An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
An enzyme that activates arginine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.19.
A 90-amino acid peptide derived from post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is the C-terminal fragment of POMC with lipid-mobilizing activities, such as LIPOLYSIS and steroidogenesis. Depending on the species and the tissue sites, beta-LPH may be further processed to yield active peptides including GAMMA-LIPOTROPIN; BETA-MSH; and ENDORPHINS.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.
Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.
Organizations established by endowments with provision for future maintenance.
The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.
The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.
Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Enzymes of a subclass of TRANSFERASES that catalyze the transfer of an amidino group from donor to acceptor. EC 2.1.4.
This enzyme catalyzes the last step of CREATINE biosynthesis by catalyzing the METHYLATION of guanidinoacetate to CREATINE.
An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Canavalia ensiformis is the source of CONCANAVALIN A.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is the source of mucuna gum.
Purgative anthraquinone found in several plants, especially Rhamnus frangula. It was formerly used as a laxative, but is now used mainly as tool in toxicity studies.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE a common weed of the southeast US. There has been folk use for alcoholism and liver protection. It contains puerarin, kakkalide, daidzein (isoflavonoids), and kudzusaponins (oleanene-type triterpene glycosides).
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.

Intracellular localization of proteasomal degradation of a viral antigen. (1/198)

To better understand proteasomal degradation of nuclear proteins and viral antigens we studied mutated forms of influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP) that misfold and are rapidly degraded by proteasomes. In the presence of proteasome inhibitors, mutated NP (dNP) accumulates in highly insoluble ubiquitinated and nonubiquitinated species in nuclear substructures known as promyelocytic leukemia oncogenic domains (PODs) and the microtubule organizing center (MTOC). Immunofluorescence revealed that dNP recruits proteasomes and a selective assortment of molecular chaperones to both locales, and that a similar (though less dramatic) effect is induced by proteasome inhibitors in the absence of dNP expression. Biochemical evidence is consistent with the idea that dNP is delivered to PODs/MTOC in the absence of proteasome inhibitors. Restoring proteasome activity while blocking protein synthesis results in disappearance of dNP from PODs and the MTOC and the generation of a major histocompatibility complex class I-bound peptide derived from dNP but not NP. These findings demonstrate that PODs and the MTOC serve as sites of proteasomal degradation of misfolded dNP and probably cellular proteins as well, and imply that antigenic peptides are generated at one or both of these sites.  (+info)

Pleiotropic defects caused by loss of the proteasome-interacting factors Rad23 and Rpn10 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (2/198)

Rad23 is a member of a novel class of proteins that contain unprocessed ubiquitin-like (UbL) domains. We showed recently that a small fraction of Rad23 can form an interaction with the 26S proteasome. Similarly, a small fraction of Rpn10 is a component of the proteasome. Rpn10 can bind multiubiquitin chains in vitro, but genetic studies have not clarified its role in vivo. We report here that the loss of both Rad23 and Rpn10 results in pleiotropic defects that are not observed in either single mutant. rad23Delta rpn10Delta displays slow growth, cold sensitivity, and a pronounced G2/M phase delay, implicating overlapping roles for Rad23 and Rpn10. Although rad23Delta rpn10Delta displays similar sensitivity to DNA damage as a rad23Delta single mutant, deletion of RAD23 in rpn10Delta significantly increased sensitivity to canavanine, a phenotype associated with an rpn10Delta single mutant. A mutant Rad23 that is unable to bind the proteasome ((DeltaUbL)rad23) does not suppress the canavanine or cold-sensitive defects of rad23Delta rpn10Delta, demonstrating that Rad23/proteasome interaction is related to these effects. Finally, the accumulation of multiubiquitinated proteins and the stabilization of a specific proteolytic substrate in rad23Delta rpn10Delta suggest that proteasome function is altered.  (+info)

Heat-shock protein 70 antisense oligomers enhance proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis. (3/198)

Recent evidence supports a role for heat-shock protein 70 (hsp70) and the 26 S proteasome in regulating apoptosis, although the precise nature of their involvement is not known. In the present study, control and Bcl-x(L)-overexpressing, interleukin-3-dependent FL5.12 cell lines were treated with the proteasome inhibitor N-benzoyloxycarbonyl (Z)-Leu-Leu-leucinal (MG132). Basal proteasome activity appeared to be approximately 30% lower in bcl-x(L) cells compared with control cells using a substrate for the chymotrypsin-like activity. However, no difference in proteasome activity was detected using substrates for the trypsin-like or peptidylglutamyl peptide-hydrolysing activities. In addition, protein levels of the 20 S proteasome beta-subunit, as determined by Western blot analyses, were similar in control and bcl-x(L) cells, leading to the conclusion that proteasome activities were the same in these two cell lines. At 24 h after treatment with 500 nM MG132, apoptosis in bcl-x(L) cells (22%) was less than that observed in control cells (34%). Concomitantly, caspase activity in control cells, as assessed by N-acetyl-l-aspartyl-l-glutamyl-l-valyl-l-aspartyl-7-amino-4-methylcou marin (Ac-DEVD-AMC), was twice that observed in bcl-x(L) cells. By 48 h after MG132 treatment, apoptosis and caspase activity in bcl-x(L) cells were similar to those observed in control cells at 24 h. Proteasome inhibition stimulated increases in hsp70 protein levels in control and bcl-x(L) cells by 12 h, although the maximal increases found in bcl-x(L) cells were less. Blocking this induction with hsp70 antisense oligonucleotides potentiated apoptosis after treatment with MG132. Inhibiting caspase activity with a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, t-butoxycarbonyl-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone, prevented MG132-induced apoptosis. The more specific caspase-3 inhibitor, Ac-DEVD-aldehyde, afforded less protection, although both inhibitors completely inhibited Ac-DEVD-AMC cleavage. These data indicate that both hsp70 and Bcl-x(L) provide some protection against proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis.  (+info)

How an inhibitor of the HIV-I protease modulates proteasome activity. (4/198)

The human immunodeficiency virus, type I protease inhibitor Ritonavir has been used successfully in AIDS therapy for 4 years. Clinical observations suggested that Ritonavir may exert a direct effect on the immune system unrelated to inhibition of the human immunodeficiency virus, type I protease. In fact, Ritonavir inhibited the major histocompatibility complex class I restricted presentation of several viral antigens at therapeutically relevant concentrations (5 microM). In search of a molecular target we found that Ritonavir inhibited the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome whereas the tryptic activity was enhanced. In this study we kinetically analyzed how Ritonavir modulates proteasome activity and what consequences this has on cellular functions of the proteasome. Ritonavir is a reversible effector of proteasome activity that protected the subunits MB-1 (X) and/or LMP7 from covalent active site modification with the vinyl sulfone inhibitor(125)I-NLVS, suggesting that they are the prime targets for competitive inhibition by Ritonavir. At low concentrations of Ritonavir (5 microM) cells were more sensitive to canavanine but proliferated normally whereas at higher concentrations (50 microM) protein degradation was affected, and the cell cycle was arrested in the G(1)/S phase. Ritonavir thus modulates antigen processing at concentrations at which vital cellular functions of the proteasome are not yet severely impeded. Proteasome modulators may hence qualify as therapeutics for the control of the cytotoxic immune response.  (+info)

Protein farnesylation is critical for maintaining normal cell morphology and canavanine resistance in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. (5/198)

Protein farnesyltransferase (FTase) plays important roles in the growth and differentiation of eukaryotic cells. In this paper, we report the identification of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe gene cpp1(+) encoding the beta-subunit of FTase. The predicted amino acid sequence of the cpp1(+) gene product shares significant similarity with FTase beta-subunits from a variety of organisms. S. pombe FTase purified from E. coli exhibits high enzymatic activity toward the CAAX farnesylation motif substrates (where C represents cysteine, A represents aliphatic amino acid, and X is preferentially methionine, cysteine, serine, alanine, or glutamine) while showing little preference for CAAL geranylgeranylation motif substrates (where L represents leucine or phenylalanine). cpp1(+) is not essential for growth as shown by gene disruption; however, mutant cells exhibit rounded or irregular cell morphology. Expression of a geranylgeranylated mutant form, Ras1-CVIL, which can bypass farnesylation, rescues these morphological defects. We also identify a novel phenotype of cpp1(-) mutants, hypersensitivity to canavanine. This appears to be due to a 3-4-fold increase in the rate of arginine uptake as compared with wild-type cells. Expression of the geranylgeranylated mutant form of a novel farnesylated small GTPase, SpRheb, is able to suppress the elevated arginine uptake rate. These results demonstrate that protein farnesylation is critical for maintaining normal cell morphology through Ras1 and canavanine resistance through SpRheb.  (+info)

