A species of AVIPOXVIRUS, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE. Canarypox virus vectors are used in vaccine and immunotherapy research.
A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising bird poxviruses. The type species is FOWLPOX VIRUS. Transmission is mechanical by ARTHROPODS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A name for several highly contagious viral diseases of animals, especially canine distemper. In dogs, it is caused by the canine distemper virus (DISTEMPER VIRUS, CANINE). It is characterized by a diphasic fever, leukopenia, gastrointestinal and respiratory inflammation and sometimes, neurologic complications. In cats it is known as FELINE PANLEUKOPENIA.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in dogs, wolves, foxes, raccoons, and ferrets. Pinnipeds have also been known to contract Canine distemper virus from contact with domestic dogs.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
A species of MORBILLIVIRUS causing distemper in seals.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
The use of animals as investigational subjects.

Purification of Ag-specific T lymphocytes after direct peripheral blood mononuclear cell stimulation followed by CD25 selection. I. Application to CD4(+) or CD8(+) cytomegalovirus phosphoprotein pp65 epitope determination. (1/35)

The two main constraints that currently limit a broader usage of T cell therapy against viruses are the delay required to obtain specific T cells and the safety of the selection procedure. In the present work we developed a generally applicable strategy that eliminates the need for APC for timing reasons, and the need for infectious viral strains for safety concerns. As a model, we used the selection of T lymphocytes specific for the immunodominant CMV phosphoprotein pp65. PBMC from healthy seropositive donors were first depleted of IL-2R alpha-chain CD25(+) cells and were then stimulated for 24-96 h with previously defined peptide Ags or with autologous PBMC infected with a canarypox viral vector encoding the total pp65 protein (ALVAC-pp65). Subsequent immunomagnetic purification of newly CD25-expressing cells allowed efficient recovery of T lymphocytes specific for the initial stimuli, i.e., for the already known immunodominant epitope corresponding to the peptides used as a model or for newly defined epitopes corresponding to peptides encoded by the transfected pp65 protein. Importantly, we demonstrated that direct PBMC stimulation allowed recovery not only of CD8(+) memory T lymphocytes, but also of the CD4(+) memory T cells, which are known to be crucial to ensure persistence of adoptively transferred immune memory. Finally, our analysis of pp65-specific T cells led to the identification of several new helper and cytotoxic epitopes. This work thus demonstrates the feasibility of isolating memory T lymphocytes specific for a clinically relevant protein without the need to prepare APC, to use infectious viral strains, or to identify immunodominant epitopes.  (+info)

Recombinant canarypox vaccine-elicited CTL specific for dominant and subdominant simian immunodeficiency virus epitopes in rhesus monkeys. (2/35)

Since virus-specific CTL play a central role in containing HIV replication, a candidate AIDS vaccine should generate virus-specific CTL responses. In this study, the ability of a recombinant canarypox virus expressing SIV Gag-Pol-Env (ALVAC/SIV gag-pol-env) was assessed for its ability to elicit both dominant and subdominant epitope-specific CTL responses in rhesus monkeys. Following a series of five immunizations, memory CTL responses specific for a dominant Gag epitope could be demonstrated in the peripheral blood of vaccinated monkeys. Memory CTL responses to a subdominant Pol epitope were undetectable in these animals. Following challenge with SIVmac251, the experimentally vaccinated animals developed high frequency CTL responses specific for the dominant Gag epitope that emerged in temporal association with the early containment of viral replication. Interestingly, the experimentally vaccinated, but not the control vaccinated animals, developed CTL responses to the subdominant Pol epitope that were detectable only after containment of early viremia. Thus, recombinant canarypox vaccination elicited low frequency, but durable memory CTL populations. The temporal association of the emergence of the dominant epitope-specific response with early viral containment following challenge suggests that this immune response played a role in the accelerated clearing of early viremia in these animals. The later emerging CTL response specific for the subdominant epitope may contribute to the control of viral replication in the setting of chronic infection.  (+info)

Expression of vaccinia E3L and K3L genes by a novel recombinant canarypox HIV vaccine vector enhances HIV-1 pseudovirion production and inhibits apoptosis in human cells. (3/35)

Poxviruses that are attenuated for growth in human cells provide a safe means of HIV antigen expression and are capable of eliciting HIV-specific immune responses, including CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. HIV-1 antigen expression in human cells by attenuated poxvirus vectors may be limited by interferon-mediated host defense mechanisms. To enhance HIV antigen expression in human cells, the vaccinia virus E3L and K3L genes were inserted into a canarypox vector that expresses HIV-1 Gag, Env, and a Nef/Pol polyepitope string. E3L and K3L markedly reduced the activation of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR, and led to a significant reduction in apoptosis in HeLa cells. Production and release of HIV-1 antigen in the form of pseudovirions was enhanced in both duration and magnitude by this vector modification. The addition of immunomodulatory genes to attenuated poxviruses represents a novel strategy for enhancing antigen production by live vector HIV vaccine candidates.  (+info)

Induction of p53-specific immune responses in colorectal cancer patients receiving a recombinant ALVAC-p53 candidate vaccine. (4/35)

PURPOSE: The tumor-associated auto-antigen p53 is commonly overexpressed in various types of human cancer, including colorectal cancer. Experiments in preclinical models have shown that it can serve as a target for T-cell-mediated tumor-eradication. The feasibility of a p53-specific therapeutic vaccination was investigated in cancer patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A Phase I/II dose-escalation study was performed that evaluated the effect of a recombinant canarypoxvirus (ALVAC) vaccine encoding wild-type human p53 in 15 patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Each group of five patients received three i.v. doses of one-tenth of a dose, one-third of a dose, or 1 dose of the vaccine [1 dose = 1 x 10(7.5) cell culture infectious dosis (CCID)50]. RESULTS: Potent T-cell and IgG antibody responses against the vector component of the ALVAC vaccine were induced in the majority of the patients. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent-spot assay (ELISPOT) analysis of vaccine-induced immunity revealed the presence of IFN-gamma-secreting T cells against both ALVAC and p53, whereas no significant interleukin-4 responses were detected. Vaccine-mediated enhancement of p53-specific T-cell immunity was found in two patients in the highest-vaccine-dose group. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the feasibility, even in patients with advanced cancer, to elicit immune responses against the ubiquitously expressed tumor-associated auto-antigen p53. Our results form the basis for additional studies that will explore the antitumor capacity of p53 containing multivalent vaccines in cancer patients with limited tumor burden.  (+info)

Preparation of clinical-grade recombinant canarypox-human immunodeficiency virus vaccine-loaded human dendritic cells. (5/35)

Preclinical data are reported that support a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine strategy using recombinant canarypox-HIV vectors (ALVAC-HIV) to load human dendritic cells (DCs) with HIV antigens. Clinical-grade DCs were infected with good manufacturing practice-grade ALVAC-HIV vaccine constructs. ALVAC infection, HIV gene expression, and DC viability and function were monitored by use of immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, blastogenesis assays, antigen-specific interferon (IFN)-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protein detection. The vaccines infected both immature and mature DCs, and intracellular HIV-1 Gag protein was detected within hours. ALVAC-HIV induced DC maturation that was mediated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and induced DC apoptosis that was directly related to the length of vaccine exposure. Of importance, the infected DCs remained functional in T cell stimulation assays and induced HIV antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell production of IFN-gamma from cells of HIV-1-infected individuals. These data support an ongoing HIV vaccine trial comparing conventional vaccine delivery routes with ex vivo vaccine-loaded autologous DCs for immunogenicity in HIV-1-uninfected volunteers.  (+info)

