Canarypox virus: A species of AVIPOXVIRUS, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE. Canarypox virus vectors are used in vaccine and immunotherapy research.Avipoxvirus: A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, comprising bird poxviruses. The type species is FOWLPOX VIRUS. Transmission is mechanical by ARTHROPODS.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Injections, Intralesional: Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Therapeutic Equivalency: The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.EuropeUnited States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Tauopathies: Neurodegenerative disorders involving deposition of abnormal tau protein isoforms (TAU PROTEINS) in neurons and glial cells in the brain. Pathological aggregations of tau proteins are associated with mutation of the tau gene on chromosome 17 in patients with ALZHEIMER DISEASE; DEMENTIA; PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS; progressive supranuclear palsy (SUPRANUCLEAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE); and corticobasal degeneration.tau Proteins: Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Neurofibrillary Tangles: Abnormal structures located in various parts of the brain and composed of dense arrays of paired helical filaments (neurofilaments and microtubules). These double helical stacks of transverse subunits are twisted into left-handed ribbon-like filaments that likely incorporate the following proteins: (1) the intermediate filaments: medium- and high-molecular-weight neurofilaments; (2) the microtubule-associated proteins map-2 and tau; (3) actin; and (4) UBIQUITINS. As one of the hallmarks of ALZHEIMER DISEASE, the neurofibrillary tangles eventually occupy the whole of the cytoplasm in certain classes of cell in the neocortex, hippocampus, brain stem, and diencephalon. The number of these tangles, as seen in post mortem histology, correlates with the degree of dementia during life. Some studies suggest that tangle antigens leak into the systemic circulation both in the course of normal aging and in cases of Alzheimer disease.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Pick Disease of the Brain: A rare form of DEMENTIA that is sometimes familial. Clinical features include APHASIA; APRAXIA; CONFUSION; ANOMIA; memory loss; and personality deterioration. This pattern is consistent with the pathologic findings of circumscribed atrophy of the poles of the FRONTAL LOBE and TEMPORAL LOBE. Neuronal loss is maximal in the HIPPOCAMPUS, entorhinal cortex, and AMYGDALA. Some ballooned cortical neurons contain argentophylic (Pick) bodies. (From Brain Pathol 1998 Apr;8(2):339-54; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1057-9)Supranuclear Palsy, Progressive: A degenerative disease of the central nervous system characterized by balance difficulties; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS (supranuclear ophthalmoplegia); DYSARTHRIA; swallowing difficulties; and axial DYSTONIA. Onset is usually in the fifth decade and disease progression occurs over several years. Pathologic findings include neurofibrillary degeneration and neuronal loss in the dorsal MESENCEPHALON; SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS; RED NUCLEUS; pallidum; dentate nucleus; and vestibular nuclei. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1076-7)Chromomycin A3: Glycosidic antibiotic from Streptomyces griseus used as a fluorescent stain of DNA and as an antineoplastic agent.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Oxidoreductases, N-DemethylatingInformation Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.

Purification of Ag-specific T lymphocytes after direct peripheral blood mononuclear cell stimulation followed by CD25 selection. I. Application to CD4(+) or CD8(+) cytomegalovirus phosphoprotein pp65 epitope determination. (1/35)

The two main constraints that currently limit a broader usage of T cell therapy against viruses are the delay required to obtain specific T cells and the safety of the selection procedure. In the present work we developed a generally applicable strategy that eliminates the need for APC for timing reasons, and the need for infectious viral strains for safety concerns. As a model, we used the selection of T lymphocytes specific for the immunodominant CMV phosphoprotein pp65. PBMC from healthy seropositive donors were first depleted of IL-2R alpha-chain CD25(+) cells and were then stimulated for 24-96 h with previously defined peptide Ags or with autologous PBMC infected with a canarypox viral vector encoding the total pp65 protein (ALVAC-pp65). Subsequent immunomagnetic purification of newly CD25-expressing cells allowed efficient recovery of T lymphocytes specific for the initial stimuli, i.e., for the already known immunodominant epitope corresponding to the peptides used as a model or for newly defined epitopes corresponding to peptides encoded by the transfected pp65 protein. Importantly, we demonstrated that direct PBMC stimulation allowed recovery not only of CD8(+) memory T lymphocytes, but also of the CD4(+) memory T cells, which are known to be crucial to ensure persistence of adoptively transferred immune memory. Finally, our analysis of pp65-specific T cells led to the identification of several new helper and cytotoxic epitopes. This work thus demonstrates the feasibility of isolating memory T lymphocytes specific for a clinically relevant protein without the need to prepare APC, to use infectious viral strains, or to identify immunodominant epitopes.  (+info)

Recombinant canarypox vaccine-elicited CTL specific for dominant and subdominant simian immunodeficiency virus epitopes in rhesus monkeys. (2/35)

