Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells such as the GOBLET CELLS.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Treatments with drugs which interact with or block synthesis of specific cellular components characteristic of the individual's disease in order to stop or interrupt the specific biochemical dysfunction involved in progression of the disease.
Phenotypic changes of EPITHELIAL CELLS to MESENCHYME type, which increase cell mobility critical in many developmental processes such as NEURAL TUBE development. NEOPLASM METASTASIS and DISEASE PROGRESSION may also induce this transition.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A conserved class of proteins that control APOPTOSIS in both VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES. IAP proteins interact with and inhibit CASPASES, and they function as ANTI-APOPTOTIC PROTEINS. The protein class is defined by an approximately 80-amino acid motif called the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.
Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
A class of weak acids with the general formula R-CONHOH.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.
A pyrimidine analogue that inhibits DNA methyltransferase, impairing DNA methylation. It is also an antimetabolite of cytidine, incorporated primarily into RNA. Azacytidine has been used as an antineoplastic agent.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Substances that possess antiestrogenic actions but can also produce estrogenic effects as well. They act as complete or partial agonist or as antagonist. They can be either steroidal or nonsteroidal in structure.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Compounds that inhibit HISTONE DEACETYLASES. This class of drugs may influence gene expression by increasing the level of acetylated HISTONES in specific CHROMATIN domains.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
"Gene body methylation can alter gene expression and is a therapeutic target in cancer". Cancer Cell. 26 (4): 577-90. doi: ... Groups of TFs function in a coordinated fashion to direct cell division, cell growth, and cell death throughout life; cell ... crosses the cell membrane of the recipient cell, and is bound by the estrogen receptor in the cell's cytoplasm. The estrogen ... help regulate the cell cycle and as such determine how large a cell will get and when it can divide into two daughter cells. ...
Chardin P (1991). "Small GTP-binding proteins of the ras family: a conserved functional mechanism?". Cancer Cells. 3 (4): 117- ... Promotes Disassembly of Actin Filament Structures and Loss of Cell Adhesion". J. Cell Biol. 141 (1): 187-97. doi:10.1083/jcb. ... Cell. Biol. 22 (9): 2952-64. doi:10.1128/MCB.22.9.2952-2964.2002. PMC 133765. PMID 11940653. Fujita H, Katoh H, Ishikawa Y, ... The gene localizes to chromosome 17 and is the centromeric neighbor of the breast-ovarian cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1. ...
While the second beam provides infrared radiation for a microscope that would study biological tissue; including cancer cells. ...
Studied Cancer Cells". The New York Times. "Robert Kallman, 81; Studied Radiation to Kill Cancer Cells". Los Angeles Times. ... was an American scientist known for his early research on the effects of radiation on cancer cells. He died on August 8, 2003 ... Chiang, Harriet (September 8, 2003). "Robert Kallman -- noted Stanford cancer researcher". San Francisco Chronicle. O'Connor, ...
... entrainment of cancer cells; energy conversion, storage, and distribution; dissipate wave-particle systems; solitons; ...
"Stem cells and cancer; the polycomb connection". Cell. 118 (4): 409-18. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.08.005. PMID 15315754. S2CID ... Cell. Biol. 26 (18): 6880-9. doi:10.1128/MCB.00630-06. PMC 1592854. PMID 16943429. Rual JF, Venkatesan K, Hao T, et al. (2005 ... 2007). "NSPc1 is a cell growth regulator that acts as a transcriptional repressor of p21Waf1/Cip1 via the RARE element". ...
... phenotype in cancer cells. MDR cancer cells have a much more aggressive behaviour and they are very invasive with a better ... Vyas S, Zaganjor E, Haigis MC (July 2016). "Mitochondria and Cancer". Cell. 166 (3): 555-566. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.07.002. ... Hence, inhibiting mitochondrial fusion would sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy, making it a significantly more effective ... Among different cell types, neurons are particularly sensitive to MFN2 defects: to work properly, these cells need functional ...
One of the major implications of MMPs in cancer progression is their role in ECM degradation, which allows cancer cells to ... Degradation of the basement membrane is an essential step for the metastatic progression of most cancers. Cancer cell invasion ... Massagué J (July 2008). "TGFbeta in Cancer". Cell. 134 (2): 215-30. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.07.001. PMC 3512574. PMID 18662538 ... MMP inhibitors offer significant potential for improving cancer treatment by slowing the process of cancer cell invasion and ...
Hunter, Tony; Pines, Jonathan (1994). "Cyclins and cancer II: Cyclin D and CDK inhibitors come of age". Cell. 79 (4): 573-582. ... Hunter, Tony; Pines, Jonathon (1991). "Cyclins and cancer". Cell. 66 (6): 1071-1074. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90028-W. PMID ... Hunter is one of the foremost recognized leaders in the field of cell growth control, growth factor receptors and their signal ... Interview by Ruth Williams". J. Cell Biol. 181 (4): 572-3. doi:10.1083/jcb.1814pi. PMC 2386096. PMID 18490508. "Tony Hunter Lab ...
Hunter, Tony; Pines, Jonathon (1994). "Cyclins and cancer II: Cyclin D and CDK inhibitors come of age". Cell. 79 (4): 573-582. ... Hunter, Tony; Pines, Jonathon (1991). "Cyclins and cancer". Cell. 66 (6): 1071-1074. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(91)90028-W. PMID ... Jonathon Noë Joseph Pines (born 1961) FRS FMedSci is Head of the Cancer Biology Division at the Institute of Cancer Research in ... He has developed a novel live-cell assay for proteolysis and uncovered new mechanisms by which cells control mitosis. His ...
However, some cells mutate in ways that escape these control mechanisms. Cancer cells avoid replicative senescence to become ... In many organisms, there is asymmetric cell division, e.g. a stem cell dividing to produce one stem cell and one non-stem cell ... cells upon cell division, with the mother cell experiencing aging, while the daughter is rejuvenated. There is negligible ... activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. Senescent cells within a multicellular organism ...
de Lange T, Jacks T (August 1999). "For better or worse? Telomerase inhibition and cancer". Cell. 98 (3): 273-5. doi:10.1016/ ... Due to its overexpression in a range of cancer phenotypes, TERC has been investigated as a potential cancer biomarker. It was ... "Effects of cisplatin on telomerase activity and telomere length in BEL-7404 human hepatoma cells". Cell Research. 12 (1): 55-62 ... Jády BE, Richard P, Bertrand E, Kiss T (February 2006). "Cell cycle-dependent recruitment of telomerase RNA and Cajal bodies to ...
Hanahan Douglas; Weinberg Robert A. (January 2000). "The Hallmarks of Cancer". Cell. 100 (1): 57-70. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00) ... January - Douglas Hanahan and Robert Weinberg publish "The Hallmarks of Cancer". January 31 - English doctor Harold Shipman is ...
Hanahan, D; Weinberg, R.A. (2000). "The hallmarks of cancer". Cell. 100 (1): 57-70. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81683-9. PMID ... While the high effectiveness in cell killing provides the rationale for heavy ion cancer therapy (hadron therapy), residual ... but it has been shown that the loss of a single telomere in cancer cells can result in instability in multiple chromosomes. ... "The Loss of a Single Telomere Can Result in Instability of Multiple Chromosomes in a Human Tumor Cell Line". Molecular Cancer ...
Visvader, Jane E.; Lindeman, Geoffrey J. (2012). "Cancer Stem Cells: Current Status and Evolving Complexities". Cell Stem Cell ... Visvader has published work investigating the role of cells of origin in cancer and in particular focuses on the role of stem ... Visvader is a named inventor on five patents relating to cancer research focused on stem cell isolation and diagnostics. Method ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Visvader, Jane E. (2011). "Cells of origin in cancer". Nature. 469 (7330): 314-322. doi ...
... is overexpressed in malignant melanoma and underexpressed in renal cell cancer. In breast cancer cell line (MCF7) has ... and breast cancer, as well as leukemia. Hsp70 in cancer cells may be responsible for tumorigenesis and tumor progression by ... Increased Hsp70 in particular has been shown to inhibit apoptosis of cancer cells, and increased Hsp70 has been shown to be ... Albakova Z, Armeev GA, Kanevskiy LM, Kovalenko EI, Sapozhnikov AM (March 2020). "HSP70 Multi-Functionality in Cancer". Cells. 9 ...
In analogy to vaccination, he attempted to generate immunity to cancer by injecting weakened cancer cells. Both in cancer ... Plitas, George; Rudensky, Alexander Y. (2020). "Regulatory T Cells in Cancer". Annual Review of Cancer Biology. 4: 459-477. doi ... He thought this granulate was a sign of good nourishment, and accordingly named these cells mast cells, (from the German word ... Starting in 1880, Ehrlich also studied red blood cells. He demonstrated the existence of nucleated red blood cells, which he ...
His most cited article, on cancer stem cells, has been cited 1864 times, according to Google Scholar. "Stem Cells and Cancer ... "Distinct Populations of Cancer Stem Cells Determine Tumor Growth and Metastatic Activity in Human Pancreatic Cancer". Cell Stem ... He has worked at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO) since 2009. Heeschen was recognized by the Paul-Martini- ... In 2009, he received the Ritzenhain Award from the German Cancer Research Center. ...
Likewise, it has been shown that cancer cells are 70 percent softer than normal cells. Early signs of aging cartilage and ... Katherine Bourzac (December 4, 2007). "The Feel of Cancer Cells". Technology Review. MIT. Retrieved February 23, 2011. Stolz M ... For example, it has been shown that red blood cells infected by malaria are 10 times stiffer than normal cells. ... One of the other most relevant topics in this field is measurement of tiny forces on living cells to recognize changes caused ...
In many cell types, activation of this pathway promotes cell division, and many forms of cancer are associated with aberrations ... Integrins are produced by a wide variety of cells; they play a role in cell attachment to other cells and the extracellular ... "The dynamic control of signal transduction networks in cancer cells". Nature Reviews. Cancer. 15 (9): 515-27. doi:10.1038/ ... cell-cell contact) Permissive (cell-matrix interactions) The combination of these signals are integrated in an altered ...
... cells which are sub-populations of breast cancer cells but are involved in the cancer's progression as LEP cells, which produce ... "Physics Methods Aid Cancer Research". www.aps.org. Retrieved 2019-05-03. "Pinning down malevolent cancer cells , Research UC ... are the cell type that cancer targets. MEP cells on the other hand play a role in ductal contraction and tumor suppression. For ... That has really motivated me for the past ten years to push for fast cancer diagnosis." Sohn has adapted her research in cell ...
Cancer cell 'executioner' found. BBC News 27 August 2006. Cancer cells 'can live forever'. BBC News 29 April 2004. Vanquish ... For instance, lung cancer cells can have over 1000 times more procaspase-3 than normal cells. Therefore, by controlling the ... This molecule, when delivered to cancer cells, signals the cells to self-destruct by activating an "executioner" protein, ... Recent experiments using cancer cell lines with CRISPR deletion of CASP3 are also consistent with this result. The activation ...
The CTVT cells have fewer chromosomes than normal dog cells. Dog cells normally have 78 chromosomes, while the cancer cells ... First, CTVTs can only be experimentally induced by transplanting living tumor cells, and not by killed cells or cell filtrates ... a cancer which occurs in Tasmanian devils, and contagious reticulum cell sarcoma of the Syrian hamster. The tumor cells are ... All tumor cells of this type of cancer share extremely similar genetic code, often if not always unrelated to the DNA of their ...
"Gene body methylation can alter gene expression and is a therapeutic target in cancer". Cancer Cell. 26 (4): 577-90. doi: ... DNMT1o is sequestered in the cytoplasm of mature oocytes and in 2-cell and 4-cell embryos, but at the 8-cell stage is only ... PRMT6 is frequently overexpressed in many types of cancer cells. The overexpression of PRMT6 may be a source of DNA ... Ehrlich M (December 2009). "DNA hypomethylation in cancer cells". Epigenomics. 1 (2): 239-59. doi:10.2217/epi.09.33. PMC ...
"ACRF Cancer Biology and Stem Cells". WEHI. 21 March 2019. "Bioinformatics". WEHI. 13 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020. " ... "Blood Cells and Blood Cancer". WEHI. 19 March 2019. "Clinical Translation". WEHI. 25 March 2019. "Epigenetics and Development ... Ha, Tanya (22 June 2020). "When cells forget how to die - a hallmark of cancer". Scimex. Retrieved 24 October 2020. "The ... "Scientists revealing the links between cell death and cancer win $50,000 CSL Florey Medal for lifetime achievement". Australian ...
MPH, Elizabeth Chabner Thompson, MD (8 July 2015). "Tattoo Ink or Cancer Cells?". Huffington Post. Retrieved 24 October 2017. ... Therefore tattoo parlors in California must warn their patrons that tattoo inks contain heavy metals known to cause cancer, ... Mulcahy, Nick (15 June 2015). "Tattoos Mistaken as Cancer Metastases, Surgery Performed". Medscape. Retrieved 24 October 2017 ...
Epigenetic alterations of DNA repair genes or cell cycle control genes are very frequent in sporadic (non-germ line) cancers, ... Adult stem cells like bone marrow stem cells have also shown a potential to differentiate into cardiac competent cells when ... In mammals, most cells terminally differentiate, with only stem cells retaining the ability to differentiate into several cell ... cells: how cells can change fate" (PDF). Trends in Cell Biology. 17 (3): 101-6. doi:10.1016/j.tcb.2006.12.005. PMID 17194589. ...
"DNA hypomethylation in cancer cells". Epigenomics. 1(2):239-59. doi:10.2217/epi.09.33. Veersteeg, R. 1997. Aberrant methylation ... If samples from the patient's tumor and normal cells can be obtained, a comparison between these two cell types can be observed ... Aberrant methylation has been observed in cancer. In cancer, hypermethylation as well as hypomethylation has been seen in ... This technique can rapidly determine the overall methylation status of cancer genomes which is cost and time effective. Stage- ...
Sytkowski AJ (July 2007). "Does erythropoietin have a dark side? Epo signaling and cancer cells". Science's STKE. 2007 (395): ... by promoting their survival through protecting these cells from apoptosis, or cell death. Erythropoietin is the primary ... It is also inconsistent with the low levels of EPO receptors on those cells. Clinical trials in humans with ischemic heart, ... Buemi M, Caccamo C, Nostro L, Cavallaro E, Floccari F, Grasso G (March 2005). "Brain and cancer: the protective role of ...
"Glucose metabolism in cancer cells". Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. 13 (4): 466-70. doi:10.1097/MCO. ... as well as their uptake into liver cells, kidney cells, cells of the islets of Langerhans, nerve cells, astrocytes and ... In order to get into or out of cell membranes of cells and membranes of cell compartments, glucose requires special transport ... some glucose is used by intestinal cells and red blood cells, while the rest reaches the liver, adipose tissue and muscle cells ...
A Selective Cytotoxic for Prostate-specific Antigen-positive Prostate Cancer Cells. Ron Rodriguez, Eric R. Schuur, Ho Yeong Lim ... Cancer Research Online ISSN: 1538-7445. Cancer Research Print ISSN: 0008-5472. Journal of Cancer Research ISSN: 0099-7013. ... E1A was expressed at high levels in CN706-infected human PSA-producing LNCaP cells but not in CN706-infected DU145 cells, which ... The titer of CN706 was significantly higher in LNCaP cells compared to several human cell lines that do not produce PSA (HBL100 ...
RCRF Cancer Cell Line Project. RCRF Cancer Cell Line project partnership with the NLMSF established to include leiomyosarcoma ... The Cancer Cell Line project is an opportunity for patients to contribute to research in a big way - a personal way. ... THE RARE CANCER RESEARCH FOUNDATION AND THE NLMSF HAVE PARTNERED TO INCLUDE LMS AS ONE OF THE RARE CANCERS REPRESENTED IN THIS ... The Rare Cancer Research Foundation (RCRF) is dedicated to curing rare cancers through strategic investments and innovative ...
Cell culture. The PC3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cell lines, and the PNT2 normal prostatic epithelium cell lines were maintained ... Loss of PTEN permits CXCR4-mediated tumorigenesis through ERK1/2 in prostate cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 9:90-102. 2011. View ... Cells were incubated for four h and then refreshed in complete media. Cells were transfected for up to 72 h, after which cells ... Cells were fixed in 2 mM disuccinimidyl glutarate (DSG) with 1 mM MgCl2 in PBS at room temperature for 45 min. Cells were then ...
... activated by GM-CSF-secreting cancer cell vaccines do not merely facilitate cancer cell destruction by CD8+ T-cell cells (28) ... GM-CSF-secreting cancer cell vaccines, generated from cancer cells by ex vivo gene transfer, have been shown to elicit ... LNCaP PCA cells (43) , PC-3 PCA cells (44) , DU 145 PCA cells (45) , A549 lung carcinoma cells (46) , LS-174T colon carcinoma ... B, Lane 1, PC-3 PCA cells; Lane 2, LNCaP PCA cells; Lane 3, A549 lung carcinoma cells; Lane 4, LS-174T colon carcinoma cells; ...
Titled, "Curcumin and Cancer Stem Cells: Curcumin Has Asymmetrical Effects on Cancer and Normal Stem Cells," the study ... Radiotherapy, for instance, has been found to induce cancer stem cell like properties in breast cancer cells, essentially ... Health Guide: Cancer Research. For a far more in depth exploration of the truth about cancer, natural cancer cures, the many ... Malignant cells take in much more curcumin than normal cells.. * Curcumin alters the microenvironment of cells in such a way ...
A technique for alleviating pain has exposed cancers weak spot and may finally enable us to stop the disease by disabling the ... This idea was backed up by lab research showing that mixing neurons with cancer cells in a dish speeds cancer growth. ... a drug that blocks the receptors cancer cells and nerves use to communicate reduced tumour growth in mice with stomach cancer. ... The nervous system has long been known to play a critical role in the spread of cancer. Tumour cells can invade surrounding ...
Associate Professor at the Institute of Cancer Research of the Medical University of Vienna... ... In cancer cells, activation of the engineered receptors causes changes in cell morphology, proliferation and gene expression, ... The newly developed receptors trigger complex cellular programs in both cancer and blood endothelial cells. These cells ... characteristic of increased cancer malignancy. In blood cells, activation leads to cell sprouting, typical of the formation of ...
Cancer stem cells[edit]. Main article: Cancer stem cell. The first malignant cell, that gives rise to the tumor, is often ... The monoclonal model of cancer and the cancer stem-cell model are not mutually exclusive.[90] Cancer stem cell arises by clonal ... cancer stem cells are the only cells capable of tumorigenesis - initiation of a new tumor.[90] Cancer stem cell hypothesis ... gastric cancer, bile duct cancer, pancreatic cancer, small intestine cancer and colon cancer. ...
Cancer cells are cells that divide relentlessly, forming solid tumors or flooding the blood with abnormal cells. Cell division ... Cancer stem cells and drug resistance[edit]. A diagram illustrating the distinction between cancer stem cell targeted and ... Stem cell research suggests that excess SP2 protein may turn stem cells into cancer cells.[7] However, a lack of particular co- ... Healthy cells stop dividing when there is no longer a need for more daughter cells, but cancer cells continue to produce copies ...
Research examining the cells cytoskeleton shows how metastatic cells become shapeshifters, allowing them to thrive in new ... However, in prostate cancer cells, the protein was not found near the borders of the cells and was not paired with beta-actin. ... They implanted prostate cancer cells without AIM1 into five mice. The cells were shown to spread to other tissues up to 100 ... Charting cancer cells' movements. To explore how these shapeshifting cells moved, the scientists teamed up with Steven An ...
Most cancers contain a subpopulation of highly tumorigenic cells, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells ( ... Cancer Stem Cells. * Content type: Research. Regulation of stem-like cancer cells by glutamine through β-catenin pathway ... Induction of metastasis, cancer stem cell phenotype, and oncogenic metabolism in cancer cells by ionizing radiation Radiation ... Understanding of leukemic stem cells and their clinical implications Since leukemic stem cells (LSCs) or cancer stem cells ( ...
Cancer stem cells. Definition. Cancer stem cells are rare immortal cells within a tumour that can both self-renew by dividing ... Such cells have been found in various types of human tumours and might be attractive targets for cancer treatment. ... Autophagy and cancer stem cells: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic applications Autophagy and mitophagy are deregulated in ... Molecular heterogeneity and early metastatic clone selection in testicular germ cell cancer development *Lambert C. J. Dorssers ...
... called cancer stem cells, remains behind to seed new tumors. Though scientists are not yet certain about the role cancer stem ... cells play in disease, evidence is accumulating that these cells are particularly resistant to chemotherapy and… ... Recent evidence suggests that certain cancers may persist or recur after treatment because a small population of cells, ... Cell attack: Cancer cells in tumors treated with salinomycin-a drug that specifically targets cancer stem cells-have a less ...
If oncologists could see what was happening to tumor cells immediately after a treatment - whether they were flourishing or ... Cancer patients often suffer for months before finding out whether or not a treatment is helping. ... Watching Cancer Cells Die. Is a cancer treatment actually helping? Nanoparticles that detect cell death may supply a quick ... But Piotr Grodzinski, director of Nanotechnology for Cancer programs at the NCIs Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer, says ...