DNA immunization with hepatitis C virus (HCV) polycistronic genes or immunization by HCV DNA priming-recombinant canarypox virus boosting induces immune responses and protection from recombinant HCV-vaccinia virus infection in HLA-A2.1-transgenic mice. (6/35)

We studied immune responses to hepatitis C virus (HCV) genes delivered as DNA encoding the entire HCV protein coding genome in two polycistronic plasmids encoding HCV capsid-E1-E2-NS2-NS3 and HCV NS3-NS4-NS5 in HLA-A2.1-transgenic mice. Immune responses to HCV DNA prime and recombinant canarypox virus boost were also studied with the above constructs. At 8 weeks after a canarypox virus boost, the DNA prime/canarypox virus boosting regimen induced potent cellular immune responses to HCV structural and nonstructural proteins on target cells expressing the HLA-A2.1 allele. High frequencies of gamma interferon-secreting cells, as detected by enzyme-linked immunospot assay, were obtained in response to several endogenously expressed HCV proteins. We also observed cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte reactivity in response to endogenously expressed HCV proteins in fresh spleen cells without in vitro expansion. Upon challenge with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing HCV proteins at 2 months postimmunization, the HCV DNA prime/canarypox virus-immunized mice showed a complete reduction in vaccinia virus titers compared to HCV DNA prime/boost- and mock-immunized controls. Immune responses were still detectable 4 months after canarypox virus boost in immunized mice. Interestingly, at 10 months postimmunization (8 months after canarypox virus boost), the protection in HCV DNA prime/boost-immunized mice against recombinant HCV-vaccinia virus challenge was higher than that observed in HCV DNA prime/canarypox virus boost-immunized mice.  (+info)

Induction of HLA-G-restricted human cytomegalovirus pp65 (UL83)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in HLA-G transgenic mice. (7/35)

The non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I molecule HLA-G is expressed mainly by extravillous trophoblasts at the materno-foetal interface. HLA-G has been found to bind endogenously processed nonameric peptides but its function as a restriction element for a cytotoxic T cell response to viruses with tropism for trophoblastic cells has never been demonstrated. In this study, candidate viral peptides derived from human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) pp65 (UL83), which stabilized the HLA-G molecule on HLA-G-transfected T2 cells, were identified. The specific anti-pp65 cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response restricted by HLA-G in triple transgenic mice (HLA-G, human beta2m, human CD8alpha) was then investigated by injection of dendritic cells loaded with synthetic pp65-derived peptides or by infection with canarypox virus expressing pp65. Results showed that CTLs from HLA-G mice have the capacity to kill target cells either infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing pp65 or loaded with specific pp65-derived peptides using HLA-G as an antigen-presenting molecule. It was also demonstrated that these HLA-G-restricted pp65-specific T cells are able to kill the human astrocytoma cell line U373, which was transfected with HLA-G and infected with HCMV. Moreover, using HLA-G tetramers refolded with a synthetic pp65-derived peptide, peptide-specific CD8(+) cells restricted by HLA-G have been detected in vivo. These findings provide the first evidence that HLA-G can select anti-HCMV-restricted CTLs in vivo, although the potency of this cytolytic response is limited (20-25 %). The weak HLA-G-restricted anti-HCMV response is probably due to HLA-G-mediated inhibitory signals on the development of an antiviral CTL response.  (+info)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity among uninfected HIV vaccine recipients. (8/35)

Since 1987, >10,000 individuals worldwide have received immunizations with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preventive vaccine constructs. Many constructs elicit antibodies detected by standard serologic tests (enzyme immunoassays, rapid tests, and Western blots) and result in vaccine recipients' serum being identified as reactive and indicative of HIV infection. To determine the frequency of vaccine-induced HIV antibody among uninfected HIV vaccine trial participants and to identify factors associated with these results, serum samples from HIV-uninfected participants from selected United States phase I/II HIV-1 vaccine trials were tested with 6 serologic screening tests. Reactive specimens were tested by use of Western blot. Overall, 490 serum specimens from 461 vaccine recipients were tested; 100 (20.4%) reacted on at least 1 serologic test, and 65 (13%) were determined to be positive by Western blot. Canarypox or vaccinia vaccine recipients' serum with or without HIV envelope glycoprotein (gp120 or gp160) boosts accounted for all positive Western blot results; no positive Western blot results were obtained from gp120 subunit recipients. The potential for vaccine recipients being misclassified as HIV infected increased with vaccine complexity.  (+info)

Canarypox virus is a species of viruses in the family *Poxviridae*, subfamily *Chordopoxvirinae*, and genus *Avipoxvirus*. It primarily infects birds, particularly canaries, and causes a disease known as canarypox. The virus is not known to cause illness in humans or other mammals.

Canarypox virus has a double-stranded DNA genome and is relatively host-specific, meaning it does not easily infect species outside of its natural host range. However, it has been used as a vector for vaccine development in animals and has shown promise as a potential vector for recombinant vaccines in humans due to its ability to stimulate both humoral and cellular immune responses.

Recombinant canarypox viruses have been used to develop vaccines against various diseases, including rabies, equine encephalitis, and HIV. These vaccines work by inserting genetic material from the target pathogen into the canarypox virus genome, allowing the virus to express the foreign antigens and stimulate an immune response against them. However, it is important to note that these vaccines are still in the experimental stages and have not yet been approved for use in humans.

Avipoxvirus is a genus of double-stranded DNA viruses in the family Poxviridae, subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. This genus includes a group of species that are the cause of avian pox, a disease affecting birds. The virus is transmitted through contact with infected birds or contaminated surfaces and causes the formation of wart-like growths on the skin and mucous membranes of affected birds. Avipoxvirus infections can lead to decreased mobility, reduced food intake, and impaired respiration, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in bird populations.

An AIDS vaccine is a type of preventive vaccine that aims to stimulate the immune system to produce an effective response against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The goal of an AIDS vaccine is to induce the production of immune cells and proteins that can recognize and eliminate HIV-infected cells, thereby preventing the establishment of a persistent infection.

Despite decades of research, there is still no licensed AIDS vaccine available. This is due in part to the unique challenges posed by HIV, which has a high mutation rate and can rapidly evolve to evade the immune system's defenses. However, several promising vaccine candidates are currently being tested in clinical trials around the world, and researchers continue to explore new approaches and strategies for developing an effective AIDS vaccine.

Synthetic vaccines are artificially produced, designed to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against specific diseases. Unlike traditional vaccines that are derived from weakened or killed pathogens, synthetic vaccines are created using synthetic components, such as synthesized viral proteins, DNA, or RNA. These components mimic the disease-causing agent and trigger an immune response without causing the actual disease. The use of synthetic vaccines offers advantages in terms of safety, consistency, and scalability in production, making them valuable tools for preventing infectious diseases.

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, also known as CD8+ T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the cell-mediated immune system. They are responsible for identifying and destroying virus-infected cells and cancer cells. When a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognizes a specific antigen presented on the surface of an infected or malignant cell, it becomes activated and releases toxic substances such as perforins and granzymes, which can create pores in the target cell's membrane and induce apoptosis (programmed cell death). This process helps to eliminate the infected or malignant cells and prevent the spread of infection or cancer.

Vaccinia virus is a large, complex DNA virus that belongs to the Poxviridae family. It is the virus used in the production of the smallpox vaccine. The vaccinia virus is not identical to the variola virus, which causes smallpox, but it is closely related and provides cross-protection against smallpox infection.

The vaccinia virus has a unique replication cycle that occurs entirely in the cytoplasm of infected cells, rather than in the nucleus like many other DNA viruses. This allows the virus to evade host cell defenses and efficiently produce new virions. The virus causes the formation of pocks or lesions on the skin, which contain large numbers of virus particles that can be transmitted to others through close contact.