Since virus-specific CTL play a central role in containing HIV replication, a candidate AIDS vaccine should generate virus-specific CTL responses. In this study, the ability of a recombinant canarypox virus expressing SIV Gag-Pol-Env (ALVAC/SIV gag-pol-env) was assessed for its ability to elicit both dominant and subdominant epitope-specific CTL responses in rhesus monkeys. Following a series of five immunizations, memory CTL responses specific for a dominant Gag epitope could be demonstrated in the peripheral blood of vaccinated monkeys. Memory CTL responses to a subdominant Pol epitope were undetectable in these animals. Following challenge with SIVmac251, the experimentally vaccinated animals developed high frequency CTL responses specific for the dominant Gag epitope that emerged in temporal association with the early containment of viral replication. Interestingly, the experimentally vaccinated, but not the control vaccinated animals, developed CTL responses to the subdominant Pol epitope that were detectable only after containment of early viremia. Thus, recombinant canarypox vaccination elicited low frequency, but durable memory CTL populations. The temporal association of the emergence of the dominant epitope-specific response with early viral containment following challenge suggests that this immune response played a role in the accelerated clearing of early viremia in these animals. The later emerging CTL response specific for the subdominant epitope may contribute to the control of viral replication in the setting of chronic infection.  (+info)

Expression of vaccinia E3L and K3L genes by a novel recombinant canarypox HIV vaccine vector enhances HIV-1 pseudovirion production and inhibits apoptosis in human cells. (3/35)

Poxviruses that are attenuated for growth in human cells provide a safe means of HIV antigen expression and are capable of eliciting HIV-specific immune responses, including CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. HIV-1 antigen expression in human cells by attenuated poxvirus vectors may be limited by interferon-mediated host defense mechanisms. To enhance HIV antigen expression in human cells, the vaccinia virus E3L and K3L genes were inserted into a canarypox vector that expresses HIV-1 Gag, Env, and a Nef/Pol polyepitope string. E3L and K3L markedly reduced the activation of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR, and led to a significant reduction in apoptosis in HeLa cells. Production and release of HIV-1 antigen in the form of pseudovirions was enhanced in both duration and magnitude by this vector modification. The addition of immunomodulatory genes to attenuated poxviruses represents a novel strategy for enhancing antigen production by live vector HIV vaccine candidates.  (+info)

Induction of p53-specific immune responses in colorectal cancer patients receiving a recombinant ALVAC-p53 candidate vaccine. (4/35)

PURPOSE: The tumor-associated auto-antigen p53 is commonly overexpressed in various types of human cancer, including colorectal cancer. Experiments in preclinical models have shown that it can serve as a target for T-cell-mediated tumor-eradication. The feasibility of a p53-specific therapeutic vaccination was investigated in cancer patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A Phase I/II dose-escalation study was performed that evaluated the effect of a recombinant canarypoxvirus (ALVAC) vaccine encoding wild-type human p53 in 15 patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Each group of five patients received three i.v. doses of one-tenth of a dose, one-third of a dose, or 1 dose of the vaccine [1 dose = 1 x 10(7.5) cell culture infectious dosis (CCID)50]. RESULTS: Potent T-cell and IgG antibody responses against the vector component of the ALVAC vaccine were induced in the majority of the patients. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent-spot assay (ELISPOT) analysis of vaccine-induced immunity revealed the presence of IFN-gamma-secreting T cells against both ALVAC and p53, whereas no significant interleukin-4 responses were detected. Vaccine-mediated enhancement of p53-specific T-cell immunity was found in two patients in the highest-vaccine-dose group. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the feasibility, even in patients with advanced cancer, to elicit immune responses against the ubiquitously expressed tumor-associated auto-antigen p53. Our results form the basis for additional studies that will explore the antitumor capacity of p53 containing multivalent vaccines in cancer patients with limited tumor burden.  (+info)

Preparation of clinical-grade recombinant canarypox-human immunodeficiency virus vaccine-loaded human dendritic cells. (5/35)

Preclinical data are reported that support a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine strategy using recombinant canarypox-HIV vectors (ALVAC-HIV) to load human dendritic cells (DCs) with HIV antigens. Clinical-grade DCs were infected with good manufacturing practice-grade ALVAC-HIV vaccine constructs. ALVAC infection, HIV gene expression, and DC viability and function were monitored by use of immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, blastogenesis assays, antigen-specific interferon (IFN)-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protein detection. The vaccines infected both immature and mature DCs, and intracellular HIV-1 Gag protein was detected within hours. ALVAC-HIV induced DC maturation that was mediated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and induced DC apoptosis that was directly related to the length of vaccine exposure. Of importance, the infected DCs remained functional in T cell stimulation assays and induced HIV antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell production of IFN-gamma from cells of HIV-1-infected individuals. These data support an ongoing HIV vaccine trial comparing conventional vaccine delivery routes with ex vivo vaccine-loaded autologous DCs for immunogenicity in HIV-1-uninfected volunteers.  (+info)

