Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Vinyl Chloride: A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Polyvinyl Chloride: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Mercuric Chloride: Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Methylene Chloride: A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Lithium Chloride: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Benzalkonium Compounds: A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Urinary Bladder Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.National Cancer Institute (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.United StatesCadmium Chloride: A cadmium halide in the form of colorless crystals, soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. It is used in photography, in dyeing, and calico printing, and as a solution to precipitate sulfides. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Mouth Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Molecular Targeted Therapy: Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.Vinyl CompoundsCarcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.American Cancer Society: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of cancer through education and research.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid: An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator: A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Genital Neoplasms, Female: Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.DeoxycytidineGerm-Line Mutation: Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.Precancerous Conditions: Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Genes, Neoplasm: Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.JapanConfidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Receptors, Androgen: Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Cetylpyridinium: Cationic bactericidal surfactant used as a topical antiseptic for skin, wounds, mucous membranes, instruments, etc.; and also as a component in mouthwash and lozenges.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.HT29 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Taxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.HCT116 Cells: Human COLORECTAL CARCINOMA cell line.MCF-7 Cells: An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Genes, BRCA2: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)BRCA2 Protein: A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)
Radium chloride Bruland OS, Larsen RH. Radium revisited. In: Bruland OS, Flgstad T, editors. Targeted cancer therapies: an ... http://www.cancer.org/cancer/news/news/fda-approves-xofigo-for-advanced-prostate-cancer[full citation needed] http://www.ema. ... and is distributed as a solution containing radium-223 chloride (1100 kBq/ml), sodium chloride, and other ingredients for ... The use of radium-223 to treat metastatic bone cancer relies on the ability of alpha radiation from radium-223 and its short- ...
The drug binds to glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in the membranes of invertebrate nerve and muscle cells, causing ... European Journal of Cancer. 32A (6): 985-90. doi:10.1016/0959-8049(96)00063-9. PMID 8763339.. ... Yates DM, Wolstenholme AJ (August 2004). "An ivermectin-sensitive glutamate-gated chloride channel subunit from Dirofilaria ... increased permeability to chloride ions, resulting in cellular hyper-polarization, followed by paralysis and death.[1][50] ...
"Calcium-activated chloride channel ANO1 promotes breast cancer progression by activating EGFR and CAMK signaling". Proc. Natl. ... "Genomewide mRNA profiling of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma for identification of cancer biomarkers". Cancer Biol. Ther. 8 ... ANO1 is a transmembrane protein that functions as a calcium-activated chloride channel. Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+ activate the ... Anoctamin-1 is a voltage-sensitive calcium-activated chloride channel that is expressed in smooth muscle and epithelial cells; ...
MED12 Lung cancer; 211980; DLEC1 Lung cancer; 211980; RASSF1 Lung cancer; 211980; KRAS Lung cancer; 211980; PPP2R1B Lung cancer ... NSDHL Chloride diarrhea, congenital, Finnish type; 214700; SLC26A3 Cholestasis, benign recurrent intrahepatic, 2; 605479; ... EYA1 Breast cancer; 114480; PPM1D Breast cancer; 114480; SLC22A1L Breast cancer; 114480; TP53 Breast cancer, early-onset; ... MUTYH Colorectal cancer; 114500; AXIN2 Colorectal cancer; 114500; BUB1B Colorectal cancer; 114500; EP300 Colorectal cancer; ...
... papillary thyroid cancer and bladder cancer. Thiotepa is used to control intracavitary effusions caused by serosal neoplastic ... It is manufactured by heating aziridine with thiophosphoryl chloride. Thiotepa was developed by the American Cyanamid company ... 3.0.CO;2-W. Kim, Kyu-Won; Roh, Jae Kyung; Wee, Hee-Jun; Kim, Chan (2016). Cancer Drug Discovery: Science and History. Springer ... In 1959, thiotepa was registered with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a drug therapy for several solid cancers. On ...
The punch or incisional method is better for the latter two cancers as a false negative is less likely to occur (i.e. calling a ... Hemostasis is obtained using light electrocautery, Monsel's solution, or aluminum chloride. This is the ideal method of ... Diagnosis of basal cell cancer can be made with some limitation, as morphology of the tumor is often disrupted. The pathologist ... For this reason, doctors specializing in skin diseases are invaluable in the diagnosis of skin cancers and difficult skin ...