Competition between a sterol biosynthetic enzyme and tRNA modification in addition to changes in the protein synthesis machinery causes altered nonsense suppression. (6/198)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mod5 protein catalyzes isopentenylation of A to i(6)A on tRNAs in the nucleus, cytosol, and mitochondria. The substrate for Mod5p, dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, is also a substrate for Erg20p that catalyzes an essential step in sterol biosynthesis. Changing the distribution of Mod5p so that less Mod5p is present in the cytosol decreases i(6)A on cytosolic tRNAs and alters tRNA-mediated nonsense suppression. We devised a colony color/growth assay to assess tRNA-mediated nonsense suppression and used it to search for genes, which, when overexpressed, affect nonsense suppression. We identified SAL6, TEF4, and YDL219w, all of which likely affect nonsense suppression via alteration of the protein synthesis machinery. We also identified ARC1, whose product interacts with aminoacyl synthetases. Interestingly, we identified ERG20. Midwestern analysis showed that yeast cells overproducing Erg20p have reduced levels of i(6)A on tRNAs. Thus, Erg20p appears to affect nonsense suppression by competing with Mod5p for substrate. Identification of ERG20 reveals that yeast have a limited pool of dimethylallyl pyrophosphate. It also demonstrates that disrupting the balance between enzymes that use dimethylallyl pyrophosphate as substrate affects translation.  (+info)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rheb G-protein is involved in regulating canavanine resistance and arginine uptake. (7/198)

The new member of the Ras superfamily of G-proteins, Rheb, has been identified in rat and human, but its function has not been defined. We report here the identification of Rheb homologues in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScRheb) as well as in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Drosophila melanogaster, zebrafish, and Ciona intestinalis. These proteins define a new class of G-proteins based on 1) their overall sequence similarity, 2) high conservation of their effector domain sequence, 3) presence of a unique arginine in their G1 box, and 4) presence of a conserved CAAX farnesylation motif. Characterization of an S. cerevisiae strain deficient in ScRheb showed that it is hypersensitive to growth inhibitory effects of canavanine and thialysine, which are analogues of arginine and lysine, respectively. Accordingly, the uptake of arginine and lysine was increased in the ScRheb-deficient strain. This increased arginine uptake requires the arginine-specific permease Can1p. The function of ScRheb is dependent on having an intact effector domain since mutations in the effector domain of ScRheb are incapable of complementing canavanine hypersensitivity of scrheb disruptant cells. Furthermore, the conserved arginine in the G1 box plays a role in the activity of ScRheb, as a mutation of this arginine to glycine significantly reduced the ability of ScRheb to complement canavanine hypersensitivity of ScRheb-deficient yeast. Finally, a mutation in the C-terminal CAAX farnesylation motif resulted in a loss of ScRheb function. This result, in combination with our finding that ScRheb is farnesylated, suggests that farnesylation plays a key role in ScRheb function. Our findings assign the regulation of arginine and lysine uptake as the first physiological function for this new farnesylated Ras superfamily G-protein.  (+info)

Proteasome mutants, pre4-2 and ump1-2, suppress the essential function but not the mitochondrial RNase P function of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene RPM2. (8/198)

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae nuclear gene RPM2 encodes a component of the mitochondrial tRNA-processing enzyme RNase P. Cells grown on fermentable carbon sources do not require mitochondrial tRNA processing activity, but still require RPM2, indicating an additional function for the Rpm2 protein. RPM2-null cells arrest after 25 generations on fermentable media. Spontaneous mutations that suppress arrest occur with a frequency of approximately 9 x 10(-6). The resultant mutants do not grow on nonfermentable carbon sources. We identified two loci responsible for this suppression, which encode proteins that influence proteasome function or assembly. PRE4 is an essential gene encoding the beta-7 subunit of the 20S proteasome core. A Val-to-Phe substitution within a highly conserved region of Pre4p that disrupts proteasome function suppresses the growth arrest of RPM2-null cells on fermentable media. The other locus, UMP1, encodes a chaperone involved in 20S proteasome assembly. A nonsense mutation in UMP1 also disrupts proteasome function and suppresses Deltarpm2 growth arrest. In an RPM2 wild-type background, pre4-2 and ump1-2 strains fail to grow at restrictive temperatures on nonfermentable carbon sources. These data link proteasome activity with Rpm2p and mitochondrial function.  (+info)