Vaccinia virus has also been used as a vector for the delivery of genes encoding therapeutic proteins, vaccines against other infectious diseases, and cancer therapies. However, the use of vaccinia virus as a vector is limited by its potential to cause adverse reactions in some individuals, particularly those with weakened immune systems or certain skin conditions.

Distemper is a highly contagious viral disease that primarily affects dogs, but can also infect other animals such as cats, ferrets, and raccoons. It is caused by a paramyxovirus and is characterized by respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological symptoms.

The respiratory symptoms of distemper include coughing, sneezing, and nasal discharge. Gastrointestinal symptoms may include vomiting and diarrhea. Neurological symptoms can include seizures, twitching, and paralysis. Distemper is often fatal, especially in puppies and young dogs that have not been vaccinated.

The virus is spread through direct contact with infected animals or their bodily fluids, such as saliva and urine. It can also be spread through the air, making it highly contagious in areas where large numbers of unvaccinated animals are housed together, such as animal shelters and kennels.

Prevention is key in protecting against distemper, and vaccination is recommended for all dogs. Puppies should receive their first distemper vaccine at six to eight weeks of age, followed by booster shots every three to four weeks until they are 16 weeks old. Adult dogs should receive a distemper booster shot every one to three years, depending on their risk of exposure.

Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and causes a contagious and serious disease in dogs and other animals. The virus primarily affects the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems of infected animals.

The symptoms of canine distemper can vary widely depending on the age and immune status of the animal, as well as the strain of the virus. Initial signs may include fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, and discharge from the eyes and nose. As the disease progresses, affected animals may develop vomiting, diarrhea, pneumonia, and neurological symptoms such as seizures, muscle twitching, and paralysis.

Canine distemper is highly contagious and can be spread through direct contact with infected animals or their respiratory secretions. The virus can also be transmitted through contaminated objects such as food bowls, water dishes, and bedding.

Prevention of canine distemper is achieved through vaccination, which is recommended for all dogs as a core vaccine. It is important to keep dogs up-to-date on their vaccinations and to avoid contact with unfamiliar or unvaccinated animals. There is no specific treatment for canine distemper, and therapy is generally supportive, focusing on managing symptoms and preventing complications.

A ferret is a domesticated mammal that belongs to the weasel family, Mustelidae. The scientific name for the common ferret is Mustela putorius furo. Ferrets are native to Europe and have been kept as pets for thousands of years due to their playful and curious nature. They are small animals, typically measuring between 13-20 inches in length, including their tail, and weighing between 1.5-4 pounds.

Ferrets have a slender body with short legs, a long neck, and a pointed snout. They have a thick coat of fur that can vary in color from white to black, with many different patterns in between. Ferrets are known for their high level of activity and intelligence, and they require regular exercise and mental stimulation to stay healthy and happy.

Ferrets are obligate carnivores, which means that they require a diet that is high in protein and low in carbohydrates. They have a unique digestive system that allows them to absorb nutrients efficiently from their food, but it also means that they are prone to certain health problems if they do not receive proper nutrition.

Ferrets are social animals and typically live in groups. They communicate with each other using a variety of vocalizations, including barks, chirps, and purrs. Ferrets can be trained to use a litter box and can learn to perform simple tricks. With proper care and attention, ferrets can make loving and entertaining pets.

Animal testing alternatives, also known as alternative methods or replacement methods, refer to scientific techniques that can be used to replace the use of animals in research and testing. These methods aim to achieve the same scientific objectives while avoiding harm to animals. There are several categories of animal testing alternatives:

1. In vitro (test tube or cell culture) methods: These methods involve growing cells or tissues in a laboratory setting, outside of a living organism. They can be used to study the effects of chemicals, drugs, and other substances on specific cell types or tissues.
2. Computer modeling and simulation: Advanced computer programs and algorithms can be used to model biological systems and predict how they will respond to various stimuli. These methods can help researchers understand complex biological processes without using animals.
3. In silico (using computer models) methods: These methods involve the use of computational tools and databases to predict the potential toxicity or other biological effects of chemicals, drugs, and other substances. They can be used to identify potential hazards and prioritize further testing.
4. Microdosing: This method involves giving human volunteers very small doses of a drug or chemical, followed by careful monitoring to assess its safety and pharmacological properties. This approach can provide valuable information while minimizing the use of animals.
5. Tissue engineering: Scientists can create functional tissue constructs using cells, scaffolds, and bioreactors. These engineered tissues can be used to study the effects of drugs, chemicals, and other substances on human tissues without using animals.
6. Human-based approaches: These methods involve the use of human volunteers, donated tissues, or cells obtained from consenting adults. Examples include microdosing, organ-on-a-chip technology, and the use of human cell lines in laboratory experiments.

These animal testing alternatives can help reduce the number of animals used in research and testing, refine experimental procedures to minimize suffering, and replace the use of animals with non-animal methods whenever possible.

Phocine distemper virus (PDV) is a viral pathogen that primarily affects marine mammals, particularly seals. It belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and genus Morbillivirus, which also includes measles virus and canine distemper virus. PDV is responsible for causing an infectious disease known as phocine distemper, which is characterized by respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological symptoms. The virus is highly contagious and can lead to mass mortality events in seal populations. It is not known to infect or cause disease in humans.

Animal welfare is a concept that refers to the state of an animal's physical and mental health, comfort, and ability to express normal behaviors. It encompasses factors such as proper nutrition, housing, handling, care, treatment, and protection from harm and distress. The goal of animal welfare is to ensure that animals are treated with respect and consideration, and that their needs and interests are met in a responsible and ethical manner.

The concept of animal welfare is based on the recognition that animals are sentient beings capable of experiencing pain, suffering, and emotions, and that they have intrinsic value beyond their usefulness to humans. It is guided by principles such as the "Five Freedoms," which include freedom from hunger and thirst, freedom from discomfort, freedom from pain, injury or disease, freedom to express normal behavior, and freedom from fear and distress.

Animal welfare is an important consideration in various fields, including agriculture, research, conservation, entertainment, and companionship. It involves a multidisciplinary approach that draws on knowledge from biology, ethology, veterinary medicine, psychology, philosophy, and law. Ultimately, animal welfare aims to promote the humane treatment of animals and to ensure their well-being in all aspects of their lives.

Animal experimentation, also known as animal testing, refers to the use of non-human animals in scientific research and testing to understand the effects of various substances, treatments, or procedures on living organisms. This practice is performed with the goal of advancing medical and veterinary knowledge, developing new medications, treatments, and surgical techniques, as well as studying basic biological processes and diseases.

In animal experimentation, researchers expose animals to specific conditions, treatments, or substances and then analyze their responses, behaviors, physiological changes, or other outcomes. The selection of animal species for these experiments depends on the research question and the similarities between the animal model and the human or target species under investigation. Commonly used animals include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, primates, and dogs.

Animal experimentation has been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs and medical advancements throughout history. However, it remains a controversial topic due to ethical concerns regarding the treatment and welfare of animals used in research. Many organizations advocate for the reduction, refinement, or replacement (3Rs) of animal testing, aiming to minimize animal suffering and find alternative methods whenever possible.