Immunology and Blood Cell Development analyzes leukemia, lymphomas, other hematologic malignancies and immunology. ... The American Cancer Societys Peer Review Committee for Leukemia, ... The American Cancer Society is a qualified 501(c)(3) tax-exempt organization. Cancer.org is provided courtesy of the Leo and ... The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center. Houston, Texas. Zhenglun (Jerry) Zhu, MD, PhD. Brigham and Womens Hospital ...
Working with mice, the researchers say theyve shown that white blood cells, the bodys main line of defense against infection ... Lorenzo Ferri of McGill University Health Centre and colleagues write of a new way that cancer might spread in the body. ... may aid in spreading cancer when an animal with the disease experiences a severe infection. ... Can White Blood Cells Spread Cancer? Reporting in The Journal of Clinical Investigation, Lorenzo Ferri of McGill University ...
... are an of population cancer cells that enter the bloodstream after detaching from the primary tumor and propagate to distant ... Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are an of population cancer cells that enter the bloodstream after detaching from the primary ... Circulating Tumor Cells and Cancer. News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/health/Circulating-Tumor-Cells-and-Cancer.aspx ... Circulating Tumor Cells and Cancer. News-Medical. 20 June 2019. ,https://www.news-medical.net/health/Circulating-Tumor-Cells- ...
... are a new class of cancer drugs that specifically target a mechanism of cancer cell survival to selectively kill cancer cells. ... To survive, cancer cells typically acquire changes enabling evasion of death signals. One way they do this is by increasing the ... Under certain conditions, antagonism of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family proteins can unleash pro-death molecules in cancer cells. ... Cancer cells show deviant behavior that induces apoptotic signaling. ...
A new gene therapy technique is able to genetically modify prostate cancer cells so that a patients body attacks and kills ... Next generation viral therapies for cancer can selectively replicate in cancer cells, something that can kill the cancer cell ... The therapy causes prostate cancer cells to self destruct A new gene therapy technique is able to modify prostate cancer cells ... Usually, the body does not recognise cancer cells as the enemy because they have evolved from normal healthy cells. ...
... is a rare type of skin cancer. MCC tends to grow quickly and can be hard to treat if it spreads beyond the skin. ... Merkel Cell Skin Cancer. If you have Merkel cell skin cancer (carcinoma) or are close to someone who does, knowing what to ... If You Have Merkel Cell Skin Cancer. If you or someone you know has just been diagnosed with Merkel cell skin cancer, this ... Treating Merkel Cell Skin Cancer. If you are facing Merkel cell carcinoma, we can help you learn about the treatment options ...
... cancer stem cells. As reported in the journal Angewandte Chemie, this dye also selectively kills off the cells. ... Cells with stem-cell characteristics appear to be especially important in the formation and metastasis of tumors. Scientists ... "Cancer stem cells", also known as tumor-initiating cells (TIC), appear to cause relapses after radiation and chemotherapy ... The cells are also firmly integrated into the cell wall. When they transform into mesenchymal cells, they lose their polarity, ...
Cancer results from cells gone wild. Proliferating out of control, the cells spawn malignant growths that can travel throughout ... And the cancer-fighting T cells of a 30-year-old man dissipated a mass in his lung. Both remain disease-free 18 months after ... Now scientists have transformed immune cells into cancer fighters outside the body--and prompted complete remission in two ... Immune cells such as lymphocytes, also known as T cells and pictured in blue above, recognize health threats via special ...
Now U.S. researchers have developed a way to use a patients own cloned T-cells against this skin cancer -- without ... more studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of the experimental T-cell therapy. But read more... ... melanoma is one of the deadliest forms of skin cancer, usually caused by too much exposure to the sun. ... Mans own cells killing his skin cancer. As you probably know, melanoma is one of the deadliest forms of skin cancer, usually ...
Twenty-three advanced-cancer patients who had failed to respond to available treatments were infused with an engineered strain ... Engineered viruses can be successfully infused into a cancer patients body to selectively infect and shrink cancer cells, ... Viruses designed to target cells can successfully infect, spread into, and shrink or stabilize cancer cells when delivered into ... Seven out of eight of those who received the highest dose of the virus showed that the virus had replicated in the cancer cells ...
Genetic material shed by tumors can get dumped into healthy cells and transform them ... Previous studies had shown that cancer cells crank out more exosomes than normal cells. Cancer researcher Raghu Kalluri of the ... Exosomes from normal cells did not yield tumors, however, and tumor growth was reduced in cells exposed to cancer exosomes in ... When a cancer cell throws out its trash, it can turn healthy neighbors into fellow tumor cells, researchers have found. ...
... of cancer cells). The ESA+CD44+CD24−/lowLineage− population (0.6% of cancer cells) from unpassaged T5 cells was also enriched ... cancer cells, and the frequency of the boxed tumorigenic cancer population as a percentage of cancer cells in each specimen is ... cancer cells from T1 (a, c, and e) or T2 (b, d, and f). T1 CD44+Lineage− cells (a) or T2 Lineage− cells (b) were obtained from ... During use of human cancer cells from tumors passaged in mice, contaminating mouse cells were removed by eliminating H2K+ cells ...
Then she found another lump, this time they are saying they have found pre cancerous cells. ... ... Radiotherapy is use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells or premalignant cells. ... 12 Ways to Cut Your Breast Cancer Risk Breast cancer is not an inevitability. From what you eat and drink to how much you ... Precancerous cells are abnormal cells which have an altered multiplcation pattern. What you need to understand is that puts ...
... a type of white blood cell. Learn about the anatomy and physiology related to multiple myeloma. ... Multiple myeloma is a cancer of the plasma cells, ... They can also kill viruses and cancer cells.. *B cells develop ... Stem cells develop within one of two cell lines, the lymphoid cell line or the myeloid cell line. In both cell lines, the stem ... The plasma cells. Multiple myeloma is a cancer of the plasma cells, a type of white blood cell that makes antibodies. Multiple ...
CD8+ T cells are modified to recognize tumor-specific antigens and induce an immune response. ... Posted in: Cell Biology , Life Sciences News. Tags: Allele, Antigen, Bacteriophage, Cancer, CD4, Cell, Cell Development, ... Modifying T-cells to target cancer cells can provide an alternative to existing cancer immunotherapies, such as checkpoint ... Another method used to generate higher affinity anti-cancer T-cells is to bypass the thymic selection stage of T-cell ...
... so the bacteria could help fight some cancers ... The tendency of Clostridium novyi to kill mammal cells has been ... the researchers could see a precise border between the bacterially infected tumour cells and the non-cancerous healthy cells. ... Saha stresses that the bacteria are not a silver bullet to treat cancer, but used in conjunction with other therapies they may ... Disease-causing bacteria in soil could become an anti-cancer therapy. The microbes shrink tumours in dogs - and seem able to do ...
  • CN706 destroyed large LNCaP tumors (1 × 10 9 cells) and abolished PSA production in nu/nu mouse xenograft models with a single intratumoral injection. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cells in pre-malignant and malignant neoplasms ( tumors ) evolve by natural selection . (wikipedia.org)
  • The earliest ideas about neoplastic evolution come from Boveri [8] who proposed that tumors originated in chromosomal abnormalities passed on to daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer cells are cells that divide relentlessly, forming solid tumors or flooding the blood with abnormal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a cell is under stress, turning into tumors, or infected, molecules including MIC-A and MIC-B are produced so that they can attach to the surface of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • ADAM12 is upregulated in human breast cancers and is a predictor of chemoresistance in estrogen receptor-negative tumors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The initiation and progression of malignant tumors is driven by distinct subsets of tumor-initiating or cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) which develop therapy/apoptosis resistance and self-renewal capacity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A new screening method identifies drugs that selectively target these elusive cells in tumors. (technologyreview.com)
  • Recent evidence suggests that certain cancers may persist or recur after treatment because a small population of cells, called cancer stem cells, remains behind to seed new tumors. (technologyreview.com)
  • Cancer cells in tumors treated with salinomycin-a drug that specifically targets cancer stem cells-have a less malignant appearance (right) and look more like differentiated cells than untreated cells (left). (technologyreview.com)
  • Because cancer stem cells, which have the ability to give rise to new tumors, may remain behind after chemotherapy and radiation treatments, finding ways to target these cells specifically may offer a way to make treatment more effective. (technologyreview.com)
  • But accessing and studying cancer stem cells has been challenging because very few are present in tumors and they are difficult to generate and maintain outside the body. (technologyreview.com)
  • It's very exciting that some groups are starting not to view tumors as homogeneous entities but to target subpopulations of cells we think are import for drug resistance," he says. (technologyreview.com)
  • Bonneville M, Scotet E (2006) Human Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells: promising new leads for immunotherapy of infections and tumors. (springer.com)
  • Cells with stem-cell characteristics appear to be especially important in the formation and metastasis of tumors. (eurekalert.org)
  • Some patients' immune systems are able to recognize such tumors and begin to attack them, and research has shown that boosting the patients' levels of such tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes can help defeat deadly cancer. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In other cancer research, Purdue University engineers have come up with tiny devices that, when implanted in tumors, generate oxygen from the electrolysis of water to increase the effectiveness of cancer treatments. (earthtimes.org)
  • In a study published online on October 23 in Cancer Cell , researchers show that when human breast-cancer exosomes can cause tumors when mixed with normal cells then injected into mice. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Those cells then caused tumors when injected into mice. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Exosomes from normal cells did not yield tumors, however, and tumor growth was reduced in cells exposed to cancer exosomes in which the microRNA-producing molecular machinery had been disabled. (scientificamerican.com)
  • These breast tumors are comprised of phenotypically diverse populations of breast cancer cells. (pnas.org)
  • Using a model in which human breast cancer cells were grown in immunocompromised mice, we found that only a minority of breast cancer cells had the ability to form new tumors. (pnas.org)
  • As few as 100 cells with this phenotype were able to form tumors in mice, whereas tens of thousands of cells with alternate phenotypes failed to form tumors. (pnas.org)
  • The tumorigenic subpopulation could be serially passaged: each time cells within this population generated new tumors containing additional CD44 + CD24 −/low Lineage − tumorigenic cells as well as the phenotypically diverse mixed populations of nontumorigenic cells present in the initial tumor. (pnas.org)
  • In solid tumors, it has been demonstrated that only a small proportion of the tumor cells are able to form colonies in an in vitro clonogenic assay ( 5 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, large numbers of cells must typically be transplanted to form tumors in xenograft models. (pnas.org)
  • One possible explanation for these observations is that every cell within a tumor has the ability to proliferate and form new tumors but that the probability of an individual cell completing the necessary steps in these assays is small. (pnas.org)
  • An alternative explanation is that only a rare, phenotypically distinct subset of cells has the capacity to significantly proliferate and form new tumors, but that cells within this subset do so very efficiently ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • To distinguish between these possibilities, it is necessary to identify the clonogenic cells in these tumors with markers that distinguish these cells from other nontumorigenic cells. (pnas.org)
  • If this model were also true for solid tumors, and only a small subset of cells within a tumor possess the capacity to proliferate and form new tumors, this finding would have significant implications for understanding the biology of and developing therapeutic strategies for these neoplasms. (pnas.org)
  • In the present study, we show that solid tumors contain a distinct population of cells with the exclusive ability to form tumors in mice. (pnas.org)
  • We refer to these cells as tumorigenic cells, or cancer-initiating cells, because they consistently formed tumors, whereas other cancer cell populations were depleted of cells capable of tumor formation. (pnas.org)
  • Most tumors contain regions of low oxygen concentration where cancer therapies based on the action of reactive oxygen species are ineffective. (eurekalert.org)
  • C and D) Immunostaining of ovarian tumors with Ck18 (pink staining) shows that the morphological difference between the two cell types is maintained in patients with ovarian cancer. (nih.gov)
  • One type of immune cell, called a tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte, can invade tumors and help destroy cancer cells. (newswise.com)
  • Devising a method for more precise and less invasive treatment of cancer tumors, a team led by researchers from the UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science has developed a degradable nanoscale shell to carry proteins to cancer cells and stunt the growth of tumors without damaging healthy cells. (freerepublic.com)
  • Scientists in the U.K. are using nanotechnology to blast cancer cells in mice with "tumor busting" genes, giving new hope to patients with inoperable tumors. (computerworld.com)
  • In the British study, researchers used nanotechnology to package anti-cancer genes in very small particles that targeted tumors in the mice. (computerworld.com)
  • Because most tumors express self-antigens, T Reg cells-mediated immunosuppression is believed to be one of the major contributors to immune evasion by tumors and becomes the main obstacle toward successful tumor immunotherapy [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Only a small percentage of cells in tumors, the cancer stem or initiating cells, drive the growth and metastatic capability of tumors. (stanford.edu)
  • Despite a 30-year lifespan that gives ample time for cells to grow cancerous, a small rodent species called a naked mole rat has never been found with tumors of any kind - and now biologists at the University of Rochester think they know why. (slashdot.org)
  • Women who had these clusters of shapeshifting cells in their tumors had very aggressive disease, with only a 15% five-year survival rate, compared to 53% for patients without these misshapen nuclei. (forbes.com)
  • As well as defects in DNA repair, the researchers also found that immune cells were not able to reach the clusters of cells with misshapen nuclei, suggesting that perhaps evading the immune system could be a reason as to why people with these ovarian tumors have a much worse prognosis than those without the misshapen clusters. (forbes.com)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells are inherently able to migrate toward tumors," Alexander Timin, JRF at the Novel Dosage Laboratory, RASA Center at TPU, said in a press release. (upi.com)
  • Indeed, the scientists found that restoring RASSF1A function to implanted human cancer cells prevented them from developing into tumors in mice. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Cancer cells pile up to form tumors and spread into surrounding tissue. (healthline.com)
  • They can prompt healthy cells around them to grow new blood vessels in order to keep cancerous tumors supplied with nutrients. (healthline.com)
  • The T-cells recognized the protein MART-1, which is commonly found on melanoma tumors. (dailytech.com)
  • For example, while the mutant mice rejected tumors, it was not clear if this was an event mediated by specific cells in the mice, or if this mechanism could somehow be transferred to normal mice as a treatment for cancer at distant sites. (scienceblog.com)
  • Now, a new study at the NYU Grossman School of Medicine reveals the mechanism that helps pancreatic cancer cells avoid starvation within dense tumors by hijacking a process that pulls nutrients in from their surroundings. (genengnews.com)
  • The study team also showed that silencing the gene for SLC4A7 in pancreatic cancer cells slowed down or shrunk tumors in mice. (genengnews.com)
  • A pool of stem cells has been found to fuel the growth of intestinal tumors in mice, a Dutch team reports. (genengnews.com)
  • The authors note that although adenomas represent only the first stage of intestinal tumorigenesis, the composition of the tumors suggests that cancer stem cells do indeed exist. (genengnews.com)
  • Reuters Health - Doctors often disagree on whether women have breast cancer if they have abnormal cells that don't look like invasive tumors under a microscope, a U.S. study suggests. (reuters.com)
  • Atypia and DCIS are gray areas on a spectrum of cancer severity between benign, or generally harmless, cells and fast-growing invasive tumors, said Dr. Richard Bleicher, breast clinical program leader at Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia. (reuters.com)
  • Although the cancer cells are small, they grow very quickly and create large tumors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • They are self-activated and play an important role in elimination of tumors and virus-affected cells. (sooperarticles.com)
  • When a protein called JAK becomes switched on, it triggers contractions in tumors which allow cancer cells to squeeze through tiny spaces and spread. (empowher.com)
  • Tumors are made up of cancer, tumor-associated healthy cells and a glue that sticks everything together called the cell matrix. (empowher.com)
  • His research focuses on augmenting cytotoxic T cell immunity and studies how tumors evade the immune system. (springer.com)
  • Members of Rice's Center for Theoretical Biological Physics (CTBP) and cancer metabolism researchers at Baylor College of Medicine have created a basic framework of how cancer cells -- whether in tumors or as single cells -- adapt when their attempts to metastasize are blocked by drugs or the body's immune system. (eurekalert.org)
  • The discovery that the gene -- mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor, or M6P/IGF2r -- acts as a tumor suppressor gene in human liver tumors could help researchers develop an early diagnostic test for liver cancer as well as new treatments, the researchers said. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers are now testing their findings in cells from hard-to-treat pediatric brain tumors. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • In parallel articles published online in Nature , the two research groups demonstrated that only a tiny fraction of the cells in colon cancer can give rise to new tumors -- refuting decades of perceived wisdom that held that any cancer cell was a potential tumor. (medpagetoday.com)
  • On the other hand, cancer cells that did not express the marker -- between 81% and 98% of the original tumor mass -- did not produce new tumors, both groups found. (medpagetoday.com)
  • However, tumors generated by the CD133-positive cells had roughly the same proportion of CD133-positive and -negative cells as the original cancer, indicating that the CD133-positive cells were able to give rise to all the cells in the tumor mass, the groups reported. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Animal studies have come up with similar findings: for instance, one recently published piece of research found that the use of ginger on laboratory mice with prostate cancer was able to shrink these cancerous tumors by 56%, while another study found that it was also effective at treating oral cancer in hamsters. (lifehack.org)
  • However, this study and others like it have raised the hope that new anti-cancer treatments can be developed that are both more effective against tumors and less damaging to healthy cells than what is currently available. (lifehack.org)
  • Within a week, all of the mice had developed breast cancer tumors. (mesothelioma.com)
  • The researchers discovered that while the tumors grew quickly in the control groups not treated with the stem cells, the tumors had shrunk in 7 of the 10 mice treated with the IPS and adjuvant solution. (mesothelioma.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Washington have updated a traditional Chinese medicine to create a compound that is more than 1,200 times more specific in killing certain kinds of cancer cells than currently available drugs, heralding the possibility of a more effective chemotherapy drug with minimal side effects. (washington.edu)
  • In the study, the UW researchers tested their artemisinin-based compound on human leukemia cells. (washington.edu)
  • The researchers also have preliminary results showing that the compound is similarly selective and effective for human breast and prostate cancer cells, and that it effectively and safely kills breast cancer in rats, Sasaki said. (washington.edu)
  • The compound's modus operandi also means it should be general for almost any cancer, the researchers said. (washington.edu)
  • Using innovative techniques and a wide range of experiments, researchers have demonstrated that prostate cancer cells have the ability to alter their shape, thereby promoting metastasis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A team of researchers from Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center in Baltimore, MD, took public data from five studies on prostate cancer, the information from which included details about the chemistry and genetics of hundreds of metastatic and primary cancers, or those that had not metastasized. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Aside from the differences in quantity of AIM1, by tracking the protein with dye, the researchers also found changes in the way that the protein was positioned within the cell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • BOSTON (Reuters) - Rituxan, a drug used to treat cancer and rheumatoid arthritis, may help slow the development of newly discovered type 1 or juvenile diabetes, researchers reported on Wednesday. (reuters.com)
  • The drug may interfere with the body's mistaken destruction of the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, the researchers reported in the New England Journal of Medicine. (reuters.com)
  • A new approach, developed by researchers at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, makes use of high-throughput screening methods to identify chemicals that selectively target these elusive cells. (technologyreview.com)
  • In a study published today in Cell , the researchers identify one particular drug that kills breast cancer stem cells in mice. (technologyreview.com)
  • Although it is still unclear whether the drug will be useful in humans, the researchers believe their study demonstrates that it's possible to target these cells selectively. (technologyreview.com)
  • Using epithelial breast cancer cells, the researchers introduced a genetic change in these cells, causing them to take on the properties of mesenchymal cells, which form connective tissue in the body. (technologyreview.com)
  • The researchers used a library of 16,000 chemicals at the Broad Institute to look for compounds that killed these transformed breast cancer stem cells more effectively than they killed normal breast cancer cells. (technologyreview.com)
  • Researchers have now developed a nano sensor that could be used with MRI imaging to check whether tumor cells are dying. (technologyreview.com)
  • Working with mice, the researchers say they've shown that white blood cells, the body's main line of defense against infection, may aid in spreading cancer when an animal with the disease experiences a severe infection. (npr.org)
  • But here's where it gets interesting, because in a new study, researchers say they have shown that these nets might actually activate and spread the cancer cells. (npr.org)
  • The study, led by researchers from Houston Methodist Hospital in Texas, appears to show that this 'suicide gene therapy', when combined with radiotherapy, could be a promising treatment for prostate cancer in the future. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Although there was no control group in this study, the researchers said the results showed a five to 20% improvement on previous studies of prostate cancer treatment. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Led by Nam-Young Kang and Young-Tae Chang, the researchers discovered that their probe, named TiY (for tumor-initiating cell probe yellow), recognizes vimentin, which is a molecule in the cytoskeleton. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers introduced this genetic information into regular T cells from 17 melanoma patients via retrovirus. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Now U.S. researchers have developed a way to use a patient's own cloned T-cells against this skin cancer -- without chemotherapy or radiation. (zdnet.com)
  • The researchers isolated a handful of these cells from the patient, whose melanoma had spread to his lung and groin. (zdnet.com)
  • Viruses designed to target cells can successfully infect, spread into, and shrink or stabilize cancer cells when delivered into a patient's body intravenously, researchers in Ottawa, Canada, have shown. (earthtimes.org)
  • When a cancer cell throws out its trash, it can turn healthy neighbors into fellow tumor cells, researchers have found. (scientificamerican.com)
  • A new technique lets researchers find snippets linked to cancer. (newswise.com)
  • Newswise - By screening millions of molecular targets, researchers have uncovered a tumor beacon detected by the immune cells of two patients with colorectal cancer. (newswise.com)
  • Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes have captured the attention of cancer researchers eager to supercharge these cells' tumor-killing abilities. (newswise.com)
  • Davis's laboratory has developed ways to read the DNA sequences of single lymphocytes - information that helped researchers hunt for immune cells' targets. (newswise.com)
