A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.
Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
An amino acid that inhibits phosphate-activated glutaminase and interferes with glutamine metabolism. It is an antineoplastic antibiotic produced by an unidentified species of Streptomyces from Peruvian soil. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC 1.4.1.13.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
An enzyme, involved in the early steps of purine nucleotide biosynthesis, that catalyzes the formation of 5-phosphoribosylamine from glutamine and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. EC 2.4.2.14.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of nitrogenous groups, primarily amino groups, from a donor, generally an amino acid, to an acceptor, usually a 2-oxoacid. EC 2.6.
One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Radiographic examination of the breast.
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.
Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of cancer through education and research.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glutamine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Antibiotic substance produced by various Streptomyces species. It is an inhibitor of enzymatic activities that involve glutamine and is used as an antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A ubiquitous sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and CYSTEINE.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of anthranilate (o-aminobenzoate) and pyruvic acid from chorismate and glutamine. Anthranilate is the biosynthetic precursor of tryptophan and numerous secondary metabolites, including inducible plant defense compounds. EC 4.1.3.27.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.
Elevated level of AMMONIA in the blood. It is a sign of defective CATABOLISM of AMINO ACIDS or ammonia to UREA.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
PTEN and cancer explained in dance. A metabolic pathway uses glutamine to create a component of DNA. This pathway is regulated ... Mutations of this gene are a step in the development of many cancers, specifically glioblastoma, lung cancer, breast cancer, ... Frequent genetic inactivation of PTEN occurs in glioblastoma, endometrial cancer, and prostate cancer; and reduced expression ... PTEN is one of the most commonly lost tumor suppressors in human cancer; in fact, up to 70% of men with prostate cancer are ...
Overexpression of SIRT4 inhibits cancer cell proliferation by inhibition of glutamine metabolism. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Yoo HC, Yu YC, Sung Y, Han JM (2020). "Glutamine reliance in cell metabolism". Experimental & Molecular Medicine. 52 (9): 1496- ...
April 2008). "Common breast cancer-predisposition alleles are associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation ... The protein TOX3 has a glutamine-rich C-terminus due to CAG repeats. TOX3 is located on human chromosome band 16q12.1. The gene ... Like breast cancer, downregulation of TOX3 is associated with worse prognosis in ccRCC patients. Smid M, Wang Y, Klijn JG, ... Jones JO, Chin SF, Wong-Taylor LA, Leaford D, Ponder BA, Caldas C, Maia AT (2013). "TOX3 mutations in breast cancer". PLOS ONE ...
"Arginine Methylation of MDH1 by CARM1 Inhibits Glutamine Metabolism and Suppresses Pancreatic Cancer". Molecular Cell. 64 (4): ... which represses malate-aspartate shuttle and inhibits mitochondria respiration of pancreatic cancer cells. Click on genes, ...
"Leflunomide triggers synthetic lethality in PTEN-deficient prostate cancer". Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases. 23 (4): ... April 2017). "PTEN Regulates Glutamine Flux to Pyrimidine Synthesis and Sensitivity to Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Inhibition ... "Mitoxantrone and Prednisone With or Without Leflunomide in Treating Patients With Stage IV Prostate Cancer" at ClinicalTrials. ... ". Cancer Discovery. 7 (4): 380-390. doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-16-0612. PMC 5562025. PMID 28255082. Blanckaert K, De Vriese AS ( ...
"Arginine Methylation of MDH1 by CARM1 Inhibits Glutamine Metabolism and Suppresses Pancreatic Cancer". Molecular Cell. 64 (4): ... Arginine methylation of MDH1 represses mitochondria respiration and inhibits glutamine utilization. CARM1-mediated MDH1 ...
"Glutamine supports pancreatic cancer growth through a KRAS-regulated metabolic pathway". Nature. 496 (7443): 101-105. Bibcode: ... He has constructed and used refined mouse models of cancer to identify many new cancer targets and diagnostics. Highlights from ... where he was the Feinberg Senior Scholar in Cancer Research. There, he established the first National Cancer Institute- ... There, he was founding director of the Belfer Institute for Applied Cancer Science at Dana-Farber and was a professor in the ...
"Regulation of glutamine carrier proteins by RNF5 determines breast cancer response to ER stress-inducing chemotherapies". ... J Natl Cancer Inst. 86(13):1007-10, 1994. Fuchs, S.Y., Dolan, L.R., Davis, R., Ronai, Z. Phosphorylation dependent targeting of ... "NCI-Designated Cancer Center , SBP". www.sbpdiscovery.org. Retrieved 2019-11-22. "Ze'ev Ronai, Ph.D. , SBP". www.sbpdiscovery. ... "Nature.com" (PDF). "First-of-its-Kind Center Brings New Tools & Players to The Global Fight Against Cancer". ATS. Retrieved ...
DeBerardinis RJ, Cheng T. Q's next: the diverse functions of glutamine in metabolism, cell biology and cancer. Oncogene. 2010 ... Chen, L; Cui, H (2015). "Targeting Glutamine Induces Apoptosis: A Cancer Therapy Approach". International Journal of Molecular ... Many cancers rely on glutaminase thus glutaminase inhibitors have been proposed as a cancer treatment. As of July 2018[update] ... which convert it to glutamine. This glutamine is then supplied to the presynaptic terminals of the neurons, where glutaminases ...
"Arginine Methylation of MDH1 by CARM1 Inhibits Glutamine Metabolism and Suppresses Pancreatic Cancer". Molecular Cell. 64 (4): ... In breast cancer, CARM1 methylates chromatin remodeling factor BAF155 to enhance tumor progression and metastasis. In ... CARM1 plays an important role in androgen receptors and may play a role in prostate cancer progression. CARM1 exerts both ... Cancer Cell. 30 (1): 179-180. doi:10.1016/j.ccr.2013.12.007. PMC 4004525. PMID 24434208. Wang YP, Zhou W, Wang J, Huang X, Zuo ...
... liver cancer, and melanoma. For example, defects in ASS have been seen in 87% of pancreatic cancers. Cancer cells are therefore ... Additionally, phenylacetate reacts with backed-up glutamine, resulting on phenylacetoglutamine, which can be excreted renally. ... Bowles TL, Kim R, Galante J, Parsons CM, Virudachalam S, Kung HJ, Bold RJ (October 2008). "Pancreatic cancer cell lines ... A lack of argininosuccinate synthetase expression has been observed in several types of cancer cells, including pancreatic ...
After its discovery in 1972, acivicin was studied as an anti-cancer agent, but trials were unsuccessful due to toxicity. An in ... Acivicin is an analog of glutamine. It is an inhibitor of gamma-glutamyl transferase. It is a fermentation product of ... Phase I dose escalating studies conducted in 23 cancer patients administered acivicin with a concomitant 96-h i.v. infusion of ... "A Phase I and Pharmacological Study of the Glutamine Antagonist Acivicin with the Amino Acid Solution Aminosyn in Patients with ...
Cancer cells that exhibit increased cell proliferation also exhibit an increased activity of this encoded protein. Thus, this ... The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the formation of CTP from UTP with the concomitant deamination of glutamine to ...
Whey Proteins In Cancer Prevention Bounous G., Batist G., Gold P. Cancer Lett. 1991 May 1;57(2) :91-4. Review. (1991) ... Other supplements, including TRAUMEEL S®, glutamine, vitamin E, Immunocal®, colostrum, and probiotics, may help to reduce ... MD Pediatr Blood Cancer 2008;50:490-493 Children with cancer frequently use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), ... Tsai W.Y., Chang W.H., Chen C.H., Lu F. Nutrition and Cancer, Vol 38, Issue #2 (2000) To determine the enhancing effect of a ...
Zhou L, Wei X, Cheng L, Tian J, Jiang JJ (March 2007). "CD133, one of the markers of cancer stem cells in Hep-2 cell line". The ... "Differentiation of serum-free mouse embryo cells into astrocytes is accompanied by induction of glutamine synthetase activity ... Staud F, Pavek P (April 2005). "Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2)". The International Journal of Biochemistry & ... December 2004). "Immortalization of human bronchial epithelial cells in the absence of viral oncoproteins". Cancer Research. 64 ...
The glutamine analog DON has also been seen to act as an irreversible inhibitor, and has been used as an anti-cancer agent. CTP ... The source of the amino group in CTP is glutamine, which is hydrolysed in a glutamine amidotransferase domain to produce ... GTP acts as an allosteric activator that strongly promotes the hydrolysis of glutamine, but is also inhibiting to glutamine- ... Ahluwalia GS, Grem JL, Hao Z, Cooney DA (1990). "Metabolism and action of amino acid analog anti-cancer agents". Pharmacology ...
Carbon source availability is reflected in histone acetylation in cancer. Glucose and glutamine are the major carbon sources of ... Cohen I, Poręba E, Kamieniarz K, Schneider R (June 2011). "Histone modifiers in cancer: friends or foes?". Genes & Cancer. 2 (6 ... Wang YP, Lei QY (May 2018). "Metabolic recoding of epigenetics in cancer". Cancer Communications. 38 (1): 25. doi:10.1186/ ... misinterpreted and mis-erased in human cancers". Nature Reviews. Cancer. 10 (7): 457-69. doi:10.1038/nrc2876. PMC 3262678. PMID ...
78: 3075-7. Yoshioka K, Takehara H, Okada A, Komi N (June 1992). "Glutamine antagonist with diet deficient in glutamine and ... Ahluwalia GS, Grem JL, Hao Z, Cooney DA (1990). "Metabolism and action of amino acid analog anti-cancer agents". Pharmacology ... Pinkus LM (1977). "Glutamine binding sites". Methods in Enzymology. 46: 414-27. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(77)46049-X. ISBN 978-0- ... 683) and 244 nm (E1%1 cm 376). DON is used as inhibitor of different glutamine utilizing enzymes. Due to its similarity to ...
In human colon cancer cells, targeting and inactivating the PDH complex limits the metabolic rate and regulates glutamine ... The ubiquitous role of this gene lends itself to being involved in a variety of disease pathologies, including cancer. One ... International Journal of Cancer. 128 (11): 2591-601. doi:10.1002/ijc.25599. PMID 20715114. S2CID 27407499. Liu Z, Chen X, Wang ... "Butyrate elicits a metabolic switch in human colon cancer cells by targeting the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex". ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a mitochondrial phosphate-activated glutaminase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamine ... GLS2 has interesting molecular relationships with tumor progression and cancer. Glutaminase 2 negatively regulates the PI3K/AKT ... and sensitizes cervical cancer to ionizing radiation". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research. 1833 (12 ...
... implicating it in the development of prostate cancer. The cancer-associated "R462Q" mutation results in a glutamine instead of ... A man with two copies of this mutation has twice the risk of prostate cancer; one copy raises the risk by 50%. Klein and ... Initial reports erroneously linked the virus to prostate cancer and later to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), leading to ... Most scientific publications claiming an association of XMRV with CFS or prostate cancer have been retracted, and allegations ...
Sestrin2 facilitates glutamine dependent transcription of PGC1-α and survival of liver cancer cells under glucose limitation. ... J. Cancer Res. 5 (2), 481-497 (2015). R. Mathur and C. Shaha*, Cell death in a kinetoplastid parasite, the Leishmania spp. In ... Cancer. Ther. 10:255-268 (2011). R. Jain, A. Ghoshal, C. Mandal and C. Shaha C*. Leishmania cell surface prohibitin: role in ... PLOS One 6:e25273 (2011). R. Tripathi, T. Samadder, S. Gupta, A. Surolia and C. Shaha*, Anti-cancer activity of a combination ...
Paice JA, Ferrell B. The management of cancer pain. CA - A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2011;61(3):157-82. doi:10.3322/caac. ... A 2013 systematic review of the use of acetyl-L-carnitine, glutamine, vitamin E, glutathione, vitamin B6, omega-3 fatty acids, ... A 2007 American Cancer Society study found that most patients did not recall being told to expect CIPN, and doctors monitoring ... Cancers of the Colon and Rectum: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Diagnosis and Management. Demos Medical Publishing. p. 233. ...
... (ALDOA) is a highly expressed in multiple cancers, including lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), renal cancer, and ... ALDOA is regulated by the energy metabolism substrates glucose, lactate, and glutamine. In human mast cells (MCs), ALDOA has ... 1992). "Identification of transglutaminase substrates in HT29 colon cancer cells: use of 5-(biotinamido)pentylamine as a ...
... amino acid glutamine has been used as a component of oral supplementation to reverse cachexia in people with advanced cancer or ... but is most often associated with end-stage cancer, known as cancer cachexia. About 50% of all cancer patients suffer from ... The prevalence of cachexia ranges from 15-60% among people with cancer, increasing to an estimated 80% in terminal cancer. This ... Martignoni ME, Kunze P, Friess H (November 2003). "Cancer cachexia". Molecular Cancer. 2 (1): 36. doi:10.1186/1476-4598-2-36. ...
... glutamine, and arginine mixture for the treatment of cancer cachexia (RTOG 0122)". Supportive Care in Cancer. 16 (10): 1179- ... Interesting results were observed during cancer, notably, patients with advanced (stage IV) cancer receiving a HMB/ARG/GLN ... and glutamine on weight gain should be investigated in further studies on cancer patients investigating time periods of several ... The efficacy of Juven for the treatment of cancer cachexia was also examined in a phase 3 clinical trial which found a strong ...
For instance, for liver cancer charging tRNA-Lys-CUU with lysine sustains liver cancer cell growth and metastasis, whereas ... The amber initiator tRNA inserts methionine and glutamine at UAG codons preceded by a strong Shine-Dalgarno sequence. An ... Thus, glutamate tRNA synthetase charges tRNA-glutamine(tRNA-Gln) with glutamate. An amidotransferase then converts the acid ... The protein synthesis associated with cancer and viral biology is often very dependent on specific tRNA molecules. ...
Fior R (2019), "Cancer - when Cells Break the Rules and Hijack Their Own Planet", Molecular and Cell Biology of Cancer, ... Foor F, Janssen KA, Magasanik B (December 1975). "Regulation of synthesis of glutamine synthetase by adenylylated glutamine ... While prostate cancer is usually treated with surgery, metronomic therapy may be useful in castration-resistant prostate cancer ... It may also be useful in patients who have platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. From 2012 to 2016, six ovarian cancer patients ...
2006). "Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of invasive breast cancer: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary ... 2006). "Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of colorectal cancer: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary ...
FH is often associated with the mutation of R3500Q, which causes replacement of arginine by glutamine at position 3500. The ... "Reductions in all-cause, cancer, and coronary mortality in statin-treated patients with heterozygous familial ...
Cancer 2 (5): 373-382. doi:10.1038/nrc797. பப்மெட் 12044013. *↑ Yarchoan R, Tosatom G, Littlem RF (2005). "Therapy insight: ... 2004). "The glutamine-rich region of the HIV-1 Tat protein is involved in T-cell apoptosis". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (46): 48197- ...
Cancer 2 (5): 373-382. PMID 12044013. doi:10.1038/nrc797.. *↑ Yarchoan R, Tosato G, Little RF (2005). "Therapy insight: AIDS- ... 2004). "The glutamine-rich region of the HIV-1 Tat protein is involved in T-cell apoptosis". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (46): 48197- ...
Ketogenic diet (low carbohydrate diet) practice for weight loss has reportedly increased mortality rate (especially from cancer ... bone health and cancer risk.[23] One low quality meta-analysis reported that adverse effects could include "constipation, ...
