Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Digital Rectal Examination: A physical examination in which the qualified health care worker inserts a lubricated, gloved finger of one hand into the RECTUM and may use the other hand to press on the lower ABDOMEN or pelvic area to palpate for abnormalities in the lower rectum, and nearby organs or tissues. The method is commonly used to check the lower rectum, the PROSTATE gland in men, and the UTERUS and OVARIES in women.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Biopsy, Large-Core Needle: The use of needles usually larger than 14-gauge to remove tissue samples large enough to retain cellular architecture for pathology examination.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Ultrasonography, Mammary: Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Nipple Aspirate Fluid: Fluid collected from nipple by gentle aspiration. The fluid contains cells and extracellular fluid from the breast ductal epithelium.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Molecular Imaging: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Interventional: Minimally invasive procedures guided with the aid of magnetic resonance imaging to visualize tissue structures.Image-Guided Biopsy: Conducting a biopsy procedure with the aid of a MEDICAL IMAGING modality.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Palpation: Application of fingers with light pressure to the surface of the body to determine consistence of parts beneath in physical diagnosis; includes palpation for determining the outlines of organs.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Tomography: Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen plane and blurred images located above or below the plane.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.United StatesUterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Breast Self-Examination: The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Tomography, Optical: Projection of near-IR light (INFRARED RAYS), in the 700-1000 nm region, across an object in parallel beams to an array of sensitive photodetectors. This is repeated at various angles and a mathematical reconstruction provides three dimensional MEDICAL IMAGING of tissues. Based on the relative transparency of tissues to this spectra, it has been used to monitor local oxygenation, brain and joints.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Optical Phenomena: LIGHT, it's processes and properties, and the characteristics of materials interacting with it.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Cystoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the urinary bladder.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Plethysmography, Impedance: Recording changes in electrical impedance between electrodes placed on opposite sides of a part of the body, as a measure of volume changes in the path of the current. (Stedman, 25th ed)Subtraction Technique: Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A premalignant change arising in the prostatic epithelium, regarded as the most important and most likely precursor of prostatic adenocarcinoma. The neoplasia takes the form of an intra-acinar or ductal proliferation of secretory cells with unequivocal nuclear anaplasia, which corresponds to nuclear grade 2 and 3 invasive prostate cancer.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Protein Array Analysis: Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Prostatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Radiology: A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Prostatic Hyperplasia: Increase in constituent cells in the PROSTATE, leading to enlargement of the organ (hypertrophy) and adverse impact on the lower urinary tract function. This can be caused by increased rate of cell proliferation, reduced rate of cell death, or both.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Colonoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the luminal surface of the colon.Carcinoma in Situ: A lesion with cytological characteristics associated with invasive carcinoma but the tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Thermography: Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.National Cancer Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Cytodiagnosis: Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Carcinoma, Transitional Cell: A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.CpG Islands: Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
For early detection. For health education. Cancer screening. Obesity clinic. To make everyone realize "Prevention is better ... Single incision colorectal cancer resection ( SAGES award winning operation) Gastrectomy for cancer stomach (Key note address ... Early detection of diseases. Awareness creation in public health issues. Incorporates eminent expert team of doctors. Equipped ... early detection, cure. Public health education. Periodic Hepatitis-B Awareness and free vaccination. programmes every year one ...
"Cancer Detection" (PDF). C-Change. Retrieved 2014-04-28. "C-Change Board". C-Change. Retrieved 2014-04-28. "C-Change Board". C- ... In 2007, Members of the American Cancer Society gave Wise a ribbon in honor of his fight for survival as well as for increases ... Wise also serves on the board of advisors for the Moffitt Cancer Center. Wise is a member of the ReFormers Caucus of Issue One ... Bob Wise was diagnosed with prostate cancer and had surgery in 1999. As a survivor, the former governor has long been a ...
"Heat shock proteins and cell proliferation in human breast cancer biopsy samples". Cancer Detection and Prevention. 21 (5): 441 ... gastric cancers, colonic tumors, breast cancers, and lung cancers, which led to its use as a prognostic marker for these ... Wang X, Wang Q, Lin H, Li S, Sun L, Yang Y (February 2013). "HSP72 and gp96 in gastroenterological cancers". Clinica Chimica ... High levels of Hsp27 were also found in sera of breast cancer patients; therefore Hsp27 could be a potential diagnostic marker ...
Cancer Detection and Prevention. 28 (6): 426-432. doi:10.1016/j.cdp.2004.09.002. PMID 15582266. Lapchak P (2010). "Efficacy and ... Clinical trials of TSC have focused on testing the compound's effectiveness in sensitizing hypoxic cancer cells to radiation ... Abdullaev F, Espinosa-Aguirre J (2004). "Biomedical properties of saffron and its potential use in cancer therapy and ... therapy in patients with glioblastoma, an aggressive form of brain cancer. TSC, which is being developed by Diffusion ...
"Identification of differentially expressed proteins during human urinary bladder cancer progression". Cancer Detection and ... Cancer. 12 (9): 599-612. doi:10.1038/nrc3343. PMID 22898539. Geisbrecht BV, Gould SJ (Oct 1999). "The human PICD gene encodes a ... Mutations in IDH1 are also implicated in cancer. Originally, mutations in IDH1 were detected in an integrated genomic analysis ...