Juncopox virus, Mynahpox virus, Psittacinepox virus, Sparrowpox virus, Starlingpox virus, Pigeonpox virus, Turkeypox virus and ... Canarypox virus (CNPV) is a member of the Poxviridae family. Canarypox viruses, as with other bird pox viruses, are in the ... Canarypox virus (CNPV) is an Avipoxvirus and etiologic agent of canarypox, a disease of wild and captive birds that can cause ... leukaemia virus, HIV and cancers; such as melanoma and colorectal cancers. A strain of canarypox virus modified to carry feline ...
Merial produces a recombinant vaccine consisting of canarypox virus carrying FeLV gag and env genes (sold as PUREVAX FeLV in ... Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is an RNA virus in the subfamily Oncovirinae belonging to the Retroviridae family. The virus ... Once the virus has entered the cat, there are six stages to a FeLV infection[citation needed]: Stage One: The virus enters the ... At this point, the virus will stay with the cat for the rest of its life. In this phase, the virus replicates and is released ...
"Characterization of canarypox-like viruses infecting endemic birds in the Galápagos Islands". Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 41 ...
C22orf25 is also xenologous to T10 like proteins in the Fowlpox Virus and Canarypox Virus. The gene coding for C22orf25 is ... of the C22orf25 gene that are evolutionarily conserved in the Animalia and Plantae kingdoms as well as the Canarypox Virus ...
A strain of canarypox virus modified to carry feline interleukin-2 is used to treat cats with fibrosarcoma. Retroviruses are ... Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is the first virus to be discovered. Viral vectors based on tobacco mosaic virus include those of ... "EPAR summary for the public: Oncept IL-2 (Feline interleukin-2 recombinant canary pox virus) [EMA/151380/2013 EMEA/V/C/002562 ... Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a small virus that infects humans and some other primate species. AAV is not currently known to ...
The ALVAC vector is an inert form of canarypox, a bird virus which cannot cause disease or replicate in humans. AIDSVAX B/E is ... Additionally, the vaccine regimen had no effect on the amount of virus in the blood of volunteers who became HIV-infected ... Dolgin, Elie (2009-09-24). "Vaccine protects against HIV virus". Nature News. doi:10.1038/news.2009.947. Rerks-Ngarm, S.; ... "Safety and Reactogenicity of Canarypox ALVAC-HIV (vCP1521) and HIV-1 gp120 AIDSVAX B/E Vaccination in an Efficacy Trial in ...
... is a cancer vaccine containing a canary pox virus (ALVAC) combined with the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) ...
"Immunization of Experimental Dogs With Salivary Proteins From Lutzomyia Longipalpis, Using DNA and Recombinant Canarypox Virus ...
His own research was on the canarypox virus, which he used in developing a chick embryo assay for the isolation and ... He brought back a set of viruses from the National Institute to begin the basis of research in Melbourne. When Burnet returned ... Following his productive work in London, the Rockefeller Institute agreed to fund a new virus research laboratory in Melbourne ... He examined the genetic control of virulence and demonstrated that the virus recombined at high frequency; this observation was ...
Another study to test whether the ALVAC recombinant canarypox virus could prime the immune system in cats was performed. This ... The specific virus that they get is H5N1, which is a subtype of avian influenza. In order to get the virus, cats need to be in ... Two of the main organs that the virus affects are the lungs and liver. The H5N1 virus has been found in China, Thailand, ... Because the virus infects the lungs of cats, it is one of the preferred model animals to study the effects of H5N1 in humans. ...
They were then boosted with a recombinant canarypox virus encoding all four antigens (ALVAC-4). Immunized monkeys developed ... They altered the DNA of cowpox virus by inserting a gene from other viruses (namely Herpes simplex virus, hepatitis B and ... The Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus have been used to build recombinant alphavirus replicons. Unlike conventional DNA ... A veterinary DNA vaccine to protect horses from West Nile virus has been approved. Another West Nile virus vaccine has been ...
... canarypox virus MeSH B04.280.650.160.100.300 - fowlpox virus MeSH B04.280.650.160.150 - capripoxvirus MeSH B04.280.650.160. ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.820.250.400 - gb virus a MeSH B04.820.250.405 - gb virus b MeSH B04.820.250.410 - GB virus C MeSH ... canarypox virus MeSH B04.909.204.783.160.100.300 - fowlpox virus MeSH B04.909.204.783.160.150 - capripoxvirus MeSH B04.909. ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.909.777.310.400 - gb virus a MeSH B04.909.777.310.405 - gb virus b MeSH B04.909.777.310.410 - GB ...
... that uses genetic elements of several different HIV strains encapsulated in a canarypox virus vector. AIDSVAX B/E, moreover, ... effectively disabling the virus so that it could not bind to or invade susceptible cells. Then, another group, infected with a ... from a strain of the virus, MN, known at the time to infect people in the United States and Europe. The vaccine was designed to ...
... feline rhinotracheitis virus QI06AD06 Feline parapox virus QI06AD07 Feline leukaemia recombinant live canarypox virus QI06AD08 ... QI06AA01 Feline leukaemia virus QI06AA02 Feline panleukopenia virus/parvovirus QI06AA03 Rabies virus + feline rhinotracheitis ... live feline panleucopenia virus / parvovirus + live chlamydia + feline leukaemia recombinant live canarypox virus Empty group ... recombinant live canarypox virus QI06AE01 Chlamydia QI06AE02 Bordetella QI06AF01 Feline panleucopenia virus/parvovirus + feline ...
L03AX18 Cridanimod L03AX19 Dasiprotimut-T L03AX21 Elapegademase QL03AX90 Feline interleukin-2 recombinant canarypox virus ( ...
Juncopox virus, Mynahpox virus, Psittacinepox virus, Sparrowpox virus, Starlingpox virus, Pigeonpox virus, Canarypox virus and ... but most of our knowledge comes from the study of fowlpox virus and canarypox virus as they are the only species with full ... Turkeypox virus is a virus of the family Poxviridae and the genus Avipoxvirus that causes turkeypox. It is one of the most ... Turkeypox virus, like other Avipoxviruses, is an enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus with a large, linear genome of ...
... endor2 Camvirus joe Camvirus saftant Camvirus sitrop Canarypox virus Candida albicans Tca2 virus Candida albicans Tca5 virus ... virus A Potato virus H Potato virus M Potato virus P Potato virus S Potato virus T Potato virus V Potato virus X Potato virus Y ... Garlic mite-borne filamentous virus Garlic virus A Garlic virus B Garlic virus C Garlic virus D Garlic virus E Garlic virus X ... A Grapevine virus B Grapevine virus D Grapevine virus E Grapevine virus F Grapevine virus G Grapevine virus H Grapevine virus I ...
... may refer to: Poxviridae Buffalopox, a disease of buffaloes Camelpox, a disease of camels Canarypox, a disease of wild and ... caused by either of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor Hemorrhagic smallpox, Blackpox a severe manifestation ... Quokkapox a disease caused by the Quokkapox virus, also called marsupialpox. Rabbitpox, an iatrogenic infectious disease of ... captive birds Chickenpox, a highly contagious illness caused by a primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) Cowpox, a ...
African horse sickness virus, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, herpes simplex virus, hepatitis C virus, bluetongue virus, ... A prime-dose regimen with canarypox ALVAC-HIV (vCP1521) vaccine and HIV-1 gp120 AIDSVAX B/E was found to be safe, well ... canine distemper virus, feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, equine influenza virus, equine herpes virus, ... Vaccines against several pathogens including avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, cytomegalovirus, ...
February 2007). "Evaluation of the ability of canarypox-vectored equine influenza virus vaccines to induce humoral immune ... The virus rapidly changes due to antigenic drift, a slight mutation in the virus that causes a new strain to arise. The ... Because of the lack of previous exposure to this virus, dogs have no natural immunity to this virus. However, a vaccine was ... May 2007). "Influenza virus-like particles elicit broader immune responses than whole virion inactivated influenza virus or ...