This graph shows the total number of publications written about Canavanine by people in this website by year, and whether Canavanine was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
Yeast strains: S. cerevisiae strains used in this paper are listed in Table 1.. Mutagens: N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) was a kind gift from R. I. Salganik. 6-N-hydroxylaminopurine (6-HAP) was synthesized in our Institute by G. N. Bondarev. Methylmethansulfonate (MMS) was received from Sigma (St. Louis, MO). The UV light source was a BUV-30E lamp with a dose rate of 2.76 J/m2/s. Gamma irradiation was from 60Co with a dose rate of 69 Gy/min.. Mutation assays: The fluctuation test of the median (Lea and Coulson 1949) was used to determine the spontaneous mutation rate to canavanine resistance in the original strain ELI-1A-a116 bearing the hsm3 mutation and in the wild-type strain ELI-1B-a116. In these experiments, 20 cultures, which were started with 100-150 cells, were used. In other experiments, the spontaneous mutation rate to canavanine resistance, reversions for alleles his1-7 and lys1-1, and the frequency of intragenic recombination in the ADE2 locus were determined by Khromov-Borisovs ...
Supplementary MaterialsFigure S1: Patterns of Y telomeres are indistinguishable between sensitive and resistant type I survivors. of bleomycin over that on YEPD without bleomycin. Type I survivors from nine impartial spore colonies were examined. A total of 447 survivors were scored for the 6th streak, 52 for the 9th and 52 for the 12th streaks, respectively. (1.06 MB TIF) pone.0008224.s002.tif (1.0M) GUID:?D4BABF3B-A431-4D17-9FEE-E48F8D472E35 Figure S3: Measurement of mutation rates. (A) Assay for mutation rate measurement. Strains harbor a mutation are resistant to canavanine. (B) To measure the rate of forward mutation to canavanine resistance (Canr), at least six yeast cultures had been started from one colonies and harvested to stationary stage in 10 ml water YEPD moderate. Cells had been plated with suitable dilutions onto comprehensive medium formulated with L-canavanine (60 mg/ml) and missing arginine for Canr mutant count number, and onto comprehensive medium missing arginine for ...
Abd-el-gawad, H.M. and A.E. Khalifa (2001) Quercetin, co-enzyme Q10 and 1-canavanine as protective agents against lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide generation in endotoxin-induced shock in rat brain. [Publication] Full text not available from this repository ...
L-Canavanine (CAS 2219-31-0) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on l-canavanine market globally and regionally (Europe,
The MSH1 and MSH2 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are predicted to encode proteins that are homologous to the Escherichia coli MutS and Streptococcus pneumoniae HexA proteins and their homologs. Disruption of the MSH1 gene caused a petite phenotype which was established rapidly. A functional MSH1 gene present on a single-copy centromere plasmid was incapable of rescuing the established msh1 petite phenotype. Analysis of msh1 strains demonstrated that mutagenesis and large-scale rearrangement of mitochondrial DNA had occurred. 4,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of msh1 yeast revealed an aberrant distribution of mtDNA. Haploid msh2 mutants displayed an increase of 85-fold in the rate of spontaneous mutation to canavanine resistance. Sporulation of homozygous msh2/msh2 diploids gave rise to a high level of lethality which was compounded during increased vegetative growth prior to sporulation. msh2 mutations also affected gene conversion of two HIS4 alleles. The his4x mutation, lying ...
The lysosomal lysine-arginine transporter, LAAT1 or PQ-loop repeat containing protein 2 (PQLC2) (291aas; 7 TMSs). Also transports the mixed disulfide of cysteine-cysteamine, a lysine analogue, as well as canavanine, a toxic arginine analogue. Cysteamine is used in the treatment of cystinosis (Liu et al., 2012; Jézégou et al. 2012). ...
It is obvious that Sutherlandia Frutescens can have long-term use in the control of many side effects of malignancy.The pills of this herb are used as a cure for operating different types of melancholy. The decisive composites in this plant that have an impact against the melancholy are: GABA, L-asparagine and Canavanine. Аs mentioned, еach of these composites showed an excellent results in the operation of the individual disorders. ...
A: Yes, dry roasting gets rid of some of the inhibitors, but not as well as the soaking and dehydrating.. Q. What are the irritating substances found in sprouts? Do micro-greens contain any problems?. A. The worst one is canavanine, in alfalfa sprouts-you will find disagreement about this on the internet, but it really is not a good thing. Most sprouts should be cooked or steamed before being eaten-that will get rid of a lot of problematic components.. Q. Are beans in a can considered soaked because they are in the water in the can? A. Beans should be soaked-that is the problem with canned beans, they are softened without the soaking so all the inhibitors are there.. Q. Can I make the fermented bean paste recipe out of Nourishing Traditions without whey? Many of the other fermented recipes say you can use extra salt if allergic to dairy products, but this recipe does not give that option so Im not sure. A. I dont think I would risk it-the beans might not get acidic enough, and then they it ...
The major findings of this study are that blockade of NOS with L‐NAME (but not with the iNOS inhibitor L‐canavanine) caused marked increases in the already elevated RVSP at 3, 5, and 8 weeks after the initiation of the SU/Hx/Nx‐induced PAH in rats that simulate the human PAH phenotype histologically as well as hemodynamically (Abe et al. 2010; Toba et al. 2014). The increases in RVSP in response to L‐NAME were apparently caused by active pulmonary vasoconstriction since they were not accompanied by increases in cardiac output. In contrast, NOS inhibition did not increase the elevated RVSP nor decrease the CI at an earlier time point (1 week after the initiation) of this PAH model. It has previously been shown that Rho kinase‐mediated vasoconstriction contributes markedly to the high RVSP and TPRI throughout the PAH process, that is, from the early (1‐week) to the late (13‐week time point) in SU/Hx/Nx rats (Oka et al. 2007; Toba et al. 2014). It is therefore speculated that at late ...
Interesting facts: Intravenous infusion of an arginine analogue that blocks NO production leads to an immediate and substantial rise in blood pressure. This phenomenon suggests that NO is released continually and basally to regulate vascular tone ...
Looking for online definition of canavanine in the Medical Dictionary? canavanine explanation free. What is canavanine? Meaning of canavanine medical term. What does canavanine mean?
This study is entitled, Effects of herbal lollipops on Streptococcus Mutans levels and the dental caries experience of children with asthma taking beta2-adrenergic drugs. In this study, forty-five (45) children between the ages of four (4) and sixteen (16) with bronchial asthma taking a beta2-adrenergic agonist drug at least once a week will participate in a six (6) month regimen of herbal lollipops as adjunctive oral hygiene therapy. The objective of this study is to determine how effective the six-month regimen of herbal lollipops is at controlling the Streptococcus Mutans levels and the caries process in the study group. Whether or not a case can be made for including herbal lollipops in standard oral hygiene protocol for children with asthma will also be a goal of this study. Relevant data will be collected using the following method. The subjects of this study will be provided with and instructed to dissolve two (2) herbal lollipops by mouth per day for the first ten (10) days of the ...
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Theres a special beauty to living in the future. An age where people spell fruit as froot so as to avoid a lawsuit. A future where we know, without trying, exactly what froot tastes like, and even better, a future where the taste of frooty milk is available as a lollipop.
As seen in Weddings UKValentine lollipops in blush or clear embedded with mini sugar hearts.The size of each heart is 1 1/2 on a 41/2 stick, in 1 color and 1 flavor. Each will be wrapped in a cello bag and a ribbon.These are also available in gift box sets of 6 and 12 PCS Orders are shipped via USPS Priority Mail whi
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Kim Kardashian was slammed by fans, including actress Jameela Jamil, for promoting appetite suppressant lollipops in a now-deleted Instagram post.
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5 of 10 (If you use the hand holding the cake pop to shake off excess coating, the force of the movement will be too strong and could cause the cake ball to loosen or fly off the lollipop stick. Tapping the wrist holding the cake pop absorbs some of the impact.) The excess coating will fall off, but you will need to rotate the lollipop stick so the coating doesnt build up on one side, making it too heavy on that side. If too much coating starts to build up at the base of the stick, simply use your finger to wipe it off, spinning the lollipop stick at the same time. This can happen if the coating is too thin or too hot. Its not as hard as it sounds; it just takes a little practice. ...
Basically, in a nutritional sense we really dont need added sugar. According to Audrey Cross, PhD, MPH, a retired professor from Columbia Universitys School of Public Health, Sugar is a form of energy, or calories, and nothing else. There are really two ways we get sugar. One is by eating sweets and the other is by eating healthy foods that naturally contain sugar, such as fruits. Yes, eating an apple floods your body with sugar just as a lollipop does. There is, however, a difference in how your body receives these sugars. First, and this is important to remember, with the lollipop your body is just getting a jolt of sugar. With the apple, your body is also getting fiber, vitamins, and antioxidants, all important for your health. Also, it is important to note that your body absorbs these two types of sugars differently. The body converts natural sugar (from fruit) to glucose and breaks down the sugar more slowly, keeping the blood sugar levels sustained. With the lollipop, etc, the body ...
