprehension of the mechanisms of antigen presentation by dendritic cells, in the immune responses ... have opened new hopes about the installment of immunotherapy as a new modality to treat cancer. ... Cutaneous melanoma is a highly immunogenic tumor; therefore most of the attempts to produce cancer vaccines have been addressed ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2012.00103/full

BMC Cancer | Infection, immunity and cancer vaccinesBMC Cancer | Infection, immunity and cancer vaccines

BMC Cancer ,/i,is part of the ,i,BMC,/i, series which publishes subject-specific journals focused on the needs of individual ... peer-reviewed journal that considers articles on all aspects of cancer research, including the pathophysiology, prevention, ... diagnosis and treatment of cancers. The journal welcomes submissions concerning molecular and cellular biology, genetics, ... p,,i,BMC Cancer,/i, is an open access, ... Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR T) cells immunotherapy is ...
more infohttps://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/sections/infection-immunity-and-cancer-vaccines

Molecular Prognostic Factors in Gastric Cancer | IntechOpenMolecular Prognostic Factors in Gastric Cancer | IntechOpen

Molecular Prognostic Factors in Gastric Cancer , IntechOpen, Published on: 2017-09-20. Authors: Daniela Lazar, Sorina Taban, ... Ipilimumab blocks the inhibitory receptor called cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4). Unfortunately, a phase ... On the other hand, until present, the only used markers for gastric cancer in clinical practice are carcinoembryonic antigens, ... 6.2.9. Immunotherapy/immuno-checkpoint blockade. Because it was revealed that tumors evade host immune recognition [153], ...
more infohttps://www.intechopen.com/books/gastric-cancer/molecular-prognostic-factors-in-gastric-cancer/

Method of treating cancer using immune checkpoint inhibitor - BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANYMethod of treating cancer using immune checkpoint inhibitor - BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY

CTLA4 receptor and uses thereof. November, 1999. Linsley et al.. 5952199. Chimeric receptors as inhibitors of vascular ... antigen=CD274; Flags: Precursor," Accession No. Q9NZQ7.1, accessed at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/Q9NZQ7, accessed on ... Until recently, cancer immunotherapy had focused substantial effort on approaches that enhance anti-tumor immune responses by ... have cross-reactivity to other antigens, such as PD-1 molecules from different species. Moreover, an isolated antibody can be ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/10544224.html

Иммунная регуляция в HCC и перспективы иммунотерапии | Молекулярная онкологияИммунная регуляция в HCC и перспективы иммунотерапии | Молекулярная онкология

Anti-GPC3 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy (NCT02395250). NY-ESO-1. Канцер-тестикулярный антиген (CTA). 13-51%. A ... NY-ESO-1 is one of the antigens of the cancer testis antigen (CTA) family (includes NY-ESO-1, members of SSX family, MAGE ... A phase I study of autologous dendritic cell-based immunotherapy for patients with unresectable primary liver cancer. Cancer ... Programmed death-ligand-1 (PD-L1 also known as B7-H1 or CD274) is expressed by many immune cells as well as cancer cells. The ...
more infohttp://cancerlink.ru/liver-cancer/immune-regulation-in-hcc/

CAR T Cells Targeting Podoplanin Reduce Orthotopic Glioblastomas in Mouse Brains | Cancer Immunology ResearchCAR T Cells Targeting Podoplanin Reduce Orthotopic Glioblastomas in Mouse Brains | Cancer Immunology Research

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-transduced T cells can recognize predefined tumor surface antigens independent of MHC ... The blockade of immune checkpoints in cancer immunotherapy. Nat Rev Cancer 2012;12:252-64. ... known as B7-H1 and CD274), is overexpressed in various solid tumors, including malignant melanoma, ovarian cancer, lung cancer ... The basic principles of chimeric antigen receptor design. Cancer Discov 2013;3:388-98. ...
more infohttp://cancerimmunolres.aacrjournals.org/content/4/3/259.full

Frontiers | Tumor-Associated Lymphatic Vessels Upregulate PDL1 to Inhibit T-Cell Activation | ImmunologyFrontiers | Tumor-Associated Lymphatic Vessels Upregulate PDL1 to Inhibit T-Cell Activation | Immunology

These findings may have clinical implications for cancer therapy, as lymphatic expression of PDL1 could represent a new ... Furthermore, we found that blocking PDL1 results in increased T-cell stimulation by antigen-presenting lymphatic endothelial ... as lymphatic expression of PDL1 could represent a new biomarker to select patients for immunotherapy with PD1 or PDL1 ... Furthermore, we found that blocking PDL1 results in increased T-cell stimulation by antigen-presenting lymphatic endothelial ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00066/full

Tumor matrix remodeling and novel immunotherapies: the promise of matrix-derived immune biomarkers | Journal for ImmunoTherapy...Tumor matrix remodeling and novel immunotherapies: the promise of matrix-derived immune biomarkers | Journal for ImmunoTherapy...