Canarypox virus Flamingopox virus Fowlpox virus Juncopox virus Mynahpox virus Penguinpox virus Pigeonpox virus Psittacinepox ... virus Quailpox virus Sparrowpox virus Starlingpox virus Turkeypox virus Viruses in Avipoxvirus are enveloped. Genomes are ... Vaccines have been developed from some species of the virus, such as Fowlpox, Canarypox, Pigeonpox, and Quailpox to help ... When the mosquito moves to a susceptible host and feeds, the new host is infected with the virus. The virus can also be ...
Empty group QI01KA01 Pacheco's virus/herpesvirus Empty group Empty group QI01KD01 Canary pox virus QI01KD02 Pacheco's virus/ ... disease virus + newcastle disease virus/paramyxovirus QI01AD12 Avian pox virus QI01AD13 Avian leucosis virus QI01AD14 Avian ... disease virus + newcastle disease virus/paramyxovirus + avian rhinotracheitis virus QI01AA07 Avian infectious bronchitis virus ... avian herpes virus (Marek's disease) QI01AD16 Avian herpes virus (Marek's disease) + avian infectious bursal disease virus ( ...
This allows the virus to theoretically carry 22 to 40 genes. Although this is significantly larger than other viruses in its ... such as Cytomegalovirus and Canarypox. By comparison, a Science article reported that China had approved CanSino's Ebola ... Once the virus has successfully gained entry into the host cell, the endosome acidifies, which alters virus topology by causing ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021. ...
Because of the virus's ability to rapidly respond to selective pressures imposed by the immune system, the population of virus ... The canarypox vector is the first candidate HIV vaccine that has induced cross-clade functional CTL responses. The first phase ... Because this amino acid is foreign to the human body, the virus cannot reproduce. Viruses portal Cabotegravir COVID-19 vaccine ... Some vaccines based on the virus envelope have protected chimpanzees or macaques from homologous virus challenge, but in ...
Canarypox virus. *Fowlpox virus. *Juncopox virus. *Mynahpox virus. *Pigeonpox virus. *Psittacinepox virus ... Swinepox virus is the sole member of the Suipoxvirus genus. Swine are the only known host for this virus. ... Other notable members include vaccinia virus which is used in the current smallpox vaccine; cowpox virus, first introduced by ... Myxoma virus was used in Australia in the 1950s as a pest control to try and eradicate feral European rabbits. Transmission of ...
Juncopox virus, Mynahpox virus, Psittacinepox virus, Sparrowpox virus, Starlingpox virus, Pigeonpox virus, Turkeypox virus and ... Canarypox virus (CNPV) is a member of the Poxviridae family. Canarypox viruses, as with other bird pox viruses, are in the ... Canarypox virus (CNPV) is an Avipoxvirus and etiologic agent of canarypox, a disease of wild and captive birds that can cause ... leukaemia virus, HIV and cancers; such as melanoma and colorectal cancers. A strain of canarypox virus modified to carry feline ...
... camelpox virus, AY009089.1; canarypox virus, NC005309.1; Cotia virus, KM595078.1; cowpox virus, DQ437593.1; deerpox virus, ... vaccinia virus, M35027.1; variola major virus, L22579.1; Yaba monkey tumor virus, NC005179.1; Yaba-like disease virus, ... goatpox virus, MH381810.1; lumpy skin disease virus, NC003027.1; monkeypox virus, DQ011157.1; myxoma virus, NC001132.2; rabbit ... fibroma virus, NC001266.1; sheeppox virus, NC004002.1; swinepox virus, NC003389.1; taterapox virus, NC008291.1; ...
The three strains are fowl pox virus, pigeon pox virus and canary pox virus. The strains vary in their virulence and have the ... pox virus circulating in the blood) present or on virus-laden secretions from a pox lesion and then feeds on an uninfected bird ... or clothing are contaminated with virus-containing scabs shed from the lesions of an infected bird. The pox virus is highly ... The strain seen in wild turkeys is the fowl pox virus.. Avian pox lesions (wart-like growths) occur on the unfeathered parts of ...
Belshe RB, Gorse GJ, Mulligan MJ et al.: Induction of immune responses to HIV-1 by canarypox virus (ALVAC) HIV-1 and gp120 SF-2 ... Belshe RB, Gorse GJ, Mulligan MJ et al.: Induction of immune responses to HIV-1 by canarypox virus (ALVAC) HIV-1 and gp120 SF-2 ... Belshe RB, Stevens C, Gorse GJ et al.: Safety and immunogenicity of a canarypox-vectored human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ... Belshe RB, Stevens C, Gorse GJ et al.: Safety and immunogenicity of a canarypox-vectored human immunodeficiency virus type 1 ...
... according to the West Nile virus disease cases and deaths reported to the CDC by year and clinical presentation, 1999-2012, by ... the establishment and recent spread of lineage II WNV virus strains into Western Europe and the presence of neurovirulent and ... The West Nile virus (WNC) first appeared in North America in 1999. The North American lineages of WNV were characterized by the ... Recombinant canarypoxvirus vaccine carrying the prm/e genes of West Nile virus protects horses against a West Nile virus- ...
... genetically engineered vaccines using canary pox virus which expresses proteins from rabies or FeLV were developed which nearly ... Its even possible (but really really rare) to be infected from inhaling the aerosolized virus. In other words, if youre out ... Sarcomas were also an issue before the unadjuvanted, canarypox-vectored rabies vaccine, as I recall. ... any killed virus adjuvated vaccine really) can sometimes cause firbrosarcomas in cats. Over the last 20 years as the evidence ...
... genetically engineered vaccines using canary pox virus which expresses proteins from rabies or FeLV were developed which nearly ... Its even possible (but really really rare) to be infected from inhaling the aerosolized virus. In other words, if youre out ... Sarcomas were also an issue before the unadjuvanted, canarypox-vectored rabies vaccine, as I recall. ... any killed virus adjuvated vaccine really) can sometimes cause firbrosarcomas in cats. Over the last 20 years as the evidence ...
... fowlpox virus (FWPV) FP9, canarypox virus (CNPV), and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)) and a birnavirus (infectious bursal ... Fowlpox virus is the type species of an extensive and poorly-defined group of viruses isolated from more than 200 species of ... However, these viruses typically replicate within discrete cytoplasmic virus factories (VFs) that may represent a barrier to ... During co-infection with PBG98-VP1-GFP11 and PBG98-VP1-TC viruses, discrete VFs initially formed from each input virus that ...
Characterization of canary pox-like viruses infecting endemic birds in the Galapagos Islands. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 41(2 ...
Recombinant canarypox vaccine-elicited CTL specific for dominant and subdominant simian immunodeficiency virus epitopes in ... In this study, the ability of a recombinant canarypox virus expressing SIV Gag-Pol-Env (ALVAC/ SIV gag-pol-env) was assessed ... Recombinant canarypox vaccine-elicited CTL specific for dominant and subdominant simian immunodeficiency virus epitopes in ... Since virus-specific CTL play a central role in containing HIV replication, a candidate AIDS vaccine should generate virus- ...
... is a lyophilized vaccine of a recombinant canarypox vector expressing the HA and F glycoproteins of canine distemper virus. ... Live Canarypox Vector. PUREVAX Ferret Distemper Indications. This product has been shown to be effective for the vaccination of ... healthy ferrets 8 weeks of age and older against canine distemper virus. The duration of immunity has not been determined. For ...
Avian Pox Viruses (e.g. pigeon pox, magpie pox, canary pox); *Bacterial infections and abscesses ... Amazon tracheitis virus (a herpesvirus of Amazon parrots that is often associated with respiratory disease signs) ...
Phase I clinical trial of a recombinant canarypoxvirus (ALVAC) vaccine expressing human carcinoembryonic antigen and the B7.1 ... fowlpox virus with same antigens) as well as GM-CSF in ten advanced PC patients. They noted an antibody response in all 10 ...
It helps protect against Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), a contagious virus that infects the lungs and breathing passages. ... RSV Vaccine is important to help reduce serious complications caused by the virus. For infants and those at an increased risk, ... recombinant canarypox virus (ALVAC) vector and a formalin inactivated RSV virus-like particle (VLPTM-E48E) antigen. The vaccine ... The RSV Vaccine is used as a preventative measure against the Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). This family of viruses is one ...