DNA immunization with hepatitis C virus (HCV) polycistronic genes or immunization by HCV DNA priming-recombinant canarypox virus boosting induces immune responses and protection from recombinant HCV-vaccinia virus infection in HLA-A2.1-transgenic mice. (6/35)

We studied immune responses to hepatitis C virus (HCV) genes delivered as DNA encoding the entire HCV protein coding genome in two polycistronic plasmids encoding HCV capsid-E1-E2-NS2-NS3 and HCV NS3-NS4-NS5 in HLA-A2.1-transgenic mice. Immune responses to HCV DNA prime and recombinant canarypox virus boost were also studied with the above constructs. At 8 weeks after a canarypox virus boost, the DNA prime/canarypox virus boosting regimen induced potent cellular immune responses to HCV structural and nonstructural proteins on target cells expressing the HLA-A2.1 allele. High frequencies of gamma interferon-secreting cells, as detected by enzyme-linked immunospot assay, were obtained in response to several endogenously expressed HCV proteins. We also observed cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte reactivity in response to endogenously expressed HCV proteins in fresh spleen cells without in vitro expansion. Upon challenge with a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing HCV proteins at 2 months postimmunization, the HCV DNA prime/canarypox virus-immunized mice showed a complete reduction in vaccinia virus titers compared to HCV DNA prime/boost- and mock-immunized controls. Immune responses were still detectable 4 months after canarypox virus boost in immunized mice. Interestingly, at 10 months postimmunization (8 months after canarypox virus boost), the protection in HCV DNA prime/boost-immunized mice against recombinant HCV-vaccinia virus challenge was higher than that observed in HCV DNA prime/canarypox virus boost-immunized mice.  (+info)

Induction of HLA-G-restricted human cytomegalovirus pp65 (UL83)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in HLA-G transgenic mice. (7/35)

The non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I molecule HLA-G is expressed mainly by extravillous trophoblasts at the materno-foetal interface. HLA-G has been found to bind endogenously processed nonameric peptides but its function as a restriction element for a cytotoxic T cell response to viruses with tropism for trophoblastic cells has never been demonstrated. In this study, candidate viral peptides derived from human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) pp65 (UL83), which stabilized the HLA-G molecule on HLA-G-transfected T2 cells, were identified. The specific anti-pp65 cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response restricted by HLA-G in triple transgenic mice (HLA-G, human beta2m, human CD8alpha) was then investigated by injection of dendritic cells loaded with synthetic pp65-derived peptides or by infection with canarypox virus expressing pp65. Results showed that CTLs from HLA-G mice have the capacity to kill target cells either infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing pp65 or loaded with specific pp65-derived peptides using HLA-G as an antigen-presenting molecule. It was also demonstrated that these HLA-G-restricted pp65-specific T cells are able to kill the human astrocytoma cell line U373, which was transfected with HLA-G and infected with HCMV. Moreover, using HLA-G tetramers refolded with a synthetic pp65-derived peptide, peptide-specific CD8(+) cells restricted by HLA-G have been detected in vivo. These findings provide the first evidence that HLA-G can select anti-HCMV-restricted CTLs in vivo, although the potency of this cytolytic response is limited (20-25 %). The weak HLA-G-restricted anti-HCMV response is probably due to HLA-G-mediated inhibitory signals on the development of an antiviral CTL response.  (+info)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity among uninfected HIV vaccine recipients. (8/35)

Since 1987, >10,000 individuals worldwide have received immunizations with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preventive vaccine constructs. Many constructs elicit antibodies detected by standard serologic tests (enzyme immunoassays, rapid tests, and Western blots) and result in vaccine recipients' serum being identified as reactive and indicative of HIV infection. To determine the frequency of vaccine-induced HIV antibody among uninfected HIV vaccine trial participants and to identify factors associated with these results, serum samples from HIV-uninfected participants from selected United States phase I/II HIV-1 vaccine trials were tested with 6 serologic screening tests. Reactive specimens were tested by use of Western blot. Overall, 490 serum specimens from 461 vaccine recipients were tested; 100 (20.4%) reacted on at least 1 serologic test, and 65 (13%) were determined to be positive by Western blot. Canarypox or vaccinia vaccine recipients' serum with or without HIV envelope glycoprotein (gp120 or gp160) boosts accounted for all positive Western blot results; no positive Western blot results were obtained from gp120 subunit recipients. The potential for vaccine recipients being misclassified as HIV infected increased with vaccine complexity.  (+info)