... is often used in cancer research to conduct assessments of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), also known as a liquid biopsy ... A fundamental challenge that digital PCR was designed to address was the detection of minor quantities of a pre-determined ... This massively parallel PCR platform delivers high levels of sensitivity (.001%) for the detection of rare tumor DNA molecules ... Li, Meng; Diehl, Frank; Dressman, Devin; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W. "BEAMing up for detection and quantification of ...
Cancer Detection and Prevention. 25 (5): 454-69. PMID 11718452. Ruault M, Brun ME, Ventura M, Roizès G, De Sario A (Feb 2002 ... British Journal of Cancer. 91 (8): 1543-50. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6602187. PMC 2409931 . PMID 15365572. Kimura K, Wakamatsu A, ... "Differential gene expression profiles of radioresistant oesophageal cancer cell lines established by continuous fractionated ...
He organized a Gordon Research Conference on New Frontiers in Cancer Detection and Diagnosis in 2002, which was continued for ... Sudhir Srivastava, PhD, MPH, is chief of the Cancer Biomarkers Research Group of the Division of Cancer Prevention at the ... "Division of Cancer Prevention Staff: Sudhir Srivastava". "Cancer Biomarkers Research Group". "All Ireland-NCI Consortium". " ... Srivastava is an elected member of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), responsible for developing cancer staging ...
Cancer Detection[edit]. As the immunosignature platform is useful for any disease which engages the immune system,[9] it was ... Healthy versus cancer state samples were distinguishable, but there was a slight overlap of the signatures among the cancers. ... "Cancer Informatics. 14 (Suppl 2): 219-233. doi:10.4137/CIn.s17285. ISSN 1176-9351. PMC 4476374. PMID 26157331.. ... Antibody Detection[edit]. To detect those human antibodies, the array is covered with a solution of a fluorescently labeled ...
Skin cancer treatment[edit]. Zinc chloride has been used in alternative medicine to cause eschars, scabs of dead tissue, in an ... Fingerprint detection[edit]. Ninhydrin reacts with amino acids and amines to form a colored compound "Ruhemann's purple" (RP). ... "187 Fake Cancer "Cures" Consumers Should Avoid". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. July 7, 2009. Retrieved December 21, 2009. ... Menzel, E. R. (1999). Fingerprint Detection with Lasers. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8247-1974-6. .. ...
... improve early detection of cancer; invest in primary care; give CCGs greater control over specialised commissioning; improve ...
Although blood-borne ctDNA remains the most clinically significant noninvasive cancer detection, other studies have emerged ... "Blood Test for Early Cancer Detection". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 2017-04-10. Spethmann, Sebastian; Fischer, Carsten; ... detection of certain mutant alleles may enhance survival rates in cancer patients. In a recent study, ctDNA was shown to be "a ... which can both provide early detection of tumor growth and indicate relapse in cancer. Circulating tumor DNA can be found in ...
Applications for SPMR include cancer detection. Another application is the scanning SQUID microscope, which uses a SQUID ... "Detection of breast cancer cells using targeted magnetic nanoparticles and ultra-sensitive magnetic field sensors". Breast ... "Magnetic relaxometry as applied to sensitive cancer detection and localization". Biomedical Engineering / Biomedizinische ... In the case of untuned SQUID detection of prepolarized spins, however, the NMR signal strength is independent of precession ...
Nielsen et al, Eur J Cancer. 1990;26(10):1049-54 Yuasa T, Yoshiki T, Ogawa O, et al. (May-June 1999). "Detection of alpha- ... It is a malignant neoplasm and is one of the most treatable and curable cancers, with a survival rate above 95% if discovered ... "NCCN Testicular Cancer Guidelines". NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. Nichols; et al. (2013). "Active Surveillance ... Orchidectomy specimen showing seminoma "Testicular cancer". Medline Plus. Retrieved 2012-12-13. "Seminoma" at Dorland's Medical ...
"Malignant cell detection and cervical cancer screening". Analytical and quantitative cytology. 6 (2). ISSN 0190-0471. Haddad, W ... Cancer research Weinstein studied mechanisms of carcinogenesis, pre-cancer development, and cancer invasion and metastasis. He ... He studied cancer multi-drug resistance at the Arizona Cancer Center. He also holds academic appointments in the university's ... Weinstein participated in National Cancer Institute (NCI) funded cancer clinical trials as Director of the National Bladder ...
"GE Healthcare Acquires U-Systems, Inc.; Expands GE Presence in Breast Cancer Detection". November 9, 2012. Official website. ...
Chodak GW (Nov 1989). "Early detection and screening for prostatic cancer". Urology. 34 (4 Suppl): 10-2; discussion 46-56. doi: ...
Kaiser, Jocelyn (19 January 2018). "'Liquid biopsy' for cancer promises early detection". Science. 359 (6373): 259. doi:10.1126 ... sarcoma and melanoma cancers, to allow the cells to more effectively combat the cancers, the first of their kind trials in the ... The new test, based on cancer-related DNA and proteins found in the blood, produced 70% positive results in the tumor-types ... Netburn, Deborah (18 January 2018). "This new blood test can detect early signs of 8 kinds of cancer". Los Angeles Times. ...