"Researchers weigh risks due to overweight". CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 55 (5): 268-9. 2005. doi:10.3322/canjclin.55.5 ... The main concern ... is that it did not adequately account for weight loss from serious illnesses such as cancer and heart ... "epidemiologists from the ACS (American Cancer Society), American Heart Association, Harvard School of Public Health, and other ... such as cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, or depression) or of the cachexia (wasting syndrome) and sarcopenia ( ...
... which is synthesized in a two step reaction from commercially available Cbz-L-glutamine. The Cbz-L-glutamine is treated with ... J. Cancer. 79: 114-8. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6690020. PMC 2362163 . PMID 10408702. Bartlett, J. Blake; Dredge, Keith; Dalgleish, ... This route uses L-glutamine rather than L-glutamic acid as a starting material and by letting it react with N- ... Reversal of Fortune: How a Vilified Drug Became a Life-saving Agent in the "War" Against Cancer - Onco'Zine - The International ...
It has also been discovered that tRNA synthetases may be partially involved in the etiology of cancer.[16] A high level of ... Ludmerer SW, Schimmel P (August 1987). "Construction and analysis of deletions in the amino-terminal extension of glutamine ... Certain diseases' causation (such as neuronal pathologies, cancer, disturbed metabolic conditions, and autoimmune disorders) ... expression or modification of aaRSs has been observed within a range of cancers. A common outcome from mutations of aaRSs is a ...
Besides, the interaction between glutamine and sodium cation may have given rise to sodium glutamate (MSG), which can further ... Both chemicals have the potential to cause cancer, and the Agency recommended that the affected products be withdrawn from ... In Canada, the Canadian Cancer Society writes, .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw ...
"Cancer Research UK. February 2, 2015. Retrieved November 12, 2018.. *^ a b c d e Varro E. Tyler (31 August 1999). "False Tenets ... According to Cancer Research UK as of 2015, "there is currently no strong evidence from studies in people that herbal remedies ... The use of herbal remedies is more prevalent in patients with chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, asthma and end-stage ... "Use of alternative medicine by women with early-stage breast cancer". N Engl J Med. 340 (22): 1733-39. doi:10.1056/ ...
Cancer[edit]. Studies on folic acid intake from food and folate supplementation with regards to cancer risk are based on the ... "Effect of glutamine on methotrexate efficacy and toxicity". Ann. Surg. 227 (5): 772-780. doi:10.1097/00000658-199805000-00018 ... Glynn, SA; Albanes, D (1994). "Folate and cancer: a review of the literature". Nutrition and cancer. 22 (2): 101-119. doi: ... "Common questions about diet and cancer: Folate and folic acid". American Cancer Society. 2017. Archived from the original on 13 ...
Iron-deficiency anemia, osteoporosis, infertility, cancers, neurological problems, other autoimmune diseases[3][4][5][6][7]. ... These are storage proteins rich in proline (prol-) and glutamine (-amin) that dissolve in alcohols and are resistant to ... Deamidation is the reaction by which a glutamate residue is formed by cleavage of the epsilon-amino group of a glutamine side ... Patients with coeliac disease are at increased risk of cancer, including a twofold to fourfold increased risk of non-Hodgkin's ...
tTG is upregulated in cancer cells and tissues in many cancer types, including leukemia, breast cancer, prostate cancer, ... resulting in the net conversion of the glutamine residue to glutamic acid (i.e. deamidation).[6] The deamidation of glutamine ... In its GTP bound form, tTG contributes to cancer cell survival and appears to be a cancer driver. ... pancreatic cancer and cervical cancer. Higher tTG expression also correlates with higher instances of metastasis, chemotherapy ...
Stanford Cancer Center. "Cancer Diagnosis - Understanding Cancer". Understanding Cancer. Stanford Medicine.. *^ "Lactate ... with a glutamine (in the H chain). This tiny but notable change is believed to be the reason the H subunit can bind faster, and ... It is used to follow up cancer (especially lymphoma) patients, as cancer cells have a high rate of turnover, with destroyed ... Many cancers can raise LDH levels, so LDH may be used as a tumor marker, but at the same time, it is not useful in identifying ...
A general base, which may be the glutamate residue adjacent to the Walker B motif, glutamine in the Q-loop, or a histidine in ... The ATPase activity of Sav1866 is known to be stimulated by cancer drugs such as doxorubicin, vinblastine and others, which ... The ABC domain also has a glutamine residue residing in a flexible loop called Q loop, lid or γ-phosphate switch, that connects ... The most-studied member in ABCG family is ABCG2, also known as BCRP (breast cancer resistance protein) confer resistance to ...
MLH1: mutL homolog 1, colon cancer, nonpolyposis type 2 (E. coli). *MYRIP: Myosin VIIA and Rab interacting protein ... QRICH1: encoding protein QRICH1, also known as Glutamine-rich protein 1,. *RBM6: RNA-binding protein 6 ...
"Common questions about diet and cancer". American Cancer Society. 5 February 2016. Retrieved 23 November 2018.. ... Obesity, Weight Linked to Prostate Cancer Deaths - National Cancer Institute Archived 2011-06-07 at the Wayback Machine.. ... The link between increased fiber consumption and a decreased risk of colorectal cancer is still uncertain. ... Cancer.gov. Retrieved on 2011-10-17. *^ Obesity and Overweight for Professionals: Causes , DNPAO , CDC Archived 2016-02-24 at ...
952-10-3056-9 Interaction of alcohol and smoking in the pathogenesis of upper digestive tract cancers - possible ...
One review found a decreased overall risk of all cause mortality, cancer (except breast) and cardiovascular disease;[47] ... and cancers of the breast, prostate and bowel (see The China Study).[63] ... and the observation of increased risk of lung cancer mortality in those on a vegetarian diet for less than five years.[48] An ... however, a meta-analysis found lower risk for ischemic heart disease and cancer but no effect on overall mortality or ...
... is a peptide of nine amino acids (a nonapeptide) in the sequence cysteine-tyrosine-isoleucine-glutamine-asparagine- ... "The human vasopressin gene is linked to the oxytocin gene and is selectively expressed in a cultured lung cancer cell line". ...
"Superfoods' and cancer". Cancer Research UK. Retrieved 1 August 2013.. *^ "Superfood". American English definition by Macmillan ... Cancer Research UK note that superfoods are often promoted as having an ability to prevent or cure diseases, including cancer; ... "Letter Updating the Green Tea and Risk of Breast Cancer and Prostate Cancer Health Claim April 17, 2012; RE: Health Claim ... According to Cancer Research UK, "the term 'superfood' is really just a marketing tool, with little scientific basis to it".[3] ...
Main article: Down syndrome § Cancer. Transient myeloproliferative disorder[edit]. Main article: Transient myeloproliferative ... glutamine). These mutations and some key abnormalities they cause are:[8][16][37][38] ... "Cancer Medicine. 4 (4): 490-9. doi:10.1002/cam4.384. PMC 4402062. PMID 25619630.. ...
Functionally, tRFs are associated with viral infection,[43] cancer,[36][37] cell proliferation [38] and also with epigenetic ... Thus, glutamate tRNA synthetase charges tRNA-glutamine(tRNA-Gln) with glutamate. An amidotransferase then converts the acid ... 2011). "Nuclear Insertions of Mitochondrial Origin: Database Updating and Usefulness in Cancer Studies". Mitochondrion. 11 (6 ... "Sex hormone-dependent tRNA halves enhance cell proliferation in breast and prostate cancers". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 112 ...
Not to be confused with Glutamine or Glutaric acid.. For the anion in its role as a neurotransmitter, see Glutamate ( ... Reviews on Cancer. 1846 (1): 66-74. doi:10.1016/j.bbcan.2014.04.004. PMID 24747768.. ... It can also be converted into glutamine. ... Glutamine + H2O. → Glu + NH3 GLS, GLS2 NAcGlu + H2O. → Glu + ...
Int J Cancer 9, 383-392 PMID 4339414. *O'Brien SJ, Goedert JJ. (1996) HIV causes AIDS: Koch's postulates fulfilled. Curr Opin ... The glutamine-rich region of the HIV-1 Tat protein is involved in T-cell apoptosis. J. Biol. Chem. 279, 48197-48204 PMID ...
Cancer. 47 (8): 657-664. doi:10.1002/gcc.20571.. *^ Lin, Chien-Ling; Taggart, Allison J.; Lim, Kian Huat; Cygan, Kamil J.; ... In yeasts, the most common repeated amino acids are glutamine, glutamic acid, asparagine, aspartic acid and serine. ... "A National Cancer Institute Workshop on Microsatellite Instability for cancer detection and familial predisposition: ... development of international criteria for the determination of microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer". Cancer Res. 58 ...
"Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Cancer. 1866 (2): 208-220. doi:10.1016/j.bbcan.2016.09.004. ISSN 0006-3002. ...
A single point mutation (G → A) at exon 12 of the ALDH2 gene causes a replacement of glutamine with lysine at residue 487, ... and contracting cancers of the oro-pharynx and esophagus due to acetaldehyde overexposure.[7] ...
Shabert, J. & Ehrlich, N. The Ultimate Nutrient, Glutamine: The Nonessential Amino Acid. Avery Publishing Group, New York, USA ... Miners, S. Diabetes, arthritis, cancer and noni. Well Being Journal. 8(3):10-11, 1999. ... Cocchi, R. Antidepressive properties of L-glutamine. Preliminary report. Acta Psychiatr Belgium. 76:658-666, 1976. ...
2013). SLC1A5 mediates glutamine transport required for lung cancer cell growth and survival. Clinical Cancer Research, 19(3), ... Li T., Le A. (2018) Glutamine Metabolism in Cancer. In: Le A. (eds) The Heterogeneity of Cancer Metabolism. Advances in ... Glutamine metabolism Glutamine addiction Targeting glutamine metabolism Transaminase upregulation Targeting amino acid ... Glutamine metabolism to cancer therapy. Nature Reviews. Cancer, 16(11), 749.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
SLC1A5 mediates glutamine transport required for lung cancer cell growth and survival. Clin Cancer Res. 2013;19(3):560-570. ... Analysis of glutamine dependency in non-small cell lung cancer: GLS1 splice variant GAC is essential for cancer cell growth. ... Glutamine metabolism as a target for diagnostic imaging and therapy in cancer. Glutamine is imported via SLC1A5 and other ... One important consideration is that not all cancer cells need an exogenous supply of glutamine. A panel of lung cancer cell ...
... cancer, immune function, metabolism and neurodegeneration. The journal fills a significant void in todays scientific ... "Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy," Cancer, vol. 83, no. 7, pp ... V. S. Klimberg and J. L. McClellan, "Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy," The American Journal of Surgery, vol. 172, no. 5, pp ... Key Roles of Glutamine Pathways in Reprogramming the Cancer Metabolism. Krzysztof Piotr Michalak,1,2 Agnieszka Maćkowska- ...
The authors showed that inhibiting glutamine metabolism with or without blocking immune checkpoints as well constitutes a ... result in an increased dependence on glutamine metabolism-a vulnerability that can be therapeutically exploited. ... Home Topics Cancer Glutamine Dependence of Chemotherapy-Resistant Ovarian Cancer Holds Therapeutic Potential ... Glutamine is normally required for cancer cells to grow, but Zhang and colleagues demonstrated a stronger dependence of ARID1A- ...
Researchers find that melanoma cells are dependent on a source of glutamine for growth irrespective of the mutation(s) that ... Melanomas Addiction to Glutamine Is the Basis for Cancer Growth Researchers find that melanoma cells are dependent on a source ... The Institute is recognized for its National Cancer Institute-designated Cancer Center, its NIH-designated Neuroscience Center ... of glutamine for growth irrespective of the mutation(s) that drive the cancer. ...
I>Clin Cancer Res., 15, 6479-6483 (2009).
6. Wise, D. R. and Thompson, C. B. Glutamine Addiction: A New ... I>Cancer Res., 70, 859-862 (2010).
5. Dang, C.V. et al. MYC-Induced Cancer Cell Energy Metabolism and ... a situation with many parallels to the inefficient metabolism of glucose by many cancer cells (1). Glutamine is used by the ... The Diverse Functions of Glutamine in Metabolism, Cell Biology, and Cancer. Oncogene, 29, 313-324 (2010).
3. ...
Gemcitabine has been the first line systemic treatment for pancreatic cancer. However, the rapid development of drug resistance ... Pancreatic cancer is a lethal disease with poor prognosis. ... Pancreatic cancer is a lethal disease with poor prognosis. ... Disrupting glutamine metabolic pathways to sensitize gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 11;7(1):7950. ... as an adjuvant treatment to sensitize chemoresistant pancreatic cancer cells. We demonstrate that disruption of glutamine ...
Ways to Target Cancer[edit]. Many cells are sensitive when they are deprived of glutamine especially cancer cells in pancreatic ... Many cancers survive and grow based on the rate of aerobic glycolysis. Some cancers are attracted to glutamine, one of the 20 ... Due to glutamine metabolism in cancer cells, studies show that the mitochondria in essential even for cancer cells. 13C NMR ... In fact cancer cells suppress the activity of pyruvate carboxylation since cancer cells have glutamine to produce oxaloacetate. ...
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (glutamine-hydrolyzing): increased activity in cancer cells Message Subject. (Your Name) has ... The specific activity of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (glutamine-hydrolyzing), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of de novo ... The increased activity should enhance the capacity of the pathway and should confer selective advantages to cancer cells. ...
Inhibiting glutamine synthetase led the hijacked cells to return to their original purpose: fighting cancer cells as an ... Home , News , Scientists unravel role of glutamine synthetase in the spread of cancer ... They found that reducing the glutamine levels of these macrophages changes their behavior: instead of supporting cancer, the ... However, some cancer cells survive this initial attack. Those survivors then turn their enemies - the macrophages - into their ...
Glutamine may be an effective treatment for acute diarrhea caused by radiati ... infusion); and primary site (rectal cancer vs prostate cancer vs gynecological cancer vs. other). Beginning the first or second ... We are a Cancer Social Network, Resource Directory & Education Hub supporting all those affected by cancer. knowcancer.com is ... glutamine or a placebo twice daily, including the days that they do not receive. radiotherapy. Patients continue on treatment ...
Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Glutamine for Breast Cancer Patients With Peripheral Neuropathy. The safety and ... A Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial of Glutamine to Reduce the Signs and Symptoms of Peripheral Neuropathy in Breast Cancer ... The effects of glutamine on the developing human fetus are unknown. For this reason, women of child-bearing potential and men ... Patients with breast cancer receiving paclitaxel chemotherapy who have mild symptoms of peripheral neuropathy will receive ...
Cancer Therapy: Preclinical Targeting Glutamine Metabolism in Breast Cancer with Aminooxyacetate. Preethi Korangath, Wei Wen ... Targeting Glutamine Metabolism in Breast Cancer with Aminooxyacetate. Preethi Korangath, Wei Wen Teo, Helen Sadik, Liangfeng ... Targeting Glutamine Metabolism in Breast Cancer with Aminooxyacetate. Preethi Korangath, Wei Wen Teo, Helen Sadik, Liangfeng ... Targeting Glutamine Metabolism in Breast Cancer with Aminooxyacetate Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
Oral glutamine reduces the duration and severity of stomatitis after cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer (Phila.), 83: 1433- ... Klimberg V. S., McClellan J. Glutamine, cancer, and its therapy. Am. J. Surg., 172: 418-424, 1996. ... Glutamine. As of December 1998, patients enrolled in this study received glutamine (10 g p.o. t.i.d.) for 4 days, starting 24 h ... Patients who received glutamine had fewer symptoms than those who did not receive glutamine (Table 4)⇓ . For those who received ...