This product I got to try out myself. Being that I have a bad back, it seems like my lower back is aching and stiff most of the time. Very simple product to use. No rubbing needed. You just pop off the cap and rub it on the spot that hurts. Easy to get it right where you want it being that it is a roll-on. It did take a few applications through out the day before I started noticing a difference. Product goes on cold (be prepared, I couldnt believe how cold it felt, or that my skin was really hot), but it heats up pretty quick and does feel good when it is on. Doesnt have a real strong odor to it. Another product that we will be keeping on hand for the time when you need a little help with a pulled muscle or for stiff fingers from arthritis pain. ...
I cant make any changes to the lock screen such as Show Information: Dual Clock. No. Clock Size. No. Owner Info. No. Weather. Notification is
I can tell you this, this product came at the right time! My husband works in a field where he is climbing in and out of feed trucks, tractors and combines on a continuous basis and when he gets home from work he can barely move. For a few days in a row, I applied this product to his neck and lower back, a couple of times a day and he said it really made a difference. It helped with the soreness and the stiffness of being bounced around all day long. ...
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In the bottom of hurricane season, we check in the morning at the base of our grandmother oak, to see if overnight, something seasonal has arrived. They are on single tall stalks, like red, curled lollipops. No leaves, just the long drink of a stem. They bloom once & then are gone for another year.…
So after a full hour of ultrasounding and me getting up, moving around, using the bathroom, and eating a lollipop she finally revealed herself. I am so …
The gas-phase acidities and proton affinities of analogs of protein amino acids were investigated. The gas-phase acidities of the lysine homologues were measured by the extended kinetic method in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. Deprotonation entropy changes were also measured. For ornithine, 2,4-diaminobutyric acid, and 2,3-diaminopropionic acid, the gas-phase acidities measured were 1416 ± 17 kJ/mol, 1420 ± 8 kJ/mol, and 1405 ± 24 kJ/mol. Their changes in entropy were measured to be -19 J/mol K, 1 J/mol k, and -24 J/mol K, respectively. The gas-phase acidities and entropies of two structural analogs of arginine, citrulline and canavanine, were measured by the extended kinetic method. The gas-phase acidity of citrulline was measured to be 1366 ± 11 kJ/mol, and the gas-phase acidity of canavanine was measured to be 1401 ± 13 kJ/mol. The proton affinity and protonation entropy change for citrulline was measured as well. The proton affinity was determined to be 984 ± 11 kJ/mol with an
Gourmet Champagne and Strawberry Lollipop Gift Box.. These hand crafted 100% natural gourmet lollipops will bring a touch of class to any wedding table or party, these gluten free champagne flavoured hard kandy lollipops are embedded with freeze dried strawberries that taste delicious once you get to them through the delicious champagne tasting lollipop, there are four lollipops on 190mm wooden sticks and are individually wrapped, each gift box is hand crafted and made fresh for your order where possible.. Warning: Lollipops are a potential choking hazard, not suitable for children under 36 months.. ...
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Heart shaped lollipops are made with edible organic rose petals and flecked with 24 K edible gold leafYou will receive a set of 8 lollipops in a flavor of your choice. Each lollipop will be individually wrapped in a cellophane bag and a metallic gold ribbon.Hearts lollipops measure 2 inches on a 6 inch stick.You have t
Lollipop keeper and three lollipop refills Assorted My Little Pony characters Eye-catching blister cards With an assortment of delightful pony characters to choose from, your customers seek out these collectible My Little Pony lollipop Pop Ups™ from Flix™ Candy. Three delicious lollipop refills from Chupa Chups® pop up
Dental caries (tooth decay) is caused by a specific group of cariogenic bacteria, like Streptococcus mutans, which convert dietary sugars into acids that dissolve the mineral in tooth structure. Killing cariogenic bacteria is an effective way to control or prevent tooth decay. In a previous study, we discovered a novel compound (Glycyrrhizol A), from the extraction of licorice roots, with strong antimicrobial activity against cariogenic bacteria. In the current study, we developed a method to produce these specific herbal extracts in large quantities, and then used these extracts to develop a sugar‐free lollipop that effectively kills cariogenic bacteria like Streptococcus mutans. Further studies showed that these sugar‐free lollipops are safe and their antimicrobial activity is stable. Two pilot human studies indicate that a brief application of these lollipops (twice a day for ten days) led to a marked reduction of cariogenic bacteria in oral cavity among most human subjects tested. This herbal
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Android Lollipop Official update is now available for Android One Indian Devices (Micromax Canvas A1, Karbonn Sparkle V, Spice Dream Uno). The new Lollipop update comes with lots of new features and bug fixes. If you are the Android One India user than you can install this update on your phone VIA OTA method. To do this go the phone settings > About > System update and install the latest official update. If you are rooted user and or cant see the OTA update on your phone, you can install the same manually on your phone. All you need to flash the zip file with the help of recovery and you are done. In this guide well show you how to manually update your Android one phone with Lollipop Official update. The process is very simple and take a few minutes to complete the task. ...
Candy Sour Patch Kids & Nerds Lollipops are fun for any event and can be eaten, licked, gifted or given for a party favor! These are great for candy lovers to enjoy their favorite candy in these colorful, hard candy lollipops!Sold in singles and sets. Each lollipop comes in a paper stick with poly bag and silver tw
These mix color clamshell lollipops have beautiful colors and shapes. The mermaid suckers are perfect for Mermaid Party, Ariel Birthday Party, and Beach Party Favors. These lollipops are delicious and beautiful. With 2 inches in diameter, these lollipops make a great presentation. Handcrafted in the USA!
The endothelium has emerged as an important regulator of vascular tone.1 2 3 Several soluble mediators released by the endothelium are involved in these vascular effects. These mediators include prostacyclin, EDRF or NO, and EDHF. The activity of EDHF may be distinguished from NO in that EDHF activity is blocked by inhibitors of Ca2+-activated K+ channels, such as TEA or charybdotoxin, or by high [K+]o but is not blocked by arginine analogues that inhibit NOS or glibenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive K+ channels.9 14 17 18 Relaxations mediated by EDRF are blocked by arginine analogues. In small coronary arteries, methacholine causes endothelium-dependent relaxations and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization of smooth muscle cells.5 14 15 16 17 18 These relaxations are blocked by TEA and high [K+]o. Thus, it has been proposed that methacholine stimulates coronary endothelial cells to release EDHF, which acts on coronary smooth muscle cells to open K+ channels, hyperpolarize the cell ...
The main ingredient in a standard lollipop is sugar. Sugars are fully hydrated carbon chains meaning that there is a water molecule attached to each carbon. Sugars come in two forms; straight-chain and ring form. When sugars are in straight-chain form, aldehyde and ketone groups are open which leaves them very susceptible to reaction. In this state, sugars are unstable. In ring form, sugars are stable and therefore exist in this form in most foods, including lollipops.. Sugar is a very versatile ingredient and is used in many of food and products we consume every single day. What makes sugar different is the way it interacts with the other ingredients and systems within the food as well as how it is treated. When it is heated enough to break the molecules apart, it generates a complex flavor, changes the color, and creates a pleasing aroma.[10] Sugar can form two types of solids in foods; crystalline and glassy amorphous. Crystalline solids can be found in food products like fondant, fudge, and ...
Find Out How Many Calories Are In Hersheys Lollipop Assortment, Good or Bad Points and Other Nutrition Facts about it. Take a look at Hersheys Lollipop Assortment related products and other millions of foods.
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In the heart of the city, we have a real cosmopolitan atmosphere and are close to surrounding suburbs with public transport right outside our front door. Lollipops Auckland Central is a GORGEOUS oasis, set up wonderfully for immersive adventures for children and teachers alike. From the outside of our building, you would never guess what a treasure trove we are on the inside - just like a secret garden!. We are all about personal and professional growth and we are the perfect place for you to be if you want to be surrounded by support and like minded ECE professionals!. Our centre is made up of a very diverse community, being in the middle of the CBD, we have really risen and shone with the holistic support we have given all of our families during this very trying time we are currently experiencing. We are all in this together and if you value what we value, you will be so very much appreciated by our families.. Key skills and experience required:. ...
Coca mint lollipop provides a natural dose of energy with 100% natural coca leaves extract. Coca candies are great for boosting energy and concentration.
Hoodia - This is, doubtless, the reason why the urine, during the first days of this treatment, becomes alkaline, and why certain affections of the bladder and urinary organs are so speedily ameliorated.
Vampire, Trueblood, Twilight, sugar, sweet, candy, . Free tutorial with pictures on how to make a lollipop in under 60 minutes by cooking with sugar, food coloring, and popsicle sticks. Inspired by halloween and vampires. Recipe posted by lisa_ancarrow...