Srivastava, S; Verma, M; Henson, D. E. (2001). "Biomarkers for early detection of colon cancer". Clinical Cancer Research. 7 (5 ... It is a precursor lesion of the colorectal adenocarcinoma (colon cancer). Some morphological variants have been described: ... "Early diagnosis of colorectal cancer: A review". Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. 77 (8): 673-6. PMC 1440108 . PMID ...
"Programmable probiotics for detection of cancer in urine". "Synchronized cycles of bacterial lysis for in vivo delivery". " ... As a postdoctoral scientist at MIT, he worked in Sangeeta Bhatia's laboratory at the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer ... Here he also characterized an engineered strain of S. typhimurium for the sustained release of cancer therapeutics, which was ... He runs the Synthetic Biological Systems Laboratory at Columbia University, focuses on treating cancer with probiotic bacteria ...
Rex, D. K. (2006). Maximizing detection of adenomas and cancers during colonoscopy. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, ... More than two-thirds of colorectal cancer burden is the result of slowly progressing pre-cancerous polyps. Removal of at least ... He played a key role in Medicare reimbursement for colonoscopy resulting in adoption of the procedure as a colorectal cancer ... Colonoscopy screening for colorectal cancer was thus established in the United States. Rex is a major figure in the technical ...
Many screening tests involve the detection of cancers. It is often hypothesized that slower-growing tumors have better ... An example of this is prostate cancer screening; it has been said that "more men die with prostate cancer than of it". Autopsy ... prevent cervical cancer Mammography to detect breast cancer Colonoscopy and fecal occult blood test to detect colorectal cancer ... Thus screening may tend to detect cancers that would not have killed the patient or even been detected prior to death from ...
... and Transparency Vice Chairman of the American Cancer Society New England Chapter of CEOs Against Cancer Judge and chairman of ... early detection, quality care". Hospital Newspaper. Retrieved 3 February 2017. "NCBA CLUSA Board of Directors". National ... "CEOs Against Cancer creates healthy workplaces". NH Bedford Bulletin, p. B6. 21 November 2012. "New England CEOs launch effort ... to fight cancer Initiative offers support for employers; focuses on risk reduction, ...
... for the detection of giant aneurysms; Stereotactic Singulectomy for intractable cancer pain; Radioactive Iodine 131 Serum ... FL-18 Isotope for the detection of brain tumors; INDPTA (intravascular) ... Albumin early detection of cerebral hydrocephalus in mielomeningocele; Sulfonamides early treatment later followed by ...
Kiessling AA, Goulian M (June 1979). "Detection of reverse transcriptase activity in human cells". Cancer Research. 39 (6 Pt 1 ... She did postdoctoral research at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, and University ... Borzy MS, Connell RS, Kiessling AA (1988). "Detection of human immunodeficiency virus in cell-free seminal fluid". Journal of ...
Third, when the markers are widely spaced, the QTL may be quite far from all markers, and so the power for QTL detection will ... Many disorders with genetic components are polygenic, including autism, cancer, diabetes and numerous others. Most phenotypic ... As a consequence, the power of detection may be compromised, and the estimates of locations and effects of QTLs may be biased ( ... Conventional methods for the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) are based on a comparison of single QTL models with a ...
... provides breast and cervical cancer screenings and diagnostic services to low-income, uninsured, and underinsured women across ... CDCs National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) ... CDCs National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides breast and cervical cancer screenings and ... Content source: Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ...
... and get information about the pros and cons of early detection tests to help you decide if prostate cancer screening is right ... Learn about the factors that may affect your risk for prostate cancer, ... Prostate Cancer Prevention and Early Detection. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men (not counting skin cancer). It ... American Cancer Society Recommendations for Prostate Cancer Early Detection * If Prostate Cancer Screening Test Results Arent ...
BCEDP is a program administered by the Community Healthcare Netword and funded by the Manhattan Breast Health Partnership/ ACS. Our aim is to eleminate health disparities via education with particular
Many of todays tools for screening and diagnosing cancer are crude at best. So researchers are working to find more-sensitive ... The tests, which wont be available for at least another two years, are designed to detect early signs of cancers of the ovary ... Many of todays tools for screening and diagnosing cancer are crude at best. So researchers are working to find more-sensitive ... It is collaborating with Johnson and Johnson to develop a prostate cancer diagnosis test, which it is currently testing on a ...
... and lung cancers helps find these diseases at an early stage, when treatment works best. ... Screening for cervical cancer and colorectal (colon) cancer can prevent cancer by finding early lesions so they can be treated ... Activities that promote early detection and treatment of cancer include-. *Providing education and community outreach ... Cancer Prevention and Control Works. Communities can prevent and control cancer when they have the right partners, plans, and ...
Early detection of gastric cancer.. BMJ 1990; 301 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.301.6751.513 (Published 15 September 1990) ... RESULTS--Disease was identified in 1992 patients (75%). Fifty seven were found to have gastric cancer, 36 being treated by ... DESIGN--Prospective study of gastric cancer in dyspeptic patients aged over 40 from a defined population. SETTING--10 General ... MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Increase in early and operable gastric cancers detected in middle aged patients with dyspepsia. ...
"Our goal is to develop a technique that can improve the detection of other cancers in order to provide early treatments, much ... The lung cancer findings are published online today (Oct. 5) by the journal Cancer Research. The paper will appear in print in ... Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Survival rates are high with surgical resection ( ... The paper is titled "Optical Detection of Buccal Epithelial Nanoarchitectural Alterations in Patients Harboring Lung Cancer: ...