Methylene chloride[edit]. Methylene chloride can be found in adhesive removers and aerosol spray paints. In the human body, ... Many organic compounds are known to cause cancer in animals; some are suspected of causing, or are known to cause, cancer in ... Some organics can cause cancer in animals; some are suspected or known to cause cancer in humans. Key signs or symptoms ... methylene chloride is metabolized to carbon monoxide. If a product that contains methylene chloride needs to be used the best ...
Cancer. 3 (5): 330-338. doi:10.1038/nrc1074. PMID 12724731. Secrist, John (2005). "Nucleosides as anticancer agents: from ... One example is oligopyrroles that organize upon binding anions like chloride through hydrogen bonding (see figure). Folding is ... These have several different medicinal uses including anti-cancer, anti-viral, and anti-fungal applications. Abiotic foldamers ...
Polyvinyl chloride poisoning in Troisdorf[edit]. Until the 1970s, Dynamit Nobel polymerised the monomer vinyl chloride into ... Cancers also resulted from the exposure. After the announcement of the first thirteen severe diseases during spring 1972, work ... Therefore, they were heavily contaminated by vinyl chloride gas or by cleaning up the autoclaves. At this time, most of the ... Contamination due to vinyl chloride was so severe that for years in the company, the employees complained of damage relating to ...
... published in 1988 that concluded that workplace exposure to vinyl chloride did not increase the chance of contracting cancer, ... "Lung cancer scientist dies at 92". BBC News. 24 July 2005. Retrieved 13 July 2015. "Plaque honours eminent cancer pioneer". The ... One of the buildings of the Institute of Cancer Research in Sutton, London is also named after Sir Richard Doll. After Richard ... In 1950, he then undertook with Austin Bradford Hill a study of lung cancer patients in 20 London hospitals, at first under the ...
In these reactions, the amine displaces chloride from the ring of the quinone. It is a precursor to many dyes, such as pigment ... violet 23 and diaziquone (AZQ), a cancer chemotherapeutic agent. Chloranilic acid 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone ( ...
Recently, it has shown activity in vitro against gastric, colon, prostate, and breast cancer lines. It has the capability to ... Psoralidin production starts with a based catalyzed condensation between phenyl acetate and acid chloride. To form the ring of ...
... particularly an effect on colon cancer. The chloride of N-methylpyridinium behaves as an ionic liquid in the molten state. Its ... Solubility of hydrogen chloride under atmospheric pressure and comparison with zinc chloride - N-ethylpyridinium bromide ... Simonis, L.; Coppe, C.; Glibert, J.; Claes, P. (1986). "Properties of mixtures of zinc chloride and N-methylpyridinium chloride ... "Properties of mixtures of zinc chloride and N-methylpyridinium chloride in the molten state - II. Specific mass, electrical ...
So far trials of the drug with patients suffering from ovarian cancer, small cell lung cancer and gastric or gastro-oesophageal ... 100 millimolar) prevents the drugs from hydrolysing, but once inside the cell, where the concentration of chloride drops to ... In preclinical trials, it demonstrated cytotoxic activity in cancer cell lines that had either intrinsic or acquired resistance ... Other ligands attached to this coordination complex, include chloride. Its invention arose from earlier work showing that ...
A malignant cancer of mesenchymal cells is a type of sarcoma. Mesenchyme is characterized morphologically by a prominent ground ... Serous fluid is typically stocked with the many serous elements, such as sodium and chloride. The mesenchyme develops into the ...
"There was little evidence of any excess cancer mortality for the cohort as a whole, with the exception of bone cancer based on ... In this process, 1,2-dichloroethane, vinyl chloride are used as inhibitors so as to prevent further oxidation of ethylene oxide ... "Ethylene oxide and breast cancer incidence in a cohort study of 7576 women (United States)". Cancer Causes and Control. 14 (6 ... There was also some evidence of a positive exposure-response for breast cancer mortality." An increased incidence of brain ...