Color is definitely catching my eye these days when Im blog hopping for party ideas. And these play dough cookie lollipops were a real find. I love anything thats easy to make and adapt to your own party colors. A simple recipe, a little food color and youve got a perfect party table treat ...
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After a quick chill in the freezer, the cake is ready to be dipped. The bottoms are dipped in chocolate bark, and then the tops are dipped in melted pink candy melts. Youre supposed to hold the little cupcakes by hand and dip them in the chocolate bark, then insert the lollipop sticks into the bottoms, but I found this very difficult to do. A trick I discovered to make this much easier was to use a wooden skewer to dip them in the chocolate. I would insert the wooden skewer into the top of the cupcake, then dip the bottom of the cupcake, shake off the excess chocolate, and then insert the lollipop stick. Once the lollipop stick was firmly in place, I removed the skewer, patched up the hole where the skewer was with a gentle nudge of my finger on the surrounding cake, and then placed the lollipops on some wax paper to set ...
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Dr. Johns Healthy Sweets Lollipops - Classic Fruits - 1 lb.-Looking for a fun treat that your family, friends, coworkers or clients will love? These sugar-free suckers deliver fresh-fruit taste without artificial sweeteners, flavors or colors! This
There are 140 calories in 1 serving, 1/11 package (1.4 oz) of Lollipop Tree Mix, Apple Cinnamon, dry. Youd need to walk 37 minutes to burn 140 calories. Visit CalorieKing to see calorie count and nutrient data for all portion sizes.
My husband is a very large, hatchet-faced retired Marine with huge hands and feet. He teaches at a small K-8 rural school. He is a kind and funny man but rather formal with people he doesnt know, and he can be a little intimidating, especially as its common knowledge among the staff and parents that hes a combat veteran. One day he is standing in the cafeteria with another teacher and the superintendent of schools, waiting on the children to come back inside from an activity.). Other Teacher: Did you see that [Small Girl] brought a treat for the rest of her class?. Superintendent: What did she bring?. Other Teacher: Lollipops!. (As if on signal, my husband begins to sing and dance the Lollipop Guild song from The Wizard Of Oz movie. He finishes just before the kids hit the door.). Husband: And in the name of the Lollipop guild… wed like to welcome you to Munchkin Land!. (He then snaps back into his normal unsmiling, stern mode as the students stream past.). Superintendent: That ...
Glypressin injection contains the active ingredient terlipressin, which is a medicine similar to a hormone found naturally in the body called antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin.
This product is not for use by or for sale to persons under the age of 18. This product should be used only as directed on the label. It should not be used if you are pregnant or nursing. Consult with a physician before use if you have a serious medical condition or use prescription medications. A doctors advice should be sought before using this and any supplemental dietary product. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.. ...
Googles WebView app debuted in the Play Store a few weeks ago, but that was just a beta. Now the listing has opened up to the general public. Its still
I had seen something in a Martha {Stewart that is} mag, after attempting three times, I realized I am not Martha or her staff. SO I racked my noodle and thought how cute would it be to make cherry Dum Dum lollipop cherries. For these I ordered a box of just cherry Dum Dums , thin floral tape, leafs cut out of cardstock and hot glue. I just wrapped the lollipops together to make them in pairs, then hot glued the leafs on. Done and done ...
Youre probably thinking, how could a speech therapist possibly use a sucker to help benefit their patient? Sure they taste great, but how beneficial could they really be? There are a lot of kids that come into Circle Creek Therapy that have trouble pronouncing certain sounds. During a therapy session, our SLPs will teach our patients new ways to maneuver their mouth in order to make a certain sound. Our speech therapists call that kind of therapy
Mom kept on smiling and joking with lots of talk about the baby. She wanted to know what we were going to name HER! We told her that we hadnt decided on a girls name or a boys name, yet. She just laughed. I visited with her every week, and she always talked about the baby. Each time, I convinced myself that she looked a little better. I couldnt or wouldnt bring myself to see that she was weakening, even when she was leaning over a pail and emptying her stomach because the chemotherapy was making her sick. She never complained; she only said that she was sorry, and she hoped that she was not getting me upset! She just wanted to talk about how I was feeling, and making sure that I was taking care of myself, and the baby. On one of my visits, I noticed that she was crocheting something pink. I knew that it was for the baby. I teased her and asked, What if it is a boy? She only responded with It will be a girl ...
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I didnt read through everyones comments, but there are a lot of them. Here and on any other Android forum. I dont know if its Verizon or
Skip Header & Navigation All content on this site is available, via phone, Monday to Friday from 6:00 AM to 10:00 PM CST or Saturday and Sunday from 7:00 AM to 10:00 PM CST at 800-875-8480. . If you experience any accessibility issues, please contact us. ...
Place was taken by step one about a week prior to dessert time, after I made goggle and his eye. To the next topper that may back it, place some adhesive down the center vertically, hence the lollipop toothpick or stick will be held strongly set up. Layout Tip: The polka-dot cupcake covers without the greetings in it are perfect prospects for using a cutter that is scalloped to create them seem like plants. Youre welcome to make use of these free layouts for individual use or even to produce covers for friends or household. We will be causeing the cuuute cake topper that is tremendous, do... Continue reading ...
Any Unicode character can be offered that has a text presentation, as from the Unicode charts. To the emoji presentation, each the identify plus the representative glyph from the Unicode chart needs to be taken under consideration when coming up with the appearance of your emoji, along with the visuals used by other distributors. The form from the character can vary substantially. For example, in this article are only some of the possible images for U+1F36D LOLLIPOP, U+1F36E CUSTARD, U+1F36F HONEY POT, and U+1F370 SHORTCAKE ...
For example, canavanine is an analogue of arginine that is found in many legumes, and in particularly large amounts in ... doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)86033-1. Ekanayake S, Skog K, Asp NG (May 2007). "Canavanine content in sword beans (Canavalia ... Rosenthal GA (2001). "L-Canavanine: a higher plant insecticidal allelochemical". Amino Acids. 21 (3): 319-330. doi:10.1007/ ... Turner BL, Harborne JB (1967). "Distribution of canavanine in the plant kingdom". Phytochemistry. 6 (6): 863-866. ...
Much of the canavanine is converted into other amino acids during germination so sprouts contain much less canavanine than ... Canavanine competes with arginine, resulting in the synthesis of dysfunctional proteins. Raw unsprouted alfalfa has toxic ... Raw alfalfa seeds and sprouts are a source of the amino acid canavanine. ...
... glutamate AAKG Canavanine and canaline are toxic analogs of arginine and ornithine. L-arginine is recognized as safe ( ...
As an adaption to insect predators, ahipa plants accumulate canavanine in its seeds. This is highly toxic to some insects and ...
Oxydation de la canavanine et de l'homoarginine en beta-guanidopropionamide et en delta-guanidovaleramide". Biochim. Biophys. ...
Alfalfa seeds and sprouts contain L-canavanine, which can cause lupus-like disease in primates. In order to prevent incidents ...
Canavanine is a common α-amino-acid constituent found in the seeds of all species of Wisteria. It serves as a defense compound ... The toxicity of canavanine is due to its extreme structural similarity to L-arginine, which may result in an organism's ...
The report found relatively high levels of L-canavanine (an antimetabolite toxic to mammals) in the H. alpinum seeds and ... 2015). "Presence of l-canavanine in Hedysarum alpinum seeds and its potential role in the death of Chris McCandless." ...
... effluxes arginine and possibly lysine and canavanine as well. Early studies showed that the LysE family is related to the RhtB ...
Canavanine, a toxic analogue of the amino acid arginine, has been identified in Hairy Vetch as an appetite suppressant for ... Cattle and horses have been poisoned by V. villosa and V. benghalensis, two species that contain canavanine in their seeds. ...
It is characterized by the accumulation of the non-proteinogenic amino acid canavanine in the seeds-a deterrent against ...
... that the poison in Hedysarum alpinum is L-canavanine instead of ODAP. The roots are a major food for grizzly bears. The ...
Thialysine Quisqualic acid Canavanine azetidine-2-carboxylic acid Cephalosporin C Penicillamine Naturally-occurring cyanotoxins ... canavanine or azetidine-2-carboxylic acid.Cephalosporin C has an α-aminoadipic acid (homoglutamate) backbone that is amidated ...
The flavonoid robinetin has been isolated in the heartwood and the α-amino acid (S)-canavanine has been isolated from the seeds ...
The seeds should not be eaten raw, or in large quantity, as they contain L-canavanine, which may have led or contributed to the ...
A report in Wilderness and Environmental Medicine[7] demonstrated relatively high levels of L-canavanine in Hedysarum alpinum ... In his New Yorker article Krakauer goes on to speculate that L-canavanine "was a contributing factor to" McCandless' death.[25] ... 2015). "Presence of l-canavanine in Hedysarum alpinum seeds and its potential role in the death of Chris McCandless." ...
... and instead found that the most significant contributor to his death was the toxic action of L-canavanine, with a molecular ...
... to proteins that include unusual amino acids like canavanine A bilayer of phospholipids makes up the membrane of cells that ...