What advantages might it offer over standard biopsy detection? ... How useful is MRI in the early detection of prostate cancer? ... Detection of indolent cancer by MRI pathway. Detection of csPCa by standard TRUS biopsy. Detection of indolent cancer by ... Is MRI cost-effective in the early detection of prostate cancer?. Cost-effectiveness data from PROMIS[24] revealed that the MRI ... Purpose of review: The use of MRI in the early detection of prostate cancer (PCa) is increasing rapidly. In the last couple of ...
... D. J. Gavaghan,1 J. M. Brady,2 C. P. Behrenbruch,2 R. P. Highnam,3 and P. K. Maini4 ... This paper reviews a number of the mathematical models used in cancer modelling and then chooses a specific cancer, breast ... and how these models in turn will help to meet some of the major challenges in cancer detection. ... which complements models of tumour growth and facilitates diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Mammographic images are ...
A simple blood test which may allow the early detection of all forms of cancer has been developed by the British research team ... A simple blood test which may allow the early detection of all forms of cancer has been developed by the British research team ... "The ability to do a broad test for cancers will be extremely important, as early detection is a major factor in determining the ... The hope is that it will complement existing diagnostic procedures, and thereby improve the accuracy of cancer detection.. The ...
RESEARCHERS have developed a blood test that can detect the presence of eight common cancers which amounts to a very promising ... Along with cancer detection, the blood test accurately predicted what type of cancer it was in 83 per cent of cases. ... that can detect the presence of eight common cancers which amounts to a very promising breakthrough in early cancer detection. ... Early diagnosis remains the key to avoiding the potentially devastating impact of many cancer treatments and to reducing cancer ...
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States, and routine screenings remain the ... most reliable way to detect the disease early, a breast cancer expert says. ... home / cancer center / cancer a-z list / breast cancer screenings still best detection article ... Not all women with breast cancer experience the same warning signs of the disease. Symptoms of breast cancer may include:. *A ...
... that improved the accuracy of lung-cancer diagnosis in tissue and… ... Two new approaches to help diagnose lung cancer could enable doctors to determine which patients need surgery, which is often ... Better Detection of Lung Cancer. New diagnosis methods could reduce invasive and unnecessary surgery. ... Lung cancer presents a serious challenge to oncologists. While it is responsible for the greatest number of cancer-related ...
... early detection of testicular cancer is simple. It only takes a three-minute self-examination once a month. The best time for ... Read about 10 symptoms and signs of testicular cancer; ... The best hope for early detection of testicular cancer is a ... "Testicular Cancer." American Cancer Society, Testicular Cancer. Feb. 12, 2016. ,http://www.cancer.org/cancer/testicularcancer/ ... Testicular cancer is a potentially deadly disease. Although it accounts for only 1.2% of all cancers in males, cancer of the ...
The shift from film to digital technology appears to have improved cancer detection rates for diagnostic mammography, but also ... Alongside improved cancer detection, some less desirable trends emerged. The abnormal interpretation rate, or the rate at which ... The shift from film to digital technology appears to have improved cancer detection rates for diagnostic mammography, but also ... For instance, Europe has been able to achieve cancer detection rates similar to U.S. rates with much lower abnormal ...
The purpose of this paper is to review the existing literature about the use of functional MRI in prostate cancer detection. ... has emerged as a promising method for the detection of prostate cancer. The functional MRI components of the MP-MRI consist of ... Functional MRI in Prostate Cancer Detection. Sandeep Sankineni. ,1 Murat Osman. ,1 and Peter L. Choyke1. 1Molecular Imaging ... Functional MRI in Prostate Cancer Detection,. BioMed Research International,. vol. 2014. ,. Article ID 590638. ,. 8. pages. , ...
PRNewswire/ -- Ibex Medical Analytics, the pioneer in artificial intelligence (AI)-powered cancer diagnostics, today announced ... Ibex Obtains CE-IVD Mark for AI-powered Cancer Detection English * English ... Galen Prostate - the first-ever AI-based solution for cancer detection used in routine clinical practice - is already deployed ... Ibex Obtains CE-IVD Mark for AI-powered Cancer Detection. News provided by ...
Novel study on olfactory detection of prostate cancer published in European Urology ... Jean-Nicolas Cornu and colleagues reported the evaluation of the efficacy of prostate cancer (PCa) detection by trained dogs on ... The dog completed all the runs and correctly designated the cancer samples in 30 of 33 cases. Of the three cases wrongly ... In their article, the researchers affirm that volatiles organic compounds (VOCs) in urine have been proposed as cancer ...
Early Detection Project Awards fund exceptional science to drive a transformational change in how and when early cancers and ... Early Detection Conference Our annual Early Detection of Cancer Conference, held in partnership with the OHSU Knight Cancer ... Early detection (EDx) research seeks to identify cancer or pre-cancerous states at the earliest possible point at which an ... Early Detection Project Awards fund exceptional science to drive a transformational change in how and when early cancers and ...
Anti-Globalism notes a large study out of the UK indicating that computer-aided detection can be as effective at spotting ... breast cancer as two experts reading the x-rays. Mammograms in Britain are routinely checked by two radiologists or technicians ... "Computer Detection Effective In Spotting Cancer". I detect computers in my room, thus that means there is cancer in my room? ... computer-aided detection has the potential to improve cancer-detection rates to the level achieved by double reading, the ...
Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis and Prevention (CED-DAP). Peer Bork and Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz. ... Potential of fecal microbiota for early-stage detection of colorectal cancer. Zeller G, Tap J, Voigt AY, Sunagawa S, Kultima JR ... MSI-H cancers are an ideal cancer type for developing immune intervention and prevention strategies against cancer and for ... A new method for detection of tumor driver-dependent changes of protein sialylation in a colon cancer cell line reveals nectin- ...
... 15.08.2017. Scientists from the University of Würzburg have synthesized a complex sugar ... Now the JMU scientists are working on a rapid test for the detection of galectin-1. It is designed to enable early detection of ... ChemBioChem »Julius-Maximilians-Universität »X-ray »cancer research »docking station »human cells »immune system »sugar ... Further reports about: , ChemBioChem , Julius-Maximilians-Universität , X-ray , cancer research , docking station , human cells ...
Your organization] is proud to participate in Melanoma/Skin Cancer Detection and Prevention Month. During the month of May, ... Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the United States. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun is the main cause ... May Melanoma/Skin Cancer Detection and Prevention Month. Sponsor: American Academy of Dermatology ... The good news is that skin cancer can be prevented, and it can almost always be cured when its found and treated early. ...
Mathematical Models for Breast Cancer Detection with Microwave Tomography. The most popular method of breast cancer detection ... A Visualization Method for Breast Cancer Detection Using Microwaves. F. Delbary, M. Brignone, G. Bozza, R. Aramini, and M. ... Microwave tomography detects cancers by measuring inhomogeneities in the electrical conductivity of breast tissue. An array of ... However, there are several disadvantages to using X-rays for breast cancer screening, chief among them being the invasivity of ...
Anderson Cancer Center agree that getting breast implants does not increase a womans breast cancer risks or prevent her from ... October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month, and breast experts from The University of Texas M. D. ... Cancer October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month, and breast experts from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center ... Tags: breast implants , do not , interfere , cancer detection , implants dont cause cancer ...
  • These tumors constitute a substantial part of colorectal cancers, but also a wide variety of cancers outside the colorectum. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • It is designed to enable early detection of tumors such as neuroblastoma. (innovations-report.com)
  • However, both the tumor cells of different types of cancer and the cells of tumors differ within one type of cancer. (tgdaily.com)
  • CHICAGO (Reuters) - An experimental blood screening test from Grail Inc showed early promise in detecting early-stage lung cancers based on free-floating DNA released by tumors, according to preliminary results released on Saturday. (reuters.com)
  • By placing an artificial blood vessel near tumors, he was able to collect motile cancer cells for study and to predict-by the presence or absence of certain signaling molecules-whether the tumor cells have the potential to metastasize. (medgadget.com)
  • Speaker Deborah Rhodes talks about the difficulties with finding tumors in this breast cancer speech. (trendhunter.com)
  • Clinicians using such molecular probes should be able to "find cancer in a much earlier stage when the tumors are much smaller," enabling doctors to begin treatment earlier, Li said. (emaxhealth.com)
  • But many tumors do not significantly differ from surrounding healthy tissues with contrast enhanced MRI and so evade easy detection. (ucsd.edu)
  • Higher grade tumors correlate with higher restricted water volume in the cancer cells' large nuclei. (ucsd.edu)
  • Acoustic neuroma tumors, while they aren't cancer, can be dangerous if they grow large and press against the brainstem or brain. (mdanderson.org)
  • Aptamers as specific and sensitive probes for in vitro diagnosis of cancer cells, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of tumor tissues, and in vivo imaging detection of tumors. (rsc.org)
  • While a screening MRI may be recommended for certain women with a particularly high risk for breast cancer, breast MRIs are typically used for women who have already been diagnosed to help measure the cancer's size and look for other breast tumors (in the diagnosed breast and in the other). (blogarama.com)
  • Canine cancer detection is an approach to cancer screening that relies upon the claimed olfactory ability of dogs to detect, in urine or in breath, very low concentrations of the alkanes and aromatic compounds generated by malignant tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current method of diagnosis - examination of the tissue under a microscope - misses up to 30 percent of cancers, so the new test would be used to confirm that cancer really was absent in biopsies that appeared normal. (technologyreview.com)
  • TEL AVIV, Israel , Feb. 27, 2020 /PRNewswire/ -- Ibex Medical Analytics , the pioneer in artificial intelligence (AI)-powered cancer diagnostics, today announced CE-IVD Mark for the Galen™ Prostate solution for use in supporting pathologists in identification of suspected cancer on prostate core needle biopsies. (prnewswire.com)
  • To this day, cancer diagnosis is performed by pathologists looking at biopsies through a microscope. (prnewswire.com)
  • Ibex uses AI to develop clinical-grade solutions that help pathologists detect and grade cancer in biopsies, helping them ensure diagnostic accuracy, integrate comprehensive quality control and enable a more efficient workflow. (prnewswire.com)
  • Ibex provides the first-ever AI-powered cancer diagnostics solution in routine clinical use in pathology labs, supporting pathologists in delivering accurate, rapid and objective diagnosis of prostate and breast biopsies. (prnewswire.com)
  • Blood tests, or liquid biopsies, to noninvasively detect cancer earlier are a focus of research. (pancan.org)
  • Adding PSA velocity to the model would have identified 115 additional cancers (although not necessarily fatal cancers) but also resulted in 433 "unnecessary biopsies" that would have shown no cancer. (cancer.gov)
