Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Delayed Diagnosis: Non-optimal interval of time between onset of symptoms, identification, and initiation of treatment.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.United StatesProspective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Comoviridae: A family of non-enveloped RNA plant viruses, transmitted by biological vectors and experimentally by mechanical inoculation. There are three genera: COMOVIRUS; FABAVIRUS; and NEPOVIRUS.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Diagnosis: The determination of the nature of a disease or condition, or the distinguishing of one disease or condition from another. Assessment may be made through physical examination, laboratory tests, or the likes. Computerized programs may be used to enhance the decision-making process.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.DenmarkRadiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Genes, BRCA2: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.SwedenChemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Genital Neoplasms, Female: Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Oncology Service, Hospital: The hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and therapeutic services for the cancer patient.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.National Cancer Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Clinical Laboratory Services: Organized services provided by MEDICAL LABORATORY PERSONNEL for the purpose of carrying out CLINICAL LABORATORY TECHNIQUES used for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)CaliforniaCA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.New JerseyCarcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cancer Care Facilities: Institutions specializing in the care of cancer patients.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Oncology Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with the care provided to cancer patients. It includes aspects of family functioning through education of both patient and family.Sperm Banks: Centers for acquiring and storing semen.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Germ-Line Mutation: Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and NEOPLASMS. The neoplastic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Genetic Counseling: An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.New HampshirePoisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Great BritainMenopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Prostatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.TokyoPromoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Complementary Therapies: Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Heterografts: Tissues, cells or organs transplanted between animals of different species.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Digital Rectal Examination: A physical examination in which the qualified health care worker inserts a lubricated, gloved finger of one hand into the RECTUM and may use the other hand to press on the lower ABDOMEN or pelvic area to palpate for abnormalities in the lower rectum, and nearby organs or tissues. The method is commonly used to check the lower rectum, the PROSTATE gland in men, and the UTERUS and OVARIES in women.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)BRCA1 Protein: The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)
Diagnosis[edit]. Classic look to a keratocyctic odontogenic tumor in the right mandible in the place of a former wisdom tooth. ... Cancer[edit]. Malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma may occur, but is unusual.[6] ... The definitive diagnosis is by histologic analysis, i.e. excision and examination under the microscope. ... "Imaging features contributing to the diagnosis of ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumours: logistic regression ...
Cancer diagnosis[edit]. In tumour cells, whose controls on replication are damaged, microsatellites may be gained or lost at an ... They are widely used for DNA profiling in cancer diagnosis, in kinship analysis (especially paternity testing) and in forensic ... Microsatellites have therefore been routinely used in cancer diagnosis to assess tumour progression.[43][44][45] ... Microsatellites are used for assessing chromosomal DNA deletions in cancer diagnosis. Microsatellites are widely used for DNA ...
Cancer diagnosis[edit]. Art therapists have conducted studies to understand why some cancer patients turned to art making as a ... Third, it enabled them to maintain a social identity that resisted being defined by cancer. Finally, it allowed them to express ... The programs helped them regain an identity outside of having cancer, lessened emotional pain of their on-going fight with ... cancer, and also giving them hope for the future. In a study involving women facing cancer-related difficulties such as fear, ...
LAK cells, along with the administration of IL-2 have been experimentally used to treat cancer in mice and humans, but there is ... "Medical Dictionary: Lymphokine-activated killer cell". Wrong Diagnosis. Retrieved 2007-03-06. E A Fagan and A L Eddleston (1987 ... It has been shown that lymphocytes, when exposed to Interleukin 2, are capable of lysing fresh, non-cultured cancer cells, both ... "Definition of lymphokine-activated killer cell". National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 2007-03-06. " ...
Cancer diagnosed. 1984 Major exhibition of prints, Glenbow Museum Calgary. 1984 November 18. Died, Calgary. Shelton, Margaret ...
Cancer, 86(3):492-7, 1999. Stifelman MD, Sosa RE, Andrade A, Tarintino, Shichman SJ.: Hand assisted laparoscopic ... Molecular Diagnosis. 2 (2): 135-145. doi:10.1016/S1084-8592(97)80020-3. PMID 10462601. McKiernan JM, Buttyan R, Bander NH, ... Marien TP, Shapiro E, Melamed J, Taouli B, Stifelman MD, Lepor H. Management of localized prostate cancer and an incidental ... Cancer Research. 57 (12): 2362-5. PMID 9192809. Ikeguchi EF, Stifelman MD, Hensle TW (1998). "Ureteral tissue expansion for ...