Cancer immunotherapy has witnessed a revolution in the past decade with the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs ... monoclonal antibodies against cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or their ... Here we review tumor matrix dynamics and matrix remodeling in context of anti-tumor immune responses and immunotherapy and ... components and their proteolytic remodeling products in regulating each step of the cancer-immunity cycle. ...
more infohttps://jitc.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40425-018-0376-0

US Patent # 9,987,258. Histone deacetylase as a modulator of PDL1 expression and activity - Patents.comUS Patent # 9,987,258. Histone deacetylase as a modulator of PDL1 expression and activity - Patents.com

... in a cancer cell, comprising contacting the cell with a composition comprising a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibito ... Disclosed herein is a method for modulating Program Death Receptor Ligand 1 (PDL1) ... or combinations thereof can be administered alone or in combination with a cancer immunotherapy agent. For example, the cancer ... Disclosed herein is a method for modulating Program Death Receptor Ligand 1 (PDL1) in a cancer cell, comprising contacting the ...
more infohttp://patents.com/us-9987258.html

Immunodynamics: a cancer immunotherapy trials network review of immune monitoring in immuno-oncology clinical trials | Journal...Immunodynamics: a cancer immunotherapy trials network review of immune monitoring in immuno-oncology clinical trials | Journal...

The Cancer Immunotherapy Trials Network investigators review the immunodynamic effects of specific classes of immunotherapeutic ... both starting and recommended Phase 2 for immunotherapies. The promise of harnessing the immune response against cancer must ... The efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 targeted therapies in addition to anti-CTLA-4 solidifies immunotherapy as a modality to add to the ... Mesothelin-specific chimeric antigen receptor mRNA-engineered T cells induce anti-tumor activity in solid malignancies. Cancer ...
more infohttps://jitc.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40425-016-0118-0

Search Articles | University of Toronto LibrariesSearch Articles | University of Toronto Libraries

Gene Therapy , Immunotherapy , Chimeric Antigen Receptors , Cancer , SUICIDE GENE , IMMUNOLOGY , VERSUS-HOST-DISEASE , CYTOKINE ... ADOPTIVE IMMUNOTHERAPY , Antigens, Neoplasm - genetics , Cell Line , Immunotherapy - methods , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell - ... CD274 , MGCD0103 , CD273 , Entinostat , PDX101 , Melanoma , MS275 , Epigenetic , B7-DC , Mocetinostat , Belinostat , LBH589 , ... Full Text Chimeric Antigen Receptors in Cancer Immuno-Gene Therapy: Current Status and Future Directions ...
more infohttps://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=Author:Sodre,%20Andressa

GenomeMe IHC Validated Antibody - AttogeneGenomeMe IHC Validated Antibody - Attogene

... including stage III non-small cell lung cancer, hormone receptor negative breast cancer, and sentinel lymph node melanoma. ... GeneAb™ KBA.62 (Melanoma Associated Antigen). $100.00 - $370.00 KBA.62, also known as Melanoma Associated Antigen, is used to ... Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1), also known as CD274 or B7 Homolog 1 (B7-H1), is a transmembrane protein involved in ... Since alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is characterized by a specific chromosomal rearrangement resulting in a chimeric ...
more infohttps://www.attogene.com/genomeme-ihc-validated-antibody/

A Phase I Trial of Humanized Monoclonal Antibody A33 in Patients with Colorectal Carcinoma: Biodistribution, Pharmacokinetics,...A Phase I Trial of Humanized Monoclonal Antibody A33 in Patients with Colorectal Carcinoma: Biodistribution, Pharmacokinetics,...

Organ-specific expression of the colon cancer antigen A33, a cell surface target for antibody-based therapy. Int J Oncol 1996;9 ... Phase I studies of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor chimeric antibody C225 alone and in combination with cisplatin. J Clin ... Radio-immunotherapy of colon cancer with monoclonal antibody A33. Tumor Targeting 1995;1:299-300. ... Tumor Antigens. In: Roitt IM, editor. Encyclopedia of immunology. 2nd ed. Vol. 4. London: Academic Press; 1998. p. 2424-31. ...
more infohttp://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/11/13/4810

Human GUCY2C-Targeted Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR)-Expressing T Cells Eliminate Colorectal Cancer Metastases | Cancer...Human GUCY2C-Targeted Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR)-Expressing T Cells Eliminate Colorectal Cancer Metastases | Cancer...