Anti-predator adaptation Aposematism Biopesticide Chemical ecology Canavanine Druse (botany) Laticifer Lectin List of ...
... such as the arginine analog canavanine. The following illustrates the structures and abbreviations of the 21 amino acids that ...
... canavanine showed no change in lifespan. Alfalfa seeds and sprouts contain L-canavanine. The L-canavanine in alfalfa has been ... The toxicity of canavanine may be enhanced under conditions of protein starvation, and canavanine toxicity, resulting from ... in canavanine. Canavanine is accumulated primarily in the seeds of the organisms which produce it, where it serves both as a ... which can tolerate massive amounts of dietary canavanine. These larvae fastidiously avoid incorporation of L-canavanine into ...
Turner, B. L.; Harborne, J. B. (1967). "Distribution of canavanine in the plant kingdom". Phytochemistry 6: 863-66. doi:10.1016 ... Rosenthal GA (2001). "L-Canavanine: a higher plant insecticidal allelochemical". Amino Acids 21 (3): 319-30. doi:10.1007/ ... Ekanayake S, Skog K, Asp NG (Mei 2007). "Canavanine content in sword beans (Canavalia gladiata): analysis and effect of ...
Ekanayake S, Skog K, Asp NG (May 2007). "Canavanine content in sword beans (Canavalia gladiata): analysis and effect of ... Turner BL, Harborne JB (1967). "Distribution of canavanine in the plant kingdom". Phytochemistry 6 (6): 863-66. doi:10.1016/ ... Rosenthal GA (2001). "L-Canavanine: a higher plant insecticidal allelochemical". Amino Acids 21 (3): 319-30. doi:10.1007/ ...
... is an antimicrobial medication used to treat African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, Balamuthia infections,[2] babesiosis, and to prevent and treat pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in people with poor immune function.[1] In African trypanosomiasis it is used for early disease before central nervous system involvement, as a second line option to suramin.[1] It is an option for both visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis.[1] Pentamidine can be given by injection into a vein or muscle or by inhalation.[1] Common side effects of the injectable form include low blood sugar, pain at the site of injection, nausea, vomiting, low blood pressure, and kidney problems.[1] Common side effects of the inhaled form include wheezing, cough, and nausea.[1] It is unclear if doses should be changed in those with kidney or liver problems.[1] Pentamidine is not recommended in early pregnancy but may be used in later pregnancy.[1] Its safety during breastfeeding is unclear.[3] Pentamidine is in the ...
The organic compound citrulline is an α-amino acid. Its name is derived from citrullus, the Latin word for watermelon, from which it was first isolated in 1914 by Koga and Odake.[2] It was finally identified by Wada in 1930.[3] It has the formula H2NC(O)NH(CH2)3CH(NH2)CO2H. It is a key intermediate in the urea cycle, the pathway by which mammals excrete ammonia by converting it into urea. Citrulline is also produced as a byproduct of the enzymatic production of nitric oxide from the amino acid arginine, catalyzed by nitric oxide synthase.[4] ...
Most NONOates are stable in alkaline solution above pH 8.0 (e. g. 10 mM NaOH) and can be stored at −20 °C in this way for the short term. To generate NO from NONOates, the pH is lowered accordingly. Typically, a dilution of the stock NONOate solution is made in a phosphate buffer (pH 7.4; tris buffers can also be used) and incubated at room temperature for the desired time to allow NO to accumulate in solution. This is often visible as bubbles at high NONOate concentrations. Incubation time is important, since the different NONOates have different half-lives (t½) in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. For example, the half-life of MAHMA NONOate under these conditions is ~3.5 minutes, whilst the t½ of DPTA NONOate is 300 minutes. This is often useful in biological systems, where a combination of different NONOates can be used to give a sustained release of nitric oxide. At pH 5.0, most NONOates are considered to decompose almost instantaneously. ...
... are a group of chemical compounds based upon the molecular structure R-ONO. Formally they are alkyl esters of nitrous acid. They are distinct from nitro compounds (R-NO2). The first few members of the series are volatile liquids; methyl nitrite and ethyl nitrite are gaseous at room temperature and pressure. The compounds have a distinctive fruity odor. Another frequently encountered nitrite is amyl nitrite (3-methylbutyl nitrite). Alkyl nitrites were initially, and largely still are used as medications and chemical reagents, a practice which began in the late 19th century. In their use as medicine, are often inhaled for relief of angina and other heart-related symptoms of disease. However, when referred to as "poppers", alkyl nitrites represent recreational drugs. ...
Besides the nervous system, GABA is also produced at relatively high levels in the insulin-producing β-cells of the pancreas. The β-cells secrete GABA along with insulin and the GABA binds to GABA receptors on the neighboring islet α-cells and inhibits them from secreting glucagon (which would counteract insulin's effects).[25] GABA can promote the replication and survival of β-cells[26][27][28] and also promote the conversion of α-cells to β-cells, which may lead to new treatments for diabetes.[29] GABA has also been detected in other peripheral tissues including intestines, stomach, Fallopian tubes, uterus, ovaries, testes, kidneys, urinary bladder, the lungs and liver, albeit at much lower levels than in neurons or β-cells. GABAergic mechanisms have been demonstrated in various peripheral tissues and organs, which include the intestines, the stomach, the pancreas, the Fallopian tubes, the uterus, the ovaries, the testes, the kidneys, the urinary bladder, the lungs, and the liver.[30] ...
... is found in the retina (RETGC) and modulates phototransduction in rods and cones. It is part of the calcium negative feedback system that is activated in response to the hyperpolarization of the photoreceptors by light. This causes less intracellular calcium, which stimulates guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs). Studies have shown that cGMP synthesis in cones is about 5-10 times higher than it is in rods, which may play an important role in modulating cone adaption to light.[2] In addition, studies have shown that zebrafish express a higher number of GCAPs than mammals, and that zebrafish GCAPs can bind at least three calcium ions.[3] Guanylate cyclase 2C (GC-C) is an enzyme expressed mainly in intestinal neurons. Activation of GC-C amplifies the excitatory cell response that is modulated by glutamate and acetylcholine receptors. GC-C, while known mainly for its secretory regulation in the intestinal epithelium, is also expressed in the brain. To be specific, it is ...
Sodium nitrite is used for the curing of meat because it prevents bacterial growth and, as it is a reducing agent (opposite of oxidation agent), in a reaction with the meat's myoglobin, gives the product a desirable pink-red "fresh" color, such as with corned beef. This use of nitrite goes back to the Middle Ages, and in the US has been formally used since 1925. Because of the relatively high toxicity of nitrite (the lethal dose in humans is about 22 milligrams per kilogram of body weight), the maximum allowed nitrite concentration in meat products is 200 ppm. At these levels, some 80 to 90% of the nitrite in the average U.S. diet is not from cured meat products, but from natural nitrite production from vegetable nitrate intake. Under certain conditions - especially during cooking - nitrites in meat can react with degradation products of amino acids, forming nitrosamines, which are known carcinogens.[6] However, the role of nitrites (and to some extent nitrates) in preventing botulism by ...
... canavanine showed no change in lifespan. Alfalfa seeds and sprouts contain L-canavanine. The L-canavanine in alfalfa has been ... The toxicity of canavanine may be enhanced under conditions of protein starvation, and canavanine toxicity, resulting from ... in canavanine. Canavanine is accumulated primarily in the seeds of the organisms which produce it, where it serves both as a ... which can tolerate massive amounts of dietary canavanine. These larvae fastidiously avoid incorporation of L-canavanine into ...
canavanine synonyms, canavanine pronunciation, canavanine translation, English dictionary definition of canavanine. Noun 1. ... canavanine - an amino acid found in the jack bean amino acid, aminoalkanoic acid - organic compounds containing an amino group ... Canavanine - definition of canavanine by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/canavanine ... canavanine. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. ThesaurusAntonymsRelated WordsSynonymsLegend: ...
l-Canavanine, l-2-amino-4-(guanidinooxy)butyric acid, is a potentially toxic nonprotein amino acid of certain leguminous plants ... l-Canavanine: a higher plant insecticidal allelochemical. *G. A. Rosenthal1. Amino Acids volume 21, pages319-330(2001)Cite this ... l-Canavanine, l-2-amino-4-(guanidinooxy)butyric acid, is a potentially toxic nonprotein amino acid of certain leguminous plants ... Canavanine, a highly effective protective allelochemical, provides a formidable chemical barrier to predation and disease. ...
Canavanine 100mg/mL Dissolve L-canavanine sulfate salt (Sigma) in water at 100mg/mL, filter-sterilize and store aliquots at 4°C ... Retrieved from "https://openwetware.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=McClean:SC_Canavanine&oldid=890901" ...
Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on l-canavanine market globally and regionally (Europe, ... 6. L-CANAVANINE MARKET PRICES. 6.1. L-canavanine prices in Europe. 6.2. L-canavanine prices in Asia 6.3. L-canavanine prices in ... L-canavanine prices in other regions. 7. L-CANAVANINE END-USE SECTOR 7.1. L-canavanine market by application sphere. 7.2. L- ... L-canavanine application spheres, downstream products. 3. L-CANAVANINE MANUFACTURING METHODS. 4. L-CANAVANINE PATENTS. Abstract ...
"Canavanine" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Canavanine" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Canavanine" by people in Profiles. ...
... canavanine explanation free. What is canavanine? Meaning of canavanine medical term. What does canavanine mean? ... Looking for online definition of canavanine in the Medical Dictionary? ... Canavanine , definition of canavanine by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/canavanine ... canavanine. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. can·a·van·ine. (kană-vanīn), 2-amino-4- ...