Phase Ib Trial of Intratumoral Injection of a Recombinant Canarypox Virus Encoding Human B7.1 (ALVAC-hB7.1) [ALVAC CEA] or a Combination of ALVAC-hB7.1 and a Recombinant Canarypox Virus Encoding Human Interleukin 12 (ALVAC-hIL-12) in Patients With Surgically Incurable Melanoma ...
In this thesis, two different vaccines were evaluated as adjuvant therapy for patients with colorectal cancer. The ability of the two candidate vaccines to generate antigen-specific cellular and humoral responses, respectively, was studied. The effectiveness of granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as a cytokine adjuvant to augment the immune response was also examined.. The first vaccination strategy involved immunization with the recombinant tumor-associated protein, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Recombinant CEA was administered at 4 different dose levels 7 times during one year. Peripheral blood samples were regularly analyzed during 36 months. This vaccination regimen induced a strong immunoglobulin 1 (IgG1) and IgG4 response, a moderate IgG2 response and a weak IgG3 response against CEA. GM-CSF markedly augmented the effect on IgG1 and IgG4 as well as the T cell response. In contrast, dose of rCEA had no or modest effect on induced immune responses. The response gradually ...
One of the earliest observations in the HIV epidemic was the demonstration of HIV infection at mucosal surfaces of cells in the genital tract. These data suggest that priming of immune defenses of viral infected cells may be an important component in the strategy of developing an effective HIV vaccine. Direct immunization of relevant mucosal surfaces with a vectored vaccine may stimulate mucosal immunity. The ALVAC-HIV vCP205 immunogen is constructed from a live recombinant canarypox vector that has a good safety profile in volunteers and should allow mucosal induction of immunity.. This randomized, double-blind trial evaluates the safety of and immune response to vaccination with ALVAC-HIV vCP205 given at 0, 1, 3, and 6 months. Patients are randomly assigned to 1 of 7 drug administration routes as follows:. Group A: Intramuscular Group B: Oral Group C: Intranasal Group D: Intrarectal Group E: Intravaginal Group F: Intranasal/intramuscular Group G: Intrarectal/intramuscular Twelve patients are ...
Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV can be caused either by perinatal transmission of HIV or by breastfeeding, a common practice in poorer regions of the world. HIV preventive vaccines are currently under investigation as potential solutions to worldwide MTCT of HIV. This study will evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an HIV-1 vaccine, ALVAC-HIV vCP1521, in infants born to HIV-1 infected mothers in Uganda. The vaccine is a preparation of a live attenuated recombinant canarypox virus, encoding HIV clades B and E envelope proteins. This study will be conducted at Mulago Hospital in Uganda.. Mothers will enroll in this study during their third trimesters of pregnancy. During screening, mothers will undergo medical history assessment, a physical exam, and blood collection. After delivery and prior to infant enrollment, mothers will have another physical exam; mothers and their infants will be accompanied home by a home visitor who will document contact information.. Infants will be ...
Viral vectors derived from different virus families, including poxvirus (canarypox virus vector ALVAC) and adenovirus (human Ad5 vector), have been widely used in vaccine development for a range of human diseases including HIV/AIDS. Less is known about the mechanisms underlying the host innate response to these vectors. Increasing evidence from clinical vaccine trials testing different viral vectors has suggested the importance of understanding basic elements of host-viral vector interactions. In this study, we investigated the innate interactions of APCs with two commonly used HIV vaccine vectors, ALVAC and Ad5, and identified AIM2 as an innate sensor for ALVAC, triggering strong inflammasome activation in both human and mouse APCs ...
موقعي كه زخم آبله در حنجره ايجاد مي شود، نفس كشيدن پرنده مشكل مي‌گردد. اغلب نفس نفس مي زند. اين حالت همزمان با ورود ويروس در خون ايجاد مي شود ولي اگر شدت ويروس و يا مقدار آن زياد باشد پرنده تلف مي‌گردد.. ترکیبات:. -ویال A (ویال جهت درمان موضعی):. Chloramphenicol…………… 4g. Excipient q.s. ………………100ml. -ویال B (ویال جهت درمان خوراکی):. Chloramphenicol…………….. 5,4g. Excipient q.s. ………………100ml. حیوانات هدف:. قناری، فنچ، طوطی، کبوتر و سایر پرندگان زینتی. میزان مصرف:. - تجویز در آب آشامیدنی ( ویال B) :. درمان می بایست در اولین زمان ممکن و از زمانی که احتمال بروز این بیماری وجود دارد، آغاز گردد.. میزان ...
Then the Thai government did an amazing thing: it acknowledged the importance of HIV, identified the source and instituted a prevention program, enforcing condom use in brothels. The impact was dramatic. Rates of infection declined precipitously and prevalence in sentinel populations fell. The epidemic was changing before a vaccine could be brought to the field. As incidence dropped, the trial had to become larger and compromises had to be introduced.. Initial plans called for optimizing both cellular and humoral HIV-specific responses using a "prime-boost" approach: a single prime (ALVAC-HIV, a CRF01-specific canarypox vaccine) was to be tested with three different boosts (subunit vaccines) in phase II trials from which the best regimen would be chosen for the Phase III trial. Shortly before the Phase II trials were complete, two of the manufacturers withdrew their products. The ALVAC-HIV + AIDSVAX B/E combination, the only regimen remaining, "passed" immunogenicity criteria for advancement to ...