Cancer Research Online ISSN: 1538-7445. Cancer Research Print ISSN: 0008-5472. Journal of Cancer Research ISSN: 0099-7013. ... Glutamine Modulates Phenotype and Stimulates Proliferation in Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines. Gregory A. Turowski, Zaihan Rashid ... Glutamine Modulates Phenotype and Stimulates Proliferation in Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines ... Glutamine Modulates Phenotype and Stimulates Proliferation in Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines ...
Cancer Research Online ISSN: 1538-7445. Cancer Research Print ISSN: 0008-5472. Journal of Cancer Research ISSN: 0099-7013. ... Although a nonessential amino acid, a variety of human cancer cell lines, including pancreatic cancer, colon cancer, small cell ... Glutamine addiction: a new therapeutic target in cancer. Trends Biochem Sci 2010;35:427-33. ... Glutamine, insulin and glucocorticoids regulate glutamine synthetase expression in C2C12 myotubes, Hep G2 hepatoma cells and ...
Tag: L-Glutamine supplier. Objective: To identify global study styles in neuroimaging analysis for cerebral. Objective: To ... Categories BloggingTags L-Glutamine supplier, Rabbit Polyclonal to CREB phospho-Thr100) ... published 45 papers that accounted for 9.76% of the total quantity of publications, which was L-Glutamine supplier followed by ... Journals that published on MRI analysis for cerebral infarction from 2004 to L-Glutamine supplier 2011 It is evident that most ...
There was no evidence that risk of breast cancer depends on AIB1 CAG/CAA polymorphism status, even if affected women carry a ... 1 Cancer Genetics Laboratory, Victorian Breast Cancer Research Consortium, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, St, Andrews Place, ... The AIB1 glutamine repeat polymorphism is not associated with risk of breast cancer before age 40 years in Australian women ... Breast Cancer Res. 2005;7(3):R353-6. doi: 10.1186/bcr1009. Epub 2005 Mar 4. ...
Copyright 2016 by the American Association for Cancer Research.. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. eISSN: 1538-8514. ISSN: 1535- ... Cancer Therapeutics Insights Arginine Deiminase Resistance in Melanoma Cells Is Associated with Metabolic Reprogramming, ... Thank you for sharing this Molecular Cancer Therapeutics article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the ... Glucose Dependence, and Glutamine Addiction. Yan Long, Wen-Bin Tsai, Medhi Wangpaichitr, Takashi Tsukamoto, Niramol Savaraj, ...
Molecular imaging of cancer with positron emission tomography. Nat Rev Cancer 2002;2:683-93. ... Arginine deprivation and argininosuccinate synthetase expression in the treatment of cancer. Int J Cancer 2010;126:2762-72. ... Dibenzophenanthridines as inhibitors of glutaminase C and cancer cell proliferation. Mol Cancer Ther 2012;11:1269-78. ... Arginine deiminase as a novel therapy for prostate cancer induces autophagy and caspase-independent apoptosis. Cancer Res 2009; ...
Scientists have discovered molecules that inhibit tumor growth by starving cancer cells of their favorite foods: the sugar ... Starving Cancer Cells of Glucose and Glutamine. Reporting in the journal Cell Chemical Biology, a team of researchers led by ... Starving Cancer by Cutting Off Its Favorite Foods, Glucose and Glutamine. *email ... Unfortunately, cancer also loves glucose. It loves it so much that cancer cells are willing to burn through glucose as quickly ...
Glutamine‐utilizing transaminases are a metabolic vulnerability of TAZ/YAP‐activated cancer cells. Chih‐Sheng Yang, Eleni ...
Glutamine Transporters Are Targets of Multiple Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in Prostate Cancer. Mark A. White, Chenchu Lin, ... and MYC signaling in prostate cancer cells. Prostate cancer cells can augment cell growth by increasing glutamine metabolism. ... Androgens and glutamine increase prostate cancer cell growth. A, Indicated cells were treated with vehicle (ethanol) or ... mTOR activity increases SLC1A4 and SLC1A5 expression, glutamine uptake, and cell growth. A and B, Prostate cancer cells were ...
... protected cancer cells from glutamine withdrawal-induced cell death. In the absence of glutamine, knockdown of CS resulted in ... Glutamine has been suggested to maintain cancer cell viability by replenishing intermediates for the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) ... The growth and survival of cancer cells is dependent on extracellular glutamine, which is frequently depleted in solid tumors, ... Major finding: Asparagine promotes the survival of cancer cells in response to glutamine withdrawal. ...
Influence of enteral glutamine on inflammatory and hormonal response in patients with rectal cancer during preoperative ... duration of 30 g enteral glutamine supplementation on inflammatory and hormonal responses in 73 patients with rectal cancer ... Enteral glutamine resulted in modulation of inflammatory and hormonal responses as shown by a decreased plasma interleukin 6 ... We conclude that enteral glutamine exhibits some anti-inflammatory activity and, consequently, leads to a lower hormonal stress ...
Effects Of Oral Glutamine on Inflammatory and Autophagy Responses in Cancer Patients Treated With Abdominal Radiotherapy: A ... Effects Of Oral Glutamine on Inflammatory and Autophagy Responses in Cancer Patients Treated With Abdominal Radiotherapy: A ... This study was aimed to measure the effect of glutamine administration on markers of inflammation and autophagy in cancer ... Keywords: glutamine, clinical trial, inflammation, autophagy, radiotherapy. This is an open access article distributed under ...
Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Cancer Discovery Message Body (Your Name) thought you would be interested in this ... PTEN Regulates Glutamine Flux to Pyrimidine Synthesis and Sensitivity to Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Inhibition. Deepti Mathur ... Thank you for sharing this Cancer Discovery article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it ... 1Department of Oncological Sciences, Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York. ...
This is of particular interest in breast cancer, as glutamine dependence is increased in high-risk breast cancer subtypes. ... Pharmacological inhibitors of ASCT2-mediated transport significantly reduced glutamine uptake in human breast cancer cell lines ... basal-like breast cancer cell growth compared with minimal effects in luminal breast cancer cells. Both stable and inducible ... Uptake of glutamine and subsequent glutaminolysis is critical for activation of the mTORC1 nutrient-sensing pathway, which ...
We found glutamate enriched and glutamine reduced in ER- breast cancer compared to ER+ breast cancer and compared to normal ... Comparative metabolomics of estrogen receptor positive and estrogen receptor negative breast cancer: alterations in glutamine ... For the first time, we report on a regulation of beta-alanine catabolism in cancer. In breast cancer, ABAT transcript ... UNLABELLED: Molecular subtyping of breast cancer is necessary for therapy selection and mandatory for all breast cancer ...
Glutamine Deprivation Induces PD-L1 Expression via Activation of EGFR/ERK/c-Jun Signaling in Renal Cancer. Guofeng Ma, Ye Liang ... Glutamine Deprivation Induces PD-L1 Expression via Activation of EGFR/ERK/c-Jun Signaling in Renal Cancer ... Glutamine Deprivation Induces PD-L1 Expression via Activation of EGFR/ERK/c-Jun Signaling in Renal Cancer ... Glutamine Deprivation Induces PD-L1 Expression via Activation of EGFR/ERK/c-Jun Signaling in Renal Cancer ...
  • Glutamine catabolism begins with its conversion to glutamate in reactions that either donate the amide nitrogen to biosynthetic pathways or release it as ammonia. (jci.org)
  • This is because ARID1A is part of an SWI/SNF protein complex that represses the broadly expressed gene glutaminase (GLS1)-an enzyme that hydrolyzes the amino acid glutamine to glutamate. (genengnews.com)
  • Our next step is to further our understanding of inter and intracellular glutamine transport, the role of asparagine in the process, and to verify the glutamate requirement of melanoma in vivo. (newswise.com)
  • Once taken up by the cell, much of the glutamine is converted to glutamate by mitochondrial glutaminase, an enzyme whose levels are often upregulated in tumor and tumor lines (2,3). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • glutamine supplies nitrogen for nucleotide and hexosamine synthesis while glutamate is the nitrogen donor for the synthesis of many nonessential amino acids. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Many cancer cells rely on glutamate anaplerosis to refill the TCA cycle. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Note that the expression of GLUL (the gene encoding glutamine synthetase - the enzyme that regulates the metabolism of glutamate back to glutamine) was not detected. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The metabolite changes included increases in beta-alanine, 2-hydroyglutarate, glutamate, xanthine and decreases in glutamine in the ER- subtype. (diva-portal.org)
  • We found glutamate enriched and glutamine reduced in ER- breast cancer compared to ER+ breast cancer and compared to normal breast tissues. (diva-portal.org)
  • In addition, glutamine increased the activity of glutaminase (GLS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) by modulating the mTOR/S6 and MAPK pathways. (northwestern.edu)
  • U251 glioma cells were characterised by high levels of glutamine, glutamate and GABA oxidation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Silencing YAP or TAZ substantially reduced the amount of intracellular glutamate through decreased expression of SLC1A5 and GLS , respectively, genes that encode proteins that promote glutamine uptake and metabolism. (sciencemag.org)
  • NMR flux analysis with [U-13C]-L-lactate revealed that lactate was metabolized for production of key non-essential amino acids including: glutamine, glutamate, alanine, aspartate, glycine, and cysteine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, lactate-derived glutamine was re-metabolized into glutamate via GLS and to α-ketoglutarate via GLUD for NADPH production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study evaluated the effect of glutamine and glutamate supplementation on hematological and biochemical biomarkers in dogs with clinical enteritis. (springer.com)
  • Fifteen young dogs (3-10 months) with clinical enteritis were divided into two groups: group 1 (G-CON)-five animals subjected to medical treatment without supplementation and group 2 (G-GLN)-ten animals subjected to medical treatment and orally supplemented with 0.5 g/Kg per day of a glutamine and glutamate for 14 days. (springer.com)
  • Glutamate and asparagine cataplerosis underlie glutamine addiction in melanoma. (ijsciences.com)
  • Thus, glutamine deamidation, performed by numerous enzymes in the cells, yields glutamate, which can further be transformed into proline through a series of reductive steps, as well as into aspartate and asparagine, via the utilization of oxidative reactions of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. (cloudfront.net)
  • Glutamine is synthesized by the enzyme glutamine synthetase from glutamate and ammonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although glutamine is metabolized to glutamate and ammonia, both of which have neurological effects, their concentrations are not increased much, and no adverse neurological effects were detected. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2014). Intracellularly, glutamine can be changed into glutamate either by donating the amide nitrogen for the creation of nucleotides or asparagine, or by glutaminase activity (encoded by activity depletes TCA metabolites Itga2 and slows proliferation of a number of cancers cell lines in lifestyle (Cheng et al. (buyresearchchemicalss.net)
  • 2014). Within the last stage of glutamine carbon admittance in to the TCA routine, glutamate created from glutamine can be changed into KG by either transamination reactions or by glutamate dehydrogenase to create KG as an anaplerotic TCA routine intermediate (Moreadith and SB 239063 Lehninger, 1984). (buyresearchchemicalss.net)
  • 5 fractional labeling of glutamine, glutamate and -ketoglutarate, and m? (buyresearchchemicalss.net)
  • What Is the Difference Between Glutamate, Glutathione & Glutamine? (livestrong.com)
  • Glutamate and glutamine are different types of amino acids. (livestrong.com)
  • Also consult your doctor for more information on glutamate, glutamine and glutathione. (livestrong.com)
  • context":"http:\/\/schema.org","@type":"NewsArticle","headline":"What Is the Difference Between Glutamate, Glutathione & Glutamine? (livestrong.com)
  • Glutaminase (EC 3.5.1.2, glutaminase I, L-glutaminase, glutamine aminohydrolase) is an amidohydrolase enzyme that generates glutamate from glutamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutaminase catalyzes the following reaction: Glutamine + H2O → glutamate + NH3 Glutaminase is expressed and active in periportal hepatocytes, where it generates NH3 (ammonia) for urea synthesis, as does glutamate dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • After being released into the synapse for neurotransmission, glutamate is rapidly taken up by nearby astrocytes, which convert it to glutamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • This glutamine is then supplied to the presynaptic terminals of the neurons, where glutaminases convert it back to glutamate for loading into synaptic vesicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme converts glutamine to glutamate, with the release of ammonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we review the metabolic functions of glutamine as a super nutrient and the surprising roles of glutamine in supporting the biological hallmarks of malignancy. (jci.org)
  • There continue to be large gaps in understanding which metabolic pathways are altered in cancer, whether these alterations benefit the tumor in a substantive way, and how this information could be used in clinical oncology. (jci.org)
  • In this Review, we consider glutamine, a highly versatile nutrient whose metabolism has implications for tumor cell biology, metabolic imaging, and perhaps novel therapeutics. (jci.org)
  • H. C. Sax, "Clinical and metabolic efficacy of glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition after bone marrow transplantation. (hindawi.com)
  • Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of many cancers, including OCCC. (genengnews.com)
  • We found that its inactivation in cancer cells creates a specific metabolic requirement for glutamine and exposed this as a vulnerability that could be exploited for therapeutic purposes. (genengnews.com)
  • ARID1A may also regulate other metabolic pathways that utilize intermediate glutamine metabolites, which together with GLS1 upregulation confers sensitivity to GLS inhibitor," the authors noted. (genengnews.com)
  • Earlier studies that show ARID1A mutation confers sensitivity to immune checkpoint blockades, such as anti-PD-L1, and glutamine antagonism in effector T cells can be exploited as a "metabolic checkpoint. (genengnews.com)
  • In these cells, glutamine uptake is markedly enhanced and far exceeds the metabolic requirements of the cell. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 3. Levine, A. J. and Puzio-Kuter, A. M. The Control of the Metabolic Switch in Cancers by Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We demonstrate that disruption of glutamine metabolic pathways improves the efficacy of gemcitabine treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Proteins associated with EGFR signaling, including downstream AKT-mTOR pathways, MAPK pathway, as well as redox enzymes were downregulated in response to disruption of glutamine metabolic pathways. (nih.gov)
  • The results of the pioneering study stress the importance of metabolic immunotherapy strategies in the fight against cancer. (vib.be)
  • In order to implement this metabolic shift, cancer cells put more glucose transporters (which import glucose) into their membranes and rely on glutamine to satisfy other nutritional requirements. (acsh.org)
  • Metabolic alterations are considered a hallmark of cancer and several metabolic drugs are currently being investigated in clinical trials. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, the dependence of metabolic alterations on breast cancer subtypes has not been investigated on -omics scale. (diva-portal.org)
  • Metabolic drugs for cancer including glutaminase inhibitors are currently under development and tested in clinical trials. (diva-portal.org)
  • The cellular nutrient glutamine launches a metabolic signaling pathway that promotes the function of some immune system T cells and suppresses others, Vanderbilt researchers have discovered. (healthcanal.com)
  • The researchers also probed the mechanistic changes resulting from glutaminase inhibition and demonstrated that the glutamine metabolic pathway - usually thought of as only generating energy - is tightly integrated with cell signaling and gene expression. (healthcanal.com)
  • His book, " Cancer as a Metabolic Disease: On the Origin, Management and Prevention of Cancer " is a foundational textbook on this topic, and in August 2016, he received the Mercola.com Game Changer Award for his work. (lewrockwell.com)
  • He's also published a number of other papers 2 , 3 , 4 on the metabolic underpinnings of cancer. (lewrockwell.com)
  • In addition, the limited glucose and glutamine cooperated with lactate to promote the metabolic adaptation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glutamine , the most abundant amino acid in plasma , is a well-known nutrient used by cancer cells to increase proliferation as well as survival under metabolic stress conditions. (bvsalud.org)
  • Oxygenated cancer cells have a high metabolic plasticity as they can use glucose, glutamine and lactate as main substrates to support their bioenergetic and biosynthetic activities. (uclouvain.be)
  • While amino acid restriction remains an attractive strategy for cancer therapy, metabolic adaptations limit its effectiveness. (nature.com)
  • Our work titled 'Compensatory metabolic networks in pancreatic cancers upon pertubation of glutamine metabolism' is published today in Nature Communications . (dana-farber.org)
  • Despite dramatic early effects on proliferation in cell culture, pancreatic cancers have adaptive metabolic networks that sustain proliferation in vitro and in vivo. (dana-farber.org)
  • 2Daye, D. and K.E. Wellen, Metabolic reprogramming in cancer: unraveling the role of glutamine in tumorigenesis. (ijsciences.com)
  • The complex metabolic logic of the proliferating cancer cells' appetite for glutamine-which goes far beyond satisfying their protein synthesis requirements-has only recently come into focus. (cloudfront.net)