  • Next, the researchers used those precise T-cell receptors as bait, a labor-intensive process that involves searching through hundreds of millions of signals that cancer cells might display. (newswise.com)
  • And the researchers discovered something surprising: Out of a huge number of possibilities, the T-cell receptors from both patients recognized the same tumor antigen. (newswise.com)
  • In laboratories, researchers could genetically engineer T-cell receptors to recognize common cancer antigens. (newswise.com)
  • In the quest to find a cure for cancer, one dream of researchers has been to find a way to get the body's own immune system to fight cancer. (zdnet.com)
  • The researchers believe that patients who did not respond received flawed T-cells. (zdnet.com)
  • In December, for example, researchers at MIT announced that they had developed nanotechnology that can be placed inside living cells to determine whether chemotherapy drugs are reaching their targets or attacking healthy cells. (computerworld.com)
  • Cancer researchers have long been trying to figure out how to better deliver drugs to cancer cells without blasting surrounding cells. (computerworld.com)
  • Newswise - Building on previous findings demonstrating that breast cancer cells emit unique electromagnetic signals, engineering researchers at the University of Arkansas have found that a single cancerous cell produces electric signals proportional to the speed at which the cell divides. (newswise.com)
  • As mentioned above, Hassan and El-Shenawee focused on a single cell, which may help researchers recognize abnormalities long before cell aggregates reach the tumor stage. (newswise.com)
  • In a future study, the researchers will couple the single-cell model with a tumor-growth model to produce simulations of electric signals created by a whole tumor. (newswise.com)
  • Scripps researchers are now seeking local ovarian cancer patients and survivors to donate blood for the study. (kpbs.org)
  • Researchers from the National Institutes of Health identified 22 antioxidants that eradicated dividing cells, including two types that showed promise against drug-resistant cancer cells. (newsmax.com)
  • NIH researchers discover that antioxidants from fruits, vegetables, and red wine kill cancer cells, a finding that may lead to more potent anti-tumor drugs. (newsmax.com)
  • The effect of p16 is so pronounced that when researchers mutated the cells to induce a tumor, the cells' growth barely changed, whereas regular mouse cells became fully cancerous. (slashdot.org)
  • Researchers in the UK have used artificial intelligence (AI) tools to detect tiny clusters of abnormal cells in biopsy samples from women with ovarian cancer-the presence of these indicating that the disease is more aggressive. (forbes.com)
  • In most cells, nuclei are vaguely circular or oval-shaped, but the researchers found small patches with misshapen nuclei in some of the ovarian cancer samples. (forbes.com)
  • The University of Otago researchers have shown that naturally occurring chemical compounds known as isothiocyanates, found in cruciferous vegetables, cause cell-suicide in cancer cells, including cells that have high levels of the protein Bcl-2. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The resulting gain in sensitivity means that the researchers can watch how the hyperpolarised carbon is metabolised by tumours, using this as a read-out for living and dying cells. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Researchers used human breast cancer stem cells, but didn't perform any studies on animals or humans. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The researchers performed a variety of experiments on human breast cancer stem cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The researchers concluded that doxycycline can kill some cancer cells and make others reliant on one energy pathway: glycolysis. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Researchers have developed a technology to control magnetic stem cells for use in combating cancer. (upi.com)
  • Researchers from Tomsk Polytechnic University's Laboratory of Novel Dosage are using a patient's own magnetic stem cells to target cancer cells effectively. (upi.com)
  • Therefore, MSCs are very attractive for researchers and practical physicians to apply them in substitute therapy, gene or cell engineering. (upi.com)
  • Pancreatic cancer cells use the sugar fructose to help the tumor grow more quickly, researchers have discovered. (psychologytoday.com)
  • To assess the effect of fructose on cancer cells, UCLA researchers added glucose to one set of human pancreatic cancer cells and fructose to another set of cells. (psychologytoday.com)
  • In the experiments, researchers found the preservative stopped or slowed the growth of squamous cell head and neck cancer. (upi.com)
  • The growth of prostate cancer cells can be halted by combining a form of vitamin D, available only by prescription, with low doses of an over-the-counter painkiller, researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have found. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A single tumor-suppressing gene is a key to understanding--and perhaps killing--dormant ovarian cancer cells that hide out after initial treatment, only to reawaken years later, report researchers at the University of Texas M. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Dr. Hiromitsu Nakauchi and a team of researchers from the University of Tokyo have given the T-cells of patients with HIV and cancer longer lifespans, which allows them to fight cancer and infections more effectively. (dailytech.com)
  • The researchers took the T-cells from a patient with HIV and another with malignant melanoma. (dailytech.com)
  • By shifting where v-ATPase operates from the depths of cells to areas near their outer membranes, the reaction positions the enzyme to deliver the cholesterol needed by RAC1 to attach to cell membranes, the researchers said. (genengnews.com)
  • The researchers say this finding provides support for the controversial cancer stem cell hypothesis. (genengnews.com)
  • By "lineage retracing" using the multicolor Cre-reporter R26R-Confetti, the researchers demonstrate that the crypt stem cell marker Lgr5 also marks a subpopulation of adenoma cells that fuel the growth of established intestinal adenomas. (genengnews.com)
  • OHSU researchers are studying using donor T cells - instead of the patient's own cells - for CAR T-cell therapy. (ohsu.edu)
  • There are already drugs that block the action of JAK that are currently in development so the researchers' idea is to formulate a new treatment that will stop JAK's ability to cause contractions and thereby halt the spread of cancer. (empowher.com)
  • Researchers from The University of Cambridge and St Jude's Children's hospital have carried out an extensive study which confirms that stem cells contribute to the origin of various types of cancer in mice. (medindia.net)
  • The researchers spent 7 years studying the spread of the cells and the development of cancer. (medindia.net)
  • Researchers are testing an immunotherapy treatment they say is highly effective for patients with cancer that spreads or comes back. (ksat.com)
  • Their theoretical model was experimentally supported by Baylor cancer mitochondrial metabolism researchers led by Dr. Benny Abraham Kaipparettu. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers also found the hybrid metabolic state can be promoted by the stabilization of HIF-1 and the elevated production rate of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells relative to normal cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cancer cells left behind glow roughly five times brighter than healthy tissue, the researchers said. (medicinenet.com)
  • DURHAM, N.C. -- A malfunctioning "traffic cop" gene apparently plays an important role in the formation of liver cancer, according to researchers from the Duke University Comprehensive Cancer Center and Zeneca Pharmaceuticals of Chesire, United Kingdom. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers often work backwards from the biological changes involved in cancer to find the genes responsible for these alterations. (eurekalert.org)
  • Because the receptor is involved both in switching on a growth inhibitor and inactivating a growth factor, the researchers hypothesized that losing it might well predispose a cell to cancerous growth. (eurekalert.org)
  • By targeting IGF1R , the Cancer Research UK-funded researchers from The Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) were able to kill Wilms' tumour cells in mice. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • The researchers used sophisticated techniques designed for testing new treatments and understanding cancer. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • The researchers tested their bubble needle on cells obtained from a rat tumour. (thaindian.com)
  • Rachid Drissi, PhD, uses an overhead light in his laboratory to look at a stained film image, called a Western Blot, which helped researchers confirm how telomeres in cervical cancer cells can be prompted by molecular manipulation to become shorter, making the cells more sensitive to radiation treatment. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Researchers would to like see their laboratory findings - published in the journal's Dec. 5 print edition - lead to safer, more effective combination therapies for hard-to-treat pediatric brain cancers like medulloblastoma and high-grade gliomas. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Before treating cells with ionizing radiation, the researchers blocked an enzyme called telomerase, found in over 90 percent of cancer cells but barely detectable in most normal human cells. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • In the cervical cancer cells, researchers blocked the telomerase enzyme before radiation treatment to induce progressively shorter telomeres. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Researchers said the cancer cells became more radiosensitive because material inside the chromosomes - called chromatin - compacted as telomeres became shorter. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Because the role of Rho GTPases in cellular processes and cancer formation is well established, researchers have spent years trying to identify safe and effective therapeutic targets for specific parts of the protein complex. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • After conducting a series of laboratory cell tests to verify the targeting and binding capabilities of Rhosin to RhoA, the researchers then tested the candidate drug's impact on cultured breast cancer cells and nerve cells. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • This, along with other tests the scientists performed, indicated Rhosin's effectiveness in targeting RhoA-mediated breast cancer proliferation, according to the researchers. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Researchers also treated an extensively tested line of neuronal cells with Rhosin, along with nerve growth factor, a protein that is important to the growth and survival of neurons. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • RESEARCHERS AT the University of Birmingham have identified a new form of ecstasy that kills blood cancer cells in a test-tube within 24 hours. (irishtimes.com)
  • CHICAGO -- Tumor cells detected in the blood may be a bad sign for prognosis in chemo-naive, early-stage breast cancer, researchers found. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Shapiro criticized the researchers' conclusion that circulating tumor cells are an independent prognostic indicator. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The researchers used specific antibodies that stick to cancer cells and attached them to tiny carbon nanotubes, which happen to heat up in the presence of certain wavelengths of light. (utdallas.edu)
  • Once the antibody sticks to the cancer cells, researchers can beam near-infrared light - like the kind used in remote controls - at the cells, heat the nanotubes, and cook the cancer cells to death. (utdallas.edu)
  • These cancer stem cells are the bad seed responsible for tumor growth and they form less than one in 60,000 tumor cells, according to researchers here and in Italy. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The Italian researchers likewise concluded that colon cancer is caused by CD133-positive cells, "which should therefore be the target of future therapies. (medpagetoday.com)
  • What the researchers found was that of the three compounds, the action of 6-shogal was found to be the most effective for inhibiting cancer growth and inducing the death of cancer cells (called apotosis). (lifehack.org)
  • Researchers also noted that, while this compound was the most effective against cancer cells, it also did the least amount of damage to surrounding healthy tissues. (lifehack.org)
  • Researchers working on this recent project noted that shogal-6 has been the focus of similar research in the past in which it has proven effective against the viability of stomach cancer cells and increased the rates of cell death in colon cancer cells. (lifehack.org)
  • In this study , researchers realized that iPSs are superficially similar to tumor cells, as both the stem cells and cancer cells have similar proteins (epitopes) on their surfaces. (mesothelioma.com)
  • With this in mind, the researchers began to explore if the immune system could be primed to recognize dangerous cells and prevent their growth and development in the future by targeting the specific proteins the IPSs and cancer cells have in common. (mesothelioma.com)
  • This approach is particularly powerful because it allows us to expose the immune system to many different cancer-specific epitopes simultaneously," Nigel Kooreman, one of the lead researchers, said . (mesothelioma.com)
  • The researchers hope to take this early-phase study to the next step and explore the effects of stem cells and immunotherapy on human cancers in a laboratory setting. (mesothelioma.com)
  • Though there is still a lot of work ahead, the researchers envision a future where a simple blood sample can be used to make IPS cells, which can then be injected into an individual to prevent future cancers. (mesothelioma.com)
  • Cancer cells have unique features that make them "immortal" according to some researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some researchers state that cancer can be treated by increasing the response of T cells, especially CD4+ T cells, to cancerous cells through cancer vaccine injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Rare Cancer Research Foundation (RCRF) is dedicated to curing rare cancers through strategic investments and innovative collaborations that facilitate effective research and accelerate deployment of promising therapies. (leiomyosarcoma.info)
  • The fact that tumour biologists have neglected the role of the nervous system for so long could explain why so few cancer therapies actually eliminate the disease. (newscientist.com)
  • Cancer therapies act as a form of artificial selection, killing sensitive cancer cells, but leaving behind resistant cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Jeffrey Rosen , a breast cancer researcher at Baylor College of Medicine, in Houston, TX, says that the study is an early example of a promising new turn in the hunt for cancer therapies. (technologyreview.com)
  • Kevin Harrington, professor of biological cancer therapies at The Institute of Cancer Research, London, said the results were "very interesting" but more research was needed. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Next generation viral therapies for cancer can selectively replicate in cancer cells, something that can kill the cancer cell directly, and also help spread the virus to neighbouring cancer cells. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The lab-grown cells were then infused into the patient with no additional pre- or post-conditioning therapies, such as growth-factor or cytokine treatment. (zdnet.com)
  • The study is also important because it shows that we can use this approach to selectively express foreign genes in tumours, opening the door to a whole new suite of targeted cancer therapies. (earthtimes.org)
  • The results could pave the way to finding markers to monitor the progression of cancer, and possibly even point to targets for therapies. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Furthermore, because these cells drive tumor development, strategies designed to target this population may lead to more effective therapies. (pnas.org)
  • Despite advances in detection and treatment of metastatic breast cancer, mortality from this disease remains high because current therapies are limited by the emergence of therapy-resistant cancer cells ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • In the case of cancer therapies, the aim is to induce an immune response that targets and kills the cancerous cells whilst avoiding damage to healthy cells. (news-medical.net)
  • However, more research is needed in the field of T-cell immunotherapy in order to develop efficacious, targeted cancer therapies. (news-medical.net)
  • The process does not present the risk of genetic mutation posed by gene therapies for cancer, or the risk to healthy cells caused by chemotherapy, which does not effectively discriminate between healthy and cancerous cells, Tang said. (freerepublic.com)
  • Though both doxycycline and vitamin C are safe to use in humans, more research is needed to find out how they interact with other cancer treatments and therapies before this can be recommended as a new approach to treating cancer. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Traditional cancer therapies are nonspecific, designed to kill the cancer cells -- and everything else in its path. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There are several different strategies for studying cancer in mice, and they vary in their ability to predict the behavior of cancers or therapies in human patients. (scienceblog.com)
  • Some therapies that work for the first four categories have difficulty treating these more aggressive mouse cancers. (scienceblog.com)
  • The U.S. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services said it has finalized a decision to cover expensive cancer cell therapies sold by Gilead Sciences and Novartis. (cnbc.com)
  • Yescarta, Kymriah and Breyanzi are approved for adults with large B-cell lymphoma that resisted two or more therapies or that relapsed. (ohsu.edu)
  • Understanding the cells' strategies could someday help scientists design therapies that keep them in check. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Rice model revealed the presence of both HIF-1 and AMPK can lead to the hybrid state that is difficult for current cancer therapies to address. (eurekalert.org)
  • Explain that this study implies that in colon cancer only a small fraction of the cells can actually spawn a new cancer, implying that more targeted therapies may be possible. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Explain to interested patients that conventional wisdom holds that any cancer cells can give rise to a new tumor, which is why therapies typically aim to eliminate all tumor cells. (medpagetoday.com)
  • While current therapies treat colon cancer as a single entity, "not every colon cancer cell has the ability to keep that tumor going," said John Dick, Ph.D., of Toronto's Princess Margaret Hospital, who led the Canadian team. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The findings imply that most cancer therapies have been misdirected, said Alan Bernstein, M.D., of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. (medpagetoday.com)
  • If the cancer stem cells can be better characterized, Dr. Dick and colleagues said, "developing adjuvant therapies directed at specifically eliminating the (stem cell) fraction may prove to be a more effective strategy for reducing both local and distant recurrence. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The cell then swallows this bundle of iron and proteins. (washington.edu)
  • The cancer cell, unaware of the toxic compound lurking on its surface, waits for the protein machinery to deliver iron molecules and engulfs everything - iron, proteins and toxic compound. (washington.edu)
  • CXCR1 and CXCR2 are proteins expressed on cells, including CSCs, which respond to the aforementioned cytokines in a deleterious manner. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In the engineered receptors, the dimerization step and subsequently cell signaling can now be turned on and off by light as the algal proteins sense light and bind to each other. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Our experiments show that loss of AIM1 proteins gives prostate cancer cells the ability to change shape, migrate, and invade. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Many cells, including cancerous ones, shed thousands of tiny membrane-bound vesicles called exosomes that contain proteins, DNA and RNA. (scientificamerican.com)
  • It is unclear how that would affect normal cells, he notes, and some exosomes from healthy cells have been shown to contain proteins that prevent cancer. (scientificamerican.com)
  • CD8+ T-cells recognize foreign or pathogen-derived proteins called antigens. (news-medical.net)
  • Proteins on immune cells called T-cell receptors (red) detect specific protein snippets (yellow) on the surface of other cells, including tumor cells. (newswise.com)
  • Lymphocytes use proteins called T-cell receptors to lock on to these cancer signals, many of which are unknown. (newswise.com)
  • The polymer shells are developed under mild physiological conditions so as not to alter the chemical structure of the proteins or cause them to clump, preserving their effectiveness on the cancer cells. (freerepublic.com)
  • Once that happens, the genes force the cancer cell to produce proteins that kill the cancer. (computerworld.com)
  • TAAs are proteins that are either uniquely expressed (e.g., cancer testes antigens, mutated proteins, and viral antigens) or expressed to a higher degree (e.g., overexpressed proteins and differentiation antigens) by tumor cells [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • During the G1 stage, the cell grows and proteins are created. (newswise.com)
  • p16 wouldn't stop the infection of the cell nor would it stop the virus from hijacking these cellular proteins. (slashdot.org)
  • Most of the viruses strongly associated with cancer work by specifically inactivating proteins which safeguard against cancer, or they produce tons of a protein or several proteins that urges the cell towards mad replication. (slashdot.org)
  • It has the ability to recognize and capture Id proteins, thus weakening their biological function in the cancer cell. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The process the NYU team was studying, called macropinocytosis, engulfs proteins and fats, which can be broken down into amino acids and metabolites used to build new proteins, DNA strands, and cell membranes. (genengnews.com)
  • Both of these proteins are in principle good targets because they're linked to cancer growth and operate near the cancer cell surfaces, where a drug delivered through the bloodstream could reach them. (genengnews.com)
  • This protein binds to specific proteins on the surface of cancer cells. (ohsu.edu)
  • Rho GTPases represent a family of small GTP-binding proteins involved in cell cytoskeleton organization, migration, transcription, and proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These NK cells release proteins called perforins and granzyme, a cytoplasmic granule, which destroys the target cell by apoptosis. (sooperarticles.com)
  • Natural Killer Cells are cytotoxic and contain small granules in their cytoplasm, which in turns contain special proteins such as perforin and proteases known as granzymes. (sooperarticles.com)
  • When these proteins and Proteases are released close to a cell intended for killing, perforin create pores in the cell membrane of the target cell through which granzymes and associated molecules can enter, inducing apoptosis. (sooperarticles.com)
  • First author on the paper, Dr Jo Durgan, said: "We set out to identify the proteins that control cell cannibalism in tumour cells, but by using time-lapse microscopy to watch this process in action, we stumbled across a completely unexpected new mechanism. (innovations-report.com)
  • Dr. Zhu further adds "If this biology were to hold true in humans, then it may explain why cancer rates are many-fold lower in children than adults, despite the fact that childhood cancers accrue significant numbers of mutations that alter proteins, and the growth rates of organs peak in childhood. (medindia.net)
  • Proteomes are highly complex, consisting of thousands of proteins that operate in intricate networks in a cell and condition-specific manner. (dkfz.de)
  • For instance, this has enabled us to identify novel proteins controlling the identity of mouse hematopoietic stem cells, and proteins that are key in the gain of pluripotency during reprogramming of fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). (dkfz.de)
  • In addition, we have a specific interest in secreted proteins for their role in cellular crosstalk, in RNA-binding proteins involved in translational control, and in chromatin-binding proteins for their key function in transcriptional regulation and cell fate decision. (dkfz.de)
  • It is involved in activating a very potent growth inhibitor, called ³transforming growth factor beta.² It disables a positive growth factor, ³insulin-like growth factor II.² The receptor also works inside the cell as a shuttle craft, moving proteolytic enzymes to the lysosomes, a part of the cellular digestive system that breaks down proteins into simpler compounds. (eurekalert.org)
  • Though scientists don't fully understand the mechanism by which the phosphaplatins kill cancer cells, they suspect that the compounds bind to the cell surface membrane proteins and transmit a "death signal" to the interior of the cell, Bose said. (thaindian.com)
  • Clinical vaccination studies using full-length recombinant proteins have the advantage that this form of antigen potentially includes the full range of epitopes for CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This research could transform the treatment of leukemia and related blood cancers. (zdnet.com)
  • The novel treatments remove a type of immune system cells from each individual patient and re-engineer them to better fight certain blood cancers, keeping nearly 40% of patients alive for more than two years, according to some studies. (cnbc.com)
  • CAR T-cell therapy, a type of immunotherapy, is a particular breakthrough for children with leukemia, and for adults with certain hard-to-treat blood cancers. (ohsu.edu)
  • Bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplants are ways to treat blood cancers like leukemia, multiple myeloma, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (webmd.com)
  • The link between ecstasy and cancer was discovered more than six years ago, when Prof Gordon's group saw the blood cancers were making very similar chemicals to the ones ecstasy targets in the brain. (irishtimes.com)
  • IL-8, another cytokine, is released after tumor cell death, subsequently stimulating CSCs to regrow the tumor and resist chemotherapy. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • This pathway plays a key role in regulating normal stem cells, with aberrant signaling stimulating CSCs, resulting once again in tumor recurrence and resistance to chemotherapy. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy is incapable of such delicate and "intelligent" behavior, as it preferentially targets fast-replicating cells by damaging their DNA in the vulnerable mitosis stage of cell division, regardless of whether they are benign, healthy or cancerous cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Though scientists are not yet certain about the role cancer stem cells play in disease, evidence is accumulating that these cells are particularly resistant to chemotherapy and radiation, and can linger in the body even after treatment. (technologyreview.com)