Advanced ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate among patients with cancers of the female reproductive system in the United States. Existing therapies fo...
Sanofi Pasteur announced the results of a Phase 3 trial with its HIV prime vaccine, ALVAC HIV (recombinant canarypox vCP1521) in combination with the booster AidsVax B/E (recombinant gp120 vaccine, from VaxGen).
Recommended Readings. Dhodapkar MV; Sznol M; Wang D, et al. 2010. Early development of CDX-1401, a novel vaccine targeting NY-ESO-1 to the dendritic cel receptor DEC-205. Journal of Immunotherapy. 33(8):895-896 Request Article from Markus Library. Wanialla CN; Faul EJ; Gomme EA, et al. 2010. Dendritic cells infected by recombinant rabies virus vaccine vector expressing HIV-1 Gag are immunogenic even in the presence of vector-specific immunity. Vaccine. 29(1):130-140. Fiorentini S; Giagulli C; Caccuri F, et al. 2010. HIV-1 matrix protein p17: a candidate antigen for therapeutic vaccines against AIDS. Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 128(3):433-444 Request Article from Markus Library.. De Groot A; Buhlmann J; Weber C, et al. 2010. De-Tolerization of anti-DEC-205 for HIV vaccine delivery. (abstract only) AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 26(10):A135-A136. Ahlers, JD; and IM Belyakov. 2009. Strategies for optimizing targeting and delivery of mucosal HIV vaccines. European Journal of Immunology. ...
SnuggleScents Essentials is a collection of aromas that are great for calming nerves and soothing nasal passages. The Essentials is tailored for new
The inability of current HIV vaccine regimens to generate a broad neutralizing antibody response against primary isolates leaves a major gap in our vaccine armamentarium. There is broad consensus that generation of such antibodies at high titer in vaccinated individuals in combination with vectors that elicit strong cellular immune responses is desirable. Immunogens that recreate the native, trimeric envelope glycoprotein structure on a lipid membrane have the potential to avoid generating undesirable antibodies directed against epitopes on gp120 that are not exposed on native virions. Whether antibodies raised by such membrane-bound primary isolate Env complexes can elicit strong neutralizing antibody responses remains to be determined.. The primary goal of this study was to define the ability of Gag-Env pseudovirions to generate antibodies capable of neutralizing primary HIV-1 isolates. Pseudovirions represent one means of presenting the Env glycoprotein complex in its native form. One of the ...
A chemiluminescence study showed that hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) DNA amplicons are capable of induced radiation when exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) that range from...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Download the PDF version here. WHO WE ARE AND WHAT WE BELIEVE IN. We, 60 activists, advocates, and representatives from youth-led, youth-serving, and youth-allied organisations from diverse social movements in Asia and the Pacific region, came together in Bangkok to call for sustainable solutions to eradicate poverty and promote prosperity in the region through an intersectional analysis and participatory approach. A multidimensional perspective on poverty necessitates addressing not only economic concerns, but also environmental sustainability, as well as social dimensions-such as youth leadership and empowerment, gender equality, health, education, freedom from violence, right to information and technology, and human rights, including of young people and women who are poor, people of diverse sexual orientation and gender identities and expressions, people with all forms of disability, people living with and affected by HIV, ethnic minorities and indigenous peoples, people living in remote, ...
QI01KA01 Pacheco's virus/herpesvirus Empty group Empty group QI01KD01 Canary pox virus QI01KD02 Pacheco's virus/herpesvirus ... disease virus + newcastle disease virus/paramyxovirus QI01AD12 Avian pox virus QI01AD13 Avian leucosis virus QI01AD14 Avian ... disease virus + newcastle disease virus/paramyxovirus + avian rhinotracheitis virus QI01AA07 Avian infectious bronchitis virus ... avian herpes virus (Marek's disease) QI01AD16 Avian herpes virus (marek's disease) + avian infectious bursal disease virus ( ...
Canarypox virus Fowlpox virus Juncopox virus Mynahpox virus Pigeonpox virus Psittacinepox virus Quailpox virus Sparrowpox virus ... Avian pox viruses appear to be family or order specific, that is, a pox virus infecting gamebirds is not likely to infect ... Vaccines have been developed from strains of the virus for fowlpox, canarypox, pigeonpox, and quailpox to help prevent ... Avipoxvirus is a virus that is brick shaped and is usually 200 nanometres in diameter. This is much larger than normal viruses ...