It decomposes on heating to produce toxic and corrosive fumes including hydrogen chloride and chlorine. In animal models, ... consumption of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol leads to an increased incidence of lymphomas, leukemia, and liver cancer. It is classified ...
Radium-223 chloride, strontium-89 chloride and samarium-153 EDTMP are used to treat secondary cancer in the bones. Radium and ... "Bone-targeting radiopharmaceuticals for the treatment of prostate cancer with bone metastases". Cancer Letters. 323 (2): 135- ... 90Y in the form of a resin or glass spheres can be used to treat primary and metastic liver cancers. At the Institute for ... The beta radiation released damages both normal thyroid tissue and any thyroid cancer that behaves like normal thyroid in ...
Serum CAXII levels should be applicable as a sero-diagnostic marker for lung cancer. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... "Loss of carbonic anhydrase XII function in individuals with elevated sweat chloride concentration and pulmonary airway disease ... Cancer Letters. 333 (1): 76-88. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2013.01.020. PMID 23348702. Kobayashi, M; Matsumoto, T; Ryuge, S; Yanagita ... a bitopic membrane protein overexpressed in certain cancer tumor cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (17): 9545-9550. doi: ...
... mercury chloride, and cinobufagin venom toad. Later, Han Taiyun turned the formula into an injection form, called "713" "cancer ... They used "cancer injection" (also called "1st cancer spirit") in the treatment of 6 cases of patients with chronic myeloid ... Instead of working on many cancers, Zhang Tingdong focused mainly on leukemia. Also, instead of using a mixture of many ... They used arsenic trioxide as the main ingredient, with some trace "pink powder (mercury chloride)". After the treatment, 6 ...
"Tumorigenicity of human breast cancer is associated with loss of the Ca2+-activated chloride channel CLCA2". Cancer Res. 59 (21 ... Chloride channel accessory 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLCA2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene belongs ... 2006). "The putative chloride channel hCLCA2 has a single C-terminal transmembrane segment". J. Biol. Chem. 281 (40): 29448-54 ... Abdel-Ghany M, Cheng HC, Elble RC, Pauli BU (2001). "The breast cancer beta 4 integrin and endothelial human CLCA2 mediate lung ...
... clinical cancer research : CR. 22 (4): 557-63. PMID 15053297. Halyard, MY (2008). "Taste and smell alterations in cancer ... The salt taste is induced when sodium chloride levels surpass the concentration in the saliva. It has been reported that 50% of ... A major cause of dysgeusia is chemotherapy for cancer. Chemotherapy often induces damage to the oral cavity, resulting in oral ... In a pilot study involving twelve lung cancer patients, chemotherapy drugs were infused with zinc in order to test its ...
It mediates chloride and bicarbonate exchange and additionally transports sulfate and other anions at the apical membrane, part ... Clinical Cancer Research. 4 (8): 1857-63. PMID 9717812. Höglund P, Auranen M, Socha J, Popinska K, Nazer H, Rajaram U, Al Sanie ... Solute carrier family 26, member 3, also known as CLD (chloride anion exchanger), or DRA (downregulated-in-adenoma) is a ... Mutations in this gene have been associated with congenital chloride diarrhoea, a treatable disease. The congenital absence of ...
2003). "Humoral immunity to human breast cancer: antigen definition and quantitative analysis of mRNA expression". Cancer Immun ... Chloride intracellular channel protein 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLIC6 gene. This gene encodes a member ... "Entrez Gene: CLIC6 chloride intracellular channel 6". Griffon, Nathalie; Jeanneteau Freddy; Prieur Fanny; Diaz Jorge; Sokoloff ... Chloride channel GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000159212 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000022949 ...
Jonsson F., Bois F., Johanson G., 2001, Assessing the reliability of PBPK models using data from methyl chloride-exposed, non- ... non refereed) Bois F., Zeise L., Tozer T.N., 1990, Precision and sensitivity analysis of pharmacokinetic models for cancer risk ... Pery A., Bois F., 2009, Adaptation of PBPK model equations to study compound concentration stochasticity in cells and cancer ... Bois F., Diack C., 2005, Uncertainty Analysis: The Bayesian Approach in Quantitative Methods for Cancer and Human health Risk ...