  • They compared it to the actions of a drug commonly given in breast cancer chemotherapy, paclitaxel (also known by its brand name, Taxol), in cultured cells and in mice. (technologyreview.com)
  • Some of the important applications of CTCs in cancer patients include analyzing the response of cancer patients to a particular therapy, categorizing high-risk and low-risk patients by detecting CTCs in early-stage cancers, identifying patients based on the need for surgery and/or chemotherapy, and monitoring the recurrence of the tumor during chemotherapy. (news-medical.net)
  • Cancer stem cells", also known as tumor-initiating cells (TIC), appear to cause relapses after radiation and chemotherapy because a single surviving TIC can cause a new tumor to grow. (eurekalert.org)
  • The point of the new technique is that it is much more targeted than trying to kill cancer cells with techniques such as chemotherapy. (redorbit.com)
  • Chemotherapy can also affect healthy cells in the body, and it therefore has serious side-effects. (redorbit.com)
  • Individuals who succumb to advanced-stage ovarian cancer inevitably become refractory to chemotherapy, resulting in disease progression and death. (nih.gov)
  • You need to discuss the type of pre-cancerous cells the pathology reports say - because some are responsive to chemotherapy with tamoxifen and some require radiotherapy. (medhelp.org)
  • Last year, she had relapsed twice after chemotherapy and doctors, having run out of options, tried an experimental treatment that uses a disabled form of HIV to get Emma's own immune system to kill cancer cells. (zdnet.com)
  • And last August, scientists at Stanford University reported that they had found a way to use nanotechnology to have chemotherapy drugs target only cancer cells, keeping healthy tissue safe from the treatment's toxic effects. (computerworld.com)
  • Co-delivery of 5-Fluorouracil and Curcumin Nanohybrid Formulations for Improved Chemotherapy Against Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma . (nih.gov)
  • A cancer cell with a lot of Bcl-2 has increased resistance to chemotherapy drugs that are used to destroy the tumour. (emaxhealth.com)
  • That's why cancer often requires additional treatment, such as chemotherapy , immunotherapy , or radiation, to seek out and destroy cancer cells throughout the body. (healthline.com)
  • In the opposite circumstance, when doctors underestimate severity, women may miss an opportunity to get radiation or chemotherapy at an earlier stage of cancer when it may be more effective. (reuters.com)
  • Because SCLC spreads quickly throughout the body, treatment will include cancer-killing drugs ( chemotherapy ), which are usually given through a vein (by IV). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Treat the cancer, along with chemotherapy, if surgery is not possible. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As a result, some people with smaller cancers, or who had a good response in their first round of chemotherapy, may receive radiation therapy to the brain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Doctors may give the patient a short course of chemotherapy before giving them the CAR T cells in an IV drip. (ohsu.edu)
  • They help restore the body's ability to make blood cells after high-dose chemotherapy or radiation. (webmd.com)
  • The high-dose chemotherapy or radiation used to kill blood cancer cells also kills healthy bone marrow. (webmd.com)
  • Blood cancer treatment usually starts with chemotherapy, either alone or with other drugs and treatments. (webmd.com)
  • Stem cell transplants are expensive, risky, and usually recommended when chemotherapy fails. (webmd.com)
  • This requires less intense radiation and chemotherapy but may not work as well at stopping the cancer. (webmd.com)
  • Getting ready for a stem cell transplant can be hard -- with many medical tests, trying to find a matching donor, and enduring pre-transplant chemotherapy and radiation. (webmd.com)
  • Most people with limited-stage small cell lung cancer are treated with chemotherapy in combination with radiation therapy directed at the disease in the chest. (uptodate.com)
  • Chemotherapy refers to the use of medicines to either kill cancer cells or stop their growth. (uptodate.com)
  • IGF1R-blocking drugs have already been developed and are showing promise in clinical trials for other cancer types, both alone and in combination with chemotherapy drugs. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Using Wilms' tumour cells, the team showed that combining IGF1R-blocking drugs with chemotherapy may also work for this disease. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • The cells kill themselves and all the bad parts are naturally removed, so there are less side-effects compared to chemotherapy, for example. (irishtimes.com)
  • We don't know if these cells should warrant different therapy or additional therapy or whether or not it would be chemotherapy. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In the study, 24% of the women had detectable circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood samples collected at the time of definitive surgery, before any chemotherapy. (medpagetoday.com)
  • One of the most promising potential uses would be to compare circulating tumor cell levels at baseline and after one or two cycle of chemotherapy to determine whether to switch agents, Shapiro suggested. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In comparison, stem cells were also exposed to curcumin derivatives (the active ingredient found in turmeric) and to Taxol, a common chemotherapy drug used in the treatment of breast cancer. (lifehack.org)
  • This makes it superior to traditional methods of cancer treatment like chemotherapy which can do significant harm to non-cancerous cells and negatively impact a cancer survivor's future quality of life. (lifehack.org)
  • It has also been used, in conjunction with chemotherapy, to help not only kill off cancer cells but to reduce the intensity of nausea and vomiting that chemo can cause as a side effect. (lifehack.org)
  • Another pathway involved in embryogenesis, the Hedgehog pathway also regulates normal stem cell activity. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Stem cell research suggests that excess SP2 protein may turn stem cells into cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanical properties of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and a pancreatic cancer subpopulation with stem cell properties have been increasingly recognized as potent modulators of the effective o. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is widely believed that targeting the tumour-initiating cancer stem cell (CSC) component of malignancy has great therapeutic potential, particularly in therapy-resistant disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In carcinogenesis ECM degradation triggers metastasis by controlling migration and differentiation including cancer stem cell (CSC) charact. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mitochondrial dynamics regulates stem cell expansion and differentiation. (nature.com)
  • These beneficial antitumor pathways, however, appear also to limit the stem cell life span, thereby contributing to aging. (jci.org)
  • At the top of the diagram, is a stem cell. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • One points to a lymphoid stem cell and one points to a myeloid stem cell. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • The lymphoid stem cell has two arrows pointing to the blood cells it makes. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • By studying mice expressing multicolor reporter genes, Arnout Schepers and colleagues from the University Medical Center Utrecht in Utrecht, The Netherlands, detected and monitored the fate of a candidate stem cell for intestinal adenomas, a precursor to intestinal cancer. (genengnews.com)
  • The paper is titled "Lineage Tracing Reveals Lgr5+ Stem Cell Activity in Mouse Intestinal Adenomas", and is published online by the journal Science. (genengnews.com)
  • Our team's exceptional expertise, on our Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplant page. (ohsu.edu)
  • It's best handled at centers - such as the Knight Cancer Institute - with deep experience doing stem cell and bone marrow transplants. (ohsu.edu)
  • What are Stem Cell Transplants? (webmd.com)
  • Why Are Stem Cell Transplants Needed? (webmd.com)
  • Stem cell transplants help restore the bone marrow's ability to produce blood cells. (webmd.com)
  • In some cases, therapy followed by stem cell replacement cures the cancer. (webmd.com)
  • However, some cancer centers are trying stem cell transplants as a first treatment. (webmd.com)
  • Peripheral stem cell transplants use stem cells collected from the bloodstream. (webmd.com)
  • For several days before donating peripheral blood stem cells, donors take special drug shots to boost stem cell levels in the bloodstream. (webmd.com)
  • There's a newer option for older and sicker people who may not be able to handle a traditional stem cell transplant. (webmd.com)
  • Mini stem cell transplants, also called reduced-intensity conditioning, can kill some cancer cells. (webmd.com)
  • A perfect storm of DNA mutation, damage to tissue and stem cell activation lead to cancer. (medindia.net)
  • Every time a stem cell divides, it forms more stem cells or it divides into specialized cells. (medindia.net)
  • This disagreement has arisen largely from the use of different mathematical models to look at existing human cancer and stem cell data, from which it is extremely difficult to tease out the impact of individual factors. (medindia.net)
  • We will now exploit the power of these innovative biochemical methods in combination with our mass spectrometric platforms to gain mechanistic insight in the regulation of cancer and stem cell identity. (dkfz.de)
  • A Harvard team has discovered that five of the 140 human embryonic stem cell lines registered for research use in US labs have cells whose mutations can cause cancer. (engadget.com)
  • This doesn't mean that the medical community is about to hit the brakes on stem cell research. (engadget.com)
  • And these stem cell lines have been in use for nearly 20 years -- that's a lot of time for risks to go unchecked. (engadget.com)
  • Still, it might be necessary to make sure that stem cell treatments aren't just substituting one disease for another. (engadget.com)
  • After being vaccinated for four weeks with either a control solution or one of the stem cell solutions, all of the mice had breast cancer cells implanted. (mesothelioma.com)
  • The Notch signaling pathway, also involved in embryogenesis, plays a key role in regulating cell differentiation, proliferation and programmed cell death (apoptosis), as well as the functioning of normal stem cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • While many of the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities in neoplasms are probably neutral evolution , many have been shown to increase the proliferation of the mutant cells, or decrease their rate of death ( apoptosis ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The nano sensor, developed by scientists at the Center for Molecular Imaging Research at Harvard University and Massachusetts General Hospital, detects a kind of systematic cell suicide called apoptosis. (technologyreview.com)
  • on its surface are about 15 peptides that attach to a lipid called phosphatidylserine that appears on human cell membranes during apoptosis. (technologyreview.com)
  • They attached a fluorescent tag to the peptides so they could tell when the nano sensors had found cells undergoing apoptosis. (technologyreview.com)
  • As they report in the journal Angewandte Chemie , the free radicals destroy the cell components even in oxygen-depleted conditions, causing apoptosis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Many well-established cancer treatment schemes are based on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induce apoptosis for the tumor cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • A diagram of the synthesis of degradable nanocapsules into cell nuclei to induce apoptosis, or programmed cell death, in cancer cells. (freerepublic.com)
  • The natural polyphenol curcumin induces apoptosis by suppressing STAT3 signaling in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma . (nih.gov)
  • The reason the Bcl-2 protein is dangerous is that it makes cells resistant to the normal cell-suicide or apoptosis process, that is vital for removing damaged cells from the body," explains Dr Hampton. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Nasdaq: ARQL) today announced that the direct activation of the human checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) caused the death of cancer cells and inhibited their growth and proliferation, as demonstrated in a study published in Cancer Research ("Dual Induction of Apoptosis and Senescence in Cancer Cells by Chk2 Activation: Checkpoint Activation as a Strategy Against Cancer," July 15, 2005). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Most of the time, cells with damaged DNA either repair themselves or die off through apoptosis. (healthline.com)
  • hence, tumor cells develop anti-apoptotic mechanisms and thereby, resist CTL-induced apoptosis. (springer.com)
  • In order for CTL-mediated antitumor immunotherapy to be effective, it is essential that agents directed against the resistant tumor cells sensitized cancer cells for CTL-mediated apoptosis. (springer.com)
  • Once telomeres have shortened to a critical length, the cell can no longer divide and dies though a process known as apoptosis. (deccanherald.com)
  • Tumour cells can invade surrounding nerves and travel along the body's electrical superhighway, seeding themselves anew in distant sites. (newscientist.com)
  • Tumour progression is dependent on the interaction between tumour cells and cells of the surrounding microenvironment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tumour cells in blood vessels 3d illustration. (news-medical.net)
  • It's well established that tumour cells grow by diffusing growth factors into the neighbouring tissue," says Axelrod. (newscientist.com)
  • Recognising that tumour cells grow and recruit others through cooperation in this way has implications for understanding how cancer develops, and may lead to new approaches to therapy, Axelrod suggests. (newscientist.com)
  • Using a virus to carry the gene therapy into the tumour cells, the result is that the cells self-destruct, alerting the patient's immune system that it is time to launch a massive attack. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Once the immune system has knowledge of the bad tumour cells, if they pop up again, the body will know to kill them. (bbc.co.uk)
  • One of the most complex medical challenges is to find the right mix of drugs to kill cancer tumour cells. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Increasing the speed and sensitivity of detecting how tumour cells are responding to treatment is something of a Holy Grail in the field of oncology. (cam.ac.uk)
  • New techniques are being pioneered in Cambridge to 'see' tumour cells as never before. (cam.ac.uk)
  • How effective the treatment was depended on the activity of the protein, which sends signals to Wilms' tumour cells - the more active the protein, the more effective the treatment. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • IGF1R plays a key role in creating new tumour cells and keeping them alive. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • But, when the cells were grown in the kidneys, the tumour cells looked exactly as they do in patients and responded well to the drug. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Since immunotherapy is an attractive approach to cancer therapy, this book also provides information on the two main strategies: monoclonal antibodies and adaptive T cell immunotherapy, with a focus on recent human clinical trials. (springer.com)
  • Immunotherapy involves the modification of immune cells to stimulate an immune response for the treatment or prevention of disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Using therapeutic T-cells for cancer immunotherapy isn't straightforward. (news-medical.net)
  • Cancer immunotherapy attempts to harness the power and specificity of the immune system to treat tumours. (nih.gov)
  • The molecular identification of human cancer-specific antigens has allowed the development of antigen-specific immunotherapy. (nih.gov)
  • Immunotherapy at the Knight Cancer Institute. (ohsu.edu)
  • This comprehensive volume explores the latest research on the mechanisms of resistance in cancer cells to CTL-mediated immunotherapy. (springer.com)
  • Main outcome measures Risk of tumours of the central nervous system, identified from the complete Danish Cancer Register. (bmj.com)
  • 8 The study found no evidence of any increased risk of brain or nervous system tumours or any cancer among mobile phone subscribers. (bmj.com)
  • It accounts for 10% of malignant tumours worldwide and 13% of male cancer deaths in the UK. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It now seems that targeting nerve cells might be an effective way to fight tumours - and even prevent them developing in the first place. (newscientist.com)
  • Now it's become increasingly clear that, although tumours attempt to infiltrate the nerves to speed their spread, nerves stimulate cancer growth as well. (newscientist.com)
  • The uncontrolled and often rapid proliferation of cells can lead to benign or malignant tumours (cancer). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer stem cells are rare immortal cells within a tumour that can both self-renew by dividing and give rise to many cell types that constitute the tumour, and can therefore form tumours. (nature.com)
  • Such cells have been found in various types of human tumours and might be attractive targets for cancer treatment. (nature.com)
  • A new modelling approach suggests stemness within colorectal tumours is defined by microenvironmental cues secreted from cancer-associated fibroblasts rather than cell-intrinsic properties. (nature.com)
  • This could also explain some of the differences seen within cells from the same tumour, and even how tumours can acquire resistance to treatments. (newscientist.com)
  • Immune cells that keep tumours in check remain oblivious to the malignancy or too low in number to make much of a difference. (zdnet.com)
  • The treatment annihilated the tumours within two months, and nearly two years later, there are no signs that the patient's cancer has crept back, Yee says. (zdnet.com)
  • He explained that "Intravenous delivery is crucial for cancer treatment because it allows us to target tumours throughout the body as opposed to just those that we can directly inject. (earthtimes.org)
  • Myeloma cells can form tumours in bones called plasmacytomas. (cancer.ca)
  • Entosis doesn't typically happen between healthy cells but it is common in tumours. (innovations-report.com)
  • Lead author Professor Chris Marshall, from the Institute of Cancer Research said, "There's an urgent need to understand how tumours can spread from their site of origin, for example the skin, to other tissues, such as the lungs, liver and bone where the disease becomes more difficult to treat successfully. (empowher.com)
  • We've shown that the same protein called JAK triggers tumour spread via two different routes - it generates the force needed for cancer cells to move around the body and also for triggers healthy cells in tumours to create furrows in tissues down which cancer cells move. (empowher.com)
  • Cancer Research UK-funded scientists at the ICR played a key role in understanding more about the disease and improving treatments for Wilms' tumours. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • If a patient is facing a biopsy or surgery to extract an LMS diagnosed tumor - tissue from the procedure(s) can be offered to the Rare Cancer Research Foundation (RCRF) through a simple consent form. (leiomyosarcoma.info)
  • But about 30 years ago, pancreatic cancer surgeon Keith Lillemoe realised that, even if he couldn't remove all of the cancerous tissue, he could at least reduce the pain his patients were feeling. (newscientist.com)
  • [1] [2] This accounts for how cancer develops from normal tissue and why it has been difficult to cure. (wikipedia.org)
  • A parent cell divides to form two daughter cells, and these daughter cells are used to build new tissue, or to replace cells that have died because of aging or damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer's ability to flourish in foreign tissues involves a complex set of steps - for instance, it needs to be able to survive the journey to a new location, securely link to a new tissue type, and generate new blood vessel growth to supply it with nutrients. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This altered position was seen in human tissue samples, including 81 normal prostates, 87 primary prostate cancers, and 52 prostate cancers that had metastasized to lymph nodes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The same cells are also involved in the autoimmune destruction of healthy cells and tissue seen in rheumatoid arthritis and, in theory, in juvenile diabetes. (reuters.com)
  • Once into the circulation, these CTCs propagate along with numerous other blood cells unless they reach a target tissue. (news-medical.net)
  • Epithelial cells form the tissue that covers the inner and outer surfaces of the body, forming a boundary with the environment. (eurekalert.org)
  • The cells are polar, meaning that the side facing toward the underlying tissue and the side directed outward toward the lumen are different. (eurekalert.org)
  • this is the first time in medical history that a viral therapy has been shown to consistently and selectively replicate in cancer tissue after intravenous infusion in humans. (earthtimes.org)
  • The clever thing about the technique is that we can target selected cells without harming surrounding tissue. (redorbit.com)
  • However, the AIPH must be safely delivered to the cells in the tissue. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Xia group's research activities center on the design and synthesis of novel nanomaterials for a broad range of applications, including nanomedicine, regenerative medicine, cancer theranostics, tissue engineering, controlled release, catalysis, and fuel cell technology. (eurekalert.org)
  • Mammalian aging occurs in part because of a decline in the restorative capacity of tissue stem cells. (jci.org)
  • The success of cancer vaccines is dependent on the delivery of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) within lymphoid tissue in the context of costimulatory molecules and immune stimulatory cytokines. (hindawi.com)
  • The success of a cancer vaccine is contingent on (1) efficient antigen delivery to sites of T cell priming within lymphoid tissue and (2) antigen presentation in the context of costimulatory molecules and immunostimulatory cytokines. (hindawi.com)
  • The model avoided the risk of oversimplification by placing the cell in a semi-finite, dynamic environment with realistic anatomical features such as cell membranes, blood vessels and surrounding tissue boundaries. (newswise.com)
  • The study published in Nature Communications used AI to analyze ovarian cancer tissue samples from 514 women, looking at the shape of almost 150 million cells in total. (forbes.com)
  • Because these radiation beams destroy healthy tissue before reaching a tumor, physicians often have to reduce the destructive dose of the beams, which may reduce the ability of the radiation to kill the cancer. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Combined with new imaging devices that produce three-dimensional pictures of the interior of the body, including precisely outlining the boundary between cancerous and healthy tissue, a proton beam can be used to eradicate a cancer with surgical accuracy, said Dr. James Slater, a Loma Linda cancer specialist. (chicagotribune.com)
  • They also can differentiate under control into mesodermal cell types of bone, fat, cartilage, muscle or connective tissue in vivo and in vitro. (upi.com)
  • Instead of dying off as they should, cancer cells reproduce more abnormal cells that can invade nearby tissue. (healthline.com)
  • This meant that the injected immune cells would have to migrate to the tumor and kill it at a distant site, all the while being in a normal mouse tissue environment. (scienceblog.com)
  • It's easier for physicians to diagnose diseases at the extremes of the spectrum - we are good at diagnosing normal breast tissue and the very abnormal cells of invasive breast cancer," said lead study author Dr. Joann Elmore of the University of Washington School of Medicine and Harborview Medical Center in Seattle. (reuters.com)
  • During malignant neoplastic progression the cells undergo genetic and epigenetic cancer-specific alterations that finally lead to a loss of tissue homeostasis and restructuring of the microenvironment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In adult tissue the quiescent state of a single cell is maintained by the steady state conditions of its own microenvironment for what concern both cell-cell as well as cell-ECM interaction and soluble factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To date, the study has involved research with mice and a group of 15 patients, all of whom were diagnosed with either breast cancer or soft-tissue sarcoma. (medicinenet.com)
  • Using a method to detect mismatches in genetic material, they compared strands of DNA from tumor cells and surrounding normal tissue, and discovered mutations in the tumor samples. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, the good news is that research is underway to look at more natural forms of cancer treatment - and recent research out of India which looked at the effects of ginger compounds on breast cancer stem cells found that ginger might hold the key to treatments that kill off cancer cells without doing harm to healthy tissue. (lifehack.org)
  • Pluripotent stem cells are considered "master cells," since they can potentially be used to produce any cell or tissue in the body that needs to be repaired or fight diseases like cancer. (mesothelioma.com)
  • The scientists attached a chemical homing device to artemisinin that targets the drug selectively to cancer cells, sparing healthy cells. (washington.edu)
  • To explore how these shapeshifting cells moved, the scientists teamed up with Steven An, Ph.D., an expert in cellular mechanics. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The book provides a state-of-the-art, comprehensive overview of immune cells in cancer and is an indispensable resource for scientists and medical doctors working and/or lecturing in the field of cancer research and immunology. (springer.com)