A veterinarian diagnoses Buddy with cancer. Buddy is euthanized shortly after. Then, Buddy wakes up again, but he has been ...
"Craniopharyngioma - Childhood: Diagnosis , Cancer.Net". Cancer.Net. 2012-06-25. Retrieved 2017-12-09. "Craniopharyngioma". UCLA ... There are approximately 120 cases diagnosed each year in the United States in patients under the age of 19 years old. In fact, ... The malignant transformations can take years to occur (although 1 in 5 of the diagnosed cases were de novo transformations), ... In the adamantinomatous type, calcifications are visible on neuroimaging and are helpful in diagnosis. The papillary type ...
"Diagnosis The first .." An Ongoing, Erratic Diary. Retrieved 9 April 2016. Mohanraj, Mary Anne. "Category Archives: Cancer Log ... she announced in her blog that she had been diagnosed with breast cancer. She has been documenting the treatment (including ... chemotherapy and a lumpectomy) in a "Cancer Log" on her website. On February 24, 2015, she married Whyte, with whom she had had ...
... diagnosed with cancer. He died on 15 October 2011. Victor Kunonga Wallace Chirumiko known as Winky D - King of Dancehall, ...
"My Cancer Diagnosis". Salon. Retrieved 11 May 2012. Mary Elizabeth Williams (February 20, 2012). "Now what? Life after cancer ... Later that year, she entered a stage I clinical trial for an experimental immunotherapy cancer drug, with which she had some ... In August 2010, Williams was diagnosed with malignant melanoma and underwent surgery. In August 2011, she was rediagnosed with ... Williams has documented her experiences with cancer on Salon. Larry Smith (March 9, 2009). "Interview: Mary Elizabeth Williams ...
Primary Diagnosis Breakdown (2016)[edit]. *Persons living with HIV/AIDS - 24%. *Cancer - 27% ... Project Angel Food expanded their Mission Statement to include serving clients with other illnesses including cancer, diabetes ...
The 74-year-old Cincinnati Pops conductor was diagnosed on Wednesday [April 29] with pancreatic, liver and colon cancer and ... In April 2009, Kunzel was diagnosed with pancreatic, liver and colon cancer and received chemotherapy treatments in Cincinnati ... Gelfand, Janelle (2009-05-01). "Kunzel diagnosed with cancer". The Cincinnati Enquirer. Cincinnati, Ohio: Gannett Company. ...
"Bible diagnosed with cancer". ESPN.com. Retrieved March 25, 2010. ... it was announced that offensive coordinator Dana Bible had been diagnosed with leukemia. "South Carolina Gamecocks vs. North ...
"Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs)". MacMillan Cancer Support. Retrieved 20 April 2016. "Hunter diagnosed with cancer". RTÉ Sport. 6 ... He intended to devote the year to treatment for his cancer. Hunter died at 8:20 pm on 9 October 2006 - just five days short of ... He then reached the quarter-finals of the China Open, just days after discovering that he was suffering from cancer. His career ... "Cancer victim Paul Hunter dies, aged 27". breakingnews.ie. Retrieved 28 October 2010. Phillips, Owen (20 April 2016). "Paul ...
Mitchell was diagnosed with a "small, low grade, and localized" prostate cancer in 2007. In 1994, Mitchell received the U.S. ... "Mitchell diagnosed with cancer. Mitchell is of Lebanese decent, his mother migrated to the United States in 1920". New York ...
EIN diagnosis. Uterine cancer Mutter GL, Duska L, Crum CP (2005). "Endometrial Intraepithelial Neoplasia". In Crum CP, Lee K. ... Patient Resources American Cancer Society Women's Cancer Network an educational and research organization Gynecologic Oncology ... of women with EIN will be diagnosed with carcinoma within one year) or future (the long term endometrial cancer risk is 45 ... EIN may be diagnosed by a trained pathologist by examination of tissue sections of the endometrium. All of the following ...
1991: Diagnosed with cancer. 2001: Guest Lectured at Clemson University for their Real Estate Development curriculums. He would ...