Apr 2005). "Progress and promise of FDG-PET imaging for cancer patient management and oncologic drug development". Clin. Cancer ... used as rubidium-82 chloride) with a half-life of 1.27 minutes, which is created in a portable generator and is used for ... and most cancers. As a result, FDG-PET can be used for diagnosis, staging, and monitoring treatment of cancers, particularly in ... PET in the management of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research ...
Du, CL & Wang, JD 1998, Increased morbidity odds ratio of primary liver cancer and cirrhosis of the liver among vinyl chloride ... Increased morbidity odds ratio of primary liver cancer and cirrhosis of the liver among vinyl chloride monomer workers. In: ... Increased morbidity odds ratio of primary liver cancer and cirrhosis of the liver among vinyl chloride monomer workers. / Du, ... Increased morbidity odds ratio of primary liver cancer and cirrhosis of the liver among vinyl chloride monomer workers. ...
MC is used as a solvent, especially where quick evaporation is needed Methylene chloride dissolves oils, fats, waxes, resins, ... Methylene chloride is used: in paint strippers as an ingredient in adhesives... ... The effects of long-term overexposure to MC may include cancer. 4b ... sodium chloride. cacl 2. calcium chloride. strontium chloride. srcl 2. cs 3 n. cesium nitride. copper (ii) acetate. cu (c 2 h 3 ...
... chloride intracellular channel 4), Authors: Velayuthan C Padmakumar, Stuart H Yuspa. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol ... Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. ... Home Genes Leukemias Solid Tumors Cancer-Prone Deep Insight Case Reports Journals Portal Teaching X Y 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 ... Somatic Mutations in Cancer : COSMIC. CLIC4 [overview] [genome browser] [tissue] [distribution] Mutations and Diseases : HGMD. ...
What is Cadmium chloride? Meaning of Cadmium chloride medical term. What does Cadmium chloride mean? ... Looking for online definition of Cadmium chloride in the Medical Dictionary? Cadmium chloride explanation free. ... Cadmium chloride, they have found, will promote growth of the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, cells that are normally ... redirected from Cadmium chloride). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. cadmium. (Cd) [kad´me-um] a ...
According to OSHA, workers using methylene chloride "are at increased risk of developing cancer, adverse effects on the heart, ... methylene chloride can also pose serious health dangers when absorbed through the skin. (Methylene chloride will eat through ... Because methylene chloride is heavier than air, it tends to linger in the bottom of bathtubs and other places it is used. ... Methylene chloride paint strippers were banned by the European Union in 2011 because of the dangers posed to workers. However, ...
Vinyl Chloride and Cancer. Br Med J 1974; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5911.184 (Published 20 April 1974) Cite this as ...
Editorial: Vinyl chloride and cancer.. Br Med J 1974; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.5908.590 (Published 30 March 1974) ...
Эту информацию не следует использовать для принятия решения о приеме этого или любого другого препарата. Только лечащий врач обладает необходимыми знаниями и опытом, чтобы принимать решения о том, какие препараты подходят для конкретного пациента. Данная информация не является гарантией того, что препарат безопасен, эффективен или одобрен для лечения каких-либо заболеваний или конкретных пациентов. Здесь приведены лишь краткие сведения общего характера об этом препарате. Здесь НЕ приводится вся имеющаяся информация о возможном ...
... castration-resistant prostate cancer) and symptomatic bone metastases - survival rates improved by... ... radium-223 chloride) was found to improve overall survival by patients with CRPC ( ... Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is also known as HRPC (hormone-refractory prostate cancer). Most patients with CRPC ... Alpharadin (radium-223 Chloride) Improves Prostate Cancer Patient Survival Considerably. Written by Christian Nordqvist on ...
If you have an allergy to aluminum chloride hexahydrate or any other part of this drug. ...
Nitidine chloride (NC) is a natural bioactive alkaloid that has recently been reported to have diverse anticancer properties. ... Medicinal plant extracts have been widely used for cancer treatment. ... Nitidine chloride Apoptosis Cycle arrest Synergistic cytotoxicity Breast cancer This is a preview of subscription content, log ... Nitidine chloride inhibits renal cancer cell metastasis via suppressing akt signaling pathway. Food Chem Toxicol: int J Publ Br ...