  • A new gene therapy technique is able to modify prostate cancer cells so that a patient's body attacks and kills them, US scientists have discovered. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Now scientists have transformed immune cells into cancer fighters outside the body--and prompted complete remission in two subjects when those cells were reintroduced. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The scientists infused the engineered lymphocytes back into their weakened systems and discovered that such cells could persist, making up between 9 percent and 56 percent of the T cell population one month after treatment in 15 of the 17 patients. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Now, American scientists have developed a hybrid nanomaterial that releases a free-radical-generating prodrug inside tumor cells upon thermal activation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Scientists plan on running experiments to see if the new technique also would work on cancers that have spread through the body. (computerworld.com)
  • The Bass Center unites scientists focused on understanding how cancer develops with specialists dedicated to providing personalized treatment for each child. (stanford.edu)
  • The findings will help scientists understand the biophysics associated with rapidly dividing breast cancer cells and may contribute to the development of new detection and treatment techniques. (newswise.com)
  • Antioxidants found in fruits, vegetables, and red wine killed cancer cells, including those that are resistant to treatment, in a study that scientists said may lead to more effective tumor fighters. (newsmax.com)
  • Scientists are using AI to identify small clusters of misshapen cells that can predict how aggressive ovarian cancer is and potentially guide treatment choices. (forbes.com)
  • Using technology they developed to hunt for quarks and other exotic natural particles, Fermilab scientists have produced a unique room-size proton accelerator that may be able to kill cancer cells better than any other type of radiation. (chicagotribune.com)
  • TOMSK, Russia, Dec. 28 (UPI) -- Scientists have developed a technology to control mesenchymal stem cells or MSCs, in an effort to fight cancer cells in the body. (upi.com)
  • This is the first time scientists have been able to demonstrate the efficiency of internalization of magnetic microcapsules by MSCs to functionalize cells and design magnetic-controlled cells and tissues in fighting cancer. (upi.com)
  • Nisin already is known to alter bacterial cells, rendering them harmless, which the scientists said is why they have been looking into its effects on cancer cells. (upi.com)
  • Scientists have found a way to alter T-cells so they can fight infections and cancer better than normal immune cells. (dailytech.com)
  • Using a previously described mouse model of cancer resistance, scientists in the Comprehensive Cancer Center have described new findings in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA in which they demonstrate the ability to cure cancer in normal mice by transferring purified immune cells (white blood cells) from cancer resistant mice. (scienceblog.com)
  • New research led by scientists at the Babraham Institute, Cambridge reveals a new mechanism driving cell cannibalism that offers surprising insights into cancer biology. (innovations-report.com)
  • The research, which also includes scientists from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centre, USA and the Francis Crick Institute in London, examined human epithelial cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Scientists at the University Würzburg and University Hospital of Würzburg found that megakaryocytes act as "bouncers" and thus modulate bone marrow niche properties and cell migration dynamics. (innovations-report.com)
  • Scientists from the Institute of Cancer Research in London and the University of Nice in France have joined together to research new treatments for cancer and they have discovered how cancer spreads. (empowher.com)
  • Some scientists believe that the ability of stem cells to generate could be the triggering factor for the development of cancer. (medindia.net)
  • The scientists also showed that stem cells in young animals were less likely to develop into cancer cells when compared with adult stem cells. (medindia.net)
  • The scientists showed that targeting this protein halted the production of new cells, and eventually killed existing cancer cells. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Scientists have developed a small-molecule-inhibiting drug that in early laboratory cell tests stopped breast cancer cells from spreading and also promoted the growth of early nerve cells called neurites. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • The scientists named their lead drug candidate "Rhosin" and hope future testing shows it to be promising for the treatment of various cancers or nervous system damage. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • This compound has been studied in the past on other forms of cancer, but scientists wanted to see what sort of effects it would have on breast cancer stem cells, which play an important role in the development of this disease. (lifehack.org)
  • In cancer cells, activation of the engineered receptors causes changes in cell morphology, proliferation and gene expression, characteristic of increased cancer malignancy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • At the level of the cell, there is selection for increased cell proliferation and survival, such that a mutant cell that acquires one of the hallmarks of cancer [3] (see below), will have a competitive advantage over cells that have not acquired the hallmark. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carcinogenesis is caused by mutation and epimutation of the genetic material of normal cells, which upsets the normal balance between proliferation and cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • By regulating the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation, they maintain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The findings, presented in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, show that the mole rat's cells express a gene called p16 that makes the cells 'claustrophobic,' stopping the cells' proliferation when too many of them crowd together, cutting off runaway growth before it can start. (slashdot.org)
  • This is the first time a link has been shown between fructose and cancer proliferation. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Ions, Cell Proliferation, and Cancer present the credibility of ions as specific regulators of cell proliferation. (elsevier.com)
  • This book provides an understanding of the control of cell proliferation and the deregulated proliferation of cancer cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Recent advances in tumor biology led to the realization that, in order to understand the mechanisms involved in proliferation and invasion of tumor cells, an analysis of the complex interactions that tumor cel. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rhosin worked with nerve growth factor in a dose-dependent way to promote the proliferation of branching neurites from the neuronal cells. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • The 150-kDa polypeptide was expressed by LNCaP and PC-3 PCA cells, as well as by normal prostate epithelial cells, but not by prostate stromal cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because many such antigens may also be present in normal prostate epithelial cells as well as PCA cells, one major therapeutic challenge for induction of anti-PCA immune responses may be the need to overcome immune tolerance against normal prostate antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Vimentin is more concentrated in epithelial cells when they transform into mesenchymal cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • cells once believed to be peculiar to cancers, but now know to be epithelial cells differing in no respect from those found elsewhere in the body, and distinguished only by peculiarity of location and grouping. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Normally, epithelial cells remain firmly attached to their surroundings when they divide. (innovations-report.com)
  • Also, in metastatic prostate cancers, there was between two and four times less AIM1, compared with cancers that remained in the prostate. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Metastatic lesions are more aggressive and account for most of the cancer-related deaths. (news-medical.net)
  • This research work has been published in the The New England Journal of Medicine under the title "Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma with Autologous CD4+ T Cells against NY-ESO-1" (Volume 358, Number 25, Pages 2698-2703, June 19, 2008). (zdnet.com)
  • As a result, metastatic breast cancer remains an incurable disease by current treatment strategies. (pnas.org)
  • HOUSTON - (Feb. 7, 2019) - When metastatic cancer cells need to avoid a threat, they simply reprogram themselves. (eurekalert.org)
  • Kaipparettu's Baylor team backed up the theory using gene expression data from breast cancer patients and metastatic triple negative breast cancer experimental models. (eurekalert.org)
  • Circulating tumor cells have proven prognostic in metastatic breast cancer in prior studies. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Since too much free-floating iron is toxic, when cells need iron they construct a special protein signal on their surfaces. (washington.edu)
  • Loss of functional PTEN protein accelerates cancer by allowing the PI3K/AKT pathway to be constitutively switched on, promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis ( 3 , 12 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Sera from three of eight vaccinated men contained new antibodies recognizing polypeptides of 26, 31, and 150 kDa in protein extracts from prostate cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The shape, size, protein composition, and texture of the nucleus are often altered in malignant cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They found that the protein that AIM1 makes was absent in 20 to 30 percent of prostate cancers that did not travel to other parts of the body, and in 40 percent of cancers that did spread. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • They showed that in normal, noncancerous prostate cells, the AIM1 protein sat along the outside border of the cell and was paired with beta-actin, which is a component of the cell's cytoskeleton. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, in prostate cancer cells, the protein was not found near the borders of the cells and was not paired with beta-actin. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • All the cells recognised a protein called NY-ESO-1 - this existed in his tumour, but not most healthy cells. (zdnet.com)
  • In medicinal applications, it generates free alkyl radicals that cause DNA damage and lipid and protein peroxidation in cells even under hypoxic conditions. (eurekalert.org)
  • Immunoglobulins (Ig) are Y-shaped protein molecules, called antibodies, that are made by plasma cells. (cancer.ca)
  • This destruction depends on lymphocytes correctly detecting cancer signals - bits of protein called antigens that cancer cells display on their surface. (newswise.com)
  • In a new study, published online Feb. 1 in the peer-reviewed journal Nano Today, a group led by Yi Tang, a professor of chemical and biomolecular engineering and a member of the California NanoSystems Institute at UCLA, reports developing tiny shells composed of a water-soluble polymer that safely deliver a protein complex to the nucleus of cancer cells to induce their death. (freerepublic.com)
  • The cell-destroying material, apoptin, is a protein complex derived from an anemia virus in birds. (freerepublic.com)
  • This protein cargo accumulates in the nucleus of cancer cells and signals to the cell to undergo programmed self-destruction. (freerepublic.com)
  • Further analyzing the clusters, the team found that they had a high level of a protein called galectin-3, which is known to cause death of T-lymphocyte cells, a vital component of the immune system keeping cancers in check, but it will require more work to figure out if this is a major factor in keeping these misshapen cell clusters hidden from the immune system. (forbes.com)
  • Curcumin -Mediated Degradation of S-Phase Kinase Protein 2 Induces Cytotoxic Effects in Human Papillomavirus-Positive and Negative Squamous Carcinoma Cells. (nih.gov)
  • His research is revealing important protein interactions that help explain why some cells repair cell damage while others end up with chronic and persistent inflammation and increased risk for cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Previous research has suggested that by stopping the protein production, doxycycline could kill the cancer cells because they wouldn't be able to make energy. (www.nhs.uk)
  • It is an integral membrane protein that is abundantly and preferentially expressed on the surface of prostate cancer cells ," said Warren D. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Erlotinib (Tarceva) attacks cells by blocking a receptor protein that's abundant on the surface of some cancer cells (SN: 8/27/05, p. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • DNA is shown in blue and a protein responsible for attachment between cells is shown in green. (innovations-report.com)
  • The protein receptor produced by M6P/IGF2r is an attractive target because it is present on the cell surface and in the plasma, Jirtle said, making it readily accessible for use in both liver tumor therapy and diagnosis. (eurekalert.org)
  • When working properly, the M6P/IGF2r receptor protein has at least three distinct regulatory -- or "traffic cop" -- roles within a cell, said Jirtle. (eurekalert.org)
  • Their past studies showing that the protein was abundantly present in normal liver cells, but nearly absent in cancer cells, strengthened their suspicion. (eurekalert.org)
  • One mutation results in an altered protein that lacks the ability to insert itself into the cell membrane," according to Zeneca's De Souza, who has spent three years at Duke University investigating this gene. (eurekalert.org)
  • Instead of carrying out its normal regulatory functions, this shortened protein leaves the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • An experimental drug that blocks an essential cell protein could be used to treat Wilms' tumour, a childhood cancer that affects the kidneys. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • The inhibitor overcomes a number of previous scientific challenges by precisely targeting a single component of a cell signaling protein complex called Rho GTPases. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • However, cancer cells are normally protected from this death by an RNA protein complex called telomerase, which ensures that telomeres do not shorten with every division. (deccanherald.com)
  • Dr. Dick's team, and an Italian group led by Ruggero De Maria, M.D., of Rome's Istituto Superiore di Sanità , used genetically engineered mice to show that only mutated colon cancer cells expressing a surface protein called CD133 could give rise to a new tumor. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The protein MAGE-3 has already been used in lung cancer treatment and has received positive feedback. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD4+ T cells has already been successfully induced in non-small-cell lung carcinoma patients vaccinated with MAGE-3 recombinant protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, of eight patients from the second cohort vaccinated with MAGE-3 protein and adjuvant, seven developed high-titered antibodies to MAGE-3, and four had a strong concomitant CD4+ T cell response to HLA-DP4-restricted peptide 243-258. (wikipedia.org)
  • The novel monitoring methodology used in this MAGE-3 study established that protein vaccination induces clear CD4+ T cell responses for further evaluating integrated immune responses in vaccine settings and for optimizing these responses for clinical benefit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Curcumin's selective cytotoxicity, on the other hand, targets the most dangerous cells - the cancer stem cells - which leaving unharmed the normal cells, as we will now learn more about below. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • More broadly, the method, reported online December 21, 2017, in the journal Cell , promises to illuminate how immune cells lock onto targets, the cellular recognition at the heart of autoimmune disorders and infections. (newswise.com)
  • In 2014, Garcia and colleagues published an article in Cell reporting a discovery that T-cell receptors were far more specific for their targets than originally thought. (newswise.com)
  • In the new work, they apply a similar method to tumor samples from two colorectal cancer patients, this time searching for the actual targets of patients' tumor-invading lymphocytes. (newswise.com)
  • An external magnet targets the cells to the tumor, where they deliver the encapsulated drug. (upi.com)
  • In telomere-shortened cancer cells, the compacted chromatin inhibited ATM signaling to all of the chromatin-bound targets tested in the study. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • In tests on a human breast cancer cells, Rhosin inhibited cell growth and the formation of mammary spheres in a dose dependent manner, acting specifically on RhoA molecular targets without disrupting other critical cellular processes. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Two drugs introduced later, carboplatin and oxaliplatin (which is used for colorectal cancer), overcame some of those problems, but their potency can harm the immune system of patients, said Bose, who has been studying alternative compounds and targets for these cancers for 25 years. (thaindian.com)
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a widely used marker for the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • E1A was expressed at high levels in CN706-infected human PSA-producing LNCaP cells but not in CN706-infected DU145 cells, which are human prostate cells that do not express PSA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1 R. R., H. Y. L., and J. W. S. have no financial interest in Calydon, Inc., and were supported by NIH Specialized Programs of Research Excellence in Prostate Cancer Grant CA-58230 and the CapCure Foundation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The ERG oncogene is activated in >50% of prostate cancer cases, generally through a gene fusion with the androgen‑responsive promoter of transmembrane protease serine 2. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • ERG overexpression combined with PTEN inactivation or loss is often associated with aggressive prostate cancer. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer in men. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It is estimated that approximately 70% of men will develop some form of prostate cancer but the majority of cases will not be clinically relevant ( 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, raised PSA levels can be due to factors other than prostate cancer such as benign prostatic hyperplasia and inflammation ( 4 , 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Aggressive prostate cancer can be treated successfully if caught in early, organ-confined stages. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • ETS-related gene ( ERG ), that is frequently found in aggressive prostate cancer. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • PTEN is lost or mutated in 50-80% of primary prostate cancer (but not in all cases). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In a Phase I human gene therapy trial, eight immunocompetent prostate cancer (PCA) patients were treated with autologous, GM-CSF-secreting, irradiated tumor vaccines prepared from ex vivo retroviral transduction of surgically harvested cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Vaccine site biopsies manifested infiltrates of dendritic cells and macrophages among prostate tumor vaccine cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Prostate cancer , for instance, can travel to any part of the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These abilities could allow prostate cancer cells to spread to different tissues in an animal and presumably a person. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • By using state-of-the-art quantitative single-cell analyses, he was able to investigate the properties of the cytoskeletons of AIM1-lacking prostate cancer cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A PSA test can lead to a hunt for prostate cancer cells. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Their research found a 20% improvement in survival in patients with prostate cancer five years after treatment. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the UK with more than 41,000 diagnosed each year. (bbc.co.uk)
  • In two groups of 62 patients, one group received the gene therapy twice and the other group - who all had more aggressive prostate cancer - received the treatment three times. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Microscopic view of prostate cancer cells showing Schlafen-11 primarily in the nucleus. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Although much excitement has been generated recently over the FDA approval of sipuleucel-T following prolonged survival in prostate cancer patients [ 6 , 7 ], the efficacy of DC-based vaccines remain limited in several regards. (hindawi.com)
  • Or is it yet other of the issues with prostate cancer that gets debated but never resolved? (healingwell.com)
  • Shirly Sieh, a PhD student at IHBI, is studying the way cancer cells escape from the prostate through the bloodstream to form tumour colonies, most often in the spine and long bones. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Is the Subject Area "Prostate cancer" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • An analysis of how cells in a tumour cooperate has provided a unique insight into the evolution of cancer, and may lead to new treatments. (newscientist.com)
  • We've invested more than $4.9 billion in cancer research since 1946, all to find more - and better - treatments, uncover factors that may cause cancer, and improve cancer patients' quality of life. (cancer.org)
  • Twenty-three advanced-cancer patients who had failed to respond to available treatments were infused with an engineered strain of vaccinia virus. (earthtimes.org)
  • The results support the approach of developing broadly effective cancer treatments based on the immune system. (newswise.com)
  • The other downside is that the treatment kills off healthy B-cells as well as the cancerous ones, so the patients need regular immune treatments in order to prevent other types of illness. (zdnet.com)
  • Gene therapy has a great potential to create safe and effective cancer treatments, but getting the genes into cancer cells remains one of the big challenges in this area," said Andreas Schatzlein, the study's author, in a written statement. (computerworld.com)
  • The Stanford Cancer Center provides the full spectrum of cancer services, from diagnosis to the newest, most effective treatments and ongoing support for cancer survivors. (stanford.edu)
  • I have never seen any evidence that starting later gives a better outcome and the entire basis of oncology for any cancer is to start treatments earlier rather than later. (healingwell.com)
  • A research team at the Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Otago, has now discovered that compounds from cruciferous vegetables such a broccoli, brussels sprouts and watercress help to kill cancer cells which are resistant to other treatments. (emaxhealth.com)
  • There are many common treatments that people go through in order to get rid of cancer. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Dr Julie Sharp, senior science information manager at Cancer Research UK, said: "These results suggest that this new drug could be used alongside existing treatments to make them more effective and could allow smaller doses to be given resulting in fewer side effects. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Children with pediatric brain cancers don't have very many options because progress to find new treatments has been limited the last 30 years," said Rachid Drissi, PhD , principal investigator on the study and a researcher in the Division of Oncology at Cincinnati Children's. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • The compounds could be less harmful than current cancer treatments like cisplatin and carboplatin because they don't penetrate the cell nucleus and attach to DNA, said co-author Rathindra Bose, a professor at Ohio University, who led the study. (thaindian.com)
  • A new study finds turmeric extract selectively and safely killing cancer stem cells in a way that chemo and radiation can not. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • As reported in the journal Angewandte Chemie , this dye also selectively kills off the cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • The study found that antioxidants resveratrol, which is found in red wine, and genistein, found in certain plants, killed rapidly dividing cells and selectively eliminated cancer cells that were resistant to multiple drugs. (newsmax.com)
  • Currently what we're trying to see is if antioxidants can selectively kill specific cancer cells. (newsmax.com)
  • These studies show that specific types of innate immune cells, such as macrophages, can migrate to the site of cancer in a normal mouse and selectively kill all of the cancer cells without harming normal cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • Again, the mutant immune cells killed the cancer cells selectively, without harming the normal mouse. (scienceblog.com)
  • A cell that promotes blood vessel growth to the tumour will also benefit other pre-cancerous cells. (newscientist.com)
  • Then she found another lump, this time they are saying they have found pre cancerous cells. (medhelp.org)
  • Natural anti-cancer TCRs have low affinity so methods to generate TCRs with a higher affinity to cancerous cells must be used. (news-medical.net)
  • Recent studies have investigated the ability to design a CD8+ T-cell that can target and kill cancerous cells efficiently. (news-medical.net)
  • The biopsy revealed pre-cancerous cells. (medhelp.org)
  • The shells, which at about 100 nanometers are roughly half the size of the smallest bacterium, degrade harmlessly in non-cancerous cells. (freerepublic.com)
  • Among mice, the team has performed real-time removal of cancerous cells based on identification by the technique. (medicinenet.com)
  • Cancerous cells usually cannot be recognized by the human immune system, and therefore cannot be destroyed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most cancers contain a subpopulation of highly tumorigenic cells, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells (TICs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • To obtain CSC expression profiles of human patients, the authors sorted 16 patient samples into four cell populations based on the expression of surface markers, and assayed the ability of each subpopulation to engraft in highly immunodeficient mice. (nature.com)
  • This identification has been accomplished in acute myelogenous leukemia, where it was demonstrated that a specific subpopulation of leukemia cells (that expressed markers similar to normal hematopoietic stem cells) was consistently enriched for clonogenic activity in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) immunocompromised mice, whereas other cancer cells were depleted of clonogenic activity ( 13 - 15 ). (pnas.org)
  • T Reg cells are also known as suppressor T cells which consist of a specific subpopulation of cells that functionally suppress the activation of immune system and maintain immune tolerance to self-antigens. (hindawi.com)
