Canavalia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Canavalia ensiformis is the source of CONCANAVALIN A.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Urease: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urea and water to carbon dioxide and ammonia. EC Stains: Antigenic characteristics and DNA fingerprint patterns identified from blood stains. Their primary value is in criminal cases.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Mentha piperita: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that is the source of peppermint oil.Organogenesis: Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Rhodiola: A plant genus of the family CRASSULACEAE. Members contain rhodioloside. This roseroot is unrelated to the familiar rose (ROSA). Some species in this genus are called stonecrop which is also a common name for SEDUM.Rosales: An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.Cnidaria: A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.Thermotoga maritima: A rod-shaped bacterium surrounded by a sheath-like structure which protrudes balloon-like beyond the ends of the cell. It is thermophilic, with growth occurring at temperatures as high as 90 degrees C. It is isolated from geothermally heated marine sediments or hot springs. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Dolichos: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains LECTINS. Many members have been reclassified into other genera of the FABACEAE family.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Northwest Territories: A federally administered division of Canada. Its capital is Yellowknife. The former northern and eastern-most parts of the Territory comprise the new territory of Nunavut, effective April 1, 1999.Bathing Beaches: Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.Heteroptera: A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Lobelia: A plant genus of the family CAMPANULACEAE used medicinally and is a source of LOBELINE.Cytisus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is sometimes called broom because of the shape of the plant. Members produce SPARTEINE.Eschscholzia: A plant genus of the family PAPAVERACEAE that contains benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids.Argemone: A plant genus of the family PAPAVERACEAE that contains isoquinoline alkaloids.Humulus: A plant genus in the CANNABACEAE family. Best known for the buds of Humulus lupulus L. used in BEER.Arctostaphylos: A plant genus of the family ERICACEAE.Leonurus: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains leonurine.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)EncyclopediasDictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Wheat Germ Agglutinins: Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.Ricinus: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. The seed of Ricinus communis L. is the CASTOR BEAN which is the source of CASTOR OIL; RICIN; and other lectins.Castor Bean: Common name for Ricinus communis, a species in the family EUPHORBIACEAE. It is the source of CASTOR OIL.Agglutinins: Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.Receptors, Mitogen: Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Tannins: Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.Aortic Valve: The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Opuntia: A plant genus of the family CACTACEAE. Species with cylindrical joints are called Cholla; flat jointed ones are Prickly-pear.War Crimes: Criminal acts committed during, or in connection with, war, e.g., maltreatment of prisoners, willful killing of civilians, etc.

Scanning transmission X-ray, laser scanning, and transmission electron microscopy mapping of the exopolymeric matrix of microbial biofilms. (1/37)

Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) were used to map the distribution of macromolecular subcomponents (e.g., polysaccharides, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids) of biofilm cells and matrix. The biofilms were developed from river water supplemented with methanol, and although they comprised a complex microbial community, the biofilms were dominated by heterotrophic bacteria. TEM provided the highest-resolution structural imaging, CLSM provided detailed compositional information when used in conjunction with molecular probes, and STXM provided compositional mapping of macromolecule distributions without the addition of probes. By examining exactly the same region of a sample with combinations of these techniques (STXM with CLSM and STXM with TEM), we demonstrate that this combination of multimicroscopy analysis can be used to create a detailed correlative map of biofilm structure and composition. We are using these correlative techniques to improve our understanding of the biochemical basis for biofilm organization and to assist studies intended to investigate and optimize biofilms for environmental remediation applications.  (+info)

Polyhalogenated benzo- and naphthoquinones are potent inhibitors of plant and bacterial ureases. (2/37)

Polyhalogenated benzo- and naphthoquinones were found to be potent inhibitors of pure ureases from Bacillus pasteurii and Canavalia ensiformis. They also inhibited ureases in whole cells of Helicobacter pylori, Klebsiella oxytoca and Proteus mirabilis. Inhibition was non-competitive with K(i) values in the micromolar range or below. Inhibition was irreversible as shown by equilibrium dialysis. Inhibitory power decreased considerably when halogens were replaced by -OH, -CN, alkoxy or alkyl groups.  (+info)

Unfolding studies on soybean agglutinin and concanavalin a tetramers: a comparative account. (3/37)