... canarypox virus MeSH B04.280.650.160.100.300 --- fowlpox virus MeSH B04.280.650.160.150 --- capripoxvirus MeSH B04.280.650.160. ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.820.250.400 --- gb virus a MeSH B04.820.250.405 --- gb virus b MeSH B04.820.250.410 --- GB virus C ... canarypox virus MeSH B04.909.204.783.160.100.300 --- fowlpox virus MeSH B04.909.204.783.160.150 --- capripoxvirus MeSH B04.909. ... gb virus a MeSH B04.909.777.310.405 --- gb virus b MeSH B04.909.777.310.410 --- GB virus C MeSH B04.909.777.310.475 --- ...
C22orf25 is also xenologous to T10 like proteins in the Fowlpox Virus and Canarypox Virus. The gene coding for C22orf25 is ... of the C22orf25 gene that are evolutionarily conserved in the Animalia and Plantae kingdoms as well as the Canarypox Virus ...
... of canarypox-vectored equine influenza virus vaccines to induce humoral immune responses against canine influenza viruses in ... pdm09-like virus an A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus (Victoria lineage) In addition to ... pdm09-like virus an A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus WHO recommended that quadrivalent ... pdm09-like virus an A/Hong Kong/4801/2014 (H3N2)-like virus a B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus The WHO recommends that ...
His own research was on the canarypox virus, which he used in developing a chick embryo assay for the isolation and ... He brought back a set of viruses from the National Institute to begin the basis of research in Melbourne. When Burnet returned ... Following his productive work in London, the Rockefeller Institute agreed to fund a new virus research laboratory in Melbourne ... He examined the genetic control of virulence and demonstrated that the virus recombined at high frequency; this observation was ...
Juncopox virus, Mynahpox virus, Psittacinepox virus, Sparrowpox virus, Starlingpox virus, Pigeonpox virus, Turkeypox virus and ... Canarypox virus (CNPV) is a member of the Poxviridae family. Canarypox viruses, as with other bird pox viruses, are in the ... Canarypox virus (CNPV) is an Avipoxvirus and etiologic agent of canarypox, a disease of wild and captive birds that can cause ... Canarypox virus remains a constant threat to wild birds. Those most vulnerable are passerine birds, endemic on islands such as ...
Canarypox virus Fowlpox virus Juncopox virus Mynahpox virus Pigeonpox virus Psittacinepox virus Quailpox virus Sparrowpox virus ... virus Shuni virus Simbu virus Tacaiuma virus Tete virus Thimiri virus Timboteua virus Turlock virus Wyeomyia virus Zegla virus ... virus Uganda S virus Usutu virus Wesselsbron virus West Nile virus Yaounde virus Yellow fever virus Yokose virus Zika virus ... Capim virus Caraparu virus Catu virus Estero Real virus Gamboa virus Guajara virus Guama virus Guaroa virus Kaeng Khoi virus ...
Juncopox virus, Mynahpox virus, Psittacinepox virus, Sparrowpox virus, Starlingpox virus, Pigeonpox virus, Canarypox virus and ... but most of our knowledge comes from the study of fowlpox virus and canarypox virus as they are the only species with full ... Turkeypox virus is a virus of the family Poxviridae and the genus Avipoxvirus that causes turkeypox. It is one of the most ... Turkeypox virus, like other Avipoxviruses, is an enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus with a large, linear genome of ...
"Characterization of canarypox-like viruses infecting endemic birds in the Galápagos Islands". Journal of wildlife diseases. 41 ...
... is a cancer vaccine containing a canary pox virus (ALVAC) combined with the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) ...
Merial produces a recombinant vaccine consisting of canarypox virus carrying FeLV gag and env genes (sold as PUREVAX FeLV in ... Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) is an RNA virus in the subfamily Oncovirinae belonging to the Retroviridae family. The virus ... Once the virus has entered the cat, there are six stages to a FeLV infection[citation needed]: Stage One: The virus enters the ... At this point, the virus will stay with the cat for the rest of its life. In this phase, the virus replicates and is released ...
Another study to test whether the ALVAC recombinant canarypox virus could prime the immune system in cats was performed. This ... The specific virus that they get is H5N1, which is a subtype of Avian Influenza. In order to get the virus, cats need to be in ... Two of the main organs that the virus affects are the lungs and liver. The H5N1 virus has been found in China, Thailand, ... where three stray cats were found to be either dying or dead during the peak time of the virus outbreak. Because the virus ...
... feline rhinotracheitis virus QI06AD06 Feline parapox virus QI06AD07 Feline leukaemia recombinant live canarypox virus QI06AD08 ... QI06AA01 Feline leukaemia virus QI06AA02 Feline panleukopenia virus/parvovirus QI06AA03 Rabies virus + feline rhinotracheitis ... live feline panleucopenia virus / parvovirus + live chlamydia + feline leukaemia recombinant live canarypox virus Empty group ... recombinant live canarypox virus QI06AE01 Chlamydia QI06AE02 Bordetella QI06AF01 Feline panleucopenia virus/parvovirus + feline ...