  • In the past decade, studies in cancer cell metabolism revealed the central role of numerous metabolic pathways and metabolites in facilitating biosynthesis and bioenergetics required for cell growth and proliferation. (cloudfront.net)
  • Consequently, breast cancer, like most cancers, will become more reliant on substrate level phosphorylation (fermentation) than on oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) for growth consistent with the mitochondrial metabolic theory of cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • The FDA granted the approval of Endari to Emmaus Medical Inc. Glutamine is marketed as medical food and is prescribed when a medical professional believes a person in their care needs supplementary glutamine due to metabolic demands beyond what can be met by endogenous synthesis or diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, a number of protocols have been described for harvesting adherent cells for metabolomics analysis, but the techniques vary greatly and they lack specificity to particular cancer cell lines with diverse metabolic and structural features. (mdpi.com)
  • He's also revealed a quantity of different papers2,3,4 on the metabolic underpinnings of cancer. (rhcpnews.com)
  • Glutamine contributes to essentially every core metabolic task of proliferating tumor cells: it participates in bioenergetics, supports cell defenses against oxidative stress and complements glucose metabolism in the production of macromolecules. (elsevier.com)
  • This overlap between the metabolic phenotypes of adenovirus infection and transformed tumor cells may provide insight into how oncolytic adenoviruses exploit metabolic transformation to augment their selectivity for cancer cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • By altering IDH1, these mutations target a critical step in reductive glutamine metabolism, the metabolic pathway that converts glutamine ultimately to acetyl-CoA for biosynthetic processes. (unthsc.edu)
  • Here we report the R132Hisobolome by using targeted 13 C isotopomer tracer fate analysis to trace the metabolic fate of glucose and glutamine in this system. (unthsc.edu)
  • These studies provide a dynamic mechanistic basis for metabolic alterations observed in IDH1-mutated tumors and uncover potential therapeutic targets in IDH1-mutated cancers. (unthsc.edu)
  • Knowledge of the metabolic fate of glutamine in these cells is important for the understanding of the role and function of this amino acid in the maintenance of the proliferative, phagocytic and secretory capacities of these cells. (scielo.br)
  • The metabolic fate of glutamine in lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils will be discussed in the present paper. (scielo.br)
  • Additionally, an accompanying commentary by William Katt and colleagues indicated that there are no FDA-approved drugs that target glucose and glutamine metabolism. (acsh.org)
  • Cancer cells thrive on certain fuels-including glucose and glutamine, two key elements that you must inhibit in your anti-cancer diet. (eatandbeatcancer.com)
  • One avenue to reduce the growth of cancer cells is simply to starve their food sources such as glucose and glutamine-rich foods, and then increase the amount of oxygen in the blood, which they hate. (connersclinic.com)
  • Since normal cells also require both glucose and glutamine, reducing the intake of either to zero would have an undesirable outcome. (connersclinic.com)
  • Glucose and glutamine are both essential for cell growth, and it was long assumed they operated independently, but Ayer's research shows they are inter-dependent. (connersclinic.com)
  • Glucose and glutamine are the prime fermentable fuels that underlie therapy resistance and drive breast cancer growth through substrate level phosphorylation (SLP) in both the cytoplasm (Warburg effect) and the mitochondria (Q-effect), respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • Enhanced utilization of glucose and glutamine are the best-established hallmarks of tumor metabolism. (elsevier.com)
  • All adenoviruses caused an increase in glucose and glutamine uptake along with increased lactic acid secretion. (ox.ac.uk)
  • SIGNIFICANCE: This study describes changes in glucose and glutamine metabolism induced by oncolytic and wild-type adenoviruses in cancer cells, which will be important to consider in the preclinical evaluation of oncolytic viruses. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Effect of supplemental dietary glutamine on methotrexate concentrations in tumors," Archives of Surgery , vol. 127, no. 11, pp. 1317-1320, 1992. (hindawi.com)
  • The findings present a rational basis for a treatment strategy that limits the supply of glutamine to tumors, potentially through nutritional interventions or inhibitors of glutamine uptake. (newswise.com)
  • Our finding that the need for glutamine is unrelated to the various oncogenic mutations that drive melanoma means that a glutamine starvation approach may work broadly against many melanoma tumors," said Boris Ratnikov, Ph.D., staff scientist at Sanford-Burnham and lead author of the paper. (newswise.com)
  • Some tumors have this similar reaction, but instead of excess glucose metabolism, there is inefficient glutamine metabolism. (wikibooks.org)
  • These types of cancer cells or tumors cannot survive when there is not enough extra glutamine and are therefore considered to be "addicted" to glutamine. (wikibooks.org)
  • The specific activity of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (glutamine-hydrolyzing), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of de novo uridine 5'-triphosphate biosynthesis, was increased in 13 transplantable hepatomas, particularly in the rapidly growing tumors (5.7- to 9.5-fold), and the rise was correlated with tumor growth rates. (sciencemag.org)
  • In doing so, they also infiltrate tumors and fight cancer cells, aiming to stop the progression of the disease. (vib.be)
  • Prof. Massimiliano Mazzone (VIB-KU Leuven): "Our research proves that both the expression and the activity of glutamine synthetase are markers of malignant macrophages in tumors, and that blocking GS alters the cells' metabolism in a way that may help hinder cancer growth. (vib.be)
  • Patients must have histologically or cytologically confirmed breast cancer, Stage I, II, III or IV or other solid tumors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Trials are currently ongoing to assess its efficacy for standard-dose paclitaxel in breast cancer and other tumors for which peripheral neuropathy is the dose-limiting toxicity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The growth and survival of cancer cells is dependent on extracellular glutamine, which is frequently depleted in solid tumors, resulting in the induction of apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In sum, these data demonstrate that asparagine is a critical regulator of cellular adaptation to glutamine withdrawal and suggest that inhibition of ASNS may have therapeutic benefit in solid tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Malignant tumors reprogram cellular metabolism to support cancer cell proliferation and survival. (sciencemag.org)
  • Researchers at Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah have uncovered new information on the notion that sugar "feeds" tumors . (connersclinic.com)
  • Mazzone: "Our research proves that both the expression and the activity of glutamine synthetase are markers of malignant macrophages in tumors, and that blocking GS alters the cells' metabolism in a way that may help hinder cancer growth. (biovox.eu)
  • Tracing of blood sugar and glutamine destiny in tumors produced from individual non-small cell lung tumor (NSCLC) and mouse appearance are important determinants of glutamine anaplerosis and glutaminase dependence. (buyresearchchemicalss.net)
  • These observations are stimulating a renewed effort to understand the regulation of glutamine metabolism in tumors and to develop strategies to target glutamine metabolism in cancer. (elsevier.com)
  • ADAM12 is upregulated in human breast cancers and is a predictor of chemoresistance in estrogen receptor-negative tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The initiation and progression of malignant tumors is driven by distinct subsets of tumor-initiating or cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) which develop therapy/apoptosis resistance and self-renewal capacity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Childhood brain tumors cause the most cancer-related deaths among kids and young adults ages 0-19, recently surpassing leukemia. (childrenscancer.org)
  • The team evaluated the therapeutic potential of inhibiting the glutamine metabolism by blocking the glutaminase enzyme with the well-established CB-839 inhibitor. (genengnews.com)
  • Glutaminase is required for the proliferation of both a human B lymphoid tumor line and PC3 prostrate cancer cells, suggesting that targeting this pathway is a viable therapeutic option (4,5). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • iv) the resistant cells showed higher glutamine dehydrogenase and glutaminase expression and were preferentially vulnerable to glutamine inhibitors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Specifically, palbociclib-induced glutamine dependency sensitizes A549 cells to glutaminase inhibition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They used a drug that inhibits the first step in glutamine metabolism, an enzyme called glutaminase. (healthcanal.com)
  • Glutamine transporters and glutaminase activity are critical for glutamine metabolism in tumor cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Consequently, lactate-induced c-Myc activation triggers the expression of glutamine transporter ASCT2 and of glutaminase 1 (GLS1), resulting in improved glutamine uptake and catabolism. (uclouvain.be)
  • As pancreatic cancers rely on glutamine metabolism, here we tested a new glutaminase inhibitor for efficacy in pancreatic cancer. (dana-farber.org)
  • Antitumor activity of the glutaminase inhibitor CB-839 in triple-negative breast cancer. (ijsciences.com)
  • 2012). It has led to fascination with concentrating on glutaminase activity therapeutically, as well as the glutaminase inhibitor CB-839 has been evaluated in scientific trials to take care of cancers (Gross et al. (buyresearchchemicalss.net)
  • Many cancers rely on glutaminase thus glutaminase inhibitors have been proposed as a cancer treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also review recent efforts in imaging and therapeutics to exploit tumor cell glutamine dependence, discuss some of the challenges in this arena, and suggest a disease-focused paradigm to deploy these emerging approaches. (jci.org)
  • A new study shows ARID1A mutations abnormally increase a cell's dependence on glutamine metabolism. (genengnews.com)
  • These findings are reported in the article titled, "Targeting glutamine dependence through GLS1 inhibition suppresses ARID1A-inactivated clear cell ovarian carcinoma ," published in Nature Cancer . (genengnews.com)
  • Glutamine is normally required for cancer cells to grow, but Zhang and colleagues demonstrated a stronger dependence of ARID1A-mutant cells on this amino acid. (genengnews.com)
  • Increased glutamine dependence correlates with an increase in the utilization of glutamine in the respiratory tricarboxylic acid cycle to generate aspartate, essential for nucleotide synthesis. (genengnews.com)
  • Not only does a deficiency of functional ARID1A increase dependence on glutamine dependence, it also decreases glucose uptake, the study reported. (genengnews.com)
  • A correlation between glutamine dependence for growth and c-MYC expression was studied in breast cancer cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This is of particular interest in breast cancer, as glutamine dependence is increased in high-risk breast cancer subtypes. (garvan.org.au)
  • Vemurafenib resistance reprograms melanoma cells towards glutamine dependence. (ijsciences.com)
  • 2016). Finally, in keeping with these observations of elevated glutamine catabolism and dependence in quickly proliferating cultured cells, glutamine catabolic pathways are managed by oncogene appearance and upregulated in lots of SB 239063 cancers cell lines (Altman et al. (buyresearchchemicalss.net)
  • Many tumor cells are fueled by altered metabolism and increased glutamine (Gln) dependence. (elsevier.com)
  • Cancer cells have altered metabolism compared to normal cells, including dependence on glutamine (GLN) for survival, known as GLN addiction. (elsevier.com)
  • Unlike normal differentiated cells, however, cancer cells have reprogrammed metabolisms in order to fulfill their energy requirements. (springer.com)
  • Since the discovery of the Warburg effect, it has been shown that the metabolism of cancer cells plays a critical role in cancer survival and growth. (springer.com)
  • Dysregulation of glucose transport, glycolysis, TCA cycle and glutaminolysis by oncogenes and tumor suppressors in cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • Glutamine is an abundant and versatile nutrient that participates in energy formation, redox homeostasis, macromolecular synthesis, and signaling in cancer cells. (jci.org)
  • For example, the demonstration that asparagine is a conditionally essential nutrient in rapidly growing cancer cells paved the way for L-asparaginase therapy in leukemia. (jci.org)
  • Cancer cells vis - 3d rendered image, enhanced scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of cancer cell. (genengnews.com)
  • Researchers find that melanoma cells are dependent on a source of glutamine for growth irrespective of the mutation(s) that drive the cancer. (newswise.com)
  • Newswise - Researchers at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (Sanford-Burnham) have discovered that without a source of glutamine-one of the 20 amino acids used to build proteins-melanoma cells will stop proliferating and die. (newswise.com)
  • We have shown for the first time how glutamine is metabolized by melanoma cells and how their appetite for it is driven by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle," said David Scott, Ph.D., staff scientist at Sanford-Burnham and senior author of the paper. (newswise.com)
  • Under normal healthy conditions, glutamine is primarily used to create a supply of nitrogen for cells. (newswise.com)
  • Sanford-Burnham takes a collaborative approach to medical research with major programs in cancer, neurodegeneration and stem cells, diabetes, and infectious, inflammatory, and childhood diseases. (newswise.com)
  • Much of this glutamine is inefficiently used and secreted from the cells as lactic acid, ammonia, or alanine, a situation with many parallels to the inefficient metabolism of glucose by many cancer cells (1). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • With the recent renewed understanding of glutamine metabolism involvement in drug resistance and immuno-response, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of a glutamine analog (6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine) as an adjuvant treatment to sensitize chemoresistant pancreatic cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • The proteome alterations induced in the resistant cancer cells and the secreted exosomes are intricately associated with the reduction in cell proliferation and the enhancement of cancer cell chemosensitivity. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, cells uptake glutamine not because it is a nitrogen donor to nucleotides. (wikibooks.org)
  • Glutamine is the main mitochondrial substrate that is required to maintain the membrane potential in mitochondria of cancer cells as well as aid in NADPH production that is necessary for synthesizing other macromolecules as well as control redox chemical reactions within the body. (wikibooks.org)
  • It has been studied by Otto Warburg, a notable German physiologist and Nobel Laureate, that cancer cells seem to uptake more glucose and produce more lactic acid than regular cells or tissues. (wikibooks.org)
  • Because of this, cancer cells can then secrete extra glycolytic metabolites in the from of lactic acid. (wikibooks.org)
  • Glutamine is in fact a necessary substrate used in anabolic growth of cells, especially those of mammals. (wikibooks.org)
  • Due to the addiction of glutamine exhibited by some cancer cells, the study of glutamine in cell growth and cell-signaling pathways will help to discover new therapeutic treatments of some cancers. (wikibooks.org)
  • Cancer cells, like any other cell, must synthesize compounds that contain nitrogen. (wikibooks.org)
  • Glutamine plays an important role in the process of protein translation in cancer cells. (wikibooks.org)
  • Studies of cell lines of mTORC1 showed that cells depended not only on the presence of essential amino acids but also glutamine at the same time. (wikibooks.org)
  • The increased activity should enhance the capacity of the pathway and should confer selective advantages to cancer cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • They found that reducing the glutamine levels of these macrophages changes their behavior: instead of supporting cancer, the macrophages change back into 'good' cells and fight the disease. (vib.be)
  • However, some cancer cells survive this initial attack. (vib.be)
  • Inhibiting glutamine synthetase led the hijacked cells to return to their original purpose: fighting cancer cells as an essential element of the immune system. (vib.be)
  • We established a direct correlation between c-MYC overexpression, suppression of glutaminolysis, and AOA sensitivity in most breast cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, the direct effect of glutamine on neoplastic cells is poorly understood. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Glutamine had similar effects on SW620 cells, stimulating proliferation, inhibiting digestive enzyme expression, and diminishing both adhesion and integrin surface expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It loves it so much that cancer cells are willing to burn through glucose as quickly as possible, similar to the way muscle cells burn through glucose during rigorous exercise (a process known as glycolysis). (acsh.org)
  • Cancer cells also supplement their "diet" with glutamine, an amino acid found in proteins. (acsh.org)
  • In other words, starving cancer cells of their favorite foods could inhibit tumor growth. (acsh.org)
  • A, Indicated cells were treated with vehicle (ethanol) or androgen (100 pmol/L R1881) for 7 days in serum-free medium ± 2 mmol/L glutamine. (aacrjournals.org)