  • Breast MRI scans are not recommended as a screening test for the average woman because they tend to report more false positives (find something that isn't actually cancer), which could lead to unneeded tests and biopsies. (blogarama.com)
  • While white-light examination (WLE) remains firmly entrenched as the most common screening method for oral and oropharyngeal cancers, brush biopsies and fluorescent/luminescent techniques are playing an increasingly important role in early detection of these diseases ( Head & Neck Oncology , January 2009, Vol. 1:5). (drbicuspid.com)
  • In addition, 13 of the 76 additional biopsies obtained based on AFV findings were high-grade lesions or oral cancers, and five patients were diagnosed with a high-grade lesion or oral cancer only because of the addition of AFV to WLE. (drbicuspid.com)
  • The data showed a steep rise in the overall numbers of oral squamous cell carcinoma (oral cancers) and oral epithelial dysplasia (pre-cancerous lesions) detected by dentists. (utoronto.ca)
  • Overall, 828 cases of oral cancer were diagnosed by the U of T oral pathology service between 2005 to 2015, along with 2,679 premalignant lesions. (utoronto.ca)
  • While advanced oral cancers are fairly easy to detect, Magalhaes says pre-malignant lesions and early cancer can be easy to miss without specialized training. (utoronto.ca)
  • While the study provides evidence that TOPS was involved in the diagnosis of approximately 10 per cent of all oral cancers in the province, it also demonstrated a dramatic increase in the number of pre-cancerous lesions identified by these health-care providers. (utoronto.ca)
  • Some do surgery in all cases, while others perform surgery only for lesions that have higher cancer rates, such as "atypical ductal hyperplasia" (ADH) or a "lobular carcinoma in situ" (LCIS). (mit.edu)
  • the second approach is imprecise and could result in missing cancers in high-risk lesions other than ADH and LCIS. (mit.edu)
  • The vast majority of patients with high-risk lesions do not have cancer, and we're trying to find the few that do," says Bahl, a fellow doctor at MGH's Department of Radiology. (mit.edu)
  • In particular, this technique could benefit patients with familial pancreatic cancer or cystic lesions. (ucdavis.edu)
  • These lesions may or may not become cancer, but right now we can't tell the difference. (ucdavis.edu)
  • It also points to a gap in the adoption of these technologies by specialists and the need for the dental community to be more organized when it comes to diagnosing suspicious lesions, according to co-author Mary Reid, Ph.D., a research scientist in the Division of Cancer Prevention and Population Sciences at Roswell Park Cancer Institute. (drbicuspid.com)
  • The Roswell study involved 60 patients who were considered high risk for oral cancer, because they had at least one of three criteria: presence of clinically suspicious oral lesions, a history of previously treated oral cancers with not evidence of recurrence for at least six month following treatment, or presence of recently diagnosed, untreated oral premalignant lesions or oral cancers. (drbicuspid.com)
  • Sequential surveillance with WLE + AFV provided a greater sensitivity than WLE in detecting low-grade lesions (75% vs. 44%), high-grade lesions (100% vs. 71%), and oral cancers (100% vs. 80%)," Reid and her colleagues wrote. (drbicuspid.com)
  • Even so, "AFV + WLE can be a highly sensitive first-line surveillance tool for detecting oral premalignant lesions and oral cancers in high-risk patients," they concluded. (drbicuspid.com)
  • Dentists all over the country are very concerned about missing cancers, so they use tools such as the VELscope to detect lesions they can't see otherwise," she said. (drbicuspid.com)
  • Evidence has linked alcohol consumption to various cancers. (cancervic.org.au)
  • Convincing evidence links obesity to various cancers. (cancervic.org.au)
  • This comprehensive and easy-to-follow protocol will be useful for studying miRNAs in various cancers and can be readily adapted for miRNA analysis in a variety of human diseases. (springer.com)
  • Called CancerSEEK , the blood test detects tiny amounts of DNA and proteins released into the blood stream from cancer cells. (news.com.au)
  • The technology that detects cancer in the blood needs to be highly sensitive to the presence of cancer to reduce the risk that it will miss some. (cancer.ca)
  • Our goal is to develop a technique that can improve the detection of other cancers in order to provide early treatments, much as the pap smear has drastically improved survival rates for cervical cancer. (northwestern.edu)
  • Their multidisciplinary breakthrough, which has the potential to automate the screening of images and improve the detection rate, has been published in leading journal, PLOS ONE . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The analysis was broken out by different methods for measuring PSA velocity as well as by whether PSA velocity might improve the detection of more aggressive cancers (defined as those with a Gleason score of 7 or higher) and "clinically significant" cancers (defined by the commonly used Epstein criteria). (cancer.gov)
  • The ability to distinguish cancer cells from healthy cells during surgery is essential for preventing the removal of healthy tissue and ensuring no tumor remnants are left behind. (news-medical.net)
  • Neither test, used separately or in tandem, is accurate enough to distinguish potentially fatal cancers from benign tumours. (cancer.org.au)
  • Tan, a member of the UF Shands Cancer Center and the UF Genetics Institute, said that scientists know that cancer tissue has a unique molecular fingerprint that can distinguish it from healthy tissue. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The shape of the strong absorption spectrum of the gold nanoparticles are also found to distinguish between cancer cells and noncancerous cells. (biologynews.net)
  • These assays are highly sensitive (able to detect down to about 20 tumor cells with methylated DNA) and specific (can distinguish methylated from normal DNA from in a ratio of 1 tumor cell in 10,000 normal cells), and could serve to add value to current prostate cancer screening modalities. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Grail's lung cancer data comes from a wider study that eventually aims to enroll 15,000 participants and cover 20 different types of cancers. (reuters.com)