... that uses genetic elements of several different HIV strains encapsulated in a harmless canarypox virus vector. AIDSVAX B/E, ... effectively disabling the virus so that it could not bind to or invade susceptible cells. Then, another group, infected with a ... from a strain of the virus, MN, known at the time to infect people in the United States and Europe. The vaccine was designed to ...
They were then boosted with a recombinant canarypox virus encoding all four antigens (ALVAC-4). Immunized monkeys developed ... They altered the DNA of cowpox virus by inserting a gene from other viruses (namely Herpes simplex virus, hepatitis B and ... The Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus have been used to build recombinant alphavirus replicons. Unlike conventional DNA ... Virus Res. Advances in Virus Research. 55: 1-74. doi:10.1016/S0065-3527(00)55001-5. ISBN 9780120398553. PMID 11050940. Panicali ...
... virus CPX Campylobacter virus IBB35 Campylobacter virus NCTC12673 Canary circovirus Canarypox virus Candida albicans Tca2 virus ... virus A Potato virus H Potato virus M Potato virus P Potato virus S Potato virus T Potato virus U Potato virus V Potato virus X ... virus Garlic virus A Garlic virus B Garlic virus C Garlic virus D Garlic virus E Garlic virus X Gayfeather mild mottle virus ... virus Vibrio virus 493 Vibrio virus CTXphi Vibrio virus fs1 Vibrio virus fs2 Vibrio virus K139 Vibrio virus Kappa Vibrio virus ...
L03AX17 Sipuleucel-T L03AX18 Cridanimod L03AX19 Dasiprotimut-T QL03AX90 Feline interleukin-2 recombinant canarypox virus "ATC/ ...
Because of the virus' ability to rapidly respond to selective pressures imposed by the immune system, the population of virus ... Canarypox is the first candidate HIV vaccine that has induced cross-clade functional CTL responses. The first phase I trial of ... Some vaccines based on the virus envelope have protected chimpanzees or macaques from homologous virus challenge, but in ... using a genetically modified form of the HIV virus. The new method involves manipulating the virus' codons, this is a sequence ...
Canarypox virus Fowlpox virus Juncopox virus Mynahpox virus Pigeonpox virus Psittacinepox virus Quailpox virus Sparrowpox virus ... Camelpox virus Cowpox virus Ectromelia virus Monkeypox virus Raccoonpox virus Skunkpox virus Taterapox virus Vaccinia virus ... Nile crocodilepox virus Genus: Leporipoxvirus Hare fibroma virus Myxoma virus Rabbit fibroma virus Squirrel fibroma virus Genus ... Starlingpox virus Turkeypox virus Genus: Capripoxvirus Goatpox virus Lumpy skin disease virus Sheeppox virus Genus: ...
The ALVAC vector is an inert form of canarypox, which is a bird virus which cannot cause disease or replicate in humans. ... "Safety and Reactogenicity of Canarypox ALVAC-HIV (vCP1521) and HIV-1 gp120 AIDSVAX B/E Vaccination in an Efficacy Trial in ... the vaccine regimen had no effect on the amount of virus in the blood of volunteers who became HIV-infected during the study. ... "Increased HIV-1 vaccine efficacy against viruses with genetic signatures in Env V2". Nature. 490 (7420): 417-20. doi:10.1038/ ...
The mosquito-transmitted pathogen West Nile virus (WNV) is not yet present in the Galápagos Archipelago of Ecuador. However, ... Characterization of canarypox-like viruses infecting endemic birds in the Galápagos Islands. J Wildl Dis 41: 342-353.[Crossref] ... West Nile virus: epidemiology and ecology in North America. Adv Virus Res 61: 185-234.[Crossref]. [Google Scholar] ... West Nile virus: an old virus learning new tricks? J Neurovirol 11: 469-475.[Crossref]. [Google Scholar] ...
Phase Ib Trial of Intratumoral Injection of a Recombinant Canarypox Virus Encoding Human B7.1 (ALVAC-hB7.1) [ALVAC CEA] or a ... Phase Ib Trial of Intratumoral Injection of a Recombinant Canarypox Virus Encoding Human B7.1 (ALVAC-hB7.1) [ALVAC CEA] or a ... Combination of ALVAC-hB7.1 and a Recombinant Canarypox Virus Encoding Human Interleukin 12 (ALVAC-hIL-12) in Patients With ... Combination of ALVAC-hB7.1 and a Recombinant Canarypox Virus Encoding Human Interleukin 12 (ALVAC-hIL-12) in Patients With ...
... mouse mammary tumour virus, avian sarcoma viruses, adenovirus II, bovine papilloma virus or polyoma. In particular embodiments ... Other examples of vectors include an avipox vector, such as a fowlpox vectors (e.g., FP9) or canarypox vectors (e.g., ALVAC and ... eOD-GT6 is derived from HxB2 which is a CXCR4-tropic tier 1 virus while TM1 is a CCR5-tropic tier 2 virus. Furthermore, TM1 ... 2. An e/m Env comprising an artificial human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope glycoprotein selected from SEQ ID NOs: *52- ...
Evaluation of the ability of canarypox-vectored equine influenza virus vaccines to induce humoral immune responses against ... Incidence and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection in a prenatal population undergoing routine voluntary human ... Eruptive dysplastic nevi associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. By a simple direct blot hybridization strategy ... Analysis of specific interactions between influenza virus and cells of different sensitivity. ...