  • B-D, Cells were grown in serum-free medium supplemented with 2 mmol/L glutamine. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A, Prostate cancer cells were transfected for 3 days with indicated siRNAs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • B and C, Prostate cancer cells were transfected with indicated siRNAs and treated for 7 days with vehicle or 100 pmol/L R1881 (androgen). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Asparagine promotes the survival of cancer cells in response to glutamine withdrawal. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Zhang and colleagues sought to characterize the mechanism by which glutamine withdrawal induces apoptosis using a high-throughput RNAi-based screen to identify genes whose loss protected MYC-transformed cells from apoptosis following glutamine withdrawal. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Intriguingly, depletion of the TCA cycle enzyme citrate synthase (CS) protected cancer cells from glutamine withdrawal-induced cell death. (aacrjournals.org)
  • SLC1A5) mediates uptake of glutamine, a conditionally essential amino acid in rapidly proliferating tumour cells. (garvan.org.au)
  • Uptake of glutamine and subsequent glutaminolysis is critical for activation of the mTORC1 nutrient-sensing pathway, which regulates cell growth and protein translation in cancer cells. (garvan.org.au)
  • Notably, these effects were subtype-dependent, with ASCT2 transport critical only for triple-negative (TN) basal-like breast cancer cell growth compared with minimal effects in luminal breast cancer cells. (garvan.org.au)
  • Both stable and inducible shRNA-mediated ASCT2 knockdown confirmed that inhibiting ASCT2 function was sufficient to prevent cellular proliferation and induce rapid cell death in TN basal-like breast cancer cells, but not in luminal cells. (garvan.org.au)
  • Using a bioluminescent orthotopic xenograft mouse model, ASCT2 expression was then shown to be necessary for both successful engraftment and growth of HCC1806 TN breast cancer cells in vivo. (garvan.org.au)
  • Glutamine is one of the main nutrients used by tumor cells for biosynthesis. (northwestern.edu)
  • Herein, we report that palbociclib treatment decreases nucleotide biosynthesis and increases glutamine utilization without altering glycolysis in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression of CD59 and CD55 in breast cancer cells subjected to glutamine-mediated synchronization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bcap37 cells (Figure 4a) and MCF7 cells (Figure 4b) were grown to confluency and either maintained with glutamine (Unsynchronized) or in the same media without glutamine for 48 hours (Glutamine Deprived), or in the same media without glutamine for 48 hours followed by 8 hours with glutamine (Glutamine Restored). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression of mutated IDH1 and treatment with 2-HG reduced glutamine and GABA oxidation, diminished the pro-proliferative effect of GABA in SSADH expressing cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The findings fit with studies of glutamine metabolism in cancer cells, said Rathmell, who is also professor of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology. (healthcanal.com)
  • CAR T cells are cancer-killing T cells that have been genetically engineered to recognize specific cancer cells. (healthcanal.com)
  • Basically, he argued and provided data showing that all cancer cells, regardless of tissue origin, were fermenters. (lewrockwell.com)
  • The problem is that for decades, people said Warburg was wrong - mainly because we see a lot of cancer cells take up oxygen and make adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from within the mitochondria … People began to question, 'If cancer cells have normal respiration, why would they want to use glucose as a fermentable fuel? (lewrockwell.com)
  • The whole concept became distorted … The cancer cells simply choose to ferment rather than respire. (lewrockwell.com)
  • The problem is that when you stab into the cancer microenvironment to remove a part of the tissue, it creates a wound in that microenvironment that in turn elicits the invasion by macrophages and other immune cells. (lewrockwell.com)
  • If you already have an acidic microenvironment, you run the risk of causing a fusion hybridization event in that microenvironment between your macrophages and cancer stem cells (as discussed below). (lewrockwell.com)
  • I came to this view by reading so many articles in the literature based on brain cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, liver cancer showing how needle biopsies have led to the dissemination of these tumor cells, putting these people at risk for metastatic cancer and death," Seyfried says. (lewrockwell.com)
  • Cancer cells alter their metabolism to adapt to the tumor microenvironment, for example, by switching from a reliance on glucose to glutamine. (sciencemag.org)
  • In cells and mouse models, EphA2 activated Rho-ROCK signaling that mediated the nuclear accumulation of the transcriptional coactivators YAP and TAZ, where they induced the expression of genes encoding an amino acid transporter that promoted glutamine uptake and an enzyme that promoted glutamine metabolism. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although most cancers depend on a high rate of aerobic glycolysis, many cancer cells also display addiction to glutamine. (sciencemag.org)
  • We found that the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2 activated the TEAD family transcriptional coactivators YAP and TAZ (YAP/TAZ), likely in a ligand-independent manner, to promote glutamine metabolism in cells and mouse models of HER2-positive breast cancer. (sciencemag.org)
  • That's probably because cells, especially immune cells , need some glutamine to do their jobs. (eatandbeatcancer.com)
  • however, eat foods that keep cancer cells from using glutamine . (eatandbeatcancer.com)
  • And while we're on the subject of Thomas Seyfried , one of the most important minds in cancer cell metabolism (how cancer cells use fuels for growth), he also recommends fasting, such as long overnight fasts, to get your body into ketosis, a state in which it burns fats not glucose. (eatandbeatcancer.com)
  • Once you're there, he suggests adding hyperbaric oxygen treatments to help kill cancer cells. (eatandbeatcancer.com)
  • Cancer cells respire anaerobically, consuming 7-8 times more glucose than normal cells. (connersclinic.com)
  • It brings the organic nitrogen to the cancer cells so they can use it to make the essential amino acids and thus proteins required to make more cancer cells. (connersclinic.com)
  • 1) Foods that feed and strengthen the cancer cells and/or the microbes in the cancer cells and body. (connersclinic.com)
  • 4) Foods that occupy and distract the immunity system from focusing on killing the cancer cells (e.g. beef, turkey, etc. (connersclinic.com)
  • Using breast cancer cells as a model system, we found that extracellular lactate promotes a significant effect on cell survival under nutrient stress conditions where glucose or glutamine is limited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our data show that breast cancer cells uptake lactate under nutrient stress conditions and metabolize it to maintain energy homeostasis (ATP), fuel the TCA cycle, and for de novo synthesis of non-essential amino acids that play a major role toward redox balance by synthesis of glutathione. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rapidly proliferating cancer cells require energy and cellular building blocks for their growth and ability to maintain redox balance. (bvsalud.org)
  • Many studies have focused on understanding how cancer cells adapt their nutrient metabolism to meet the high demand of anabolism required for proliferation and maintaining redox balance. (bvsalud.org)
  • Newsholme P (2001) Why is L-glutamine metabolism important to cells of the immune system in health, post-injury, surgery or infection? (springer.com)
  • Lactate promotes glutamine uptake and metabolism in oxidative cancer cells. (uclouvain.be)
  • While glycolysis and glutaminolysis can cooperate to support cellular proliferation, oxidative lactate metabolism opposes glycolysis in oxidative cancer cells engaged in a symbiotic relation with their hypoxic/glycolytic neighbors. (uclouvain.be)
  • Using SiHa and HeLa human cancer cells, this study reports that intracellular lactate signaling promotes glutamine uptake and metabolism in oxidative cancer cells. (uclouvain.be)
  • Second, in oxidative cancer cells, resistance to glutaminolysis inhibition could arise from compensation by oxidative lactate metabolism and increased lactate signaling. (uclouvain.be)
  • In this context, it was proposed that non-protein mediators such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutamine were responsible for the communication between tumor cells and stroma. (nature.com)
  • PEtn stimulates the tolerance of cancer cells to starvation, and lowered PCYT2 expression correlates with decreased survival in patients. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we demonstrate a role of translational reprogramming in the survival of asparagine-restricted cancer cells. (nature.com)
  • Asparagine limitation in melanoma and pancreatic cancer cells activates receptor tyrosine kinase-MAPK signalling as part of a feedforward mechanism involving mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-dependent increase in MAPK-interacting kinase 1 (MNK1) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), resulting in enhanced translation of activating transcription factor 4 ( ATF4 ) mRNA. (nature.com)
  • Objective To observe the effect of glutamine (Gln) on the proliferation and survival of bladder cancer T24 cells and explore its mechanism. (ijsciences.com)
  • Survival ratio and reactive oxygen species (ROS) content of T24 bladder cancer cells in Gln(+), Gln(-) and Gln(+)+Don groups were detected by Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining and ROS kits, respectively. (ijsciences.com)
  • Mechanism by which a recently discovered allosteric inhibitor blocks glutamine metabolism in transformed cells. (ijsciences.com)
  • Despite the fact that glutamine is a nonessential amino acid that can be synthesized by cells from glucose‐derived carbons and amino acid‐derived ammonia, most mammalian cells in tissue culture cannot proliferate or even survive in an environment that does not contain millimolar levels of glutamine. (cloudfront.net)
  • In this review, we examine the diversity of biosynthetic and regulatory uses of glutamine and their role in proliferation, stress resistance, and cellular identity, as well as discuss the mechanisms that cells utilize in order to adapt to glutamine limitation. (cloudfront.net)
  • Thus, to ensure accumulation of biomass necessary for proliferation, deregulated pro‐proliferative and pro‐survival signals of cancer cells rewire metabolism to support biosynthesis of proteins, nucleotides, glycans, and lipids, as well as production of energy and NADPH. (cloudfront.net)
  • In this review, we will first describe the many uses of glutamine and its products in proliferating cells, including its role in supplying carbon and nitrogen atoms for construction of a variety of macromolecular precursors, as well as its significance as a regulator of biosynthesis and bioenergetics, anti‐oxidative defense, and gene expression. (cloudfront.net)
  • The consequence of the high demand of proliferating cells for glutamine is the disproportionate depletion of the latter from the surrounding environment. (cloudfront.net)
  • To this end, we will discuss the adaptations that cells use to deal with glutamine limitation, including de novo biosynthesis and proteolytic scavenging. (cloudfront.net)
  • However, consumption of glutamine in proliferating cells far exceeds the demands imposed by protein synthesis. (cloudfront.net)
  • Lactate triggers glutamine uptake through c-Myc activation in oxidative cancer cells. (uclouvain.be)
  • Mechanistically, CD9 promoted the plasma membrane localization of the glutamine transporter ASCT2, enhancing glutamine uptake in PDAC cells. (crick.ac.uk)
  • Ultrastructural and biochemical evidence from breast biopsy tissue and cancer cells shows mitochondrial abnormalities that are incompatible with energy production through oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos). (frontiersin.org)
  • Glutamine plays a role in a variety of biochemical functions: Protein synthesis, as any other of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids Lipid synthesis, especially by cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most eager consumers of glutamine are the cells of intestines, the kidney cells for the acid-base balance, activated immune cells, and many cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although glutamine has no effect on the proliferation of tumor cells, it is still possible that glutamine supplementation may be detrimental in some cancer types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemotherapy and radiation kill rapidly dividing cells, a hallmark characteristic of some cancers. (cancerconnect.com)
  • All cancer cells, regardless of tissue origin, use fermentation energy for growth. (mercola.com)
  • Our own immune T-cells can be one of the best defense lines against cancer. (biovox.eu)
  • In treating cancer with chemotherapy or radiation, both of which can damage healthy cells as they attack cancer cells, beta-carotene taken with other carotenoids, such as lycopene, and antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, may help to protect the body. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • Noninvasive imaging identifies new roles for cyclooxygenase-2 in choline and lipid metabolism of human breast cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • Using noninvasive MRI and MRS, we determined the effect of COX-2 downregulation on the metabolism and invasion of intact poorly differentiated MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells stably expressing COX-2 short hairpin RNA. (nih.gov)
  • COX-2 silencing transformed parental cell metabolite patterns to those characteristic of less aggressive cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • Cancer cells often have dysregulated metabolism, which is largely characterized by the Warburg effect-an increase in glycolytic activity at the expense of oxidative phosphorylation-and increased glutamine utilization. (mdpi.com)
  • Modern metabolomics tools offer an efficient means to investigate metabolism in cancer cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Here we present an optimized method for untargeted metabolomics characterization of MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer cells, which are commonly used to study metastatic breast cancer. (mdpi.com)
  • Outcomes Cells in vivo or cultured in adult bovine serum display limited glutamine catabolism in comparison to cells cultured in regular tissue culture circumstances Mutant Plasma fractional labeling of completely tagged glutamine (m? (buyresearchchemicalss.net)
  • 4 fractional labeling of fumarate, malate, aspartate and citrate for A549 cells SB 239063 cultured for 8 hr in RPMI or adult bovine serum with [U-13C5]glutamine put into? (buyresearchchemicalss.net)
  • Principally, he argued and offered knowledge displaying that each one cancer cells, regardless of tissue origin, have been fermenters. (rhcpnews.com)
  • The issue is that for many years, individuals stated Warburg was improper - mainly because we see rather a lot of most cancers cells take up oxygen and make adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from inside the mitochondria … Individuals began to query, 'If most cancers cells have regular respiration, why would they need to use glucose as a fermentable gasoline? (rhcpnews.com)
  • The entire concept turned distorted … The cancer cells merely select to ferment fairly than respire. (rhcpnews.com)
  • Loss of p32 in glutamine addicted glioma cells induced resistance to glutamine deprivation and imparted sensitivity to glucose withdrawal. (elsevier.com)
  • Finally, we provide evidence that p32 expression contributes to Myc-induced glutamine addiction of cancer cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Our findings suggest that Myc promotes the expression of p32, which is required to maintain sufficient respiratory capacity to sustain glutamine metabolism in Myc transformed cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Paclitaxel-induced ER stress to breast cancer (BCa) cells promotes RNF5 association, ubiquitination, and degradation of SLC1A5/38A2. (elsevier.com)
  • The demand for L-glutamine by the intestine, as well as by cells such as lymphocytes, appears to be much greater than that supplied by skeletal muscle, the major storage tissue for L-glutamine. (drugbank.ca)
  • L-glutamine helps maintain secretory IgA, which functions primarily by preventing the attachment of bacteria to mucosal cells. (drugbank.ca)
  • b) detecting an increase in copy number of a gene encoding SEQ ID NO:4 in the biological sample compared to control, thereby detecting the presence of epithelial cancer cells in the biological sample. (google.com)
  • The present invention is based on the discovery that Pellino gene, polynucleotide, and polypeptide sequences are amplified and/or overexpressed in cancer cells in mammals. (google.com)
  • In particular, the invention provides Pellino polypeptide and polynucleotide sequences that are amplified and or overexpressed in cancer cells. (google.com)
  • Antagonism of Glycolysis and Reductive Carboxylation of Glutamine Potentiates Activity of Oncolytic Adenoviruses in Cancer Cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Tumor cells exhibiting the Warburg effect rely on aerobic glycolysis for ATP production and have a notable addiction to anaplerotic use of glutamine for macromolecular synthesis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here, we evaluate infection of highly permissive and poorly permissive cancer cells with wild-type adenoviruses and the oncolytic chimeric adenovirus enadenotucirev (EnAd). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Virus activity in glutamine-free cells was rescued with exogenous membrane-permeable α-ketoglutarate, but not pyruvate or oxaloacetate, suggesting an important role for reductive carboxylation in glutamine usage, perhaps for production of biosynthetic intermediates. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The central theme of this idea was that an immune response can eliminate cells while they are still in the preclinical stages of transformation to overt cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • E2F1, down-regulated in cancer cells, regulates expression of genes involved in the cell cycle progression from G1 into S phase. (cancer.gov)
  • The G1/S checkpoint process selectively induces cell cycle arrest in cancer cells with irreparable DNA damages and triggers subsequent apoptosis, while allowing cell division to proceed in cells without or with minor reparable DNA damage. (cancer.gov)
  • Upon topical application of the East Indian sandalwood oil (EISO) cream to an affected area of skin, the active ingredients in the cream may suppress various enzymes, such as cyclooxygenase (COX) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) phosphodiesterases (PDEs), prevent the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and directly cause apoptosis in susceptible cell types, including certain cancer cells and virally-infected cells. (cancer.gov)