Helpful information on cancer high pH therapy alternative cancer treatments and the use of cesium chloride Updated on Sep 30, ... cancer, thyroid cancer, skin cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer ... cancer breast cancer lung cancer prostate cancer colon cancer pancreatic cancer liver cancer skin cancer ovarian cancer stomach ... cancer cervical cancer brain cancer kidney cancer testicular cancer bone cancer throat cancer thyroid cancer gastrointestinal ...
Susceptibility of In Vitro Melanoma Skin Cancer to Photoactivated Hypericin versus Aluminium(III) Phthalocyanine Chloride ... Hyp-PDT compared to AlPcS4Cl-PDT is indicated to be a more effective cancer cell death inducer in melanoma cells. ... The sensitivity of human melanoma cells to photoactivated Hypericin (Hyp) compared to aluminium(III) phthalocyanine chloride ...
Melanoma Skin Cancer to Photoactivated Hypericin versus Aluminium(III) Phthalocyanine Chloride Tetrasulphonate ... Susceptibility of In Vitro Melanoma Skin Cancer to Photoactivated Hypericin versus Aluminium(III) Phthalocyanine Chloride ...
... Warn workers of the health hazards of handling vinyl chloride with this Danger vinyl ... Mandatory GHS Safety Signs - Danger Vinyl Chloride Authorized Personnel Only. From $12.95 To $63.64 ... Mandatory GHS Safety Signs - Danger Vinyl Chloride Wear Respiratory Protection. From $12.95 To $63.64 ...
Cancer Research Online ISSN: 1538-7445. Cancer Research Print ISSN: 0008-5472. Journal of Cancer Research ISSN: 0099-7013. ... Mutagenesis of ras Proto-Oncogenes in Rat Liver Tumors Induced by Vinyl Chloride. Olivier Froment, Sandra Boivin, Alain Barbin ... Vinyl chloride is a DNA-damaging carcinogen which induces liver angiosarcomas in humans and animals. Activation of the Ki-ras 2 ... Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Cancer Research Message Body (Your Name) thought you would be interested in this ...
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most prevalent type of cancer worldwide. It is also the second most common cause of cancer ... Lithium chloride increases sensitivity to photon irradiation treatment in primary mesenchymal colon cancer cells. *Authors: * ... Sharma A, Boise LH and Shanmugam M: Cancer metabolism and the evasion of apoptotic cell death. Cancers (Basel). 11(pii): ... Our previous study isolated T88 primary colon cancer cells from a patient with sporadic colon cancer. These cells exhibited ...
Regulation of ovarian cancer cell adhesion and invasion by chloride channels. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2009May;19(4):526-30 ... Low expression of chloride channel accessory 1 predicts a poor prognosis in colorectal cancer. Cancer. 2015May15;121(10):1570- ... chloride transport, ion transport, transport. chloride channel activity, chloride ion binding, ion channel activity. ... chloride transport, ion transport, transport. chloride channel activity, chloride ion binding, ion channel activity. ...
I am looking to compile a website with others experiences with cesium chloride, whether good or bad. There seems to be a lack ... Cesium Chloride for Breast Cancer stage IV - ANYONE??. By formum in forum Breast Cancer Forum ... Experiences with Cesium Chloride- good or bad I am looking to compile a website with others experiences with cesium chloride, ... We first got interested in the Cesium Chloride treatment when a neighbor was diagnosed with a metastasized bladder cancer that ...
I was taking it internally 2 tbspns of ionic Cesium Chloride with food. After the break I started on Only external application ... How big is your cancer? Did you. have an operation? I didnt have consistent pain with. my type of cancer, so I dont know how ... Natural Cancer Remedies. Cancer-proof your body with little known immune boosters!. ... Natural Cancer Remedies. Cancer-proof your body with little known immune boosters!. ...
Inhibition of STAT3 Signaling Pathway by Nitidine Chloride Suppressed the Angiogenesis and Growth of Human Gastric Cancer. Jing ... Inhibition of STAT3 Signaling Pathway by Nitidine Chloride Suppressed the Angiogenesis and Growth of Human Gastric Cancer ... Inhibition of STAT3 Signaling Pathway by Nitidine Chloride Suppressed the Angiogenesis and Growth of Human Gastric Cancer ... Inhibition of STAT3 Signaling Pathway by Nitidine Chloride Suppressed the Angiogenesis and Growth of Human Gastric Cancer ...