  • Backman and Roy earlier used PWS to assess the risk of colon and pancreatic cancers, also with promising results. (northwestern.edu)
  • However, where there are proven screening tests that lead to earlier diagnosis and better outcomes, such as colonoscopy screening for bowel cancer, these are typically unpleasant. (news.com.au)
  • In an attempt to diagnose lung cancer earlier, a large nationwide study is under way to determine if screening heavy smokers with CT scans can reduce death rates. (technologyreview.com)
  • Comparison with the results from the earlier BCSC benchmarks publication revealed that the cancer detection rate rose from 25.3 per 1,000 in 2005 to 34.7 per 1,000 in the new study. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Scientists have pioneered a new approach to detecting cancer cells, one that could eventually allow doctors to discover many malignancies earlier than currently possible. (emaxhealth.com)
  • We can use this probe to recognize cancer cells," potentially discovering cancer earlier than often occurs today, said Dihua Shangguan, a UF postdoctoral associate in chemistry and the first author on a paper about the approach that appears today in the online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Nanotechnology provides new molecular contrast agents and materials to enable earlier and more accurate initial diagnosis as well as in continual monitoring of cancer patient treatment. (cancer.gov)
  • UC San Diego bioengineering and biological sciences professor and the other senior author on the work, Jeff Hasty, expects the new method will enable the detection of liver cancer at an earlier stage, increasing the chances that it will be treated successfully. (ucsd.edu)
  • Dr. Vogelstein's other earlier detection project involves bringing together scientists from a broad range of disciplines such as radiology, physics, and vision science, which encompasses areas including how visual information is understood and how artificial systems can also process this information. (lustgarten.org)
  • Years from now, deaths from pancreatic cancer will be less common and that's going to be in large part due to earlier detection. (lustgarten.org)
  • There are characteristic patterns of mutations and altered proteins that differ among cancer types. (news.com.au)
  • Cancer is a disease, which is caused by genomic instability and accumulation of mutations. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Mutations of coding microsatellites results in the translation of proteins with mutation-induced frameshift peptides (neoantigens) rendering MSI cancers highly immunogenic. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • MSI cancers express a defined set of shared neoantigens resulting from functionally relevant driver mutations. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Utilization of neo-antigens in cancers caused by deficient DNA mismatch repair mechanisms resulting from the accumulation of mutations particularly in repetitive sequence elements (microsatellite-unstable or MSI-H cancers). (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • QClamp® is a rapid, sensitive qPCR based platform for detection of somatic mutations in cancer genes. (prweb.com)
  • Already clinically established as contrast agents for anatomical structure, nanoparticles are being developed to act as molecular imaging agents, reporting on the presence of cancer-relevant genetic mutations or the functional characteristics of tumor cells. (cancer.gov)
  • While these diagnostic modalities provide the opportunity for detection and successful treatment, the aim of the new Avon Foundation-funded research initiative is to pursue non-imaging techniques that offer compelling and innovative opportunities. (redorbit.com)
  • The current test for prostate cancer is not very reliable and gives many false positives, while many women find a mammogram awkward," Professor Parish explained. (medindia.net)
  • If a mass is felt or seen on a mammogram, an ultrasound can be used to determine if it is a fluid-filled cyst (not cancer) or a solid mass. (blogarama.com)
  • Specifically, the new model diagnosed 97 percent of cancers compared to 79 percent. (mit.edu)
  • In fact, the increase in the number of cases detected at TOPS was significantly higher - 180 per cent - than the overall increase of oral cancers recorded in the province over that same period, which was just 30 per cent. (utoronto.ca)
  • This exciting project seeks to bring to life the tumour micro-environment through 3D synchrotron images of the vessels and will help to advance our understanding of this critical cancer progression process," Professor Aranda said. (www.csiro.au)
  • Resection margin involvement and tumour origin in pancreatic head cancer. (springer.com)
  • Doctors take a sample directly from the suspected tumour and look at the tissue through a microscope to look for cancer cells. (cancer.ca)
  • Cancers can be immensely different from each other - not just different types of cancer, but also the same type of cancer in different people, and even different cells within the same tumour. (cancer.ca)
  • They found that KU-Lu-1 reacted only with tumour cells and tumour stromal fibroblasts in lung cancer tissues and not with normal lung tissues. (siliconindia.com)
  • While DNA and proteins are also released from normal cells, the DNA and proteins from cancer cells are unique, containing multiple changes not present in normal cells. (news.com.au)
  • Galectins are a family of proteins that have become a promising source of cancer research in recent years. (innovations-report.com)
  • Or from other body fluids) While such analyses used to be based on some proteins, so-called tumor markers, concentrated research is currently focusing on the detection of tumor genome or whole tumor cells in the blood. (tgdaily.com)
  • Some of these properties can also be investigated in a blood sample instead of on tumor tissue, e.g. by detecting cancer-promoting genetic alterations or proteins on circulating tumor cells. (tgdaily.com)
  • Clinicians can sometimes use antibodies, proteins that recognize and fight bodily intruders, to identify different types of cancer. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Blood samples can contain abnormal proteins, sugars or pieces of DNA that come from cancer cells in the body. (pancan.org)