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to play an important role in tumor recurrence and drug resistance, and present a major challenge in cancer therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most cancers contain a subpopulation of highly tumorigenic cells, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells (TICs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • While IDH1-mutated cells are sensitive to therapies that target glutamine metabolism, the effect of IDH1 mutations on reductive glutamine metabolism remains poorly understood. (unthsc.edu)
  • Using diverse human cancer cell lines we show that this occurs only in cells that rely on GLN for survival. (elsevier.com)
  • These data highlight a major role for GLN in maintaining redox balance in cancer cells that lack glucose-dependent anaplerosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Sorensen, Poul H. / Glucose-dependent anaplerosis in cancer cells is required for cellular redox balance in the absence of glutamine . (elsevier.com)
  • Glutamine and glucose are poorly oxidized by these cells and might produce important precursors for DNA, RNA, protein and lipid synthesis. (scielo.br)
  • The high rate of glutamine utilization and its importance in such cells have raised the question as to the source of this glutamine, which, according to current evidence, appears to be muscle. (scielo.br)
  • But the immune system may also play a role in the prevention of cancer by being able to detect abnormal cells. (scielo.br)
  • Indeed, it was not until the pioneering work of Eric Newsholme's laboratory in the 1980's that it was established that immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages could utilize glutamine at high rates in addition to glucose (3,4). (scielo.br)
  • It was generally thought at that time that glutamine was only a quantitatively important fuel for cells of the intestine and liver, and tumor cells (5). (scielo.br)
  • Fermented Wheat Germ helps fight off cancer cells! (cancerforums.net)
  • Sometimes, leukemia cancer cells are so powerful they can overcome the most potent of chemotherapies. (childrenscancer.org)
  • The metabolism of cancer cells is different from the metabolism of normal cells, and these differences can be used to find targets for therapeutic intervention in cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, glutamine plays an important role in up-taking essential amino acids and activating TOR kinase, which is a specific enzyme that is necessary for balancing protein synthesis and degradation. (wikibooks.org)
  • The study focused on the role of glutamine synthetase (GS), an enzyme crucial to the creation of proteins. (vib.be)
  • The second leg of their strategy involves blocking an enzyme responsible for metabolizing glutamine. (acsh.org)
  • contains the enzyme L-asparaginase , which keeps you from digesting glutamine. (eatandbeatcancer.com)
  • The enzyme which accomplishes this is called glutamine synthetase. (drugbank.ca)
  • Glutamine supplementation modulates the phenotype of at least two human colon carcinoma cell lines, increasing proliferation, decreasing differentiation, and decreasing adhesion to matrix proteins in association with decreased integrin expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Depletion of glutamine induced reactive oxygen species and expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins. (northwestern.edu)
  • Aberrant activity of cell cycle proteins is one of the key somatic events in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glutamine is an amino acid (a building block for proteins), found naturally in the body. (webmd.com)
  • Kim, H.M., Y.K. Lee, and J.S. Koo, Expression of glutamine metabolism-related proteins in thyroid cancer. (ijsciences.com)
  • Along with the rest of the proteinogenic amino acids, glutamine is incorporated into proteins. (cloudfront.net)
  • Glutamine (symbol Gln or Q) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans obtain glutamine through catabolism of proteins in foods they eat. (wikipedia.org)
  • We identify regulation of the L-glutamine carrier proteins SLC1A5 and SLC38A2 (SLC1A5/38A2) by the ubiquitin ligase RNF5. (elsevier.com)
  • Like other amino acids, glutamine is biochemically important as a constituent of proteins. (drugbank.ca)
  • Pharmacologic or genetic targeting of glutamine synthetase skews macrophages towards an M1-like phenotype and inhibits tumor metastasis, M. Palmieri et al. (vib.be)
  • Supporting the role of asparagine synthesis in the glutamine-dependent inhibition of apoptosis, knockdown of asparagine synthetase (ASNS) induced apoptosis even in the presence of glutamine, and ASNS expression was increased and correlated with poor prognosis in patients with high-grade glioma and neuroblastoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This gene encodes a protein with similarity to the GS I members of the glutamine synthetase superfamily. (nih.gov)
  • The encoded protein is referred to as a pseudo-glutamine synthetase because it has no glutamine synthesis activity and may function as a chaperone protein. (nih.gov)
  • Structural and functional properties of lengsin, a pseudo-glutamine synthetase in the transparent human lens. (nih.gov)
  • Glutamine-dependent antiapoptotic interaction of human glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase with apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1. (ijsciences.com)
  • Some cancers are attracted to glutamine, one of the 20 common amino acids that code for a genetic sequence or code. (wikibooks.org)
  • From studying how glutamine is taken up through an importer called SLC1A5 showed that glutamine was exported using SLC7A5 which exchanges glutamine for uptake of essential amino acids. (wikibooks.org)
  • Glutamine has been suggested to maintain cancer cell viability by replenishing intermediates for the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and supporting de novo biosynthesis of nucleotides and nonessential amino acids. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the absence of glutamine, knockdown of CS resulted in diminished glycolytic flux through the TCA cycle and redirection of the TCA cycle intermediate oxaloacetate to the synthesis of the nonessential amino acids aspartate and asparagine, suggesting that glutamine does not promote survival via maintenance of TCA cycle anaplerosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Glutamine is needed to make other chemicals in the body such as other amino acids and glucose (sugar). (webmd.com)
  • Not only are the levels of glutamine in standard tissue culture media at least ten‐fold higher than other amino acids, but glutamine is also the most abundant amino acid in the human bloodstream, where it is assiduously maintained at approximately 0.5 mM through a combination of dietary uptake, de novo synthesis, and muscle protein catabolism. (cloudfront.net)
  • Notably, the biosynthesis of the rest of the amino acids, which are regarded to as nonessential, is heavily dependent on glutamine. (cloudfront.net)
  • Glutamine is the most abundant naturally occurring, nonessential amino acid in the human body, and one of the few amino acids that can directly cross the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutamine can then be used as a nitrogen donor in the biosynthesis of many compounds, including other amino acids, purines, and pyrimidines. (drugbank.ca)
  • Determine whether oral glutamine supplementation can reduce the symptoms and signs of peripheral neuropathy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Glutamine supplementation has been advocated for patients requiring parenteral nutritional support. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although the mechanisms of these effects await elucidation, such characteristics would appear to predict more aggressive tumor behavior and raise the possibility that nutritional supplementation with glutamine may be deleterious in patients with cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study evaluating the influence of 5 weeks' duration of 30 g enteral glutamine supplementation on inflammatory and hormonal responses in 73 patients with rectal cancer undergoing preoperative radiochemotherapy. (ovid.com)
  • Dell'Orto V, Di Giancamillo A, Savoini G (2002) Influence of nucleotides and glutamine dietary supplementation on gut health of weaning piglets. (springer.com)
  • Safety and Efficacy of oral and parenteral glutamine supplementation in reducing chemotherapy induced toxicities in patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy: Results of interim analysis of a prospective, randomized, three arm, placebo-controlled study (NCT00772824). (npplweb.com)
  • The role of glutamine supplementation in reducing or preventing chemotherapy induced adverse effects especially gastro-intestinal toxicity in cancer patients is controversial. (npplweb.com)
  • This randomized controlled trial was carried out to evaluate the effect of glutamine supplementation on chemotherapeutic toxicity in breast cancer. (npplweb.com)
  • Results of the present study show that glutamine supplementation significantly reduces the GI toxicity and have a favorable safety profile. (npplweb.com)
  • Melanoma's addiction to glutamine is like an Achilles' heel. (newswise.com)
  • 6. Wise, D. R. and Thompson, C. B. Glutamine Addiction: A New Therapeutic Target in Cancer. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Myc Regulates a Transcriptional Program that Stimulates Mitochondrial Glutaminolysis and Leads to Glutamine Addiction. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Glutamine addiction in c-MYC-overexpressing breast cancer is targeted by the aminotransferase inhibitor, aminooxyacetate (AOA). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here we identify p32, a mitochondrial protein known to play a role in the expression of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, as a critical player in Myc-induced glutamine addiction. (elsevier.com)
  • Pharmacological inhibitors of ASCT2-mediated transport significantly reduced glutamine uptake in human breast cancer cell lines, leading to the suppression of mTORC1 signalling, cell growth and cell cycle progression. (garvan.org.au)
  • The importance of glutamine as a nutrient in cancer derives from its abilities to donate its nitrogen and carbon into an array of growth-promoting pathways (Figure 1 ). (jci.org)
  • Using a combination of melanoma cell lines and metabolomic technology, the researchers established the key enzymatic pathways that drive both the entry and exit of glutamine and glutamine derivatives in and out of the TCA cycle. (newswise.com)
  • The protective effect of glutamine must continue being investigated to disclose further molecular pathways. (medsci.org)
  • Pathways from glutamine to apoptosis. (ijsciences.com)
  • The interest in glutamine metabolism has been heightened further by the recent findings that c-myc controls glutamine uptake and degradation, and that glutamine itself exerts influence over a number of signaling pathways that contribute to tumor growth. (elsevier.com)
  • In 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved L-glutamine oral powder, marketed as Endari, to reduce severe complications of sickle cell disease in people aged five years and older with the disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • Written by DS on Thursday 17 August 2017 in the category news with the tags cancer , immunotherapy . (biovox.eu)
  • Cancer Cell (2017) 32(1):71-87.e7. (google.com)
  • Highlighted in Pancreatic Cancer Action Network (2017). (google.com)
  • An oral formulation of L-glutamine was approved by the FDA in July 2017 for use in sickle cell disease 5 . (drugbank.ca)
  • The study also shows that pharmacologically inhibiting glutamine metabolism with or without immune checkpoint blockade may constitute an effective therapeutic strategy for ARID1A-mutant ovarian cancer. (genengnews.com)
  • MYC-Induced Cancer Cell Energy Metabolism and Therapeutic Options. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These studies suggest that targeting glutamine metabolism may be a promising therapeutic strategy in the treatment of ovarian cancer. (northwestern.edu)
  • Furthermore, we summarize the potential therapeutic approaches of targeting glutamine metabolism for the treatment of numerous types of cancer . (bvsalud.org)
  • Discovery of these amplified cancer genes will provide novel targets for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. (google.com)
  • As described herein, this discovery has provided new diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic methods for the treatment of cancer, in particular for ovarian and lung cancer. (google.com)
  • It is widely believed that targeting the tumour-initiating cancer stem cell (CSC) component of malignancy has great therapeutic potential, particularly in therapy-resistant disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mutations in the cytosolic NADP + -dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1) occur in several types of cancer, and altered cellular metabolism associated with IDH1 mutations presents unique therapeutic opportunities. (unthsc.edu)
  • Results: 1 attached to poly-L-glutamine is an effective therapeutic for established influenza infection in ferrets, reducing viral titers up to 30-fold for 6 days. (mit.edu)
  • Defective oxidative phosphorylation in thyroid oncocytic carcinoma is associated with pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutations affecting complexes I and III," Cancer Research , vol. 66, no. 12, pp. 6087-6096, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we discuss the mechanisms of cancer and the influence of mitochondrial function, which plays a crucial role in the development and treatment of this disease. (lewrockwell.com)
  • Right here, we talk about the mechanisms of most cancers and the affect of mitochondrial perform, which plays an important position in the improvement and remedy of this disease. (rhcpnews.com)
  • Chapters are divided into three parts, the first part focuses on protocols commonly utilized in cancer metabolism studies, such as protocols comprising stable isotope labeling methods, protocols for studying glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and mitochondrial metabolism. (springer.com)
  • They found that glutamine was required to maintain the TCA cycle as well as for asparagine synthesis. (newswise.com)
  • Glutamine can be used an amino acid for protein synthesis, as a carbon source, or as the primary nitrogen donor for multiple essential biosynthetic reactions in the cell. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Glutamine is a typical nitrogen donor and donates through three enzymatic steps in the synthesis of purines and two enzymatic steps in the synthesis of pyrimidines. (wikibooks.org)
  • Addition of asparagine was sufficient to restore cell viability following glutamine withdrawal, but did not alter cell proliferation or rescue TCA cycle intermediates or nonessential amino acid synthesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Although the liver is capable of relevant glutamine synthesis, its role in glutamine metabolism is more regulatory than producing, since the liver takes up large amounts of glutamine derived from the gut. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutamine also supports optimal muscle growth and strength and has been shown to be particularly useful in helping to maintain muscle tissue, as it can be used as a substrate for protein synthesis and an anabolic precursor for muscle growth. (dfhealthestore.com)
  • Glutamine regulates PE biosynthesis through PCYT2, resulting in pro-tumorigenic metabolite PEtn accumulation. (elsevier.com)
  • cMyc-mediated activation of serine biosynthesis pathway is critical for cancer progression under nutrient deprivation conditions. (nature.com)
  • The failure to effectively manage malignant breast cancer, and most malignant cancers for that matter, comes in large part from a misunderstanding on the origin of cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • We show that p32 is a direct transcriptional target of Myc and that high level of Myc in malignant brain cancers correlates with high expression of p32. (elsevier.com)
  • Objective To evaluate the effects of L-alanyl- L-glutamine (LALG) intensified parenteral nutrition support in advanced malignant carcinoma patients . (bvsalud.org)
  • Moreover, glutamine reduced the expression of the transcription factors nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1). (medsci.org)
  • Glutamine also inhibited the autophagic response, with changes in expression of beclin-1, UV radiation resistance associated gene (UVRAG), autophagy-related protein-5 (Atg5), protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1) and lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP)-1. (medsci.org)
  • Immunohistological analysis confirmed down-regulation of the ABAT protein in ER- breast cancer. (diva-portal.org)
  • But what about glutamine, an amino acid, a building block of protein? (eatandbeatcancer.com)
  • Novel spliced form of a lens protein as a novel lung cancer antigen, Lengsin splicing variant 4. (nih.gov)
  • 3 The absence of breast cancer and most other cancers in chimpanzees despite having about 98.5% gene and protein sequence identity with humans even at the BRCA1 locus ( 16 - 19 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The effects of glutamine on DEPTOR/mTOR signaling and protein light chain 3 (LC3) were evaluated. (mdpi.com)
  • One type of mutation is gene amplification or overexpression, i.e., where a specific chromosomal region (including the cancer gene) has undergone a relative increase in DNA copy number, such that more copies of the cancer gene are present, or where the level of expression of a gene is increased, such that a correspondingly higher amount of mRNA and protein is produced, causing deleterious effects. (google.com)
  • The most common forms of glutamine supplements are protein powders that can be added to liquids and prepared protein drinks and shakes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The combined protein supplement is called alanyl-glutamine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some literature recommends taking glutamine immediately before or after meals, or at the same time as eating protein, usually twice per day. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Compare the efficacy of a new preparation of glutamine (AES-14) vs placebo in reducing the incidence of grade 3 or 4 chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis during the first course of chemotherapy in patients with sarcomas. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To assess the efficacy of oral glutamine for preventing neuropathy induced by oxaliplatin, a pilot study was performed. (cancer.org)