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Literature References: Basic amino acid isolated as L-canavanine from jack beans, Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC., Leguminosae: ... Med. 88, 79 (1955). Toxic to mammals: B. Tschiersch, Pharmazie 17, 621 (1962). L-Canavanine induces certain hematologic and ...
Creative Peptides offers D-Canavanine sulfate for your research. We also provide custom peptide synthesis, process development ...
The cytostatic nature of inhibition caused by L-canavanine was indicated by the complete recovery of cells after withdrawal of ... Cytotoxicity of L-canavanine in vitro. 1981, 1 (5):275-7 Anticancer Res. ... Inhibition of the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells by the arginine antimetabolite L-canavanine. ... Enhancement of human tumor cell killing by L-canavanine in combination with gamma-radiation. ...
l-Canavanine is a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). ...
L-CANAVANINE. GGB as a free ligand exists in 9 entries. Examples include: 6NSE 3U88 3LAP ...
L-Canavanine. L-canavanine is a suitable inhibitor of cancer-inducing nitric oxide [40]. It can prevent the antitumor activity ... L-canavanine is highly suitable for pancreatic cancer studies due to lack of considerable amount of arginase in the pancreas [ ... of Walker carcinoma, human melanoma, pancreatic cancer [41, 42], plant sources containing L-canavanine in therapy of colon ...
Canavanine Harinder P. S. Makkar, P. Siddhuraju, Klaus Becker. Pages 47-49 ...
L-CANAVANINE. C5 H12 N4 O3. FSBIGDSBMBYOPN-VKHMYHEASA-N. Ligand Interaction. ...
Canavanine-resistant mutants (Canr) were selected on SC arginine-dropout plates containing 60 mg/liter canavanine. Hom+ ... Canavanine- and 5-fluoroorotic acid (5FOA)-resistant mutants (Canr-5FOAr) were selected on SC arginine- and uracil-dropout ... These master plates then were replica-plated to canavanine plates that were incubated for 3 days to detect the presence of Canr ... Abbreviations: MMR, DNA mismatch repair; GCR, gross chromosomal rearrangement; Canr, canavanine-resistant mutant; 5FOA, 5- ...
Canavanine can act instead of arginine. * Formerly EC 2.6.2.1. Systematic name:. L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase ...
Non-protein amino acid accumulating clade / NPAAA clade: alkaloids 0; non-protein amino acid accumulation [e.g. canavanine]; ... L-canavanine, which can be taken up in place of the normal amino acid L-arginine, may have potent effects on herbivores, ... 2011: NPAAs in general). The NPAA L-canaline is rather like the amino acid ornithine; both L-canaline and L-canavanine serve as ... Vines (shrubs); canavanine 0 (+) [core Phaseoleae]; nodes multilacunar; leaves trifoliolate, (stipules peltate); A 9 + 1; ( ...
... as the bacterial response to canavanine was not correlated with the bacterial staining characteristics. A number of canavanine- ... as the bacterial response to canavanine was not correlated with the bacterial staining characteristics. A number of canavanine- ... as the bacterial response to canavanine was not correlated with the bacterial staining characteristics. A number of canavanine- ... as the bacterial response to canavanine was not correlated with the bacterial staining characteristics. A number of canavanine- ...
Abd-el-gawad, H.M. and A.E. Khalifa (2001) Quercetin, co-enzyme Q10 and 1-canavanine as protective agents against lipid ... Quercetin, co-enzyme Q10 and 1-canavanine as protective agents against lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide generation in ... Quercetin co-enzyme Q10 and 1-canavanine as protective agents against lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide generation in ...
Incidentally, the present study aimed at investigating the potential hepatoprotective capacity of SF and L-canavanine (L-can, a ... An investigation into the effects of Sutherlandia frutescens, L-canavanine and aflatoxin B1 in the hepg2 human hepatocarcinoma ... An investigation into the effects of Sutherlandia frutescens, L-canavanine and aflatoxin B1 in the hepg2 human hepatocarcinoma ...
For example, canavanine is an analogue of arginine that is found in many legumes, and in particularly large amounts in ... doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)86033-1. Ekanayake S, Skog K, Asp NG (May 2007). "Canavanine content in sword beans (Canavalia ... Rosenthal GA (2001). "L-Canavanine: a higher plant insecticidal allelochemical". Amino Acids. 21 (3): 319-330. doi:10.1007/ ... Turner BL, Harborne JB (1967). "Distribution of canavanine in the plant kingdom". Phytochemistry. 6 (6): 863-866. ...
Canavanine. Foods: Alfalfa sprout.. Neutralization: Cooking and phase II liver detox and kidneys.. Negative Effects: Abnormal ...
We conclude that three GRs collaborate to produce a functional L-canavanine receptor. Thus, our results clarify the full set of ... Here we report that three gustatory receptors, GR8a, GR66a and GR98b function together in the detection of L-canavanine, a ... Introduction of these Grs in sweet-sensing GRNs switches L-canavanine from an aversive to an attractive compound. Co-expression ... Furthermore, misexpression of all three Grs enables salt- or sweet-sensing GRNs to respond to L-canavanine. ...
Canavalia ensiformis L. DC (Jackbean): in vitro culture and the production of canavanine. p. 34 50. In: Y.P.S. Bajaj (ed.), ... Inhibition of the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells by the arginine antimetabolite L-canavanine. Cancer Res. 54:6045 6048 ... Combination therapy with 5-fluorouracil and L-canavanine: In vitro and in vivo studies. Anti-cancer Drugs 6:586 593. ... Betonicine (Hemostat) Canavanine (Antiflu, anti-viral) Trigonelline (Anticancer: cervix, liver, hypocholesterolemic, ...
Asparagine, canavanine, proline, arginine, aspartic acid, alanine. trace element. scandium, chromium, cobalt, copper, selenium ...
Alcocer-Varela J, Iglesias A, Llorente L, Alarcon-Segovia D. Effects of L-canavanine on T cells may explain the induction of ... Rosenthal, G. A. The biological effects and mode of action of L-canavanine, a structural analogue of L-arginine. Q.Rev.Biol ... Morimoto, I., Shiozawa, S., Tanaka, Y., and Fujita, T. L-canavanine acts on suppressor-inducer T cells to regulate antibody ... Morimoto, I. A study on immunological effects of L-canavanine. Kobe J Med Sci. 1989;35(5-6):287-298. View abstract. ...
  • It is structurally related to the proteinogenic α-amino acid L-arginine, the sole difference being the replacement of a methylene bridge (-CH 2- unit) in arginine with an oxa group (i.e., an oxygen atom) in canavanine. (wikipedia.org)
  • These larvae fastidiously avoid incorporation of L-canavanine into their nascent proteins (presumably by virtue of highly discriminatory Arginine-tRNA ligase, the enzyme responsible for the first step in the incorporation of arginine into proteins). (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, larvae of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta can only tolerate tiny amounts (1.0 microgram per kilogram of fresh body weight) of dietary canavanine because their arginine-tRNA ligase has little, if any, discriminatory capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • But comparative studies of the incorporation of radiolabeled L-arginine and L-canavanine have shown that in Manduca sexta, the ratio of incorporation is about 3 to 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The accumulated experimental evidence leaves little doubt that the key element in the ability of canavanine to function as an effective protective allelochemical is its subtle structural mimicry of arginine which makes it an effective substrate for amino acid activation and aminoacylation, and its marked diminution in basicity relative to arginine which mediates the production of structural aberrant, dysfunctional canavanyl proteins. (springer.com)
  • Inhibition of the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells by the arginine antimetabolite L-canavanine. (openrepository.com)
  • Canavanine can act instead of arginine. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The Km for L-arginine was 10.5 mM and for L-canavanine 50mM, and L-lysine exhibited a competitive type of inhibition with a Ki of 4.4mM. (nih.gov)
  • This refers to a canavanine resistant trait, near argP, but not affecting arginine transport. (yale.edu)
  • Four compounds, L-arginine, L-canavanine, GABA and D-pinitol known to occur in sutherlandia were also included. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The CAN 1 gene codes for the permease of the amino acid arginine which is analogous to canavanine and enters the cell by the same mechanism. (usp.br)
  • This is because alfalfa seeds contain the toxic amino acid L-canavanine (arginine analog). (rochester.edu)
  • Canavanine and lysine can be incoporated into the polymer instead of arginine [2]. (genome.jp)
  • 7,8,9 L-canavanine is a non-protein amino acid structurally analogous to L-arginine, 10,11 and can displace L-arginine in growing polypeptide chains, leading to aberrant protein synthesis and function. (scielo.org.za)
  • ArgO when overproducted confers sensitivity to the toxic arginine analogue, canavanine and catalyzes export of L-lysine ( Pathania and Sardesai 2015 ). (tcdb.org)
  • And even though the natural toxin canavanine in alfalfa is reportedly removed during processing, some experts advise people with autoimmune disorders not to use Cholestaid, because in monkeys, the toxin causes a syndrome resembling lupus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These writers may have heard something about a lathyrogen toxin, saponins, canavanine, and maybe other nasty-sounding toxins, and concluded that the sprouts of legumes are toxic in the raw state and so should not be eaten. (chetday.com)
  • Such is the case with a toxin called canavanine, which is found in alfalfa seeds. (chetday.com)
  • But subsequent studies at a Michigan lab show that the seeds have a different toxin, called L-canavanine. (newser.com)
  • Alfalfa seeds and sprouts contain L-canavanine. (wikipedia.org)
  • But studies show that L-canavanine, a non-protein amino acid in alfalfa (in the seeds and sprouts), may cause lupus or make existing lupus worse. (rochester.edu)