Canarypox. ... viruses, as with other bird pox viruses, are in the genera of Avipoxvirus. Nine other species are also in the ... These include: Fowlpox virus, Juncopox virus, Mynahpox virus, Psittacinepox virus, Sparrowpox virus, Starlingpox ... ... Avipoxviruses Bird Pox Virus Bird Pox Viruses Pox Virus, Bird Pox Viruses, Bird Poxvirus avium Virus ... Avipoxvirus. Entry ... Viruses - LABOKLIN Europe. Avipoxvirus. * Blue Tongue Virus (BTV). * Borna Disease Virus. * Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus ...
haemagglutinin gene from equine influenza virus A2/Kentucky/94 or equine influenza virus A2/Newmarket/2/93 ... for the study of the safety of a sucutaneous administration of a recombinant canarypoxvirus expressing FELV genes. Merial cats ... Recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) containing the cDNA of the human SMN (Survival Motor Neuron) gene ... Global study of a recombinant adeno-associated virus designed to address the monogenic root cause of Spinal Muscular Atrophy ...
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE), modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), bacillus Calmette-Geurin (BCG), herpesvirus ... Other possible viral vectors under investigation by various vaccine manufacturers include canarypox, vaccinia, salmonella, ... In this experiment the monkeys became infected with HIV but somehow were able to keep the virus in check. While the monkeys, to ... A common component to many gene therapy and vaccine research programs, the adenovirus is a virus capable of causing the common ...
Recombinant canarypox virus. (vaccination of cats). Merial 15/03/2010: Opinion on the dossier and the Day 70 Assessment Report ... Recombinant canarypox virus. (therapeutic vaccination of cats). Merial 07/02/2012: Opinion on the dossier and the Day 70 ... Recombinant canarypox virus. (vaccination of horses). Merial 26/08/2010: Opinion on the dossier and the Day 70 Assessment ... Vaccination of chickens against Newcastle disease virus, Infectious Bursal Disease virus and Mareks disease virus​ ...
These viruses have higher genome size than the fowlpox virus genome and show more genetic similarity to canarypox virus than ... The nucleotide sequence of canarypox virus genome has been determined. Canarypox virus infection is usually severe, and ... Genomic profiles of canarypox, mynahpox, and quailpox viruses show marked differences from fowlpox virus when their DNA is ... Several canarypox virus vectored vaccines expressing genes of mammalian pathogens are available commercially. ...
... recombinant Canarypox virus (vCP2242) ≥ 5.3 log10 FAID50;. Influenza A/equi-2/Newmarket/2/93 [H3N8] recombinant Canarypox virus ...
... to modify a gene in a canarypox virus. And your forward looking vet will just inject this live virus all around your cats ... I simply cannot imagine injecting live viruses into a live being is ever going to have a good outcome. Does this ever happen in ...
the recombinant canarypox virus vCP2017 strain, that expresses the WNV prM/prE genes (Recombitek equine WNV vaccine, Merial) • ... West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus belonging to the genus Flavivirus in the Flaviviridae family. The viral genome ... Serologically, West Nile virus is a member of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex, which includes antigenic related viruses ... Not all infected hosts transmit the virus, but only those in which the virus replicates efficiently enough to reach viremias ...
3. A canarypox virus carrying the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene is in Phase II trials against colorectal cancer. 4. In ...
One of them appears predominant in Iberia and North Africa and shares 70% similarity to fowlpox and canarypox virus. This APV ... West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne emerging virus in Europe with capacity to cause neurological complications such as ... West Nile virus (WNV) and avian malaria parasites of the genus Plasmodium are mosquito-borne pathogens that may produce severe ... Ecological Effects on the Dynamics of West Nile Virus and Avian Plasmodium: The Importance of Mosquito Communities and ...
The first was a recombinant vaccine using a canarypox virus, with inserted genes that code for antigenic proteins from HIV. The ... Thus, certain combat master speedhack download were investigated, including: a isolation of the rabies virus from to b ...
... a recombinant product is now available that uses a portion of rabies viral DNA cloned into a harmless canarypox virus. This ... The time it takes for the virus to reach the brain depends on the amount of virus in addition to how close the wound is to the ... The virus in the infected animals saliva enters the victims tissues during the bite. The virus attaches to the local muscle ... Exposed humans should wash the bite with water as it may wash out some virus particles; the time it takes for the virus to ...
In contrast, immunization with ALVAC-HIV vCP1452 (an attenuated canarypox virus loaded with consensus sequences of HIV genes) ... At the end of STI, standard genotypes demonstrated near-complete reversion to wild-type virus in a minority of patients. Virus ... William Schaffner, MD, medical director of the NFID, provides an expert recap of the 2022-2023 respiratory virus season for ... As COVID-19 hospitalizations increase at the opening of the respiratory virus season, the first seasonal vaccine against the ...
Canarypox virus B4.909.204.783.160.100.149 Candicidin D2.540.505.125 D2.540.576.500.968 Candy G7.203.300.140 Capripoxvirus ... GB virus A B4.909.777.310.400 GB virus B B4.909.777.310.475.405 GB virus C B4.909.777.310.410 Gemella B3.353.500.310 Gene ... Hepatitis A virus B4.909.777.618.400.410 Hepatitis A Virus, Human B4.909.777.618.400.410.500 Hepatitis B virus B4.909.204.340. ... Influenza A virus B4.909.777.545.405.400 Influenza A Virus, H10N7 Subtype B4.909.777.545.405.400.920 Influenza A Virus, H10N8 ...
  • PureVax ® Ferret Distemper is a lyophilized vaccine of a recombinant canarypox vector expressing the HA and F glycoproteins of canine distemper virus. (drugs.com)
  • The RSV Vaccine is used as a preventative measure against the Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV). (mountainside-medical.com)
  • Studies show that by introducing the RSV Vaccine in contexts such as Day Care Centres, community health centers, and homes for the elderly the risk of the virus being spread is dramatically lowered. (mountainside-medical.com)
  • Immunization with the RSV Vaccine boosts the immune system's effectiveness at fighting off the virus and obtaining herd immunity from the virus. (mountainside-medical.com)
  • The Abrysvo RSV Vaccine (Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine) 0.5 mL Kit is a medical breakthrough, which can help protect individuals from multiple illnesses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. (mountainside-medical.com)
  • It is an injectable vaccine of 0.5 mL dosage, based on a validated (inactivated) recombinant canarypox virus (ALVAC) vector and a formalin inactivated RSV virus-like particle (VLPTM-E48E) antigen. (mountainside-medical.com)
  • ABRYSVO is a vaccine indicated for active immunization for the prevention of lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in individuals 60 years of age and older. (mountainside-medical.com)
  • A canarypox vaccine expressing multiple human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genes given alone or with rgp120 elicits broad and durable CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in seronegative volunteers. (lookformedical.com)
  • If, for example, the use of the vaccine results in lower blood levels of HIV, this may translate into a greatly reduced likelihood of transmitting the virus. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • A common component to many gene therapy and vaccine research programs, the adenovirus is a virus capable of causing the common cold. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • Recombinant Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine candidates based on a highly attenuated vaccinia virus (NYVAC-JEV) and a canarypox virus (ALVAC-JEV) were evaluated for their ability to induce specific antibodies and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in mice. (umassmed.edu)
  • Immunization with either of these vaccine candidates also induced JE virus-specific T lymphocytes that proliferated in response to stimulation with infectious virus and/or noninfectious viral antigens. (umassmed.edu)
  • Is there a vaccine available to protect humans from West Nile virus? (izs.it)