Selective antigen-specific CD4(+) T-cell, but not CD8(+) T- or B-cell, tolerance corrupts cancer immunotherapy. Eur J Immunol ... Adoptive T-cell therapies targeting colorectal tumor antigens have been limited by antigen "on-target, off-tumor" toxicities (4 ... Human GUCY2C-Targeted Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR)-Expressing T Cells Eliminate Colorectal Cancer Metastases. Michael S. ... Suicide gene therapy to increase the safety of chimeric antigen receptor-redirected T lymphocytes. J Cancer 2011;2:378-82. ...
more infohttps://cancerimmunolres.aacrjournals.org/content/6/5/509

Murine Langerin+ dermal dendritic cells prime CD8+ T cells while Langerhans cells induce cross‐tolerance | EMBO Molecular...Murine Langerin+ dermal dendritic cells prime CD8+ T cells while Langerhans cells induce cross‐tolerance | EMBO Molecular...

Targeting antigen to lectin receptors requires additional adjuvants to generate efficient antigen‐specific T‐cell responses ( ... Mellman I, Coukos G, Dranoff G (2011) Cancer immunotherapy comes of age. Nature 480: 480-489. ... When we used chimeric mice to target antigen via Langerin exclusively into either LCs or dermal DCs, we observed that LCs ... Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen‐presenting cells, specialized to take up protein antigens and process them into ...
more infohttp://embomolmed.embopress.org/content/early/2014/08/01/emmm.201303283

Therapeutic antitumor immunity by checkpoint blockade is enhanced by ibrutinib, an inhibitor of both BTK and ITK | PNASTherapeutic antitumor immunity by checkpoint blockade is enhanced by ibrutinib, an inhibitor of both BTK and ITK | PNAS

The Addition of the BTK Inhibitor Ibrutinib to Anti-CD19 Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells (CART19) Improves Responses against ... This memory was specific for the antigens of the CT26 tumor as opposed to those contained within the 4T1 breast cancer of the ... The Next Generation of Immunotherapy for Cancer: Small Molecules Could Make Big Waves ... PD-1, expressed on T cells, B cells, and other immune effector cells (4) interacts with the PD-1 ligand (PD-L1; B7-H1; CD274) ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/112/9/E966

JCI -
Peptide-based PET quantifies target engagement of PD-L1 therapeuticsJCI - Peptide-based PET quantifies target engagement of PD-L1 therapeutics

6The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center and the Bloomberg-Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, Johns Hopkins ... In vivo receptor occupancy in rodents by LC-MS/MS. In: Sittampalam GS, et al, eds. Assay Guidance Manual. Bethesda,MD: Eli ... for the chimeric anti-PD-L1 antibody PRO304397 and responsible for maximum PD-L1 saturation over 24 hours in BALB/c mice (29). ... Membrane-associated antigens such as PD-L1 can enhance antibody clearance through target-mediated endocytosis. Additionally, ...
more infohttps://qikan315.net.insight.mobile.jci.org/articles/view/122216

JCI -
Peptide-based PET quantifies target engagement of PD-L1 therapeuticsJCI - Peptide-based PET quantifies target engagement of PD-L1 therapeutics

6The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center and the Bloomberg-Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, Johns Hopkins ... In vivo receptor occupancy in rodents by LC-MS/MS. In: Sittampalam GS, et al, eds. Assay Guidance Manual. Bethesda,MD: Eli ... for the chimeric anti-PD-L1 antibody PRO304397 and responsible for maximum PD-L1 saturation over 24 hours in BALB/c mice (29). ... Membrane-associated antigens such as PD-L1 can enhance antibody clearance through target-mediated endocytosis. Additionally, ...
more infohttps://hn666.net.insight.mobile.jci.org/articles/view/122216

JCI -
Peptide-based PET quantifies target engagement of PD-L1 therapeuticsJCI - Peptide-based PET quantifies target engagement of PD-L1 therapeutics

6The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center and the Bloomberg-Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, Johns Hopkins ... In vivo receptor occupancy in rodents by LC-MS/MS. In: Sittampalam GS, et al, eds. Assay Guidance Manual. Bethesda,MD: Eli ... for the chimeric anti-PD-L1 antibody PRO304397 and responsible for maximum PD-L1 saturation over 24 hours in BALB/c mice (29). ... Membrane-associated antigens such as PD-L1 can enhance antibody clearance through target-mediated endocytosis. Additionally, ...
more infohttps://taoyantao.com.www.mobile.jci.org/articles/view/122216