Risk factors for TC include: Cryptorchidism Family history Previous testicular cancer Being white The diagnosis is confirmed in ... "Cancer Statistics, 2007". CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 57 (1): 43-66. doi:10.3322/ ... Diagnosis can be made from semen analysis, taking a sample of the man's semen and running tests to count numbers and quality of ... 80% of testicular cancer cases are from the 20-34 year old age range Central to the cause of irreversible TDS are disruptions ...
The album comprises songs inspired by Mann's experience being diagnosed with and treated for colorectal cancer in the early ... "How musician John Mann's cancer fight led to a new solo album". The Globe and Mail, January 27, 2014. "Cancer survivor Mann ... "Diagnosis takes centre stage". The Globe and Mail, September 8, 2014. "Morris Panych and John Mann's The Waiting Room a labour ... Mann was originally slated to play the lead role himself, although due to his Alzheimer's diagnosis he did not do so. The play ...
"Student diagnosed with Cancer". Retrieved 17 November 2012. "Stanford Asian Liver Center". Retrieved 25 November 2010. Andersen ... "Promise, a newsletter of the Development Office at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Fall 2009, page 8" (PDF ...
"Tea Trekker Closes Brick-and-Mortar Shop; Heiss Announces Cancer Diagnosis". World Tea News. 2016-01-19. Retrieved 2017-07-03 ...
Early career and cancer diagnosis[edit]. Krstičić began his career at OFK Beograd and joined Sampdoria on 1 September 2008 at ... after which doctors unexpectedly diagnosed him with Burkitt's lymphoma[2] and allegedly told Krstičić he had 48 hours to live.[ ... 3] Luckily, Sampdoria's medical staff was able to reverse the cancer growth[2] and Krstičić lived on to play football, although ... the condition was a great setback in his career.[4] Over the course of his cancer episode, Krstičić lost 55 pounds and his ...
In Western countries, secondary lymphedema is most commonly due to cancer treatment. Between 38 and 89% of breast cancer ... Diagnosis or early detection of lymphedema is difficult. The first signs may be subjective observations such as "my arm feels ... most notably breast cancer. In many patients with cancer, this condition does not develop until months or even years after ... It is sometimes diagnosed prenatally by a nuchal scan or post-natally by lymphoscintigraphy. A hereditary form of congenital ...
On 2004 he is diagnosed with liver cancer. After the doctor explains that he has little of life remaining he is immediately ...
... and certain cancers such as glucagonomas.[44] Individuals with cancer may be at a higher risk of mortality if they also have ... Definition and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and intermediate hyperglycemia: Report of a WHO/IDF consultation (PDF). Geneva: ... Diagnosis. WHO diabetes diagnostic criteria[53][54] edit Condition 2-hour glucose Fasting glucose HbA1c ... "Diagnosis of Diabetes and Prediabetes". National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. June 2014. Archived ...
Describes tests used to find or diagnose breast cancer. ... How Is Breast Cancer Diagnosed?. *How Is Breast Cancer Treated? ... If breast cancer is diagnosed, other tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the breast or to other parts ... Breast Cancer in Young Womenplus icon *Bring Your Brave Campaign. *Advisory Committee on Breast Cancer in Young Womenplus icon ... Doctors often use additional tests to find or diagnose breast cancer. They may refer women to a breast specialist or a surgeon ...
... ampulla of Vater cancer, and gallbladder cancer. All subtypes of biliary tract cancers are rare and have an overall poor ... Cancers of the biliary tract include cholangiocarcinoma (cancers arising from the bile duct epithelium), ... What are the key statistics about gallbladder cancer?. American Cancer Society. Available at http://www.cancer.org/cancer/ ... Gallbladder Cancer Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Jun 28, 2017 * Author: Mary Denshaw-Burke, MD, FACP; Chief Editor: N Joseph ...
Lung cancer diagnoses went up last year at the same time that a campaign was being run urging people to be more vigilant ... As a result, the number of people diagnosed with lung cancer was 8,335 compared to the 7,639 seen in the same period of 2011. ... Lung cancer currently accounts for a fifth of all cancer deaths in Britain and it is hoped that if a similar drive is regularly ... The Be Clear On Cancer campaign by Public Health England (PHE) was broadcast in May and June 2012 with the support of Cancer ...