  • Previously, we reported on the immunogenicity of a plant-produced AHS serotype 5 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine, which stimulated high titres of AHS serotype 5-specific neutralizing antibodies in guinea pigs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The development of a safe and effective vaccine against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is critical to pandemic control. (emmes.com)
  • In a community-based, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy trial, we evaluated four priming injections of a recombinant canarypox vector vaccine (ALVAC-HIV [vCP1521]) plus two booster injections of a recombinant glycoprotein 120 subunit vaccine (AIDSVAX B/E). The vaccine and placebo injections were administered to 16,402 healthy men and women between the ages of 18 and 30 years in Rayong and Chon Buri provinces in Thailand. (emmes.com)
  • The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recovery program has safely used a recombinant DNA (rDNA) canarypox-vectored CDV vaccine, Purevax ® Ferret Distemper (PFD), to vaccinate black-footed ferrets. (bioone.org)
  • Researchers then added priming injections of a recombinant canarypox vector vaccine (ALVAC) in hopes that the combination would do better. (medpagetoday.com)
  • JE viruses isolated from human cases in Japan in 1935 and in Beijing in 1949 provided the prototype Nakayama, Beijing and P3 strains respectively that are in principal use in vaccine production. (cdc.gov)
  • The vaccinia virus is commonly used as a prototype and can be consulted for further information. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outbreak of severe zoonotic vaccinia virus infection, Southeastern Brazil. (cdc.gov)
  • Using rFWPV containing lacZ under the control of a vaccinia virus (VV) early/late promoter (p7.5K) and a 10 plaque-forming units per cell multiplicity of infection, >80% of cells expressed the lacZ marker gene. (lookformedical.com)
  • Cells induced to proliferate after stimulation with live virus contained specific CD8+ CTLs that lysed primary Balb/c mouse kidney cells infected with JE virus and P815 mastocytoma cells infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the premembrane (prM), E, and NS1 proteins. (umassmed.edu)
  • We performed experimental evolution with vaccinia virus populations harboring a SNV in a gene actively undergoing copy number amplification. (elifesciences.org)
  • The type species is FOWLPOX VIRUS. (lookformedical.com)
  • We mapped the canarypox virus (CaPV) thymidine kinase (TK) gene within a 5.8-kbp XbaI fragment of the genome by Southern blotting using the fowlpox virus (FPV) TK gene as a probe. (lookformedical.com)
  • Genomic profiles of canarypox, mynahpox, and quailpox viruses show marked differences from fowlpox virus when their DNA is compared by restriction fragment length polymorphism after restriction endonuclease digestion. (racingpigeonlaboratorytesting.com)
  • Quailpox virus shows marked antigenic differences from fowlpox virus and, although some cross-reacting antigens are present, provides limited or no cross-protection against fowlpox virus. (racingpigeonlaboratorytesting.com)
  • Avianpox viruses isolated from Hawaiian crows ( Corvus hawaiiansis ), Hawaiian geese ( Branta sandvicensis ), Palila ( Loxiodes bailleui ), and Apapane species ( Himatione sanguinea ) are different from each other and from fowlpox virus. (racingpigeonlaboratorytesting.com)
  • Similarly, a poxvirus isolated from an Andean condor ( Vultur gryphus ) at the San Diego Zoo is antigenically, genetically, and biologically different from fowlpox virus. (racingpigeonlaboratorytesting.com)
  • These viruses have higher genome size than the fowlpox virus genome and show more genetic similarity to canarypox virus than fowlpox virus. (racingpigeonlaboratorytesting.com)
  • Like fowlpox virus, these viruses appear to be suitable vectors for expression of foreign genes toward development of genetically modified virus vaccines for mammalian species. (racingpigeonlaboratorytesting.com)
  • The virus is transmitted among birds via the bite of infected mosquitoes and incidentally humans and other mammals may become infected. (izs.it)
  • Not all infected hosts transmit the virus, but only those in which the virus replicates efficiently enough to reach viremias sufficiently high to infect mosquitoes through blood feeding. (izs.it)
  • The mosquito-borne mode of JE transmission was elucidated with the isolation of JE virus from Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes in 1938 and in field studies that established the role of aquatic birds and pigs in the viral enzootic cycle. (cdc.gov)
  • Instead of the classical types of vaccines such as live and inactivated viruses, several novel immunogens including protein subunit and DNA vaccines as well as viral and bacterial vectors are currently being examined. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • Induction of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells is considered one of the important correlates for the protective efficacy of candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines. (lookformedical.com)
  • Traditionally, vaccines have worked by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies to the virus in question. (treatmentactiongroup.org)
  • Several canarypox virus vectored vaccines expressing genes of mammalian pathogens are available commercially. (racingpigeonlaboratorytesting.com)
  • These results demonstrate that both recombinant JE vaccines, NYVAC-JEV and ALVAC-JEV, induce JE virus-specific antibody and CTLs in mice. (umassmed.edu)
  • Poxvirus host range genes and virus-host spectrum: a critical review. (cdc.gov)
  • DNA viruses such as herpesvirus and poxvirus have multiple genes, some of them host-derived, which interfere with effective innate or acquired immune responses. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Identification of the canarypox virus thymidine kinase gene and insertion of foreign genes. (lookformedical.com)
  • We then inserted the genes encoding lacZ, luciferase (luci), and envelope of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 env) into the TK gene of CaPV to evaluate its suitability as an expression vector. (lookformedical.com)
  • The recombinant viruses obtained were unstable, although the foreign genes were expressed efficiently in the mammalian cells infected with the viruses. (lookformedical.com)
  • To induce CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) along with neutralizing antibody and CD4+ T cell help, a live canarypox virus construct expressing gp120, transmembrane gp41, the gag and protease genes, and sequences containing CTL epitopes in nef and pol was given simultaneously with, or followed by, rgp120 SF2. (lookformedical.com)
  • Experiment outside containment (clinical trial) for the study of the safety of a sucutaneous administration of a recombinant canarypoxvirus expressing FELV genes. (biosafety.be)
  • Canarypox virus (CNPV) is an Avipoxvirus and etiologic agent of canarypox, a disease of wild and captive birds that can cause significant losses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Canarypox viruses, as with other bird pox viruses, are in the genera of Avipoxvirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avipoxvirus (canarypox, fowlpox. (cdc.gov)
  • In order to better understand differences in the outcome of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection, we inoculated a very virulent (vv) strain into White Leghorn chickens of inbred line W that was previously reported to experience over 24% flock mortality, and three inbred lines (15I, C.B4 and 0) that were previously reported to display no mortality. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Avianpox virus infection has been considered as a population-limiting factor in endangered Hawaiian forest birds. (racingpigeonlaboratorytesting.com)
  • and the retrograde axonal transport of the virus to the central nervous system via infection of olfactory or peripheral neurons ( Cho and Diamond, 2012 ). (izs.it)
  • West Nile virus (WNV) infection is a mosquito-borne zoonosis. (izs.it)
  • Monkeypox Virus in Nigeria: Infection Biology, Epidemiology, and Evolution. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • After human immunodeficiency virus infection, JE may be the leading cause of viral encephalitis worldwide. (cdc.gov)
  • A high prevalence of infections, such as candidiasis and varicella-zoster virus infection, must also be anticipated, and appropriate prevention and treatment strategies must be initiated. (medscape.com)