PD-L1 Protein, Human, Recombinant (Fc Tag), Biotinylated | SinoBiologicalPD-L1 Protein, Human, Recombinant (Fc Tag), Biotinylated | SinoBiological

Programmed death-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1, CD274, B7-H1) has been identified as the ligand for the immunoinhibitory receptor ... of immunogenic tumor growth by increasing apoptosis of antigen specific T cells and may contribute to immune evasion by cancers ... 2002) Involvement of PD-L1 on tumor cells in the escape from host immune system and tumor immunotherapy by PD-L1 blockade. Proc ... Chimeric Antibody Production. *Antibody Fragment Production. *Bispecific Antibody Production. * Biopharmaceutical Analysis ...
more infohttps://www.sinobiological.com/PD-L1-Protein-Human-Recombinant-Fc-Tag-Biotinylated-pr-10084-H02H-B.html

ELISA KITELISA KIT

CD Antigens. *Fc Receptors. *Enzymes & Kinase. *Signal Transduction. *Biomarkers. *Complement System. * Pathways * Cancer ... Antigen Production Service. *ELISA Kit Development Service. * Biopharmaceutical Service * Therapeutic Antibody Development ... Chimeric Antibody Production Service. *Antibody Fragment Production Service. *Bispecific Antibody Production Service ... Human PD-L1/CD274 ELISA Kit. *Human IL22 ELISA Kit. Advenced Platforms, Best Quality Antibody. ...
more infohttp://www.sinobiological.com/elisa-kit.html

CD antigens / Cluster of DifferentiationCD antigens / Cluster of Differentiation

CD antigens found in various immune cell populations like B cells, T cells, Dendritic cells and NK cells.CD antigens can act in ... lot of ways, like as recepters or ligands in terms of physiology.As a siganl, CD antigens is usually initiated, altering the ... What are CD antigens or clusters of differentiation ? ... CD antigen as receptors. *CD antigens related to signaling ... CD274 antigens. B7-H1, PD-L1. Found on activated T cells, B cells, and myeloid cells, to modulate activation or inhibition. ...
more infohttps://kr.sinobiological.com/cd-antigens-cluster-of-differentiation.html