... ovarian cancer isnt often found in its early stages, due to few symptoms and no reliable screening tests. Learn about ovarian ... Diagnosis & Tests. Find out about the exams and tests that doctors use to diagnose ovarian cancer. ... Detecting Cancer When abnormal tissue or cancer is found early, it may be easier to treat. ... Recommended Tests and Exams Exams that are done to look for ovarian cancer include biopsy, physical exam and cancer antigen 125 ...
... there is a rise of number of diagnostic tools that can help detect cancers. Once suspected, diagnosis is usually made by ... With advances in technologies that understand cancers better, ... www.shh.org/hospital-services/cancer-care/cancer-diagnosis- ... Most cancers need a second opinion regarding diagnosis before being sure of the diagnosis or stage and type. ... There are several methods of diagnosing cancer. With advances in technologies that understand cancers better, there is a rise ...
A biopsy is the main tool for diagnosing prostate cancer. ... How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed?. *How Is Prostate Cancer ... If prostate cancer is diagnosed, other tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the prostate or to other ... A biopsy is a procedure that can be used to diagnose prostate cancer. A biopsy is when a small piece of tissue is removed from ... A biopsy is the main tool for diagnosing prostate cancer, but a doctor can use other tools to help make sure the biopsy is made ...
... a new study says Medicaid cuts could boost the number of women diagnosed with late-stage breast cancer. ... home/cancer center/ cancer a-z list/ medicaid cuts: delayed breast cancer diagnosis article ... 19,000 in the year after a woman is diagnosed with earlier-stage breast cancer. That spikes to about $63,000 if the cancer has ... Late-stage cancer diagnoses did, in fact, rise, the study found.. Among women living in low-income zip codes, 40 percent of ...
Breast Cancer Stages The stage of a breast cancer is determined by the cancers characteristics, such as how large it... ... Breast cancer in Hispanic women is usually more aggressive than breast cancer in non-Hispanic white women. Breast cancer in ... But the Hispanic women tended to be diagnosed with more aggressive and advanced breast cancer at a younger age. The researchers ... But some breast cancer differences are probably due to genetics. Different genes may make breast cancer more aggressive in ...
When you first see your GP, theyll ask about your symptoms and whether you have a family history of bowel cancer. ... Macmillan Cancer Support: diagnosing colon cancer Further tests. If a diagnosis of bowel cancer is confirmed, further testing ... Cancer Research UK has more information about bowel cancer stages.. Bowel cancer screening. In England, everyone aged 60 to 74 ... Diagnosis. When you first see your GP, theyll ask about your symptoms and whether you have a family history of bowel cancer. ...
Knowing how recognize and diagnose cancer early on can be the key to improving the outlook. Read on to learn ,pre about the ... Cancer is a common disease, and a whole range of outlooks is possible depending on the type and severity. ... How cancer is diagnosed. (2015, March 9). Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/diagnosis-staging/diagnosis ... www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/diagnosis-staging/symptoms. Understanding cancer prognosis. (2018, August 29). Retrieved from https ...
Research has shown that around one in three people diagnosed with lung cancer will live for one year or more, but only one in ... which means patient outcomes are often less positive than with some other forms of cancer. ... Lung cancer does not usually present with symptoms until it has reached an advanced stage, ... Staging of the cancer. Once lung cancer is diagnosed, it is staged to help predict the potential outcomes and treatment options ...
Discover the types of treatments such as surgery and drug therapies as well as the survival rate for breast cancer. ... Learn about breast cancer causes, symptoms, tests, recovery, and prevention. ... Types of Breast Cancer. Inflammatory Breast Cancer. Inflammatory breast cancer is a rare type of cancer that often does not ... home/cancer center/ cancer a-z list/slideshows a-z list , breast cancer pictures slideshow article ...
This book is the result of his more than 30 years experience in the field of cancer diagnosis. The author reviews for us the ... Tumor X-ray cancer computed tomography (CT) diagnosis endoscopy gastric cancer radiation radiology screening stomach tomography ... This book is the result of his more than 30 years experience in the field of cancer diagnosis. The author reviews for us the ... of radiological examination and the traditional X-ray for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. ...