  • The safety and efficacy of L-glutamine oral powder were studied in a randomized trial of subjects ages five to 58 years old with sickle cell disease who had two or more painful crises within the 12 months prior to enrollment in the trial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods to detect cancer or a propensity to develop cancer, to monitor the efficacy of a cancer treatment, and to treat cancer, by inhibiting the expression and/or activity of Pellino 1 or 2 in a cancer cell are included. (google.com)
  • Accordingly, the present methods can be used to detect cancer or a propensity to develop cancer, to monitor the efficacy of a cancer treatment, to identify inhibitors of Pellino 1 and 2, and to treat cancer, e.g., by inhibiting the expression and/or activity of Pellino 1 and 2 in a cancer cell. (google.com)
  • The authors investigated the transcriptional effect of ARID1A inactivation and found that GLS1 was the top upregulated gene among those controlling glutamine metabolism. (genengnews.com)
  • Specifically, we assessed changes in glycolytic activity, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and glutamine utilization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Notably, the effects of palbociclib on both the PPP and glutamine utilization occur in an RB-dependent manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eric Newsholme's laboratory was the first to show glutamine utilization by lymphocytes and macrophages. (scielo.br)
  • But if you have cancer, glutamine can spur tumor growth. (eatandbeatcancer.com)
  • As the glutamine supply goes to zero, tumor growth goes to zero. (connersclinic.com)
  • Our research helps show how this process takes place, and how it might be stopped to control tumor growth," says Don Ayer, Ph.D., a Huntsman Cancer Institute investigator and professor in the Department of Oncological Sciences at the University of Utah. (connersclinic.com)
  • In this study we review the protean roles of glutamine in cancer, both in the direct support of tumor growth and in mediating some of the complex effects on whole-body metabolism that are characteristic of tumor progression. (elsevier.com)
  • This study was aimed to measure the effect of glutamine administration on markers of inflammation and autophagy in cancer patients treated with RT. (medsci.org)
  • The present study investigated the potential molecular mechanisms for the protective effect of glutamine in a murine model of azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced CAC. (mdpi.com)
  • We therefore investigated the effects of glutamine on the proliferation, differentiation, and cell-matrix interactions of two human colon carcinoma cell lines (Caco-2 and SW620) adapted to glutamine-free media. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This study provides preclinical evidence for the feasibility of novel therapies exploiting ASCT2 transporter activity in breast cancer, particularly in the high-risk basal-like subgroup of TN breast cancer where there is not only high expression of ASCT2, but also a marked reliance on its activity for sustained cellular proliferation. (garvan.org.au)
  • Our results revealed that administration of glutamine increased cell proliferation in all three ovarian cancer cell lines in a dose dependent manner. (northwestern.edu)
  • Inhibition of mTOR activity by rapamycin or blocking S6 expression by siRNA inhibited GDH and GLS activity, leading to a decrease in glutamine-induced cell proliferation. (northwestern.edu)
  • Bae-Jump, Victoria L. / Glutamine promotes ovarian cancer cell proliferation through the mTOR/S6 pathway . (northwestern.edu)
  • Several companies are developing drugs that inhibit glutamine metabolism to reduce cancer cell growth and proliferation. (healthcanal.com)
  • Glutamine and its relationship with intracellular redox status, oxidative stress and cell proliferation/death. (ijsciences.com)
  • Biochemistry textbooks and cell culture experiments seem to be telling us two different things about the significance of external glutamine supply for mammalian cell growth and proliferation. (cloudfront.net)
  • Many mammalian cancer cell lines depend in glutamine as a significant tri-carboxylic acidity (TCA) cycle anaplerotic substrate to aid proliferation. (buyresearchchemicalss.net)
  • L-glutamine appears to be required to support the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes, as well as the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). (drugbank.ca)
  • SDH mutations in cancer. (springer.com)
  • 2002). Germline mutations in FH predispose to dominantly inherited uterine fibroids, skin leiomyomata and papillary renal cell cancer. (springer.com)
  • mtDNA mutations increase tumorigenicity in prostate cancer," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 719-724, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • GLS1 was expressed at significantly higher levels in tumor samples from patients with other cancer types as well, which also carry mutations in the SWI/SNF complex. (genengnews.com)
  • Their requirement for glutamine is in contrast to the nutritional requirements of normal melanocytes and is completely independent of the DNA mutations such as BRAF, NRAS, and p53 that transform healthy melanocytes to become tumorigenic. (newswise.com)
  • Now, if cancer is not a genetic disease and the mutations are largely irrelevant, then it makes no sense to do that in the first place. (lewrockwell.com)
  • Cancer progression occurs upon mutations on regulatory genes that control biological functions including cellular bioenergetics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1 The absence of gene and chromosomal mutations in some cancers ( 6 - 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • found no mutations following extensive sequencing in 73/210 cancers ( 3 ), while Parsons et al. (frontiersin.org)
  • Indeed, breast cancer has never been documented in a female chimpanzee suggesting that diet and lifestyle issues, rather than genetic mutations, are largely responsible for the disease ( 18 , 20 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Now, if most cancers is just not a genetic disease and the mutations are largely irrelevant, then it is senseless to try this in the first place. (rhcpnews.com)
  • Cancer is a genetic disease of single cell origin caused by the accumulation of inherited and acquired mutations in specific cancer genes, which have normal cellular functions, but when mutated or present at abnormally high levels contribute to cancer. (google.com)
  • TCA cycle defects and cancer: When metabolism tunes redox state. (springer.com)
  • L-glutamine improves nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) redox potential Label . (drugbank.ca)
  • Although significant efforts and intense investigations have been made to fight colorectal cancer (CRC) over the recent decades, CRC still ranks second in cancer-related deaths worldwide. (mdpi.com)
  • Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common incident cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death in the United States, with approximately 150,000 new cases and 57,000 deaths pe. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Magnesium sulphate is given to the patients during the colorectal cancer surgery under the hypothesis that it would attenuate the postoperative hypercoagulability. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The investigators hypothesize that glutamine significantly reduces the incidence and severity of peripheral neuropathy in patients receiving oxaliplatin for metastatic colorectal cancer, d. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Dietary Intake of Magnesium or Calcium and Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Colorectal Cancer Patients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common and severe side-effect in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy in colorectal cancer screening: implications of different colonoscopy referral strategies. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) screening reduces colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. (bioportfolio.com)
  • For the first time, we report on a regulation of beta-alanine catabolism in cancer. (diva-portal.org)
  • In a large external microarray cohort, low ABAT expression shortened recurrence-free survival in breast cancer, ER+ breast cancer and ER- breast cancer. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this review , we provide an overview of the role of glutamine metabolism in cancer cell survival and growth and highlight the mechanisms by which glutamine metabolism affects cancer cell signaling . (bvsalud.org)
  • Fuchs, B.C. and B.P. Bode, Stressing out over survival: glutamine as an apoptotic modulator. (ijsciences.com)
  • Implementation of KMT in the clinic could improve progression free and overall survival for patients with breast cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, some cancer cell lines do not require GLN for survival and the basis for this discrepancy is not well understood. (elsevier.com)
  • The problem: The survival rate of children whose Ewing sarcoma cancer has spread is nothing short of heart-breaking, and only 20% of children w. (childrenscancer.org)
  • Many cancers survive and grow based on the rate of aerobic glycolysis. (wikibooks.org)
  • Enteral glutamine resulted in modulation of inflammatory and hormonal responses as shown by a decreased plasma interleukin 6 and cortisol levels in glutamine compared with placebo group: 5.5 ± 3.8 versus 11.1 ± 19.9 ng/l (P = 0.02) for IL-6 and 386 ± 168.4 to 312.7 ± 111.7 nmol/l (P = 0.03) for cortisol. (ovid.com)
  • We conclude that enteral glutamine exhibits some anti-inflammatory activity and, consequently, leads to a lower hormonal stress response during radiochemotherapy in patients with rectal cancer. (ovid.com)
  • Humbert B, Nguyen P, Dumon H, Deschamps J, Darmaun D (2002) Does enteral glutamine modulate whole-body leucine kinetics in hypercatabolic dogs in a fed state? (springer.com)
  • These patients were randomized in three groups at the beginning of each cycle to receive either placebo (n=23), or enteral glutamine (n=25) 2g/Kg body weight in divided doses for 5 days or 20% parenteral glutamine (n=24) 50 ml injection (10 g) before the beginning of chemotherapy. (npplweb.com)
  • Cancer Research (2016) 77(4):960-970. (google.com)
  • Highlighted in Cancer Discovery (2016). (google.com)
  • Asparagine plays a critical role in regulating cellular adaptation to glutamine depletion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • As extracellular glutamine levels decline, asparagine becomes an essential amino acid. (nature.com)
  • Beginning the first or second day of radiotherapy, patients receive either oral glutamine or a placebo twice daily, including the days that they do not receive radiotherapy. (knowcancer.com)
  • Patients with breast cancer receiving paclitaxel chemotherapy who have mild symptoms of peripheral neuropathy will receive glutamine or placebo to try and improve symptoms. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this double-blind, randomized, controlled pilot trial 43 patients under abdominal RT diagnosed of pelvic or abdominal malignancies receiving glutamine (30 g/d) or placebo (casein, 30 g/d). (medsci.org)
  • Subjects were assigned randomly to treatment with L-glutamine oral powder or placebo, and the effect of treatment was evaluated over 48 weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subjects who were treated with L-glutamine oral powder experienced fewer hospital visits for pain treated with a parenterally administered narcotic or ketorolac (sickle cell crises), on average, compared to subjects who received a placebo (median 3 vs. median 4), fewer hospitalizations for sickle cell pain (median 2 vs. median 3), and fewer days in the hospital (median 6.5 days vs. median 11 days). (wikipedia.org)
  • Subjects who received L-glutamine oral powder also had fewer occurrences of acute chest syndrome (a life-threatening complication of sickle cell disease) compared with patients who received a placebo (8.6 percent vs. 23.1 percent). (wikipedia.org)
  • Their craving for glutamine stems from their ability to "abuse" this essential nutrient by using it as an additional source of carbon and energy. (newswise.com)
  • However, since the 1950s cancer biologists have also recognized the importance of glutamine (Q) as a tumor nutrient. (elsevier.com)
  • It is non-essential and conditionally essential in humans, meaning the body can usually synthesize sufficient amounts of it, but in some instances of stress, the body's demand for glutamine increases, and glutamine must be obtained from the diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • In states where tissue is being built or repaired, like growth of babies, or healing from wounds or severe illness, glutamine becomes conditionally essential. (wikipedia.org)
  • OBJECTIVES: I. Determine whether glutamine is effective in reducing the acute treatment related diarrhea in patients receiving pelvic external beam radiation therapy as adjuvant or primary treatment of malignancy. (knowcancer.com)
  • The first cohort of patients did not receive glutamine, and the second cohort of patients received glutamine at 10 g orally three times a day for 4 days starting 24 h after completion of paclitaxel. (aacrjournals.org)
  • There were paired pre- and post-paclitaxel evaluations on 33 patients who did not receive glutamine and 12 patients who did. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the adjuvant setting, the potential for affecting larger numbers of patients increases, because it is estimated that at least 56,000 patients will be considered for adjuvant taxane use for node-positive disease (30% of all breast cancers). (aacrjournals.org)
  • (7) reported the successful reduction of paclitaxel-associated myalgias and arthralgias by glutamine in five patients treated with paclitaxel doses ranging from 175 to 200 mg/m 2 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • 23 ) in transcriptomic profiles of prostate cancer patients from TCGA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Conclusions Findings provide evidence that glutamine decreases the inflammatory response and abolishes the changes of the autophagy machinery in patients receiving abdominal RT. (medsci.org)
  • These responses remained intact in primary breast cancers, where gene expression analysis showed high expression of ASCT2 and glutamine metabolism-related genes, including GLUL and GLS, in a cohort of 90 TN breast cancer patients, as well as correlations with the transcriptional regulators, MYC and ATF4. (garvan.org.au)
  • Molecular subtyping of breast cancer is necessary for therapy selection and mandatory for all breast cancer patients. (diva-portal.org)
  • I was also taught that fasting is problematic with cancer patients. (eatandbeatcancer.com)
  • Actually, fasting is now being studied as a tool for cancer patients. (eatandbeatcancer.com)
  • Taking glutamine by mouth seems to help HIV/AIDS patients absorb food better and gain weight. (webmd.com)
  • Arm I (glutamine [AES-14]): Patients rinse with oral AES-14 for at least 30 seconds and then swallow (swish and swallow) three times daily beginning on the day of or within 1 day before starting their first course of chemotherapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Magic Mouthwash'- a mixture of diphenhydramine, lidocaine plus an antacid is used by many cancer centers and reduces oral mucositis pain when used in patients receiving radiation therapy for the treatment of head and neck cancer or those undergoing stem cell transplant. (cancerconnect.com)
  • Doxeipin - The tricyclic antidepressant doxepin reduces oral mucositis in patients who receive radiation for head and neck cancer. (cancerconnect.com)
  • The Mass General Cancer Center Survivorship Program's goal is to promote the health and wellbeing of patients with cancer following completion of initial therapy. (massgeneral.org)
  • We offer a wide range of clinical care programs and specialized services to address the needs that patients and families may experience after a cancer diagnosis. (massgeneral.org)
  • It is designed to coordinate care for cancer patients or cancer survivors who have heart disease or are at risk of developing it. (massgeneral.org)
  • There are clear connections between our mental health and our physical health and treatments that focus on the whole person can help patients feel better, tolerate treatments better, and recover faster after cancer. (massgeneral.org)
  • Integrative therapy is designed to help patients with cancer by addressing the connections between the mind, body and spirit and the impact that relaxation and a positive lifestyle can have on healing. (massgeneral.org)
  • The NCI Drug Dictionary contains technical definitions and synonyms for drugs/agents used to treat patients with cancer or conditions related to cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • Heterogeneity is evident between cancers from different patients (inter-tumor heterogeneity) and within a single tumor (intra. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Side effects associated with use of chemotherapeutic agents in patients with cancer are well known. (npplweb.com)
  • 23 patients with breast cancer receiving 72 cycles of adjuvant or neoadjuvant CEF chemotherapy were assessed. (npplweb.com)
  • In the past few decades, interest has grown for use of glutamine in helping cancer patients. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Research continues on using glutamine therapy to help patients with sepsis, burns, trauma, inflammatory bowel disease , acquired immune deficiency syndrome ( AIDS ), bone marrow transplants, and other potential diseases and conditions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some clinical research has reported glutamine aided patients with multiple trauma and burns by helping them fight off infections. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Cancer patients on glutamine therapy may take a higher dose, about 30 g a day. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A rich dietary source of glutamine is red meats. (connersclinic.com)
  • In addition, the chemopreventive effect of dietary glutamine on CAC is, at least in part, associated with the induction of autophagy. (mdpi.com)
  • Thomas Seyfried, Ph.D., professor of biology at Boston School, is a number one skilled and researcher in the area of most cancers metabolism and dietary ketosis. (rhcpnews.com)
  • Glutamine can be added to the body medically by physicians or through dietary supplements that people purchase without prescriptions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Glutamine is marketed as a dietary supplement, and therefore, the products are not regulated the same as prescription drugs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Glutamic acid as a form of glutamine, donates its carbon skeleton and nitrogen to proline, another nonessential amino acid, as well. (wikibooks.org)