JCI -
WelcomeJCI - Welcome

... chimeric antigen receptor-expressing NK cells (CAR-NKs), bispecific and trispecific killer cell engagers (BiKEs and TriKEs), ... cancer evades NK cell responses, we have gained a clear appreciation that NK cells can be harnessed in cancer immunotherapy. ... Our findings illustrate that CRC patients may have poor prognosis despite high CD8+ T cell infiltration and provide CD274 as a ... is based on the induction of adaptive immune responses endowed with long-term memory against mycobacterial antigens. Memory B ...
more infohttps://gmcallege.net.insight.mobile.jci.org/top_articles
  • Following the discovery of PD-L1 and PD-L2 as the ligands for the PD-1 receptor on T cells, we demonstrated the inhibitory function of PD-L1 and PD-L2 on T cells and showed that blockade of this pathway enhanced T cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production. (dana-farber.org)
  • Guanylyl cyclase C (GUCY2C) is a membrane-bound receptor that produces the second messenger cGMP following activation by its hormone ligands guanylin or uroguanylin, regulating intestinal homeostasis, tumorigenesis, and obesity ( 6 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • CD antigens can act in lot of ways, like as recepters or ligands in terms of physiology. (sinobiological.com)
  • CD279 has two known ligands: CD274 (also called PD-L1 or B7-H1) and CD273 (PD-L2 or B7-DC). (pnas.org)
  • By discovering the different molecular subtypes of gastric cancer, as well as numerous classes of targeted molecular agents, in the future, we would be able to perform an individualized treatment, associated with maximum efficiency and less costs. (intechopen.com)
  • PD-L1 thus is regarded as promising therapeutic target for human autoimmune disease and malignant cancers. (sinobiological.com)
  • The mechanisms of malignant cell transformation caused by the oncogenic, chimeric nucleophosmin (NPM)/anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) remain only partially understood, with most of the previous studies focusing mainly on the impact of NPM/ALK on cell survival and proliferation. (pnas.org)
  • This chapter aims to highlight some of the many different genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations, as well as aberrant signaling pathways involved in the pathogenesis of stomach cancers, each of these molecular abnormalities acting in a specific stage of the disease. (intechopen.com)
  • 2006) The B7-H1 (PD-L1) T lymphocyte-inhibitory molecule is expressed in breast cancer patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma: correlation with important high-risk prognostic factors. (sinobiological.com)
  • Furthermore, we found that blocking PDL1 results in increased T-cell stimulation by antigen-presenting LECs in vitro . (frontiersin.org)
  • STAT3 binds to the CD274 gene promoter in vitro and in vivo , as shown in the gel electromobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, and is required for the PD-L1 gene expression, as demonstrated by siRNA-mediated STAT3 depletion. (pnas.org)
  • NPM/ALK induces CD274 expression by activating its key signal transmitter, transcription factor STAT3. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, nivolumab and pembrolizumab, which block programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and were approved in 2014 in Japan and the United States, demonstrated divergent cycle lengths and raised unanticipated questions about the optimal dosing for immunotherapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By controlling the transition between the G1 and S phases through regulation of retinoblastoma protein, p16 decelerates cellular differentiation and therefore acts as a tumor suppressor, making it the key marker in several human cancers including head and neck cancer, perianal lesions, melanomas, gliomas, lymphomas, and some types of leukemia. (attogene.com)
  • The NPM/ALK chimeric protein is not only constitutively expressed but is also chronically activated through autophosphorylation ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • The excellent targeting characteristics of this humanized antibody indicate potential for the targeted therapy of metastatic colorectal cancer in future trials. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the western world and is the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality ( 1 - 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • however, agents with superior antitumor activity are needed to progress the treatment of colorectal cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, we have identified a human GUCY2C-specific CAR-T cell therapy approach that may be developed for the treatment of GUCY2C-expressing metastatic colorectal cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Based on the positive prognostic value of T cell infiltration, Immunoscore has been developed and validated for predicting risk of recurrence for colorectal cancer (CRC). (jci.org)
  • Cancer immunotherapy (Immuno-oncology or Onco-immunology) is the use of the immune system to treat cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this review, which does not intend to be exhaustive, we shall discuss some of the most explored fields of research which aim to fight cancer through stimulating or inhibiting some specific targets of the immune system. (frontiersin.org)
  • Immunotherapy has begun to revolutionize cancer treatment, by introducing therapies that target not the tumor, but the host immune system, therapies that possess unique adverse event profiles, and therapies that might cure many types of cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NPM/ALK triggers the expression by activating STAT3, which in turn acts as a transcriptional activator of the CD274 gene. (pnas.org)
  • In pathological conditions, such as acute and chronic inflammation or cancer, peripheral LVs, and also draining LNs, undergo a dramatic expansion which is mediated by the enlargement of existing vessels as well as induction of de novo LV formation (lymphangiogenesis) ( 2 - 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The CD antigens / Cluster of differentiation nomenclature was established in the 1st International Workshop and Conference on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (HLDA), which was held in Paris in 1982. (sinobiological.com)
  • One of the most exciting recent developments in cancer therapy has been the introduction of immune checkpoint blockade. (pnas.org)
  • Gastric cancer represents a major health problem worldwide. (intechopen.com)
  • Despite a decline in the incidence in past decades, gastric cancer remains a major health problem globally [ 1 , 2 ], being the fifth most common type of cancer worldwide, with almost one million new cases estimated to have occurred in 2012, according to Globocan [ 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • According to the World Health Organization classification, the vast majority of gastric cancers are adenocarcinomas, divided into papillary, tubular, mucinous (colloid), and poorly cohesive carcinomas (including signet-ring cell carcinoma and other variants) [ 4 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Literature data have demonstrated that the development of gastric cancer is associated in the majority of cases with infectious agents such as the Gram-negative spiral bacterium Helicobacter pylori (most often) [ 6 ] and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (about 9% of all cases of gastric cancer) [ 7 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Only a small percentage of gastric cancer patients (hereditary cases) are associated with germline mutation in E-cadherin (CDH1) [ 8 ] or mismatch repair genes (Lynch syndrome) [ 9 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Thus, blockade of B7-1 and B7-2 can be used to establish antigen-specific tolerance for transplantation or the alleviation of autoimmunity. (dana-farber.org)
  • The development of new high-throughput technologies, such as next-generation sequencing, will lead to a better knowledge of the battery of mutations present in different types of cancer and, particularly, in each patient. (frontiersin.org)
  • Specific adjuvants can be used to independently harness the different potential of distinct DC subsets simultaneously targeted by an antigen. (embopress.org)
  • 95% of colon cancers and in the normal intestinal mucosa but not in other epithelial tissues ( 13 , 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In chimeric mice where Langerin targeting was restricted to dDCs, CD8 + T‐cell memory was enhanced. (embopress.org)