Find the latest tests and treatments for prostate cancer at the OHSU Knight Cancer Institute. Learn how robotic surgery and ... Prostate Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment Dr. Julie Graff treats patients and pursues discoveries in the lab. Her work includes ... Diagnosing prostate cancer. We offer the most advanced diagnostic tools in the Pacific Northwest, including the latest lab ... Advanced techniques for diagnosing prostate cancer, such as image-guided biopsy.. *Full follow-up services at our Urologic ...
... is cancer that occurs in the esophagus which connects the mouth to the stomach. It is a rare type of cancer, but can be very ... How Is Esophageal Cancer Diagnosed?. To diagnose esophageal cancer, your doctor will review your symptoms, medical history, and ... How Is Esophageal Cancer Treated?. As with many cancers, esophageal cancer treatment has a greater chance of success if the ... for localized cancer to the esophagus, 23% for cancer that has spread regionally, and 5% with distant cancer spread. ...
John McCain has been diagnosed with brain cancer, his hospital said in a statement Wednesday. The former Navy officer underwent ... John McCain has been diagnosed with brain cancer, his hospital said in a statement Wednesday. ... "Cancer may afflict him in many ways: but it will not make him surrender. Nothing ever has." ...
A lung cancer diagnosis can leave you and your loved ones feeling uncertain, anxious and overwhelmed. Learn more about free ... Since Ive been diagnosed, Ive been overwhelmed. How can I better cope with my diagnosis? A cancer diagnosis turns a persons ... How can I have lung cancer? A lung cancer diagnosis may lead some people to ask, "Did you smoke?" Many people with lung cancer ... CancerCares Lung Cancer Helpline. CancerCare has partnered with LUNGevity, the nations leading lung cancer-focused nonprofit ...
If you are worried about cancer or have just been diagnosed, we have information about the different tests and scans that you ... Cancer registry When you are diagnosed with cancer in the UK, some information about you, your cancer diagnosis and your ... How a cancer diagnosis might affect your work Knowing how cancer will affect your work can be difficult. Read more about the ... Just been diagnosed? Being diagnosed with cancer means having to deal with issues and situations that may worry you and cause ...
If cancer is suspected, the healthcare team will confirm if it is present or not, and what type of cancer it is. ... Diagnosis is the process of finding the underlying cause of a health problem. ... Diagnosis. Diagnosis is the process of finding out the cause of a health problem. If you have a symptom of cancer or something ... To find a cancer organization in your country, visit Union for International Cancer Control or International Cancer Information ...
... a cancer affecting the immune system, Health Minister Esperanza Martinez said Friday in a news conference. ... Paraguayan President Fernando Lugo has been diagnosed with lymphoma, ... Asuncion, Paraguay (CNN) -- Paraguayan President Fernando Lugo has been diagnosed with lymphoma, a cancer affecting the immune ... According to the American Cancer Society, non-Hodgkins lymphoma is one of the most common cancers in the United States, ...
Diagnosing cancer has a lot to do with vision. Pathologists study biopsy samples looking for cancerous cells. Radiologists scan ... 16 pigeons were trained to detect cancer by putting them in a roomy chamber where magnified biopsies of possible breast cancers ... Unlike, say, cancer-sniffing dogs, pigeons may not be ready for the clinic, but one could envision numerous ways to exploit ... However, though they could memorize suspicious tissue densities that can signal cancer, they were stumped when doing so on ...
Editor-The finding that gastric cancer detected early has a long doubling time (several years) whereas that diagnosed in an ... This confounds the observation that "early" cancer has a better prognosis than "late stage" cancer. The low case fatality from ... 2 Screening or case finding has invariably resulted in a considerable increase in diagnosed breast cancer. The incidence of ... necropsy studies indicate that prostate cancer is present in nearly half of older men, suggesting that many occult cancers ...
... breast cancer is one of the most recognized cancers in the world. Thanks to massive public awareness campaigns, ... knowledge is power when navigating a breast cancer journey. When diagnosed with Stage II HER2-positive early breast cancer, an ... Understand Your Diagnosis: Learning about your specific type of breast cancer is essential because the unique biology of your ... Strength in Numbers: The news of a cancer diagnosis can be incredibly overwhelming to patients and their loved ones. Make the ...
... pen-like medical device may soon be available that detects cancerous tissue during surgery and improves accuracy of diagnoses. ... Cancer Pen May Speed Diagnosis. Highly accurate new tool helps surgeons test suspicious tissue by Nancy Kerr, AARP, September ... Baylor College of Medicine and University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center - could change the way doctors test for cancer. ... In an initial academic study of 253 samples taken by the UT team from patients with breast, thyroid, lung and ovarian cancers, ...