  • Cancer stem cells (CSC), a subpopulation of cancer cells with self-renewal and differentiation capacity, play an important role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, recurrence, and therapy resistance. (mdpi.com)
  • Phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) is an important tumour suppressor gene that is often inactivated in cancer. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Vaccination with irradiated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting gene-transduced cancer vaccines induces tumoricidal immune responses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data suggest that both T-cell and B-cell immune responses to human PCA can be generated by treatment with irradiated, GM-CSF gene-transduced PCA vaccines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Interestingly, gene signatures derived from cell populations defined on the basis of cell surface markers only (without functional validation) cannot distinguish low-risk from high-risk patients. (nature.com)
  • Exposure to the cancer exosomes altered gene expression in the normal cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Gene therapy is an exciting area of research, but targeting genetic changes to cancer cells has been a major challenge. (computerworld.com)
  • anglico sends news of research out of the University of Rochester that has identified a gene that "cancer-proofs" cells in rodents. (slashdot.org)
  • The new research-published in Nature through an article titled " Plasma membrane V-ATPase controls oncogenic RAS-induced macropinocytosis "- explains how changes in the RAS gene, known to encourage the abnormal growth seen in 90% of pancreatic cancer patients, also accelerates a process that supplies the building blocks required for that growth. (genengnews.com)
  • CAR T-cell therapy is a gene therapy because genes in the patient's T cells are reprogrammed to make CARs. (ohsu.edu)
  • We increasingly combine this information with ChIP-seq and RNA-seq, to gain a more complete understanding of how gene expression is regulated, and how this is derailed in cancer. (dkfz.de)
  • Their model shows a direct connection between gene regulation and metabolic pathways and how cancer cells take advantage of it to adapt to hostile environments, a process known as metabolic plasticity. (eurekalert.org)
  • Since there is an extensive cross-talk between gene regulation and metabolic pathways, we think it's necessary to simultaneously look at these two different aspects of cancer metabolism. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this case, however, the functions of an already-identified gene led Jirtle and his team to hypothesize its involvement in liver cancer. (eurekalert.org)
  • Irradiated GM-CSF-secreting cancer cell vaccines induce antitumor immune responses by recruiting antigen-presenting cells, such as DCs, to immunization sites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This allows T-cells to induce an immune response. (news-medical.net)
  • This paper discusses the concept of using T cells to induce tumor-specific immunity for vaccination against cancer. (hindawi.com)
  • Therapeutic cancer vaccines aim to induce antitumor immune responses through the generation of cytotoxic T cell responses to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). (hindawi.com)
  • Several cancer vaccine approaches induce durable CD4+ T cell responses and have promising clinical activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies show the crucial role of proliferating activated effector memory Th1 CD4+ T cells in effective anti-tumor immunity and reveal that CD4+ T cells induce more durable immune-mediated tumor control than CD8+ T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • A better understanding of the consequences of these mutations on the underlying biology of the neoplastic cells may lead to new therapeutic strategies. (pnas.org)
  • These cells must be eliminated to achieve a complete therapeutic response. (stanford.edu)
  • A review of anti- cancer properties and therapeutic activity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma . (nih.gov)
  • that is, the provision of an antigen together with an adjuvant to elicit therapeutic T cells in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, DCs are an essential target in efforts to generate therapeutic immunity against cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Understanding the mechanisms of NK cell functions may lead to fresh therapeutic strategies for the treatment of human disease, in general, and particularly in the fight against malaria. (sooperarticles.com)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are commonly utilized to elicit antitumor immune responses due to their attractive costimulatory molecule and cytokine expression profile. (hindawi.com)
  • To achieve these goals, a variety of cancer vaccination strategies have been tested clinically, ranging from simple peptide vaccines to more sophisticated approaches using plasmid DNA, viruses, tumor cells, and dendritic cells (DCs) [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Owing to their properties, dendritic cells (DCs) are often called 'nature's adjuvants' and thus have become the natural agents for antigen delivery. (nih.gov)
  • furthermore, recent reports suggest that immunization (using either adjuvant or dendritic cells with pure tumor peptides) can result in productive anti-tumor immunity that is restricted by MHC class I. Finally, elimination of CD8+ T cells from mice at least partially abrogates anti-tumor immunity induced by most cancer vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Robert Axelrod, a political scientist at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, US, a leader in applying game theory to evolutionary biology, has now turned his attention to cancer. (newscientist.com)
  • It's a lot of sophisticated molecular biology," Rosenberg notes, "and most of our work is going into designing retroviruses, putting genes into cells efficiently and getting them expressed. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Cell Biology and Cancer developed with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is a creative, inquiry-based instruction program, designed to promote active learning and stimulate student interest in medical topics. (merlot.org)
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  • If you know the author of Cell Biology and Cancer , please help us out by filling out the form below and clicking Send. (merlot.org)
  • Her work reveals two important aspects of NK cell biology. (sooperarticles.com)
  • By studying entosis, we hope to gain insights into fundamental cell biology, as well as to explore intriguing new avenues for cancer research. (innovations-report.com)
  • After 100 years of observing 'cell-in-cell' structures, there is now an exciting push towards discoveries in both cell and cancer biology. (innovations-report.com)
  • Using state-of-the-art mass spectrometric technologies we aim to understand processes that are fundamental to cancer biology and to pluripotency in stem cells, both using cell lines as well as in vivo model systems. (dkfz.de)
  • When a patient has cancer , the surgeon tries to find the tumor and cut it out," explained study senior author Dr. David Kirsch, a professor in the department of pharmacology and cancer biology, and the department of radiation oncology at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, N.C. "However, there can sometimes be microscopic residual cancer left behind that the surgeon can't see. (medicinenet.com)
  • These tests begin as Drissi's laboratory also leads correlative cancer biology studies of tumor samples from a current clinical trial. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Although still years from clinical development, in principle Rhosin could be useful in therapy for many kinds of cancer or possibly neuron and spinal cord regeneration," said Yi Zheng, PhD , lead investigator and director of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology at Cincinnati Children's. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Senior molecular and cell biology major Austin Swafford is a McDermott Scholar, a recipient of the Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship and now a "published author. (utdallas.edu)
  • Visit our Cancer / Oncology category page for the latest news on this subject, or sign up to our newsletter to receive the latest updates on Cancer / Oncology. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It is also partially funded by a grant from the physics oncology initiative of the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health. (kpbs.org)
  • He is currently a scientific reviewer for several journals and a member of editorial boards including Journal of Clinical Immunology, International Journal of Oncology, and Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals. (springer.com)
  • Liver cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, particularly because of its association with viral hepatitis," said Jirtle, a professor of radiation oncology and cancer center member. (eurekalert.org)
  • That risk rose with the number of tumor cells detected in peripheral blood, they reported online in the Lancet Oncology . (medpagetoday.com)
  • It's still not clear whether available treatment could eradicate circulating tumor cells or even whether that's necessary for better outcomes, a Lancet Oncology editorial noted. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Rituxan, known generically as rituximab, is made by Genentech, a unit of Roche Holding AG and Biogen Idec Inc. It was designed to wipe out immune cells known as B lymphocytes, which proliferate out of control in lymphoma. (reuters.com)
  • The aim of this book is to summarize the role of these components, especially immune cells, in tumor suppression and/or progression and describe in detail why tumor cells can survive and spread in spite of the antitumor response of immune cells. (springer.com)
  • Immune cells such as lymphocytes, also known as T cells and pictured in blue above, recognize health threats via special receptors on the cell surface. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Steven Rosenberg of the National Cancer Institute and his colleagues first cloned the genes governing the cancer-recognizing receptor in immune cells from a patient who had successfully beaten back melanoma. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Both remain disease-free 18 months after treatment and continue to exhibit high levels of the engineered immune cells in their blood. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Without a systematic way to look for these signals, many details of immune cells' recognition capabilities have remained a mystery. (newswise.com)
  • After an injection, this cancer vaccine would teach existing immune cells to recognize and combat the rogue cells. (newswise.com)
  • It has been demonstrated that as a major suppressive element, T Reg cells infiltrate tumor, interact with several types of immune cells, and mediate immune suppression through different molecular and cellular mechanisms. (hindawi.com)
  • Cancer cells can often evade the immune system by inhibiting immune cells from differentiating them from other cells. (healthline.com)
  • Our bodies have immune cells that are supposed to fight off infection and cancer, but due to their short lifespans and low numbers, they are not always able to stand up to such infections and diseases. (dailytech.com)
  • If SR/CR Immune Cells Kill Cancer, Will They Work In a Normal Mouse? (scienceblog.com)
  • Even though our in vitro (test tube) experiments suggested that the innate immune cells themselves were responsible for tumor killing, it was still possible that this killing might only work if the rest of the mouse also expressed the same mutation. (scienceblog.com)
  • Therefore, we placed cancer cells and immune cells from spontaneous remission/cancer resistant (SR/CR) mice together in a normal mouse to determine whether the cancer cells could survive. (scienceblog.com)
  • Without the SR/CR immune cells, such cancers grow rapidly in normal mice and the mice die in 3-4 weeks. (scienceblog.com)
  • But, when these cancer cells were injected together with the SR/CR immune cells, the tumor was killed. (scienceblog.com)
  • This suggests that no other cell type or soluble factor in the mice is required to allow the immune cells to function and kill cancer. (scienceblog.com)
  • A more difficult experiment was to inject a normal mouse with cancer cells and allow the tumor to implant and grow, then inject the SR/CR immune cells at a later time. (scienceblog.com)
  • Finally, we performed the most difficult challenge (shown in Figure 5), which was to inject the normal mice with cancer cells at one site (e.g., subcutaneously on the back), and then later inject the SR/CR immune cells at another site (e.g., intraperitoneally or into the abdomen). (scienceblog.com)
  • Surprisingly, this strategy worked, and the established cancer in the normal mouse was killed by the SR/CR immune cells injected elsewhere. (scienceblog.com)
  • Initially, the cancers on the back actually appeared to get slightly bigger after the immune cells were injected into the peritoneal cavity, but after a few days the cancer began to shrink. (scienceblog.com)
  • The work--published online today by Science --shows considerable promise for cancers other than melanoma as well, including breast and lung cancers. (scientificamerican.com)
  • As you probably know, melanoma is one of the deadliest forms of skin cancer, usually caused by too much exposure to the sun. (zdnet.com)
  • Yee and colleagues removed CD4+ T cells, a type of white blood cell, from a 52-year-old man whose Stage 4 melanoma had spread to a groin lymph node and to a lung. (zdnet.com)
  • T cells specific to targeting the melanoma were then expanded vastly in the laboratory using modifications to existing methods. (zdnet.com)
  • Another type of skin cancer, melanoma , is more dangerous but less common. (medlineplus.gov)
  • One of the most dramatic improvements has been achieved with an eye cancer known as ocular melanoma, a tumor that grows on the inside of the eye. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The study is still in the early phases and has only been implemented in mice modules, but shows promise for the potential to vaccinate patients against various types of cancer, including mesothelioma , melanoma, and breast cancer. (mesothelioma.com)
  • at the level of the organism, cancer is usually fatal so there is selection for genes and the organization of tissues [6] [7] that suppress cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carcinoma , the majority of cancer cells are epithelial in origin, beginning in the membranous tissues that line the surfaces of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukaemia , originate in the tissues responsible for producing new blood cells , most commonly in the bone marrow . (wikipedia.org)
  • Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are an of population cancer cells that enter the bloodstream after detaching from the primary tumor and propagate to distant tissues to form metastases. (news-medical.net)
  • The presence of CTCs in the blood can give a chance to get samples of cancer tissues through liquid biopsy, which is less invasive. (news-medical.net)
  • If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • They are also found in certain tissues in the body where they serve as internal cells for repair. (medindia.net)
  • A marker molecule called Prom 1 was used to identify the activity of cells in the various tissues of mice. (medindia.net)
  • In certain tissues, these marker cells were mature and did not divide but in certain other tissues they were active stem cells. (medindia.net)
  • Piyush Gupta, a co-author at the Broad Institute, says that for reasons not completely known, when this "epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition" is performed on breast cancer cells, it promotes the development of a large number of cells that he says are "indistinguishable from cancer stem cells. (technologyreview.com)
  • Gupta explains that since cancer stem cells are usually resistant to drugs, relatively few chemicals are effective-a mere 32 compounds were identified in the screen as preferentially treating breast cancer stem cells. (technologyreview.com)
  • While paclitaxel treatment leads to a higher proportion of drug-resistant cancer stem cells, salinomycin had the opposite effect, reducing the number of breast cancer stem cells in cultured cells more than 100 times more effectively than paclitaxel. (technologyreview.com)
  • It has been found in one of such studies that breast cancer patients with CTCs ≥ 5 have shorter median progression-free and overall survival compared to patients with CTCs less than 5. (news-medical.net)
  • The team also collected exosomes from the blood of 8 healthy individuals and 11 people with breast cancer. (scientificamerican.com)
  • To investigate the mechanisms of solid tumor heterogeneity, we developed a modification of the NOD/SCID mouse model in which human breast cancers were efficiently propagated in the mouse mammary fat pad ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • A quick primer on the different ways breast cancer can be treated. (medhelp.org)
  • From mammograms to personal hygiene, learn the truth about these deadly breast cancer rumors. (medhelp.org)
  • Breast cancer is not an inevitability. (medhelp.org)
  • She has since taken on the role of breast cancer survivor. (medhelp.org)
  • I think it is insulting to those women who are diagnosed with breast cancer, not pre-cancerous cell. (medhelp.org)
  • As the years have gone by, my sister has gone from saying she did not have cancer but is at risk, to being one step from having first stage breast cancer to finally announcing at a family gathering that she had breast cancer! (medhelp.org)
  • My question is this: Is a woman who has had a lump removed from her breast and submitted to radiation as a result of finding a pre-cancerous cell a breast cancer survivor or am I feeling unneccessarily alarmed. (medhelp.org)
  • Either she had breast cancer or she did not and if not, she is not dealing with reality. (medhelp.org)
  • Tests done on human breast cancer cell lines in laboratory mice showed significant reduction in tumor growth. (freerepublic.com)
  • Although the focus appears to be breast cancer, I would think this is a monumental step forward for most, if not all, types of cancers as well. (freerepublic.com)
  • Previous work found that MCF-7, a standard breast cancer cell line, hyperpolarizes - meaning simply that it increases its membrane voltage in negative polarity - during two critical stages prior to cell division. (newswise.com)
  • To understand the biomagnetic signals of a single breast cancer cell, Hassan and El-Shenawee created a two-dimensional, biophysics-based model with computer simulations that allowed them to obtain densities of electrical current based on space and time. (newswise.com)
  • Myung said his group is studying to see if antioxidants can kill specific types of cancer cells, including those of the breast and ovary, and if the antioxidants harm just diseased cells or healthy cells too. (newsmax.com)
  • Delving deeper, they analyzed these patches of abnormal cells, finding that they had lower levels of genes that repair DNA, including BRCA1-one of the genes that is often defective in cases of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. (forbes.com)
  • The PARP inhibitor olaparib is currently FDA-approved for some women with breast cancer who have mutations in their BRCA genes, but the new AI-powered test might be able to identify those without mutations, but with lower levels of BRCA who might benefit from this drug and other, similar treatment approaches. (forbes.com)
  • Girls wave their scarves during an awareness rally for breast cancer in the northern Indian city of Chandigarh October 22, 2011. (reuters.com)
  • When the slides showed either invasive breast cancer, or harmless or benign cells, the doctors agreed with the original diagnosis at least 97 percent of the time. (reuters.com)
  • When doctors overestimate the cancer risk, some women may suffer side effects from treatment that probably didn't lower their odds of dying from breast cancer, Bleicher noted. (reuters.com)
  • Women who ate diets high in carbohydrates (62 percent or more) were two times more likely to develop breast cancer than those who had diets that were lower in carbohydrates (52 percent or less). (empowher.com)
  • A follow-up trial involving 50 breast cancer patients is already underway, and Kirsch said the hope is to make the technology available by 2017. (medicinenet.com)
  • In breast cancer for example, increased RhoA activity makes the cancer cells more invasive and causes them to spread, while a deficiency of RhoA suppresses cancer growth and progression. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Rhosin does not affect non-cancerous breast cells. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Among patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer, finding even one circulating tumor cell at the time of surgery correlated with more than four-fold risk of death or recurrence over 2 years of follow-up. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Finding even one circulating tumor cell at the time of surgery in women with nonmetastatic breast cancer correlated with more than four-fold risk of death or recurrence over 2 years of follow-up, according to a prospective study by Anthony Lucci, MD, of the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, and colleagues. (medpagetoday.com)
  • However, the test, which is commercially available, clearly isn't ready for routine clinical use in early-stage breast cancer, he cautioned. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The study included all 302 patients with operable stage 1 to 3 breast cancer at a single center who had no bilateral breast cancer or any other malignancy within 5 years of breast cancer diagnosis. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Note that such "cancer stem cells" have previously been found in leukemia, breast, and brain cancers. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In 1994, Dr. Dick was the first to show that cancer stem cells underlie some forms of leukemia, and since then such predecessor cells have been identified in breast and brain cancers. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The findings imply that "colon cancer, like acute myelogenous leukemia, breast, and brain cancer, is organized as a hierarchy in which a small population of (cancer stem cells) sustain the tumor," Dr. Dick and colleagues reported. (medpagetoday.com)
  • T-cell responses, evaluated by assessing delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions against untransduced autologous tumor cells, were evident in two of eight patients before vaccination and in seven of eight patients after treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Abnormal functioning of this pathway is implicated in a wide range of cancers and in the stimulation of CSCs and associated increases in tumor recurrence after conventional treatment. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Is a cancer treatment actually helping? (technologyreview.com)
  • Cancer patients often suffer for months before finding out whether or not a treatment is helping. (technologyreview.com)
  • If oncologists could see what was happening to tumor cells immediately after a treatment - whether they were flourishing or dying - the physician could quickly switch patients' drugs, if needed. (technologyreview.com)
  • After a patient has been on a cancer treatment for a few days, he or she could be given the nano sensor and an MRI scan could show whether tumor cells are dying. (technologyreview.com)
  • Worse, weeks or months of a failing treatment regimen can trigger defense mechanisms by the tumor cell that may render ineffectual a second-line therapy that might have otherwise worked. (technologyreview.com)
  • From basic information about cancer and its causes to in-depth information on specific cancer types - including risk factors, early detection, diagnosis, and treatment options - you'll find it here. (cancer.org)
  • Also, before treatment can begin, the cancer must be detected. (earthtimes.org)
  • Using magnetically controlled nanoparticles to force tumor cells to 'self-destruct' sounds like science fiction, but could be a future part of cancer treatment, according to research from Lund University in Sweden. (redorbit.com)
  • The new technique is primarily intended for cancer treatment, but according to Erik Renström and his colleague Enming Zhang there may be other areas of application. (redorbit.com)
  • The major limiting factor in the treatment of ovarian cancer is recurrence and chemoresistance. (nih.gov)
  • Radiotherapy is use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells or premalignant cells. (medhelp.org)
  • I it is atypical hyperplasia or just hyperplasia, then it is not cancer, but it can be considered as pre-cancer (however, radiation treatment for this is questionable). (medhelp.org)
  • A tiny capsule invented at a UCLA lab could go a long way toward improving cancer treatment. (freerepublic.com)
  • There is a similar nanomedicine cancer treatment prgm underway at UT-Arlington. (freerepublic.com)
  • Other cancer centers , such as the National Cancer Institute and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York, are also experimenting with this novel treatment. (zdnet.com)
  • The treatment first removes millions of the patients own T-cells and then introduce genes that give T-cells the ability to kill cancer cells. (zdnet.com)
  • Though the treatment does not have perfect results, cancer experts not working on this research say that it is promising because it has worked in cases where there were no other options. (zdnet.com)
  • The only drawbacks so far are price and one side effect: Unlike traditional drugs, this treatment requires a new batch of T-cells to be created for each patient, which has a price tag of about $20,000 per patient. (zdnet.com)
  • We hope this study will someday lead to a better test to detect ovarian cancer earlier, and in the short term it could potentially help guide more targeted treatment plans," said Kelly Bethel, M.D., of Scripps Clinic, who is leading the research. (kpbs.org)
  • We have developed a simple new computer test that can identify women with very aggressive ovarian cancer so treatment can be tailored for their needs,' said Dr Yinyin Yuan, team leader in computational pathology at the Institute for Cancer Research and senior author of the study. (forbes.com)
  • Treatment is more likely to work well when cancer is found early. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What Will Happen After Treatment for Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers? (medlineplus.gov)
  • What's New in Research and Treatment of Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Professor Brindle is working with Professor Duncan Jodrell and Dr David Tuveson at the Cancer Research UK Cambridge Research Institute to develop imaging methods that allow treatment responses in individual patients to be measured immediately. (cam.ac.uk)
  • This study looked at whether two natural products and six different drugs already approved for use in humans could kill cancer cells reliant on making energy using glycolysis - or in other words, kill the cancer cells that had resisted the initial treatment with doxycycline. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Since benign cells don't spread, there's no need for treatment to prevent the benign cells from coming back. (healthline.com)