The unfolding pathway of two very similar tetrameric legume lectins soybean agglutinin (SBA) and Concanavalin A (ConA) were determined using GdnCl-induced denaturation. Both proteins displayed a reversible two-state unfolding mechanism. The analysis of isothermal denaturation data provided values for conformational stability of the two proteins. It was found that the DeltaG of unfolding of SBA was much higher than ConA at all the temperatures at which the experiments were done. ConA had a T(g) 18 degrees C less than SBA. The higher conformational stability of SBA in comparison to ConA is largely due to substantial differences in their degrees of subunit interactions. Ionic interactions at the interface of the two proteins especially at the noncanonical interface seem to play a significant role in the observed stability differences between these two proteins. Furthermore, SBA is a glycoprotein with a GlcNac2Man9 chain attached to Asn-75 of each subunit. The sugar chain in SBA lies at the noncanonical interface of the protein, and it is found to interact with the amino acid residues in the adjacent noncanonical interface. These interactions further stabilize SBA with respect to ConA, which is not glycosylated.  (+info)

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of a lectin from Canavalia maritima seeds. (4/37)

A lectin from Canavalia maritima seeds (ConM) was purified and submitted to crystallization experiments. The best crystals were obtained using the vapour-diffusion method at a constant temperature of 293 K and grew in 7 d. A complete structural data set was collected to 2.1 A resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The ConM crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.15, b = 70.90, c = 97.37 A. A molecular-replacement search found a solution with a correlation coefficient of 69.2% and an R factor of 42.5%. Crystallographic refinement is under way.  (+info)

Establishment of a heterologous system for the expression of Canavalia brasiliensis lectin: a model for the study of protein splicing. (5/37)

During its biosynthesis in developing Canavalia brasiliensis seeds, the lectin ConBr undergoes a form of protein splicing in which the order of the N- and C-domains of the protein is reversed. To investigate whether these events can occur in other eukaryotic organisms, an expression system based on Pichia pastoris cells was established. A DNA fragment encoding prepro-ConBr was cloned into the vector pPICZB, and the recombinant plasmid was transformed in P. pastoris strain GS115. Ten clones were screened for effective recombinant protein production. Based on Western blot analysis of the two clones with the highest level of protein expression: 1) diffuse high-molecular mass immunoreactive bands were produced as early as 24 h after induction; 2) a single-, high-molecular mass protein was secreted into the medium, and 3) a significant fraction of the recombinant polypeptides that cross-reacted with anti-ConBr antibodies comprised a band of approximately 34.5 kDa. Diffuse protein bands with high molecular masses are attributed to hyperglycosylation at the single potential N-glycosylation site located in the linker peptide of prepro-ConBr. In contrast, native ConBr is made up of three polypeptides, the intact alpha chain (aa 1-237) and the fragments beta (aa 1-118) and gamma (aa 119-237), which have apparent molecular masses of 30, 16 and 12 kDa, respectively. Apparently, the yeast P. pastoris is not able to carry out all the complex post-translational proteolytic processing necessary for the biosynthesis of ConBr.  (+info)

Ureases display biological effects independent of enzymatic activity: is there a connection to diseases caused by urease-producing bacteria? (6/37)

Ureases are enzymes from plants, fungi and bacteria that catalyze the hydrolysis of urea to form ammonia and carbon dioxide. While fungal and plant ureases are homo-oligomers of 90-kDa subunits, bacterial ureases are multimers of two or three subunit complexes. We showed that some isoforms of jack bean urease, canatoxin and the classical urease, bind to glycoconjugates and induce platelet aggregation. Canatoxin also promotes release of histamine from mast cells, insulin from pancreatic cells and neurotransmitters from brain synaptosomes. In vivo it induces rat paw edema and neutrophil chemotaxis. These effects are independent of ureolytic activity and require activation of eicosanoid metabolism and calcium channels. Helicobacter pylori, a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human stomach mucosa, causes gastric ulcers and cancer by a mechanism that is not understood. H. pylori produces factors that damage gastric epithelial cells, such as the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, the cytotoxin-associated protein CagA, and a urease (up to 10% of bacterial protein) that neutralizes the acidic medium permitting its survival in the stomach. H. pylori whole cells or extracts of its water-soluble proteins promote inflammation, activate neutrophils and induce the release of cytokines. In this paper we review data from the literature suggesting that H. pylori urease displays many of the biological activities observed for jack bean ureases and show that bacterial ureases have a secretagogue effect modulated by eicosanoid metabolites through lipoxygenase pathways. These findings could be relevant to the elucidation of the role of urease in the pathogenesis of the gastrointestinal disease caused by H. pylori.  (+info)

A comparative study of the expression of serine proteinases in quiescent seeds and in developing Canavalia ensiformis plants. (7/37)