  • It offers an effective immunization for infants and young children, strengthening their natural defenses against ovecome the potentially dangerous virus and other consequences, since RSVchild's most common and troubling causes of lower respiratory flow involve in hospitalization in developing countries. (mountainside-medical.com)
  • Mice maintained detectable levels of neutralizing antibody and JE virus-specific memory T cells for at least 6 months after immunization with NYVAC-JEV and for 4 months after immunization with ALVAC-JEV. (umassmed.edu)
  • and monkeypox virus. (cdc.gov)
  • This is the largest outbreak caused by the West African clade of monkeypox virus (MPXV) after more than 30 years of no reported cases. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • The nucleotide sequence of canarypox virus genome has been determined. (racingpigeonlaboratorytesting.com)
  • In order to expand our understanding of how recombination might influence virus variation during the course of adaptation, we focused on large DNA viruses, in which rapidly evolving populations can simultaneously harbor both adaptive gene copy number variation and beneficial single nucleotide variants (SNVs) at the same locus. (elifesciences.org)
  • Immunosuppression can be caused by pathogens such as chicken infectious anemia virus, infectious bursal disease virus, reovirus, and some retroviruses (e.g., reticuloendotheliosis virus). (imperial.ac.uk)
  • The virus was identified by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequent gene sequencing. (pvb.com.br)
  • And your forward looking vet will just inject this live virus all around your cat's malignant tumor. (vitalanimal.com)
  • Merial's forward thinking scientists have used "recombinant technology" to modify a gene in a canarypox virus. (vitalanimal.com)
  • Canarypox virus (CNPV) is a member of the Poxviridae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological characterization and next-generation genome sequencing of the unclassified Cotia virus SPAn232 ( Poxviridae ). (cdc.gov)
  • Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE. (lookformedical.com)
  • Myxoma virus was used in Australia in the 1950s as a pest control to try and eradicate feral European rabbits. (cdc.gov)
  • This product has been shown to be effective for the vaccination of healthy ferrets 8 weeks of age and older against canine distemper virus. (drugs.com)
  • There is genomic similarity between the MPXV-Nigeria isolates from 1971, that of 1978, and the 2017 virus strains, but also at a greater genetic distance. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Genome of Alaskapox virus , a novel orthopoxvirus isolated from Alaska. (cdc.gov)
  • This study reveals a new mechanism for the fluid gain of beneficial mutations in genetic regions undergoing active recombination in viruses and illustrates the value of long read sequencing technologies for investigating complex genome dynamics in diverse biological systems. (elifesciences.org)
  • RNA viruses may escape acquired humoral and cellular immune responses by mutations in protective antigenic epitopes (e.g., avian influenza viruses), while accessory nonstructural proteins or multifunctional structural proteins interfere with the interferon system (e.g. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Serologically, West Nile virus is a member of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex, which includes antigenic related viruses as Murray valley encephalitis (MVE), St. Louis encephalitis (SLE), Kunjin (KUN), Usutu (USU), Koutango (KOU), Cacipacore (CPC), Alfuy (ALF) and Yaounde (YAO). (izs.it)
  • The most well known member of the genus is variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. (cdc.gov)
  • Avian pox viruses also cause significant economic losses in domestic poultry and remain a problem in the conservation of endemic bird species inhabiting islands. (wikipedia.org)
  • In China, few specific data are available, but the virus was isolated from a human case in 1940 and the inference of long standing endemic transmission in eastern China is supported by early seroprevalence studies yielding rates exceeding 85% (10). (cdc.gov)
  • In the absence of genetic information on most of these viruses, classification has usually been based on host pathogenicity or cross-protection studies. (racingpigeonlaboratorytesting.com)
  • Cats are susceptible to feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). (pvb.com.br)
  • The three strains are fowl pox virus, pigeon pox virus and canary pox virus. (michigan.gov)
  • In addition, the establishment and recent spread of lineage II WNV virus strains into Western Europe and the presence of neurovirulent and neuroinvasive strains among them is a cause of major concern. (mdpi.com)
  • These transmit the virus from infected birds to non-infected birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within each experimental group, some individuals experienced more severe disease than others but line 15I birds experienced milder disease based on average clinical scores, percentage of birds with gross pathology, average bursal lesion scores and average peak bursal virus titre. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • The viruses in this genus are listed by the World Organizations for Animal Health (OIE: Office International des Epizooties) as important animal diseases that require notification. (cdc.gov)
  • Swinepox virus is the sole member of the Suipoxvirus genus. (cdc.gov)
  • West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne virus belonging to the genus Flavivirus in the Flaviviridae family. (izs.it)
  • And the virus spread by travelers from Nigeria to the rest of the world in 2018 and 2019, respectively. (creative-biolabs.com)
  • Generally CNPV is considered a disease of songbirds, such as canaries, magpies and nightingales, and is associated with higher mortality rates when compared to other avian pox viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the disease progresses blisters get progressively larger and form nodules where the virus can multiply. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yaba-like disease virus, NC002642.1. (cdc.gov)
  • The 2012 WNV season in the United States saw a massive spike in the number of neuroinvasive cases and deaths similar to what was seen in the 2002-2003 season, according to the West Nile virus disease cases and deaths reported to the CDC by year and clinical presentation, 1999-2012, by ArboNET (Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). (mdpi.com)
  • Newcastle disease virus). (imperial.ac.uk)
  • VSV-GP128 is a recombinant live-attenuated Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), modified to minimize the potential of neurotoxicity for humans and skin disease in animals, and engineered to contain cancer antigens, which help it induce an immune response against colorectal tumour cells. (biosafety.be)
  • the mechanism of virus persistence in animal hosts in Europe leading to endemization of the disease is still unknown. (izs.it)
  • The treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease depends on the stage of the disease and any concomitant opportunistic infections. (medscape.com)
  • Transmission of leporipoxviruses is primarily through the mosquito although other biting insects such as fleas may also transmit virus. (cdc.gov)
  • The general symptoms of CNPV are similar to those of other species of avian pox viruses and are characterised by pustules and diphtheria or pneumonia-like symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the slaughterhouse, 30 carcasses were removed from the slaughter line to collect tissue from cutaneous lesions for histological analyses and characterization of the virus. (pvb.com.br)
  • The virus is also susceptible to disinfectants such as 3 to 8% formaldehyde, 2% glutaraldehyde, 2 to 3% hydrogen peroxide, 500 to 5,000 ppm available chlorine, alcohol, 1% iodine, and phenol iodophors. (izs.it)
  • There is no test for rabies in a living animal but since we know that death follows quickly after the virus becomes contagious, a living animal can be confined for 10 days. (vin.com)
  • The West Nile virus (WNC) first appeared in North America in 1999. (mdpi.com)
  • Black-footed ferrets ( Mustela nigripes ) are an endangered species in North America that are highly sensitive to canine distemper virus (CDV) infections and any exposure could be devastating to species recovery. (bioone.org)
  • These CTLs also lysed P815 cells infected with vaccinia recombinants expressing prM and E, and those expressing E and NS1, but did not lyse P815 cells infected with a recombinant virus expressing only NS1, indicating that the CTLs mainly recognized E, but did not recognize NS1. (umassmed.edu)