  • Interestingly, in cell culture studies, treatment of mutant RAS cells with the SLC4 family inhibitor S0859 led to a significant reduction in RAS-dependent v-ATPase localization to outer membranes, as well as to the inhibition of micropinocytosis. (genengnews.com)
  • Treatment can often prolong life for 6 to 12 months, even when the cancer has spread. (medlineplus.gov)
  • CAR T-cell therapy is an inventive treatment that takes T cells from the patient's body and modifies them to destroy cancer cells. (ohsu.edu)
  • Our doctors helped lead the clinical trial showing that CAR T-cell therapy for lymphoma not only extends survival but may improve quality of life after treatment. (ohsu.edu)
  • CAR T-cell therapy is a complex, multistep treatment. (ohsu.edu)
  • Treatment starts with collecting T cells from the patient's blood. (ohsu.edu)
  • Kymriah is approved for patients up to age 25 with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia that resisted treatment or came back after treatment (relapsed). (ohsu.edu)
  • The stage of the cancer is important in determining the most appropriate treatment for an individual patient. (uptodate.com)
  • The goal of treatment for limited-stage disease is to cure the patient of the cancer. (uptodate.com)
  • Extensive-stage disease is not considered to be curable, and the goals of treatment are to relieve symptoms caused by the cancer and to prolong life. (uptodate.com)
  • Nabil Saba, M.D., FACP, a medical oncologist at Emory University Winship Cancer Institute in Atlanta, Georgia, explained, "The traditional treatment for head and neck cancer is really toxic and exhaustive and leads to side effects that are very significant. (ksat.com)
  • After treatment, Monteith's cancer went away for six months, but then it came back in his lungs. (ksat.com)
  • Dr. Saba is a nationally-known expert in the treatment of head and neck cancers. (ksat.com)
  • Dr. Lisa Richardson, director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's division of cancer prevention and control, said the reason people are living longer after a cancer diagnosis is "because of advances in early detection and treatment. (medicinenet.com)
  • Shortening end caps on chromosomes in human cervical cancer cells disrupts DNA repair signaling, increases the cells' sensitivity to radiation treatment and kills them more quickly, according to a study in Cancer Prevention Research. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Too many children with brain cancer can develop disabilities or die from treatment. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Among cancer cells with maintained telomere length, close to 10 percent receiving the maximum dose of ionizing radiation used in the study (8 Gy, or Gray Units) survived the treatment. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • The first drug developed for the treatment of ovarian and testicular cancers, cisplatin, was approved for use in 1982. (thaindian.com)
  • First, Davis and post-doctoral fellow Arnold Han isolated and characterized T-cell receptors from two patients with colorectal cancer. (newswise.com)
  • Because the colon is one of the major cancer sites thought to be protected by olive oil, the team studied the potential anti-cancer effects of virgin olive oil phenols in cultured cell lines widely used as models for colorectal cancer. (redorbit.com)
  • Foods that are high on the glycemic foods list are three times more likely to contribute to the development of colorectal cancer than those that don't cause a high glycemic load. (empowher.com)
  • It's also important to follow recommended screening guidelines, which can help detect certain cancers early. (cancer.org)
  • This is due to the amino acid composition of foods because certain cancers appear to thrive on specific amino acids. (emaxhealth.com)
  • conversely, an undetected, aggressive cancer may become lethal within 2-12 years ( 7 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • That's why, as cancers become more aggressive and metastasise, they often end up spreading to the nervous system's central hub: the brain. (newscientist.com)
  • The cancer - some patients, the cancer would come back earlier than expected, and in a much more aggressive manner than we would expect. (npr.org)
  • And even if their effect is only local, they could still make nearby cancer cells more aggressive, or transform healthy cells into cancerous ones, he says. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This new finding may also have implications for treating women with more aggressive ovarian cancer. (forbes.com)
  • For example, one can divide the types of mouse cancer models into five major categories: 1) inducing endogenous (naturally occurring) cancer in mice using chemical carcinogens, 2) inducing endogenous cancer in mice using genetic manipulation, 3) allowing mice to grow old and get spontaneous cancers, 4) transplanting human cancers into immune-deficient mice that cannot reject cells from a different species and 5) transplanting aggressive cancers from other mice. (scienceblog.com)
  • The SR/CR cancer resistant mouse was originally identified using these aggressive mouse cancers and, therefore, had to be a very effective resistance mechanism to have been detected. (scienceblog.com)
  • Pancreatic cancer is extremely aggressive and often has a poor prognosis, so understanding the underlying molecular mechanism that keeps these particular cancer cells alive is critical to improving patient outcomes. (genengnews.com)
  • SCLC is the most aggressive form of lung cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This aggressive blood cancer is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (ohsu.edu)
  • It is usually an aggressive cancer that tends to grow and spread quickly. (uptodate.com)
  • The compact accelerator is designed to do something that other radiation devices cannot-destroy diseased cells while leaving healthy cells basically unharmed. (chicagotribune.com)
  • When this technology reaches its full potential, I think it will replace X-rays and other forms of radiation for cancer therapy. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Radiation kills cells by destroying genetic machinery. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The proton beam can be focused to release its destructive radiation at any target within the body, such as a tumor, without destroying normal cells along the route of the beam. (chicagotribune.com)
  • In order for cancer radiation therapy to advance we needed to improve our ability to focus a beam inside the body. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Limited -- Cancer is only in the chest and can be treated with radiation therapy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Extensive -- Cancer has spread outside the area that can be covered by radiation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Radiation therapy uses powerful x-rays or other forms of radiation to kill cancer cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Radiation therapy may also be used to treat other areas of the body to relieve symptoms caused by the spread of cancer. (uptodate.com)
  • The ability to make cancer cells more sensitive to radiation could allow physicians to use lower radiation doses to lessen side effects. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • This helps explain why cells with maintained or long telomeres appear to be more resistant to radiation. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • This was the basis for experiments Drissi and his colleagues conducted to compare the radiation sensitivity and survivability of cells based on telomere length. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • They exposed the cells to ionizing radiation and analyzed DNA repair responses as telomeres became progressively shorter. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Cancers 2017 , 9 , 158. (mdpi.com)
  • 2017. "Alcohol and Cancer Stem Cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Researches found that when pancreatic cancer cells were fed glucose and fructose, the cells used fructose to divide cells and increase in size. (empowher.com)
  • Artemisinin is readily available, Sasaki said, and he hopes their compound can eventually be cheaply manufactured to help cancer patients in developing countries. (washington.edu)
  • The Cancer Cell Line project is an opportunity for patients to contribute to research in a big way - a personal way. (leiomyosarcoma.info)
  • In the late 1980s Lillemoe and his colleagues at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, tested the technique on 137 patients with inoperable pancreatic cancer . (newscientist.com)
  • Heterogeneity is evident between cancers from different patients (inter-tumor heterogeneity) and within a single tumor (intra. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, methods based on biological properties utilize epithelial cell adhesion molecules (EpCAM) present on the cell surface to positively enrich CTCs in blood samples of patients with cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • And cancer biopsy tests performed two years after the trial were found to be negative in 83% and 79% of the patients in the two groups. (bbc.co.uk)
  • What cancer patients, their families, and caregivers need to know about the coronavirus . (cancer.org)
  • We can take normal lymphocytes from patients and convert them to tumor-reactive cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • We prospectively identified and isolated the tumorigenic cells as CD44 + CD24 −/low Lineage − in eight of nine patients. (pnas.org)
  • University of Pennsylvania doctors have achieved, in a handful of patients, one of the holy grails of cancer research: getting the patient's own immune system to attack cancer cells. (zdnet.com)
  • Even more surprisingly, they reprogrammed the immune systems of their cancer patients using a disabled form of the HIV virus. (zdnet.com)
  • Ovarian cancer usually has poor prognosis, and most patients were diagnosed at advanced stages. (hindawi.com)
  • First, DCs are a terminally differentiated cell type that cannot be expanded ex vivo , resulting in limited numbers of cells with which to vaccinate patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, upon administration of DCs to patients, the vast majority of cells are sequestered at the injection site and fail to migrate to draining lymph nodes [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • London-based GlaxoSmithKline Plc stopped developing a drug, designed to mimic the health benefits of red wine, in 2010 after the compound didn't work well enough in cancer patients and may have worsened kidney damage. (newsmax.com)
  • In one approach, autologous antigen-specific T cells are expanded ex vivo and then re-infused into patients. (nih.gov)
  • Patients had to travel to physics research facilities where particle accelerators could be used for cancer therapy when they were not occupied smashing atoms. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Standard therapy, which consisted of removing the eye, produced dismal results, with the cancer reappearing at some other site in the body in 65 percent of patients. (chicagotribune.com)
  • In the light of the UCLA study, agave syrup may therefore not be helpful for dietary cancer prevention, and cancer patients are probably better off avoiding it altogether. (psychologytoday.com)
  • OHSU was the first hospital in the Northwest to offer patients Kymriah, the first CAR T-cell therapy approved by the Food and Drug Administration. (ohsu.edu)
  • Some patients can donate their own stem cells. (webmd.com)
  • After the transplant, patients spend two to six weeks in the hospital waiting for the new stem cells to begin making blood cells. (webmd.com)
  • Because of this, surgery is useful for very few patients with small cell lung cancer. (uptodate.com)
  • Patients with small cell lung cancer are traditionally classified as having either limited-stage or extensive-stage disease. (uptodate.com)
  • About one-third of patients with small cell lung cancer have limited-stage disease at the time they are diagnosed. (uptodate.com)
  • Extensive-stage disease - Most patients with small cell lung cancer have extensive-stage disease at the time of initial diagnosis. (uptodate.com)
  • The early trial, involving both mice and a small number of human patients, used a preoperative injection of a blue liquid called LUM015 directly into the region where the cancer is located. (medicinenet.com)
  • None of those patients has developed cancer, thankfully, but there's a "very real risk" it could happen. (engadget.com)
  • Overall survival was likewise 4.04-fold less likely at 2 years for patients with at least one tumor cell detected in their baseline blood sample (95% CI 1.28 to 12.8). (medpagetoday.com)
  • In 1845, Virchow and John Hughes Bennett independently observed abnormal increase in white blood cells in patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of nine patients in the first cohort, three developed marginal antibody titers and another one had a CD8+ T cell response to HLA-A2-restricted peptide MAGE-3 271-279. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ovarian cancer stem cells and inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women in the United States and the leading cause of gynecologic cancer deaths. (nih.gov)
  • Cellular morphology of ovarian cancer stem cells. (nih.gov)
  • Proposed model depicting complexity of the cellular components of ovarian cancer and the role of the Type I EOC stem cells in chemoresistance and recurrence. (nih.gov)
  • Multiple layers of suppressive components including regulatory T (T Reg ) cells, suppressive antigen-presenting cells, and inhibitory cytokines form suppressive networks in the ovarian cancer microenvironment. (hindawi.com)
  • In this paper, we focus on human ovarian cancer and will discuss the nature of T Reg cells including their subsets, trafficking, expansion, and function. (hindawi.com)
  • Ovarian cancer is one of the most common and deadliest gynecologic cancers. (hindawi.com)
  • The five-year survival rate for all stages of ovarian cancer is 46% in 2010 [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • With no reliable screening tests and few symptoms, ovarian cancer is among the hardest forms of cancer to diagnose. (kpbs.org)
  • Research underway in San Diego analyzes blood from women with ovarian cancer to track tumor cells and better understand the spread of cancer. (kpbs.org)
  • Ovarian cancer is among the hardest forms of cancer to diagnose. (kpbs.org)
  • Blood of woman with ovarian cancer. (kpbs.org)
  • The suspected circulating ovarian cancer cell (in red with a blue nucleus) is surrounded by normal blood cells (in green with blue nuclei). (kpbs.org)
  • It is open to all women with a history of ovarian cancer and involves a one-time blood donation. (kpbs.org)
  • The study is partially funded by Nine Girls Ask for a Cure for Ovarian Cancer, a local advocacy group. (kpbs.org)
  • Somatic evolution is the accumulation of mutations and epimutations in somatic cells (the cells of a body, as opposed to germplasm and stem cells ) during a lifetime, and the effects of those mutations and epimutations on the fitness of those cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Armitage and Doll explained the cancer incidence data, as a function of age, as a process of the sequential accumulation of somatic mutations (or other rate limiting steps). (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, a series of several mutations to certain classes of genes is usually required before a normal cell will transform into a cancer cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since every cancer cell within a tumour is different, with different mutations and needs, each of these cells can be thought of as a "player" in a game theory sense, Axelrod says. (newscientist.com)
  • Some cells lack the "full deck" of mutations necessary to produce all the growth factors, overcome host defences and become independently malignant. (newscientist.com)
  • Cancers are believed to arise from a series of sequential mutations that occur as a result of genetic instability and/or environmental factors ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • These self-renewing cells are rendered malignant by a small number of oncogenic mutations, and overlapping tumor suppressor mechanisms (e.g., p16INK4a-Rb, ARF-p53, and the telomere) have evolved to ward against this possibility. (jci.org)
  • ISLAMABAD -- A new research has explained how studying the diversity of cancer cells could help turn off mutations in cancer cells and strip their adaptability to drugs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Inherited genetic mutations are associated with 5 to 10 percent of all cancers. (healthline.com)
  • Having one of these genetic mutations increases your risk of developing cancer, but it's not inevitable. (healthline.com)
  • In the genomic era of cancer research, the development of metastases has been attributed to mutations in the tumor that enable the cells to migrate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Indeed, an argument has raged across the scientific community for some years now - some say cancer is 'bad luck' because mutations arise by chance in stem cells, while others argue environmental carcinogens are more important. (medindia.net)
  • Once the activity of these marker cells was identified in the whole body of mice, mutations were introduced into these cells. (medindia.net)
  • Thank you for sharing this Cancer Research article. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would be interested in this article in Cancer Research. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Harald Janovjak, Assistant Professor at IST Austria, together with Michael Grusch, Associate Professor at the Institute of Cancer Research of the Medical University of Vienna, "remote-controlled" the behaviour of cancer cells with light, as reported in EMBO Journal . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This work is the first application of the new field of optogenetics to cancer research. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Several research groups have begun looking for substances that kill these cells. (technologyreview.com)
  • The work by Tung and his colleagues is part of a larger effort in the cancer research community to use nanoparticles to detect the presence and measure the activity of tumor cells through imaging technologies. (technologyreview.com)
  • But Piotr Grodzinski, director of Nanotechnology for Cancer programs at the NCI's Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer, says that if the iron-oxide nanoparticles in the nano sensor do indeed improve the resolution of MRI imaging, the research "is very relevant. (technologyreview.com)
  • Laura-Jane Armstrong, at Cancer Research UK, says it is "very plausible" that different subtypes of cancer cells may cooperate to support each other's growth. (newscientist.com)
  • A cancer expert said more research was needed to judge its effectiveness. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Our team of expert journalists brings you all angles of the cancer story - from breaking news and survivor stories to in-depth insights into cutting-edge research. (cancer.org)
  • This research project has been conducted by a team led by Cassian Yee , M.D., an associate member of the Clinical Research Division at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center . (zdnet.com)
  • The research group at Lund University is not the first to try and treat cancer using supermagnetic nanoparticles. (redorbit.com)
  • Nature India is proud to be associated with Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi as media partner of the just concluded International Symposium on Current Advances in Radiobiology, Stem Cells and Cancer Research (February 19-21, 2015). (nature.com)
  • Years ago a relative of mine who did cancer research told me that when they find a cure for cancer, they will also have the cure for AIDS. (freerepublic.com)
  • These results are encouraging, and we look forward to seeing if this method can be used to treat cancer in people," said Lesley Walker, Cancer Research UK's director of cancer information, in a statement. (computerworld.com)
  • SCI offers leading edge research and compassionate care with over 250 actively recruiting clinical trials, investigating a broad spectrum of cancer conditions. (stanford.edu)
  • If you're curious about some of the research being done on the phenomena of viruses causing cancer then I'll direct your attention here [colostate.edu]. (slashdot.org)
  • Cancer research scientist and childhood cancer survivor. (forbes.com)
  • New animal research published in the journal, Nature, suggests that food can either fuel or inhibit the spread of cancer. (emaxhealth.com)
  • For more information, please contact Professor Kevin Brindle ( [email protected] ) at the Department of Biochemistry and the Cancer Research UK Cambridge Research Institute/Li Ka Shing Centre . (cam.ac.uk)
  • This research was published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2009) 106, 19801-19806 and was funded principally by Cancer Research UK, with material support from GE Healthcare. (cam.ac.uk)
  • This research involved a series of laboratory experiments performed on human cancer stem cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Published this month in Cancer Research , these findings serve as a powerful reminder that anyone wishing to curb their cancer risk should start by reducing the amount of sugar they eat. (psychologytoday.com)
  • According to the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR), commeting on the study on its blog, "the findings are interesting, but more research is needed before it can be used to make recommendations on public health. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Reducing added sugar will help people get to and maintain a healthy weight, and that is one way research clearly shows that we can prevent pancreatic cancer," says the AICR. (psychologytoday.com)
  • In 2012, she reported the potential effect the preservative has on cancer -- which has now been pushed forward with her new research. (upi.com)
  • Although nisin already is available in creams and pharmaceuticals to fight infections and mastitis, Kapila said there is no way to know if its effects on cancer in rats will translate to humans, which she said is the next step for future research. (upi.com)
  • This book is a valuable resource for animal cell biologists, molecular biologists, and research workers. (elsevier.com)
  • Research studies show that consumption of large amounts of sugar in the diet increase the growth of cancer cells. (empowher.com)
  • Dr. Liqin Zhu who is the first author of the study and a research associated at St. Jude's says "By following these Prom1+ cells in all the major organs in mice through their lifetime journey we were able to identify in which organs these cells were actively dividing stem cells. (medindia.net)
  • However, the research shows that stem cells can be woken up to form cancer. (medindia.net)
  • He is also Member, Department of Defense Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program, Member, National Cancer Institute SPORE Program, Member, International Scientific Advisory Board of the Israel Cancer Research Foundation, among other accomplishments. (springer.com)
  • Dr. Stephen Freedland, director of the Center for Integrated Research on Cancer and Lifestyle at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, noted that one of the biggest challenges facing surgeons is determining where is the cancer. (medicinenet.com)
  • If you've followed the latest medical research, you know that stem cells are a big deal . (engadget.com)
  • Dr Jones added: "This research shows the importance of testing drugs in cells grown in the organ from which the tumour came from to provide the same environment, which is clearly important to their development. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • For media enquiries please contact the Cancer Research UK press office on 020 3469 8300 or, out-of-hours, the duty press officer on 07050 264 059. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Cancer Research UK is a registered charity in England and Wales (1089464), Scotland (SC041666) and the Isle of Man (1103). (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • The prospect of being able to target blood cancer with a drug derived from ecstasy is a genuinely exciting proposition," said Dr David Grant, scientific director of the charity Leukaemia and Lymphoma Research, which part-funded the study. (irishtimes.com)
  • Further work is required but this research is a significant step forward in developing a potential new cancer drug," Dr Grant said. (irishtimes.com)
  • A small molecule that resets the 'biological clock' of cancer cells can help shrink tumour growth and lead to potential new therapy to treat cancer, says a research. (deccanherald.com)
  • I was attracted to this work because it combined my passion for research in nanotechnology with the promise of helping people by developing a new tool for combating cancer," Swafford said. (utdallas.edu)
  • The collaboration between the Bionanosciences Group at UT Dallas and the Cancer Immunobiology Center at UT Southwestern offered me a unique opportunity to do research in this frontier area of nanomedicine. (utdallas.edu)
  • Swafford also has had the chance to intern at Zyvex Corp., the world's first molecular nanotechnology company, and to obtain a Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship with Dr. Ellen Vitetta, a senior author of the study and director of the Cancer Immunobiology Center at UT Southwestern. (utdallas.edu)
  • In spite of the fact that there have been a lot of advancements in cancer research in recent decades, the reality is that cancer remains the fourth leading cause of death in the United States - and around the world. (lifehack.org)
  • Hopefully with more research, their vision can become a reality and help eliminate cancer . (mesothelioma.com)
  • The recent research evidence suggests that alcohol increases the CSC population in cancers, which may underlie alcohol-induced tumor promotion. (mdpi.com)
  • Cancer cells need a lot of iron to maintain the rapid division necessary for tumor growth. (washington.edu)
  • The RCRF takes care of the rest of the coordination to make sure your de-identified tumor sample is sent to the Broad Institute of MIT / Harvard laboratories for cell processing and hopeful growth. (leiomyosarcoma.info)
  • IL-1, a family of cytokines, are involved in response to injury and infection, with IL-1 β playing a key role in cancer cell growth and the stimulation of CSCs. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Janovjak, Grusch and colleagues re-engineered receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), essential cell surface receptors that sense growth factors and hormones, to be under the control of light. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cell division is a normal process used by the body for growth and repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • But cells can aid each other by complementing the missing growth signals. (newscientist.com)
  • The ability to prospectively identify tumorigenic cancer cells will facilitate the elucidation of pathways that regulate their growth and survival. (pnas.org)
  • And the lung cancer cells showed significant inhibition of their growth rate, independently of the oxygen concentration. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Program postulates that self-renewal is a critical function of both cancer stem cells and their normal counterparts and that self-renewal pathways may be co-opted in the process of oncogenesis to support tumor growth. (stanford.edu)