  • Canavanine is an unusual amino acid found in the seeds and sprouts but not in the mature leaves. (howstuffworks.com)
  • You might want to eat alfalfa sprouts in moderation because of L-Canavanine. (metafilter.com)
  • L-canavanine amino acid in alfalfa sprouts may be effective in fighting leukemia. (pioneerthinking.com)
  • Try to avoid foods that have a high concentration of L-canavanine, such as alfalfa sprouts. (wisegeek.com)
  • An example of this ability can be found in the larvae of the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens, which can tolerate massive amounts of dietary canavanine. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of canavanine-degrading bacteria were isolated, and it seems that these organisms degrade sufficient of the dietary canavanine so that the toxic effects of this compound are avoided when ruminants eat Canavalia. (researchwithnj.com)
  • Alfalfa seeds also contain a toxic amino acid, L-canavanine. (mskcc.org)
  • WARNING: Avoid eating alfalfa seeds, because they contain relatively high levels of the toxic amino acid canavanine. (angelfire.com)
  • Avoid eating alfalfa seeds, because they contain relatively high levels of the toxic amino acid canavanine and may cause damage to red blood cells. (pioneerthinking.com)
  • The basic amino acid (canavanine sensitivity) transporter, Cat1 ( Aspuria and Tamanoi, 2008 ). (tcdb.org)
  • Canavanine sensitivity assays were carried with different strains as indicated in the presence of 1 µg /ml L-canavanine. (elifesciences.org)
  • Basic amino acid isolated as L -canavanine from jack beans, Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. (drugfuture.com)
  • Studies with canavanine suggested that this component of Canavalia was unlikely to be responsible for the observed shift in the rumen microbial population, as the bacterial response to canavanine was not correlated with the bacterial staining characteristics. (researchwithnj.com)
  • Gloria Dominguez-Bello, M & Stewart, CS 1990, ' Effects of Feeding Canavalia ensiformis on the Rumen Flora of Sheep, and of the Toxic Amino Acid Canavanine on Rumen Bacteria ', Systematic and Applied Microbiology , vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 388-393. (researchwithnj.com)
  • Seeds of two wild legumes of the genus Canavalia inhabitants of the coastal sand dunes of Southwest India are known for a variety of bioactive principles (e.g. phenolics, tannins, canavanine, concanavalin and phytohemagglutinins). (eurekaselect.com)
  • There is NO canavanine at all in other legumes that are commonly used as human food. (chetday.com)
  • For instance, canavanine, which is found in the seeds of many legumes, is toxic to herbivores because it competes with Arg in enzymatic reactions ( Rosenthal, 2001 ). (plantcell.org)
  • L-(+)-(S)-Canavanine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid found in certain leguminous plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Co-expression of GR8a, GR66a and GR98b in Drosophila S2 cells induces an L-canavanine-activated nonselective cation conductance. (nih.gov)
  • In this insect, the level of radiolabeled L-canavanine incorporated into newly synthesized proteins is barely measurable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously, a mutant resistant to the toxic effects of canavanine, with low levels of transport activities and reduced levels of phosphorylation of the two periplasmic binding proteins, was isolated and characterized (R. T. F. Celis, J. Biol. (nih.gov)
  • The biologically active ingredients of SF are reported to include L-canavanine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and D-pinitol. (scielo.org.za)
  • The phenoloxidase production test was conducted in dopamine and CGB media ( canavanine glycine bromothymol blue) (Hoog et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Avoid alfalfa during pregnancy because of its canavanine content and hormonally active saponins. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Canavanine, a highly effective protective allelochemical, provides a formidable chemical barrier to predation and disease. (springer.com)
  • Protein-based sequestration of canavanine prevented turnover and clearance of the free amino acid, and undoubtedly contributed significantly to the antimetabolic character of this protective allelochemical. (springer.com)
  • Ectopic co-expression of Gr8a and Gr98b in Gr66a-expressing, bitter-sensing gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) confers responsiveness to L-canavanine. (nih.gov)
  • The toxicity of canavanine may be enhanced under conditions of protein starvation, and canavanine toxicity, resulting from consumption of Hedysarum alpinum seeds with a concentration of 1.2% canavanine weight/weight, has been implicated in the death of a malnourished Christopher McCandless. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biological burdens of canavanyl protein formation by canavanine-treated Manduca sexta larvae were carried throughout their remaining life cycle. (springer.com)
  • Canavanine is accumulated primarily in the seeds of the organisms which produce it, where it serves both as a highly deleterious defensive compound against herbivores and a vital source of nitrogen for the growing embryo[citation needed] (see also L-canaline). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some specialized herbivores tolerate L-canavanine either because they metabolize it efficiently (cf. (wikipedia.org)
  • 12 L-canavanine has been documented as possessing antiviral effects against influenza and HIV, 13 possibly by interfering with viral protein synthesis and function. (scielo.org.za)
  • NZB/W F1, NZB, and DBA/2 mice fed L-canavanine develop a syndrome similar to systemic lupus erythematosus, while BALB/c mice fed a steady diet of protein containing 1% canavanine showed no change in lifespan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Canavanine" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • l-Canavanine is a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). (oup.com)
  • A wild type strain was exposed to the selective pressure canavanine for various lengths of time, incubated with an oxidation-specific dye (CellRox Green) and analyzed using fluorescence microscopy. (plu.edu)
  • All compounds, except L-canavanine exhibited antimutagenic activity against all strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since tranformants become resistant to canavanine, because no permease is synthesized, and thus canavanine cannot enter the cell, transformants are easily selected and the additional cloned genetic information is 100% stable. (usp.br)
  • The cytostatic nature of inhibition caused by L-canavanine was indicated by the complete recovery of cells after withdrawal of the drug. (openrepository.com)
  • The activity of the deterrent cell and inhibition of the activity of sucrose-sensitive cells appear to act together to produce the behavioural effects of most chemicals, but canavanine appears to act only by suppressing the activity of other cells and salicin primarily through activity of the deterrent cell. (biologists.org)
  • Moreover, this beetle uses canavanine as a nitrogen source to synthesize its other amino acids to allow it to develop. (wikipedia.org)
  • We report here the isolation of canavanine-sensitive derivatives of the previously characterized mutant. (nih.gov)
  • Incidentally, the present study aimed at investigating the potential hepatoprotective capacity of SF and L-canavanine (L-can, a major constituent of SF) against AFB1-induced cytotoxicity in human HepG2 cells and used a standard treatment procedure of 24 h. (nrf.ac.za)
  • Canavanine, a constituent in alfalfa, may aggravate the disease lupus. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Introduction of these Grs in sweet-sensing GRNs switches L-canavanine from an aversive to an attractive compound. (nih.gov)
  • l -Canavanine, l -2-amino-4-(guanidinooxy)butyric acid, is a potentially toxic nonprotein amino acid of certain leguminous plants. (springer.com)
  • Dioclea megacarpa seeds contain high levels of canavanine. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2015). "Presence of l-canavanine in Hedysarum alpinum seeds and its potential role in the death of Christopher McCandless. (wikipedia.org)
  • There was no significant change in canavanine content and the phytohemagglutinin activity against human erythrocytes was not altered. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This study was conducted to determine canavanine content and examine the efficacy of soaking in water, acetic acid or heat treatments on the detoxification of bitter vetch for broiler chickens. (scialert.net)
  • All processing methods reduced canavanine content of seeds to a negotiable amount. (scialert.net)
  • The content of canavanine showed significant dose-dependent increase up to 5 kGy followed by significant decrease. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The content of canavanine, a potentially toxic amino acid, was quantified successfully using HPLC. (lu.se)
  • The highest decrease in canavanine content was seen when soaked overnight and boiled in excess water followed by decanting. (lu.se)
  • Roasting and autoclaving were less effective in decreasing the canavanine content. (lu.se)
  • The decrease in canavanine content was highest in wet-processed samples. (lu.se)
  • Methods: The dry seeds of C. cathartica and C. maritima were EB irradiated with different doses (2.5, 5, 10 and 15 kGy) to follow changes in six bioactive principles (total phenolics, orthodihydric phenols, tannins, canavanine, trypsin inhibitors and phytohemagglutinins) in comparison to control seeds. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Canavanine produces a lupuslike disorder in monkeys who were fed diets high in alfalfa. (howstuffworks.com)
  • It is thought that this amino acid may be responsible for alfalfa's ability to cause a relapse of lupus symptoms in patients who are in remission from the disease, and large levels of L-canavanine from alfalfa supplementation may have additional detrimental effects in humans. (mskcc.org)
  • As you might guess, as the sprout grows, canavanine falls rapidly to insignificant levels. (chetday.com)
  • Canavanine is a non-protein amino acid that's toxic in high amounts. (chetday.com)
  • Here we report that three gustatory receptors, GR8a, GR66a and GR98b function together in the detection of L-canavanine, a plant-derived insecticide. (nih.gov)