I am so thankful for life: WTHR anchor Andrea Morehead shares breast cancer diagnosis. Holly V. Hays, [email protected] ... I am so thankful for life: WTHR anchor Andrea Morehead shares breast cancer diagnosis. "I will be on the air for the next 15 ... I am so thankful for life: WTHR anchor Andrea Morehead shares breast cancer diagnosis "I will be on the air for the next 15 ... WTHR-13s Andrea Morehead shared her breast cancer diagnosis Monday. In an emotional video message and letter shared on the ...
  • Within the next few years, the researchers found, late-stage breast cancer cases rose in low-income areas of the state. (medicinenet.com)
  • The researchers concluded that this was due to genetic differences in the cancers. (breastcancer.org)
  • A team of US researchers have developed a way of spotting cancer within seconds in laboratory experiments. (reuters.com)
  • The researchers identified 920 patients with bladder cancer (252 of whom were women) and 398 patients with renal (kidney) cancer (165 of whom were women). (www.nhs.uk)
  • The study was carried out by researchers from the University of Cambridge, the National Cancer Intelligence Network, Bangor University and the University of Durham. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The researchers analysed data from the (English) National Audit of Cancer Diagnosis in Primary Care (2009 to 2010). (www.nhs.uk)
  • The researchers approximate that each year in the UK 700 women with either bladder or renal cancer experience a delayed diagnosis because of their gender, of whom more than a quarter present with visible haematuria. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Researchers are still studying the causes of colorectal cancer. (healthline.com)
  • As part of our mission to eliminate cancer, MD Anderson researchers conduct hundreds of clinical trials to test new treatments for both common and rare cancers. (mdanderson.org)
  • Researchers say AI procedure was successful in detecting the spread of breast cancer. (healthline.com)
  • Edited and authored by pioneering researchers in the field, Preoperative Diagnosis of Gastric Cancer is designed as a textbook for clinicians and professionals in the fields of endoscopy and gastroenterology. (springer.com)
  • In a study published in the Journal of Women's Health , University of Kentucky researchers found evidence that certain forms of abuse affect a woman's levels of depression , perceived stress, and cancer-related well-being . (psychcentral.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Toronto, led by Dr. Shana Kelly and Dr. Ted Sargent, are reporting in Nature that they have used a combination of nanoparticles and a microchip to determine the type and severity of a patient's cancer based on the signature of biomarkers that indicate the presence of cancer at the cellular level. (medgadget.com)
  • The researchers' new device can easily sense the signature biomarkers that indicate the presence of cancer at the cellular level, even though these biomolecules - genes that indicate aggressive or benign forms of the disease and differentiate subtypes of the cancer - are generally present only at low levels in biological samples. (medgadget.com)
  • Since the late 1990s, researchers at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine have observed changes in mtDNA sequences in solid cancers, although the nature of the relationship remains uncertain. (redorbit.com)
  • Researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital discovered that exosomes preserve the genetic information of their parent cells in 2008, however exosomes have not seen widespread clinical testing as a means of cancer diagnosis until now. (scientificamerican.com)
  • He is one of the lead researchers in a multicenter clinical study using new exosomal diagnostic tests developed by New York City-based Exosome Diagnostics to identify a genetic mutation found exclusively in glioma, the most common form of brain cancer. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The researchers examined the records of 6,073,240 people born in Sweden and linked them to the national Cancer, Causes of Death, and Migration registers. (latimes.com)
  • Since each person has a unique identification number, researchers could pick out those who received cancer diagnoses and look up the cause of death. (latimes.com)
  • The device developed by ESOTRAC promises to change the landscape of gastroenterological endoscopy - beyond diagnosis of EC - by allowing rapid three-dimensional imaging of the entire esophageal wall as well as quantitation of disease biomarkers. (eurekalert.org)
  • They are the most aggressive and are very infiltrative - they spread into other parts of the brain quickly," explains a report from the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Texas. (rollcall.com)
  • But the cancer cells were of an aggressive type that could have spread rapidly to other parts of the body. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Lab tests are rarely a primary method for diagnosing cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Other tests, including computed tomography (CT) scans, positron emission tomography (PET) scan, thoracoscopy, and laparoscopy , may be performed to determine if the cancer has spread, or metastasized, outside of the esophagus. (webmd.com)