  • In healthy individuals, glutamine is a neutral, nonessential amino acid . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Glutamine donates an amide group and is then converted to glutamic acid. (wikibooks.org)
  • Ammonia (formed by nitrogen fixation) is assimilated into organic compounds by converting glutamic acid to glutamine. (drugbank.ca)
  • These characteristics make glutamine metabolism an appealing target for new clinical strategies to detect, monitor, and treat cancer. (jci.org)
  • P. Furst and P. Stehle, "Glutamine supplemented nutrition in clinical practice-use of glutamine-containing dipeptides," Infusionstherapie und Transfusionsmedizin , vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 317-324, 1995. (hindawi.com)
  • The preclinical data of AOA's effectiveness provide a strong rationale for further clinical development, particularly for c-MYC-overexpressing breast cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thank you for sharing this Clinical Cancer Research article. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They show that a drug that inhibits glutamine metabolism - currently in clinical trials as an anticancer agent - might also be useful as a treatment for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. (healthcanal.com)
  • Although there is a lot of support for cancer immunoprevention with simple lifestyle modifications from observational studies, there is an urgent need for clinical trials to establish the effectiveness of this approach for public health benefits. (frontiersin.org)
  • The relationship of the immune system to surveillance of cancer formation and treatment of clinical cancer has been extensively reviewed ( 11 , 14 - 17 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The evidence for cancer immune surveillance comes from animal studies, epidemiologic observations, and clinical observations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Each drug entry includes links to check for clinical trials listed in NCI's List of Cancer Clinical Trials. (cancer.gov)
  • Spent medium was then collected and analyzed for glutamine levels using a bioanalyzer and normalized to cellular DNA content. (aacrjournals.org)
  • During both normal and cancerous cell growth, a cellular process takes place that involves both glucose (sugar) and glutamine (an amino acid). (connersclinic.com)
  • Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) shows great cellular heterogeneity, with pronounced epithelial and mesenchymal cancer cell populations. (crick.ac.uk)
  • Glutamine supports the natural release of human growth hormone, supporting skeletal muscle repair and overall cellular recovery-an important anti-aging property. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • Antitumor effects of AOA with or without common chemotherapies were determined in breast cancer xenografts in immunodeficient mice and in a transgenic MMTV-rTtA-TetO-myc mouse mammary tumor model. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The options of stopping treatment early or dose reducing are equally undesirable in the advanced disease setting but may have greater implications in the adjuvant setting because taxanes may become part of the standard treatment of node-positive breast cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It contains a glutamine repeat (CAG/CAA) polymorphism at its carboxyl-terminal region that may alter the transcriptional activation of the receptor and affect susceptibility to breast cancer through altered sensitivity to hormones. (nih.gov)
  • We evaluated this repeat polymorphism in the context of early-onset disease by conducting a case-control study of 432 Australian women diagnosed with breast cancer before the age of 40 years and 393 population-based control individuals who were frequency matched for age. (nih.gov)
  • There was no evidence that the presence of one or two alleles of 26 glutamine repeats or fewer was associated with breast cancer (odds ratio = 1.03, 95% confidence interval = 0.73-1.44), or that women with alleles greater than 29 repeats were at increased risk of breast cancer. (nih.gov)
  • There was no evidence that risk of breast cancer depends on AIB1 CAG/CAA polymorphism status, even if affected women carry a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. (nih.gov)
  • ASCT2/SLC1A5 controls glutamine uptake and tumour growth in triple-negative basal-like breast cancer. (garvan.org.au)
  • Thus, 204 estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and 67 estrogen receptor negative (ER-) breast cancer tissues were investigated using GC-TOFMS based metabolomics. (diva-portal.org)
  • Beta-alanine demonstrated the strongest change between ER- and ER+ breast cancer (fold change=2.4, p=1.5E-20). (diva-portal.org)
  • In a Kaplan-Meier analysis of a large external expression data set, the ABAT transcript was demonstrated to be a positive prognostic marker for breast cancer (HR=0.6, p=3.2E-15). (diva-portal.org)
  • It is well-known for more than a decade that breast cancer exhibits distinct gene expression patterns depending on the molecular subtype defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and HER2 status. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here, we show that breast cancer exhibits distinct metabolomics patterns depending on ER status. (diva-portal.org)
  • Our observation supports the current view of ER+ breast cancer and ER- breast as different diseases requiring different treatment strategies. (diva-portal.org)
  • In breast cancer, ABAT transcript expression was variable and correlated with ER status. (diva-portal.org)
  • and whether lactate serves a biological function in energy metabolism since a high lactate environment correlates with worse patient prognosis in several malignancies including breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Breast cancer remains as a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in women. (frontiersin.org)
  • According to the American Cancer Society, the number of new cases and deaths from breast cancer in US woman is estimated to be 268,600 and 41,760, respectively, for 2019 ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Indeed, breast cancer alone will account for 30% of all female cancers. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although the incidence of breast cancer is lower in black women than in white women, the death rate is 41% higher in blacks than in whites possibly due in part to diet and lifestyle ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Oral glutamine in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity," European Journal of Cancer Part A , vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 319-320, 1997. (hindawi.com)
  • There is a growing body of evidence that a higher intake of vitamin D may be helpful in the prevention and treatment of cancer, high blood pressure, fibromyalgia, diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis and other diseases. (life-enthusiast.com)
  • The present study indicates that regulation of DEPTOR/mTOR signaling may be an important mechanism for glutamine in prevention against the development of CAC. (mdpi.com)
  • Cancer prevention may benefit from the advances in cancer immunotherapy, which has led to the wider acceptance of the original idea of cancer immune surveillance. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cancer immune surveillance has now evolved into the cancer immunoediting concept ( 11 ), but for the exclusive consideration of cancer prevention, cancer immune surveillance is still a valid notion. (frontiersin.org)
  • Given the prominent effect of immunotherapy in cancer treatment, and increasingly more widely accepted notion of cancer immune surveillance in cancer prevention ( 12 - 14 ), we explored potential connections between general cancer risk factors and immune capacity to examine whether the immune system may be a mediator for cancer risk. (frontiersin.org)
  • We review modifiable and non-modifiable lifestyle factors that influence the immune system and may be considered for cancer prevention. (frontiersin.org)
  • The invention provides isolated peptides, fragments and derivatives thereof and pharmaceutical compositions comprising same that are useful for the prevention or treatment of cancer metastasis. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Therefore, targeted inhibition of glutamine metabolism may have anti-tumorigenic implications. (northwestern.edu)
  • Glutamine metabolism regulates immune lymphocyte function in the tumor microenvironment. (genengnews.com)
  • We show that introduction of the R132H mutation into IDH1 up-regulates the contribution of glutamine to lipogenesis in hypoxia, but not in normoxia. (unthsc.edu)
  • Regulation of cancer cell metabolism. (springer.com)
  • Among all ovarian cancers, the worst prognosis is seen in ovarian clear cell carcinomas (OCCC) which typically don't respond to chemotherapy. (genengnews.com)
  • Glutamine is used by the cell for both bioenergetic and biosynthetic needs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 2. DeBerardinis, R. J. and Cheng, T. Q′s next: The Diverse Functions of Glutamine in Metabolism, Cell Biology, and Cancer. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Warburg hypothesized that cancer results from falling back to metabolism that involves rapidly increasing the number of single cell eukaryotes. (wikibooks.org)
  • Indeed, the authors showed that 44 different cancer cell lines were potently inhibited by Glutor in vitro. (acsh.org)
  • When the treatments are combined, they act together to suppress cancer cell growth. (acsh.org)
  • Androgens and glutamine increase prostate cancer cell growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • SLC1A4 and SLC1A5 are required for maximal androgen-mediated prostate cancer cell growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 4 Department of Pathology and Cell Biology and Institute for Cancer Genetics, Columbia University, New York, New York. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of glutamine on ovarian cancer cell growth. (northwestern.edu)
  • The study, published online this week in the journal Cell , also suggests strategies for using the drug to enhance cancer immunotherapies. (healthcanal.com)
  • In the current work, they turned their attention to another major fuel: glutamine, which has primarily been studied in the context of cancer cell metabolism. (healthcanal.com)
  • The investigators expected that inhibiting glutamine metabolism - like blocking glucose metabolism - would prevent T cell activation and function. (healthcanal.com)
  • Glutamine is taken by mouth for sickle cell disease, to improve nutrition and help people recover from surgery, injuries, burns, bone marrow transplant, complications of HIV/AIDS, radiation, and cancer chemotherapy, and for many other uses. (webmd.com)
  • Glutamine is an FDA-approved prescription medicine for sickle cell disease. (webmd.com)
  • In this study, we designed a biochip system that allows the time-course measurement of cancer cell-stroma interactions at a single-cell level. (nature.com)
  • Analysis of glutamine dependency in non-small cell lung cancer: GLS1 splice variant GAC is essential for cancer cell growth. (ijsciences.com)
  • Cancer Cell, 2010. (ijsciences.com)
  • Cancer Cell , 27 (3), 354-369. (elsevier.com)
  • Several decades of research have sought to characterize tumor cell metabolism in the hope that tumor-specific activities can be exploited to treat cancer. (elsevier.com)
  • The mechanical properties of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and a pancreatic cancer subpopulation with stem cell properties have been increasingly recognized as potent modulators of the effective o. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In carcinogenesis ECM degradation triggers metastasis by controlling migration and differentiation including cancer stem cell (CSC) charact. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Homeobox genes are master regulators of cell fate during embryonic development and their expression is altered in cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study identified multiple targets for overcoming ADI-PEG resistance in cancer chemotherapy using recombinant arginine-degrading enzymes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Some types of chemotherapy can reduce the levels of glutamine in the body. (webmd.com)
  • Glutamine treatment is thought to help prevent chemotherapy-related damage by maintaining the life of the affected tissues. (webmd.com)
  • In supplemental form, glutamine has potential uses that include helping wound recovery, reducing infection risks in endurance athletes, promoting weight gain in people with HIV/AIDS and addressing malnutrition in people undergoing chemotherapy. (livestrong.com)
  • Adverse effects of glutamine have been prescribed for people receiving home parenteral nutrition and those with liver-function abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunohistochemical staining of GLS1 expression in an ARID1A mutated ovarian cancer specimen. (genengnews.com)
  • 0.01) by glutamine (5 m m ) treatment, correlating with decreased α2 and β1 integrin subunit surface expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • AR signaling increases the expression of the glutamine transporters SLC1A4 and SLC1A5 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Results Abdominal RT increased whole blood mRNA levels of inflammatory and autophagic markers, but glutamine administration showed significantly lower expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), CD36, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). (medsci.org)
  • In each panel, ID is a variable for assessing whether the expression level of a response pathway in the linear model differs significantly in cancer and controls, whereas ID:X is the estimated contribution of factor X to the response pathway, where the color represents if a factor has increased (red) or decreased (green) contribution in cancer and controls. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is observed in approximately 40% of breast cancers. (nih.gov)
  • Increased expression of DEPTOR and decreased expressions of factors of mTOR signaling, including phospho-mTOR, phospho-STAT3, phospho-Akt, and phospho-S6, were observed in AOM/DSS mice administered glutamine. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, oral glutamine was associated with increased LC3-II expression in AOM/DSS mice. (mdpi.com)
  • However, because inhibiting glutamine metabolism may have adverse effects elsewhere, such as in the immune system, inhibiting EphA2 signaling upstream of YAP and TAZ may be a way to exploit the glutamine dependency of HER2-positive breast cancers. (sciencemag.org)
  • Glutamine might help gut function, the immune system, and other essential processes in the body, especially in times of stress. (webmd.com)
  • Fighting cancer with our own immune system. (biovox.eu)
  • The power of cancer immune surveillance has been documented beyond doubt, and the successful exploitation of immune response to cancer has started a new era in the war against cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • Besides the natural connection between the immune system and cancer development, most established environmental risk factors are now known to interfere with immune surveillance mechanisms. (frontiersin.org)
  • It appears that immune mechanisms may contribute to the effects of common cancer risk factors. (frontiersin.org)
  • We provide an updated overview of evidence for cancer immune surveillance, cancer risk factors interfering with it, and interventions to enhance cancer immune surveillance as tools to complement ongoing vaccine development efforts for cancer immunoprevention. (frontiersin.org)
  • We also explored whether genetic epidemiology can be used as a probe for disease biology by checking genetic associations between immune system gene variant and cancer susceptibility. (frontiersin.org)
  • The original immune surveillance hypothesis was experimentally tested in a nude mice model in the 1970s by Stutman at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York. (frontiersin.org)
  • You need glutamine for purposes that include eliminating the waste product ammonia from your body and maintaining normal function in your immune system, as well as maintaining the function of your digestive system and brain. (livestrong.com)
  • Glutamine capsules and powder supply the amino acid L-glutamine, which is essential for the health of the immune system and the digestive tract. (dfhealthestore.com)
  • Immunotherapy, harnessing a patient's own immune system to treat their cancer, could be the next chapter in childhood cancer treatment. (childrenscancer.org)
  • it is thought a diet high in glutamine can help improve these athletes' immune functions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Glutamine is used in the fitness industry as a supplement for bodybuilders who want to reduce muscle breakdown, or for recreational athletes on vigorous training schedules who feel the supplement fuels their immune systems. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Manso Filho HC, Mckeever KH, Gordon ME, Costa HEC, Lagakos WS, Watford M (2008) Changes in glutamine metabolism indicate a mild catabolic state in the transition mare. (springer.com)
  • For one, it may reverse the catabolic state by sparing skeletal muscle L-glutamine. (drugbank.ca)
  • Glutamine deprivation stimulates mTOR-JNK-dependent chemokine secretion. (ijsciences.com)
  • People with cancer frequently lack normal levels of glutamine. (livestrong.com)
  • Deregulation of the mTOR signaling pathway has been demonstrated in a variety of human cancers, including CRC [ 7 , 8 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Chen, L. and H. Cui, Targeting Glutamine Induces Apoptosis: A Cancer Therapy Approach. (ijsciences.com)
  • The true origin of cancer is damage to the respiratory function of your mitochondria, triggering compensatory fermentation, which is run by oncogenes. (mercola.com)
  • However, little is known concerning the relationship between oxidative lactate metabolism and glutamine metabolism. (uclouvain.be)
  • Glutamine, a non essential amino acid with an amine functional group, is the most abundant amino acid circulating in the bloodstream [2]. (springer.com)
  • TORC1 seemed to respond to glutamine as well as essential amino acid levels. (wikibooks.org)
  • Scientists have discovered an essential mechanism in the spread of cancer. (vib.be)
  • Authoritative and cutting-edge, Cancer Metabolism: Methods and Protocols aims to be an essential compilation of protocols utilized in many laboratories. (springer.com)
  • The role of autophagy in cancer microenvironment is still poorly understood. (nature.com)
  • Briefly, glutamine is the most important "nitrogen shuttle" in the blood. (connersclinic.com)
  • About one third of this nitrogen comes from glutamine. (webmd.com)
  • Glutamine is also crucial in nitrogen metabolism. (drugbank.ca)