To this end, the effect of two AgNP (size of 15 nm or 45 nm), alone and in combination with aluminium chloride, butyl paraben, ... migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells; (2) M1/M2 polarization of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA ... To this end, the effect of two AgNP (size of 15 nm or 45 nm), alone and in combination with aluminium chloride, butyl paraben, ... Combined effect of silver nanoparticles and aluminium chloride, butylparaben or diethylphthalate on the malignancy of MDA-MB- ...
Ca2+-activated chloride channel is overexpressed in many tumors. TMEM16A overexpression can be caused by gene … ... Cell-specific mechanisms of TMEM16A Ca2+-activated chloride channel in cancer. Zeitschrift:. Molecular Cancer > Ausgabe 1/2017 ... lung cancer [. 51. ], hepatocellular carcinoma [. 52. ], prostate cancer [. 53. ], gastric cancer [. 54. , 55. ], and glioma [ ... lung cancer [. 51. ], oral squamous cell carcinoma [. 97. ], esophageal cancer [. 121. ], GIST [. 122. ], prostate cancer [. 53 ...
Stage III Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7 Active Not Recruiting Phase 1 / 2 Trials for Chloride ion (DB14547). Back to Stage III ... DBCOND0093245 (Stage III Ovarian Cancer AJCC v6 and v7). Active Not Recruiting. 1 / 2. ...
... fast growing cancers, cancers that have spread significantly, high fatality cancers, etc., if there were only one cancer ... Introduction to the Cesium Chloride / DMSO Protocol When it comes to treating advanced cancers, such as Stage IV cancers, ... If you have cancer, what is your saliva pH? [1718 votes total] 4.5 (815) 47% 5.0 (133) 8% 5.5 (155) 9% 6.0 (171) 10% 6.5 (182) ... Suddenly I see chloor in all cancer cures??? Anyone try or know about these substances? ...
  • In lobbying against more regulation, the chemical industry tends to point to the relatively low incidence of fatal accidents associated with methylene chloride compared to other chemicals, the difficulty of replacing the chemical, and the fact that it is already regulated. (msdsonline.com)
  • For example, in a recent letter to the EPA , the Halogenated Solvents Industry Alliance (HSIA) contended that alternatives to methylene chloride "pose greater risks of flammability and/or toxicity," and asserted that the chemical is already "among the most thoroughly studied and heavily regulated of all industrial chemicals. (msdsonline.com)
  • Conclusion-There is an increased risk of primary liver cancer in workers exposed to VCM, although the incomplete coverage of the Labor Insurance Bureau data warrants cautious interpretation of the results, Further study exploring the synergistic effects of VCM and hepatitis B is also indicated. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • According to OSHA, workers using methylene chloride "are at increased risk of developing cancer, adverse effects on the heart, central nervous system and liver, and skin or eye irritation. (msdsonline.com)
  • OSHA points out that household bathroom fans and/or open windows do not provide adequate ventilation when working with methylene chloride. (msdsonline.com)
  • OSHA also encourages workers to use long-handed tools when working with methylene chloride - to avoid leaning directly over the source of the fumes - and/or to use respirators, protective gloves, and other appropriate PPE. (msdsonline.com)
  • OSHA also encourages using sanding or non-chemical stripping methods, or switching to chemical strippers that are not methylene chloride-based. (msdsonline.com)
  • Results - A significantly increased risk of admission to hospital among VCM workers due to primary liver cancer (MOR 4.5-6.5), cirrhosis of the liver (MOR 1.7-2.1), and other chronic diseases (MOR 1.5-2.0) was found. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • There were eight cases of primary liver cancer, all with heavy previous exposure to VCM. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • The average latent period (20 years) was not different from other studies, Alternative agents of primary liver cancer were largely ruled out, suggesting that the combination of hepatitis B and VCM may lead to primary liver cancer. (ncku.edu.tw)
more