  • We have information about the different tests and scans that you might have if you're worried about cancer. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Your medical team will use different tests and scans to see if you have cancer. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Lab tests are important and give information about how organs in your body are functioning - but lab tests on their own cannot be relied on to make a diagnosis. (cancer.ca)
  • You may have a number of different tests to help diagnose peritoneal mesothelioma . (macmillan.org.uk)
  • Since he was so recently diagnosed he probably has to make a few more tests, like a bone scan and a CT. (healingwell.com)
  • If your doctor suspects your cancer may have spread to other parts of your body, you may need more tests, such as chest x-rays, CT scans, bone scans, PET scans, or MRI scans. (cancer.org)
  • If you have been diagnosed with mesothelioma, it is important that a doctor experienced in mesothelioma reviews your tests. (mdanderson.org)
  • This work includes the development of tests and imaging technologies that can provide specific information about an individual's cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • Although blood tests or thyroid ultrasound often find changes in the thyroid, these tests are not used as screening tests for thyroid cancer unless there is a reason (such as family history) to suspect a person is at a higher risk for thyroid cancer. (google.com)
  • If medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is suspected or if you have a family history of the disease, blood tests of calcitonin levels can help look for MTC. (google.com)
  • Tests for CEA can sometimes help find this cancer. (google.com)
  • In addition to a physical examination, the tests listed below may be used to diagnose amyloidosis. (cancer.net)
  • A pathologist is a doctor who specializes in interpreting laboratory tests and evaluating cells, tissues, and organs to diagnose disease. (cancer.net)
  • A testicular cancer diagnosis can be made through several different tests, including blood tests and imaging scans. (moffitt.org)
  • These tests are not always conclusive in making a testicular cancer diagnosis because certain types of testicular cancer do not produce any blood proteins and others are too small to markedly increase these protein levels. (moffitt.org)
  • At Moffitt Cancer Center's urologic cancer clinic, our multispecialty testicular cancer team can perform all of these diagnostic tests in a single convenient setting and provide our patients with prompt and accurate results. (moffitt.org)
  • One or more of the following tests may be used to find out if you have cancer and if it has spread. (mdanderson.org)
  • They also do tests to learn if cancer has spread to another part of the body from where it started. (cancer.net)
  • For example, imaging tests can show if the cancer has spread. (cancer.net)
  • When a patient comes to Moffitt Cancer Center with an existing or suspected MDS diagnosis, all of his or her lab and blood tests are performed in a single, convenient location, and the results are analyzed by a team of skilled diagnostic experts. (moffitt.org)
  • In addition to doing standard tests, we do research to make the diagnosis of esophageal cancer even better. (mskcc.org)
  • If your doctor suspects you have ovarian cancer, you may have some of the tests and scans described in this section. (cancervic.org.au)
  • You may have blood tests to check for proteins produced by cancer cells. (cancervic.org.au)
  • The tests will also show where in the pancreas the cancer is, and whether it has spread to nearby organs or other parts of the body. (cancervic.org.au)
  • If your healthcare provider thinks you might have nonmelanoma skin cancer, you will need certain exams and tests to be sure. (uhhospitals.org)
  • He or she will talk with you about other tests that you may need if skin cancer is found. (uhhospitals.org)
  • Owing to current epidemiological data and difficulties in diagnosing syphilis, routine screening tests in the psychiatric field are necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • A pathologist who specializes in diagnostic techniques will then examine the cells for signs of cancer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Portnoy covers all diagnostic methods related to abdominal cancer, with thorough explanations of the methodological, semiotic, and organizational aspects. (springer.com)
  • Establishing the predictive value of diagnostic tools is a challenge, particularly given the heterogeneity of cancers and variation in clinical courses, even for patients with the same type of cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • The first chapter presents different cases with precise explanations and observations, thus providing basic knowledge of invasion depth diagnosis, diagnostic coverage, and qualitative diagnosis. (springer.com)
  • Without reliable diagnostic testing, clinicians are unable to effectively screen for cancer, diagnose disease and develop care plans. (roche.com)