An alkaline proteinase activity is present in quiescent seeds and up to the 24th day of development of Canavalia ensiformis DC (L.) plants. By a simple protocol consisting of cation exchange chromatography, followed by an anion exchange column, a serine proteinase (Q-SP) was purified to homogeneity from quiescent seeds. Q-SP consists of a 33 kDa chain with an optimum pH between 8.0 and 9.0. Arginine residues at P1 and P2 subsites favour binding to the substrate, as shown by the KM assay with N-alpha-benzoyl-DL-arginine-4-nitroanilide-hydrochloride and N-benzoylcarboxyl-L-arginyl-L-arginine-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin. The same protocol was used for partial purification of benzamidine-sensitive enzymes from the developing plant. On the 7th day, a new benzamidine-sensitive enzyme is synthesized in the seedling, seen as the second active peak appearing in anion exchange chromatography. A benzamidine-sensitive enzyme purified from cotyledons presented a similar gel filtration profile as Q-SP, although it was eluted at different salt concentrations in the anion exchange chromatography. None of the enzymes was inhibited by PMSF, APMSF, or SBTI, but they were inactivated by benzamidine, TLCK, and leupeptin. Q-SP did not cleave in vitro C. ensiformis urease, concanavalin A, or its main storage protein, canavalin. In conclusion, a ubiquitous benzamidine-sensitive proteolytic activity was found in C. ensiformis from quiescent seeds up to 24 d of growth, which apparently is not involved in the hydrolysis of storage proteins and might participate in an as yet unidentified limited proteolysis event.  (+info)

Tailed forisomes of Canavalia gladiata: a new model to study Ca2+-driven protein contractility. (8/37)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Forisomes are Ca(2+)-dependent contractile protein bodies that form reversible plugs in sieve tubes of faboid legumes. Previous work employed Vicia faba forisomes, a not entirely unproblematic experimental system. The aim of this study was to seek to establish a superior model to study these intriguing actuators. METHODS: Existing isolation procedures were modified to study the exceptionally large, tailed forisomes of Canavalia gladiata by differential interference contrast microscopy in vitro. To analyse contraction/expansion kinetics quantitatively, a geometric model was devised which enabled the computation of time-courses of derived parameters such as forisome volume from simple parameters readily determined on micrographs. KEY RESULTS: Advantages of C. gladiata over previously utilized species include the enormous size of its forisomes (up to 55 microm long), the presence of tails which facilitate micromanipulation of individual forisomes, and the possibility of collecting material repeatedly from these fast-growing vines without sacrificing the plants. The main bodies of isolated Canavalia forisomes were box-shaped with square cross-sections and basically retained this shape in all stages of contraction. Ca(2+)-induced a 6-fold volume increase within about 10-15 s; the reverse reaction following Ca(2+)-depletion proceeded in a fraction of that time. CONCLUSIONS: The sword bean C. gladiata provides a superior experimental system which will prove indispensable in physiological, biophysical, ultrastructural and molecular studies on the unique ATP-independent contractility of forisomes.  (+info)

  • Canavalia boliviana lectin (Cbol) was purified using a Sephadex G-50 column and crystallized in the presence of X-Man by hanging-drop vapour diffusion at 293 K. After optimization, crystals suitable for diffraction were obtained using 0.1 M HEPES pH 7.5 and 3.0 M sodium formate. (
  • Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Antioxidant Polyphenols from the Seed Coats of Red Sword Bean (Canavalia gladiate (Jacq. (
  • Studies with canavanine suggested that this component of Canavalia was unlikely to be responsible for the observed shift in the rumen microbial population, as the bacterial response to canavanine was not correlated with the bacterial staining characteristics. (
  • A number of canavanine-degrading bacteria were isolated, and it seems that these organisms degrade sufficient of the dietary canavanine so that the toxic effects of this compound are avoided when ruminants eat Canavalia. (
  • Th e fallows were reestablished in the same plots in the second cropping season of 2005 aft er maize (Zea mays L.). Canavalia yielded signifi cantly more dry matter than the other fallows regardless of year or site. (
  • [ 4 ] A ConA foi a primeira lectina da que se puido dispoñer comercialmente, e utilízase amplamente en bioloxía e bioquímica para caracterizar glicoproteínas e outras moléculas que conteñan azucres na superficie de diversas células. (
  • A ConA únese especificamente a residuos α-D-manosil e α-D-glicosil, dúas hexosas que difiren só polo grupo alcohol do carbono 2 en posición terminal nas estruturas ramificadas de B-glicanos (en α-manosa, ou complexos de glicanos biantenarios e híbridos). (
  • A ConA é moi útil en aplicacións que requiran a inmobilización en fase sólida de glicoencimas, especialmente daqueles encimas que son difíciles de inmobilizar polo acoplamento covalente tradicional. (
  • Utilizando matrices con ConA, eses encimas poden ser inmobilizados en grandes cantidades sen unha perda de actividade nin de estabilidade. (
  • Because an understanding of their mechanical properties in vitro underpins understanding of their physiology in vivo, we undertook, using a microcantilever method, microscopic tensile tests (incremental stress-relaxation measurements) on forisomes from Canavalia gladiata (Jacq. (