  • Once the technique is fully developed, a patient's blood or urine sample will be analyzed for the presence of specific proteins that indicate the presence of cancer. (wm.edu)
  • The lack of this diagnostic molecule may be associated with the ability of cancers to escape the immune system and cause disease," he said. (medindia.net)
  • The hope is that it will complement existing diagnostic procedures, and thereby improve the accuracy of cancer detection. (medindia.net)
  • A vibrational spectroscopic imaging technology that captures images of living cells could become an advanced medical diagnostic tool for the early detection of cancer and other diseases. (photonics.com)
  • 19. A method for isolating, purifying or enriching a EpCAM expressing cell(s) and/or cancer stem cell(s) from a biological sample obtained from a subject, the method comprising contacting the cell with an RNA aptamer according to any one of claims 1 to 13 or the diagnostic agent according to claim 14 or 15. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In the near term, we hope to build new diagnostic instruments for molecular diagnostics with applications in oncology and infectious disease detection, both viruses and (drug-resistant) bacteria," Schmidt said. (newswise.com)
  • The results of our study provide evidence that the CKAP4 protein may be a novel early sero-diagnostic marker for lung cancer,' said co-author Ryo Nagashio from Kitasato University School of Allied Health Sciences in Japan. (siliconindia.com)
  • One such announcement from this year's event has largely flown under the radar: Madison, WI-based molecular diagnostics company Exact Sciences acquired Armune BioScience , a cancer diagnostic startup with offices in Kalamazoo and Ann Arbor, MI. (xconomy.com)
  • Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix. (wikipedia.org)
  • While bleeding after sex may not be serious, it may also indicate the presence of cervical cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • most people who have had HPV infections, however, do not develop cervical cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cervical cancer typically develops from precancerous changes over 10 to 20 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 90% of cervical cancer cases are squamous cell carcinomas, 10% are adenocarcinoma, and a small number are other types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Worldwide, cervical cancer is both the fourth-most common cause of cancer and the fourth-most common cause of death from cancer in women. (wikipedia.org)
  • In medical research, the most famous immortalised cell line, known as HeLa, was developed from cervical cancer cells of a woman named Henrietta Lacks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bleeding after douching or after a pelvic exam is a common symptom of cervical cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not all of the causes of cervical cancer are known, however, and several other contributing factors have been implicated. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, these serotypes are usually not related to cervical cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is common to have multiple strains at the same time, including those that can cause cervical cancer along with those that cause warts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection with HPV is generally believed to be required for cervical cancer to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smoking has also been linked to the development of cervical cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • A direct way of contracting this cancer is a smoker has a higher chance of CIN3 occurring which has the potential of forming cervical cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • When Jack first began his research, he didn't even know he had a pancreas, but when pancreatic cancer suddenly claimed the life of a close family friend who was like "an uncle" to him he got to thinking. (mercola.com)
  • The study was comprised of 135 participants including 63 smokers with lung cancer and control groups of 37 smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 13 smokers without COPD and 22 non-smokers. (northwestern.edu)
  • If we can stop cancers spreading we can reduce the number of people who die from the disease. (www.csiro.au)
  • Prostate cancer is more common in older men and those with a family history of the disease. (cancer.org.au)
  • Identifying possible warning signs of cancer can help in early diagnosis of the disease. (yahoo.com)
  • Hence, early detection of oral cancer results in positive healing of the disease. (yahoo.com)
  • Prostate cancer can often be an indolent disease, where a patient may only require surveillance rather than aggressive surgery," noted co-author Christopher J. Kane, MD , professor of urology at UC San Diego. (ucsd.edu)
  • Cancer is a disease of the cells, which are the body's basic building blocks. (cancervic.org.au)
  • Building upon novel technology developed while working on Homeland Security projects at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as well as from his biomedical graduate student days at the University of California, Berkeley, Davalos, an assistant professor of biomedical engineering at Virginia Tech, is now creating unique microsystems that are showing considerable promise for the detection of cancer and for the study of the progression of this disease. (innovations-report.com)
  • The results of the new study, published in the May 27 issue of Science Translational Medicine, indicate that genetically-programmed probiotics may be useful for detecting liver cancer metastases early-on in the progression of the disease. (ucsd.edu)
  • Cancer is one of the frequently talked about and most feared disease that falls under the genre of lifestyle diseases that have evolved, rather rapidly, in the past two decades. (medindia.net)
  • However, those with aggressive but curable forms of the disease are those who will benefit the most from early disease detection. (jamaica-gleaner.com)
  • While several factors can increase your chances of developing lung cancer, smoking cigarettes as both, an active and a passive smoker, serves as the primary cause of this disease. (tgdaily.com)
  • The book begins with a brief introduction to systems biology, explaining why cancer is a systems biology disease. (wiley.com)