  • The NIST Cancer Biomarker Validation and Reference Laboratory assesses cost, efficiency and reliability of potential diagnostic techniques using biomarkers before further clinical evaluation in other laboratories of the EDRN. (redorbit.com)
  • This study was designed to identify deregulated miRNAs in bladder cancer samples and evaluate their potential as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In her years of clinical practice working exclusively with cancer patients and their loved ones, Barr developed an Emotional Wellness Toolbox that patients stock with what Barr has found to be the most effective tools. (psychcentral.com)
  • Trusted, compassionate information for people with cancer and their families and caregivers, from the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the voice of the world's cancer physicians and oncology professionals. (cancer.net)
  • Taken together, these results demonstrate the feasibility of accurate, multiclass molecular cancer classification and suggest a strategy for future clinical implementation of molecular cancer diagnostics. (pnas.org)
  • Initial diagnoses were made at university hospital referral centers by using all available clinical and histopathological information. (pnas.org)
  • Tissues underwent centralized clinical and pathology review at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital (by M.L.) or Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (by E.L. and W.G.) to confirm initial diagnosis of site of origin and histological type. (pnas.org)
  • A lack of clinical knowledge is no excuse for missing a diagnosis. (webwire.com)
  • If you or a member of your family have any concerns about delays in medical diagnosis, please contact a Clinical Negligence Solicitor at Pannone LLP on Freephone 0800 0382 382. (webwire.com)
  • The newly diagnosed patients were also 5.6 times more likely to die from a heart attack or other cardiovascular complication in those first seven days, according to a study published in Thursday's edition of the New England Journal of Medicine. (latimes.com)
  • The government announced just after Christmas that the recently re-elected leader had thyroid cancer. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Fortunately most thyroid cancer cases are a slow "growing" cancer known as papillary thyroid cancer. (google.com)
  • If you are going to have surgery to treat thyroid cancer, a vocal cord exam will likely be done ahead of time to see if the vocal cords are moving the way they should. (google.com)
  • If you have medullary thyroid cancer, you will be given a blood test to determine if you carry a gene that sometimes causes this cancer. (mdanderson.org)
  • If the test is positive, your children and parents should be tested to see if they have the gene or thyroid cancer. (mdanderson.org)
  • More than 90% of people who have the gene will eventually develop thyroid cancer. (mdanderson.org)
  • Some cases of thyroid cancer can be passed down from one generation to the next. (mdanderson.org)
  • The Be Clear On Cancer campaign by Public Health England (PHE) was broadcast in May and June 2012 with the support of Cancer Research UK, NHS England and the Department of Health. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Full follow-up services at our Urologic Cancer Survivorship Clinic to monitor your health and well-being. (ohsu.edu)
  • Diagnosis is the process of finding out the cause of a health problem. (cancer.ca)
  • The process of diagnosis may seem long and frustrating, but it is important for the healthcare team to rule out other possible reasons for a health problem before making a diagnosis of cancer. (cancer.ca)
  • Asuncion, Paraguay (CNN) -- Paraguayan President Fernando Lugo has been diagnosed with lymphoma, a cancer affecting the immune system, Health Minister Esperanza Martinez said Friday in a news conference. (cnn.com)
  • These data suggest that identifying these forms of abuse in cancer patients may provide health care providers with helpful information to better support and improve the well-being of female cancer patients," said first author Ann L. Coker, Ph.D. (psychcentral.com)
  • Speaking only for myself, it certainly was a surprise to hear that because it seems as though in recent years, since he was treated for cancer several years ago, that the health reports have been good," Compton said. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Also, many medical terms, including cancer, will be used by health care providers and others. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Research shows that people with strong religious or spiritual beliefs report better health after a cancer diagnosis. (wikihow.com)
  • Tom Stansfeld, health information of- ficer at Cancer Research UK, explains: "Cancer risk increases with age - and the UK population is ageing. (slideshare.net)
  • With health services already overstretched and people living longer, it's clear pre- vention is going to be vital to tackle cancer head on. (slideshare.net)
  • Surprise City Councilman Jim Hayden died Dec. 20 after being diagnosed with glioblastoma, a form of brain cancer, on Oct. 30, according to his family. (azcentral.com)
  • There are 18 U.S. hospitals participating in the feasability trial, sponsored by the Accelerated Brain Cancer Cure Foundation . (scientificamerican.com)