  • After letting the cells interact with the sugars, both fructose and glucose were found to increase cancer cell growth at similar rates but through different metabolic pathways. (psychologytoday.com)
  • In this study we show that cancers can use fructose just as readily as glucose to fuel their growth," said Anthony Heaney, the study's lead author. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Moreover, foods that cause a sharp rise in blood glucose (i.e. foods with a high glycemic index (GI) ranking) trigger the secretion of insulin and insulin growth factor (IGF-1), two hormones that also promote cancer growth. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Indeed, "efforts to reduce refined fructose intake or inhibit fructose-mediated actions may disrupt cancer growth," the study states. (psychologytoday.com)
  • It's this out-of-control growth that leads to cancer. (healthline.com)
  • When a malignant tumor is removed, any cells left behind can result in new growth. (healthline.com)
  • From there, the iPSCs were redifferentiated into T-cells, but had longer lifespans and greater growth potential. (dailytech.com)
  • Cell cannibalism has a complex relationship with cancer and it is not totally clear whether it helps or hinders tumour growth. (innovations-report.com)
  • Foods that are high in simple sugars like fructose and excess glucose have been shown to increase cancer cell growth, which increases the cancer growth in our bodies. (empowher.com)
  • Cancer cells grow like normal cells, mimicking the growth and differentiation of stem cells. (medindia.net)
  • The cells that differentiate into specialized cells do not divide and do not further assist in the growth of the tumor. (medindia.net)
  • According to the study authors, the liquid seeks out a particular enzyme called protease that is believed to be critical to cancer growth, and is found in large quantities in malignant cells. (medicinenet.com)
  • Once outside, it can no longer regulate cell growth. (eurekalert.org)
  • This complex regulates cell movement and growth throughout the body. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • The molecule called 6-thio-2'-deoxyguanosine (6-thiodG) can stop the growth of cancer cells, the findings showed. (deccanherald.com)
  • A human colon cancer cell capable of initiating tumour growth in immunodeficient mice. (medpagetoday.com)
  • For instance, part of the transformation of a normal, healthy cell into a cancerous cell is the sudden, rapid cell division after shedding the naturally occurring mechanisms that block such uncontrolled growth. (mesothelioma.com)
  • Two of the mice completely rejected the tumor growth and survived for one year after the cancer cells were introduced. (mesothelioma.com)
  • It's over expression has been linked to the progression from inflammation to cancer. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The study authors wrote, "Proinflammatory cytokines are frequently observed in the tumor microenvironment, and chronic inflammation is involved in cancer initiation and progression. (empowher.com)
  • One or more circulating tumor cells per 7.5 ml of peripheral blood was associated with a hazard ratio of 4.62 for progression-free survival at 2 years (95% CI 1.79 to 11.9, P =0.005). (medpagetoday.com)
  • It appears that alcohol exposure not only promotes carcinogenesis but also enhances the progression and aggressiveness of existing cancers. (mdpi.com)
  • What's the difference between benign and malignant cells? (healthline.com)
  • There's a big difference between benign and malignant cells. (healthline.com)
  • Malignant cells are cancerous and potentially life threatening. (healthline.com)
  • Surgeons can then remove the malignant cells on the spot, theoretically reducing the need for a follow-up operation. (medicinenet.com)
  • Cancer cells are created when the genes responsible for regulating cell division are damaged. (wikipedia.org)
  • Homeobox genes are master regulators of cell fate during embryonic development and their expression is altered in cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They isolated exosomes from cells grown in culture and found that, unlike normal exosomes, those from cancer cells contained the building blocks required to produce the short fragments of RNA called microRNA that can shut off the expression of target genes. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The role of the disabled HIV virus is to carry these new genes into the T-cells. (zdnet.com)
  • Cancer cells have mutated genes and are less specialized than normal cells. (healthline.com)
  • These effects are mediated at sites of T cell priming and at the tumor microenvironment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other groups have recently screened for drugs that target leukemia stem cells and brain cancer stem cells. (technologyreview.com)
  • So far, Tung and his coworkers have tested the nano sensor on human leukemia cells in the lab. (technologyreview.com)
  • While most adoptive transfer experiments have been performed with tumor-specific CD8+ T cells, activated CD4+ T cell clones specific for the murine leukemia virus have been demonstrated to confer systemic anti-tumor immunity upon transfer into tumor-bearing hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • These pathogens are processed by antigen presenting cells into peptides and presented on molecules called major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs). (news-medical.net)
  • To date, DC-based vaccine approaches have been most extensively pursued because DCs are considered to be the most potent professional antigen presenting cells (APCs) due to their superior ability to take up, process, and present antigens [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • When a signaling molecule binds to RTKs at the cell surface, two receptors bind to each other in a process called dimerization. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The newly developed receptors trigger complex cellular programs in both cancer and blood endothelial cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Castriconi R, Dondero A, Negri F, Bellora F, Nozza P, Carnemolla B, Raso A, Moretta L, Moretta A, Bottino C (2007) Both CD133(+) and CD133(−) medulloblastoma cell lines express ligands for triggering NK receptors and are susceptible to NK-mediated cytotoxicity. (springer.com)
  • T-cell receptors (TCRs) have different affinities for different antigen peptides. (news-medical.net)
  • Designer T-cells and T-cell receptors for customized cancer immunotherapies. (news-medical.net)
  • They were able to make this discovery by developing a biochemical method to sift through millions of antigens that might be detected by T-cell receptors. (newswise.com)
  • The method could illuminate the cellular details of autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases or any other process that involves T-cell receptors, Garcia says. (newswise.com)
  • Natural Killer Cell includes two types of surface receptors (activating receptor and inhibitory receptor) to control their cytotoxic activity. (sooperarticles.com)
  • These receptors recognize MHC class l alleles that could explain the killing process of NK cells for low level of MHC class l molecule. (sooperarticles.com)
  • A drug called Nivolumab blocks the cancer receptors, allowing the body's immune system to fight the cancer. (ksat.com)
  • However, Rosen notes that the results in mice were not as promising as the drug's performance in cells. (technologyreview.com)
  • And if we gave the neutrophils back the cancer back in mice. (npr.org)
  • The new technique has been shown to leave healthy cells undamaged in tests on mice. (computerworld.com)
  • ANN ARBOR, Mich., Jan. 11 (UPI) -- The naturally occurring preservative nisin was found to kill cancer cells and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in mice, according to a new study conducted at the University of Michigan. (upi.com)
  • Subsequent to our original publication in 2003, genetic cancer resistance has been propagated into four more strains of mice and shown to work against a wide variety of cancer types. (scienceblog.com)
  • While cancers injected into these unique mice are rejected, several questions needed answering about how this worked. (scienceblog.com)
  • Findings presented in our second publication in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA in 2006 demonstrate the results of experiments to address these questions, and provide more in-depth information about how these unusual mice avoid cancer. (scienceblog.com)
  • One might predict that such an effective mechanism might not only be able to kill cancer cells in the original mutant mouse, but perhaps one could transfer this mechanism to normal mice, as well. (scienceblog.com)
  • In immunodeficient mice, the Canadian team found, a transplant of 1,000 CD133-positive cells could reliably give rise to a new cancer. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Even 100 such cells caused cancer in one in four mice, they reported. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Similarly, a critical role for CD4+ T cells in induced anti-tumor immunity has been consistently demonstrated in vaccine/challenge experiments employing antibody-mediated depletion of CD4+ T cells or using CD4-knockout mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abrogation of anti-tumor immunity in CD4-knockout mice or mice depleted of CD4+ T cells has been demonstrated in cases of cell-based vaccines, recombinant viral vaccines and recombinant bacterial vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • White blood cells are part of our body's defense system. (npr.org)
  • The screening technology, developed by Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator (HHMI) Christopher Garcia and colleagues after almost 20 years of basic molecular studies of the immune system, may ultimately lead to more effective immunotherapies, which harness the body's immune system to fight cancer. (newswise.com)
  • Biologic therapy boosts your body's own ability to fight cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This evolutionary process has first been shown by the studies of Bert Vogelstein in colon cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gill's group also observed a significant reduction in the invasiveness of colon cancer cells with the addition of olive oil phenols. (redorbit.com)
  • Reservations may be made online or by calling (800) 774-1500 and requesting the AACR Intestinal Stem Cells and Colon Cancer conference rate. (aacr.org)
  • Identification and expansion of human colon-cancer-initiating cells. (medpagetoday.com)
  • When a cancer cell divides, both daughter cells inherit the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities of the parent cell, and may also acquire new genetic and epigenetic abnormalities in the process of cellular reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • when one cell divides to form two. (innovations-report.com)
  • This biological clock is defined by DNA structures known as telomeres, which cap the ends of the cell's chromosomes to protect them from damage and which become shorter every time the cell divides. (deccanherald.com)
  • [8] These work to help macrophages detect and kill cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nanoparticles that detect cell death may supply a quick answer. (technologyreview.com)
  • In recent years, many studies have been performed to detect the numbers of CTCs in blood to evaluate cancer prognosis and outcomes. (news-medical.net)
  • A more imminent application might be to use exosomes as a way to detect and monitor cancer, he adds. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Some screenings, like Pap smears and colonoscopies , can detect abnormal cells before they have the chance to turn cancerous. (healthline.com)
  • Other screenings, like a mammogram , can detect localized cancer cells before they start to spread. (healthline.com)
  • Neoplasms are mosaics of different mutant cells with both genetic and epigenetic changes that distinguish them from normal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Telomeres help preserve DNA stability in cells by containing genetic miscues. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • A person with multiple myeloma often has many abnormal plasma cells (myeloma cells) in the bone marrow. (cancer.ca)
  • Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that fights viruses, bacteria, foreign substances and abnormal cells, including cancer cells. (cancer.ca)
  • In multiple myeloma, B cells don't work properly and make many abnormal plasma cells (called myeloma cells). (cancer.ca)
  • In people with multiple myeloma, abnormal plasma cells make up at least 10% of the cells in the bone marrow. (cancer.ca)
  • Precancerous cells are abnormal cells which have an altered multiplcation pattern. (medhelp.org)
  • A cancer cell is an abnormal cell that doesn't follow this cycle. (healthline.com)
  • Often the tumor will regrow from those resistant cells, the patient will relapse, and the therapy that had been previously used will no longer kill the cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doxycycline killed many cancer cells, but others became resistant. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The resistant cells were then destroyed by vitamin C. (www.nhs.uk)
  • But because cancer cells are good at adapting, there were concerns that some cancer cells would become drug resistant by using a different pathway to create energy, such as glycolysis. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This wiped out many cancer cells, although some did became drug resistant. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The doxycycline-resistant cells were then mostly reliant on the glycolysis pathway for energy production. (www.nhs.uk)
  • All of the drugs and natural products had some success in preventing these doxycycline-resistant cancer stem cells dividing. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The cells were 4-10 times more sensitive to vitamin C than cancer cells not resistant to doxycycline. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The doxycycline-resistant cells are then susceptible to natural products like vitamin C and drugs including chloroquine. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Current findings and other published data support nisin's potential use to treat antibiotic resistant infections, periodontal disease and cancer. (upi.com)
  • This could be due to the fact that stem cells in children have an innate resistant to the development of cancer. (medindia.net)
  • Cancer drug designers are faced with the unique challenge that cancer cells develop from our own normal cells, meaning that most ways to poison cancer cells also kill healthy cells. (washington.edu)
  • The compound Sasaki and his colleagues developed kills 12,000 cancer cells for every healthy cell, meaning it could be turned into a drug with minimal side effects. (washington.edu)
  • It kills approximately 100 cancer cells for every healthy cell, about ten times better than current chemotherapies. (washington.edu)
  • The compound is so selective for cancer cells partly due to their rapid multiplication, which requires high amounts of iron, and partly because cancer cells are not as good as healthy cells at cleaning up free-floating iron. (washington.edu)
  • Healthy cells stop dividing when there is no longer a need for more daughter cells, but cancer cells continue to produce copies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually, the body does not recognise cancer cells as the enemy because they have evolved from normal healthy cells. (bbc.co.uk)
  • You can help reduce your risk of cancer by making healthy choices like eating right, staying active and not smoking. (cancer.org)
  • Healthy cells and "ordinary" tumor cells were not marked. (eurekalert.org)
  • This is a unique way to treat cancer cells and leave healthy cells untouched. (freerepublic.com)
  • The particles were taken in only by the cancer cells and not the healthy ones. (computerworld.com)
  • The WCRF/AICR in its 2009 policy report found that 28% of pancreatic cancers could be prevented if Americans maintained a healthy weight. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Now the team is working on testing whether the cells can fight infection without harming healthy cells. (dailytech.com)
  • But when the initial diagnosis was "atypia" - healthy cells that grow faster than normal - the pathologists thought doctors had originally overestimated the danger in more than half of cases. (reuters.com)
  • NK cells are produced in response to infections by healthy bodies. (sooperarticles.com)
  • However, the discovery that dividing cells are more likely to be cannibalised by other cells suggests that entosis may help to slow or prevent cancer by causing cancer cells to be consumed and destroyed by nearby healthy cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • The tumor-associated healthy cells can also use this same force to create tunnels that the tumor cells can move down. (empowher.com)
  • Glucose is used as fuel for all of our cells, both healthy and cancer cells. (empowher.com)
  • Cancer cells, like all cells require glucose (sugar in the blood), however cancer cells use glucose more efficiently and grow more quickly than healthy cells do. (empowher.com)
  • And there are ways to make sure cells are healthy before they're used. (engadget.com)
  • Different combinations of abnormalities are characteristic of different cancer types, to the extent that nuclear appearance can be used as a marker in cancer diagnostics and staging . (wikipedia.org)
  • Oncoviruses can cause certain types of cancer, and genetics are also known to play a role. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autophagy and mitophagy are deregulated in many types of cancer stem cells (CSCs). (nature.com)
  • In animal models of various cancer types, so-called cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been shown to be important for disease maintenance and therapy resistance. (nature.com)
  • Epithelial cancers are the most common types of cancer in adults and affect the skin and inner lining of organs in the body. (technologyreview.com)
  • If there are sub-populations of different cancer cells within a single tumour, it could mean multiple drugs are needed to target all the different types of cell that contribute to the cancer. (newscientist.com)
  • Although there are markers that also recognize TICs associated with some types of cancer, no universal, selective probe for cancer stem cells has been found. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cancer researcher Raghu Kalluri of the MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas, and his colleagues therefore decided to look into how the two types of exosome might differ. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This concept worked well, as the team has shown with a variety of experiments on different cell types and components. (eurekalert.org)
  • Different types of white blood cells work in different ways to protect the body from infection. (cancer.ca)
  • They crowd out (take the space of) other types of blood cells, such as red blood cells, other white blood cells and platelets, so there aren't enough of these cells to do their jobs. (cancer.ca)
  • There are two types of T cells (CD4+ and CD8+). (news-medical.net)
  • These lymphocytes are both types of white blood cells. (macmillan.org.uk)
  • The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These beams, furthermore, were not flexible, so few types of cancer could be treated. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Kapila also has conducted experiments with nisin on 30 different types of cancer, and infections on the skin, respiratory system, and abdomen, and on oral health. (upi.com)
  • These cells, which represent about 5-10% of the cells in the adenomas, generate additional Lgr5+ cells as well as all the other adenoma cell types. (genengnews.com)
  • Lung cancer is categorized into two basic disease types: small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer based on the appearance of the cancer cells under the microscope and the behavior of the disease. (uptodate.com)
  • It is a type cytotoxic lymphocyte that represents major part of innate immune system and is specialized to kill certain types of target cells, especially those that became infected with virus or have become cancerous. (sooperarticles.com)
  • The bone marrow produces all types of blood cells: red. (innovations-report.com)
  • Stem cells are progenitor cells that grow and develop into many different types of cells during early stages of life. (medindia.net)
  • but whether this has to happen in specific cell types, such as stem cells, and precisely how other factors such as environmental carcinogens contribute to cancer is unclear. (medindia.net)
  • [7] However, a lack of particular co-stimulated molecules that aid in the way antigens react with lymphocytes can impair the natural killer cells' function, ultimately leading to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells are lymphocytes - a type of white blood cell that fights infection as part of the immune system. (ohsu.edu)
  • Natural Killer Cells are also defined as large granular lymphocytes (LGL) and comprise the third kind of cells other than B and T Lymphocytes. (sooperarticles.com)
  • Chapter topics discuss cell-mediated immunity as the result of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) directed specifically against cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • In this chapter, we focus on the mechanism of γδ T cell-mediated recognition of antigens, and delineate the mechanisms, by which tea product can activate γδ T cells to facilitate cancer prevention activities. (springer.com)
  • Secretome analysis will shed light on inter-cellular communication in a cancer context, and on principal mechanisms of secretory pathways. (dkfz.de)
  • This is true, but it's not like cancer cells give up on other mechanisms. (eurekalert.org)
  • Furthermore, both cells lack the structured mechanisms usually witnessed in mature cells' abilities to grow and divide with control. (mesothelioma.com)
  • CD4+ T cells promote anti-tumor immunity through numerous mechanisms, including enhancing antigen presentation, co-stimulation, T cell homing, T cell activation, and effector function. (wikipedia.org)
  • They focused on hyperpolarization during what is known as the G1/Synthesis transition, a critical process that occurs within a cell before it starts to divide. (newswise.com)
  • A major safeguard against cancer though is limiting cell division in most cells, so cells which are urged to divide without limits by a virus lack that major safeguard against cancer. (slashdot.org)
  • In the event that a mole rat got infected with a virus that caused cancer in that manner, it would depend on what method the virus took to make the cell divide out of control. (slashdot.org)
  • The molecule causes cancer cells to not divide so quickly. (emaxhealth.com)
  • These are cells that are able to divide and become any type of cell the tumour needs in order to grow. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Normal cells grow and divide only as needed to replace damaged or aging cells. (healthline.com)
  • The transit amplifying cells divide for a specific number of time before they differentiate into specialized cells. (medindia.net)
  • In normal cells lacking the telomerase enzyme, telomeres get shorter each time cells divide. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Cells playing roles in the immune system, such as T-cells , are thought to use a dual receptor system when they determine whether or not to kill sick or damaged human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adams EJ, Chien YH, Garcia KC (2005) Structure of a gamma delta T cell receptor in complex with the nonclassical MHC T22. (springer.com)
  • The current findings were rooted in a result from 1996, when Garcia and colleagues first solved the 3-D structure of a T-cell receptor bound to a target. (newswise.com)
  • demonstrated that CD4 + T cells expressing interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor alpha-chain (CD25) can be defined as the population of T Reg cells with immune-suppressive activities and maintaining immune tolerance to self-antigen [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Receptor" means it can bind to a cancer cell, like a key fitting in a lock. (ohsu.edu)
  • The T cells are sent to a lab where they are genetically modified to make the chimeric antigen receptor, or CAR. (ohsu.edu)
  • to attack the lung cancer. (webmd.com)
  • Lung cancer cells incorporated the nanoparticles and were severely damaged by the triggered release of the radical starter. (eurekalert.org)
  • Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a fast-growing type of lung cancer . (medlineplus.gov)
  • It spreads much more quickly than non-small cell lung cancer . (medlineplus.gov)
  • About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. (medlineplus.gov)
  • How well you do depends on how much the lung cancer has spread. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Call your provider if you have symptoms of lung cancer, particularly if you smoke. (medlineplus.gov)
  • How is small cell lung cancer staged? (medscape.com)
  • The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor/node/metastasis (TNM) classification, anatomic stages, and prognostic groups for small cell lung cancer are provided below. (medscape.com)
  • See Small Cell Lung Cancer: Beating the Spread , a Critical Images slideshow, to help identify the key clinical and biologic characteristics of small cell lung cancer, the staging criteria, and the common sites of spread. (medscape.com)
  • Also, see Clinical Presentations of Lung Cancer: Slideshow to help efficiently distinguish lung carcinomas from other lung lesions, as well as how to stage and treat them. (medscape.com)
  • Most pleural (pericardial) effusion with lung cancer are a result of the tumor. (medscape.com)
  • Small cell lung cancer makes up about 15 percent of all lung cancers, with the remainder being non-small cell lung cancer. (uptodate.com)
  • Small cell lung cancer occurs almost exclusively in smokers, particularly heavy smokers, and former smokers. (uptodate.com)
  • Non-small cell lung cancer is discussed in detail in separate topic reviews. (uptodate.com)
  • Many experts have recommended that small cell lung cancer should be classified using the same system that is used for non-small cell lung cancer, with classifications as stage I, II, III, or IV, in order to provide a more detailed assessment of the extent of disease. (uptodate.com)
  • See 'Patient education: Lung cancer risks, symptoms, and diagnosis (Beyond the Basics)' . (uptodate.com)
  • Limited-stage disease - Limited-stage small cell lung cancer is defined as cancer within only one lung and/or in the lymph nodes in the mediastinum (the area in the middle of the chest between the two lungs). (uptodate.com)
  • Potent anti- cancer effects of less polar Curcumin analogues on gastric adenocarcinoma and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • Use of curcumin solution for probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. (nih.gov)
  • Curcumin gum formulation for prevention of oral cavity head and neck squamous cell carcinoma . (nih.gov)
  • We found a mechanism related to nutrient supply that we believe could be used to deny RAS mutant tumor cells of a key survival mechanism," remarked lead study investigator Craig Ramirez, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow in the department of biochemistry and molecular pharmacology at NYU School of Medicine. (genengnews.com)
  • Once introduced into a patient's body, these cells would make a beeline to the tumor cells. (newswise.com)