for inducing anti-HIV cell-mediated immunity (CMI) [2]. A more recent phase-III RV144 trial, consisting of canarypox virus- ... feline leukemia virus, equine infectious anemia virus, and FIV [7C11]. No cases of breakthrough infections caused by incomplete ... Such protection did not correlate with the presence of vaccine-induced NAbs to challenge viruses. This is the first large-scale ... FIV inoculum and challenge Challenge viruses were classified into tiers of 1 1, 2, or 3 based on a previously defined HIV-1 ...
Polyoma Virus Infection in Birds. The polyomavirus of pet birds belongs to the family Papovavirus, the same group of viruses ... canary pox, parrot pox, etc.). Poxviruses can cause several different clinical syndromes, depending upon what part of the body ... Pox Virus Infection in Birds. Poxviruses can infect many species of birds, and each species of bird may have its own unique ... species of pox virus (mynah bird pox, ...
A cancer vaccine consisting of ALVAC, a highly attenuated poxvirus strain derived from the canarypox virus, encoding for the ... A cancer vaccine consisting of a replication-defective recombinant canarypox virus (ALVAC) encoding the cancer-testis antigen ... A cancer vaccine consisting of a replication-defective recombinant canarypox virus [ALVAC(2)] encoding the cancer-testis ... A cancer vaccine containing a replication-defective recombinant canarypox virus (ALVAC), encoding an epitope of MART-1 ( ...
Jarvi S.I., D. Hu, K. Misajon, B.A. Coller, T. Wong, M. Lieberman 2013.Vaccination of captive Nene against West Nile Virus ... Reversion to virulence and efficacy of an attenuated canarypox vaccine in Hawai`i `amakihi (Hemignathus virens). J of Zoo and ... Efficacy of a commercial canarypox vaccine for protecting Hawai`i `amakihi from field isolates of Avipoxvirus. Hawai`i ... Protective efficacy of a recombinant subunit West Nile virus vaccine in Domestic geese (Anser anser). Vaccine Oct 26, 42. 5338- ...
... as well as a panel of 12 tier 2 viruses that represent a spectrum of clade B viruses, including transmitted founder viruses. A ... The RV144 follow-up trials will involve canarypox vectors, either ALVAC, the vector developed by Sanofi Pasteur that was tested ... of cases are the result of more than one founder virus. However, more than one transmitted founder virus is evident in about 40 ... One replication-competent virus vector that has shown promise is a rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV) vector developed by Louis ...
... vaccinia and canarypox viruses. The capacity of the cells to generate antigen-specific CD8 T cell lines was initially validated ... using a recombinant canarypox virus expressing a defined immunodominant T. parva antigen (Tp1). Autologous T. annulata- ... these cell lines offer a convenient and efficient in vitro system to analyse the fine specificity of virus-specific CD8 T cell ... Bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1), which is known to induce CD8 T cell responses, was used as a model. T. annulata- transformed ...
The tested candidate vaccines were increasingly complex recombinant canarypox viruses (Alvac) containing sequences coding for ... Yellow fever virus/genetics , Yellow fever virus/ultrastructure ... Recombinant viruses as vaccines against viral diseases Souza, A ... Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) amplicon vectors are versatile and useful tools for transferring genes into cells that are ... Many viruses have been investigated for their ability to express proteins from foreign pathogens and induce specific ...
Canarypox virus/genetics , Canarypox virus/growth & development , Canarypox virus/isolation & purification , Cell Line/virology ... Animals , Chick Embryo , Cricetinae , Mice , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Canarypox virus/immunology , Glycoproteins/immunology ... SI bien estos sistemas no están disponibles comercialmente, la plataforma de obtención de virus canarypox (CNPV) recombinantes ... Although these systems are not commercially available, the platform to obtain recombinant canarypox viruses (CNPV) has been ...
Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the primary cause of severe respiratory tract disease in children and infants as ... The recombinant Canarypox ALVAC-HIV/gp120/alum vaccine regimen was the first to significantly decrease the risk of HIV ... BACKGROUND: We present the rationale for a novel allo-priming approach to serve the elderly as a universal anti-virus vaccine, ... Human respiratory syncytial virus F protein expressed in Pichia pastoris or Escherichia coli induces protective immunity ...
... along with partial control of pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)/simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) ... having a revised canarypox disease vector expressing HIV Gag, Pol, and Env having a concurrent increase of gp120 clade B and E ... Vaccinia virus-specific responses were detected in all (100%) group B and 2/11 (18.2%) group A vaccinees. In conclusion, HIV- ... Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus or HIV; the presence of other forms of liver diseases such as alcoholic liver disease, drug ...
2004) The genome of canarypox virus. Journal of virology. 78(1):353-66 PubMed DOI 128 citations 271 Here we present the genomic ... herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus) by activating natural ... The three viruses also replicated in the reproductive tract of the adult hens. Virus shedding for all viruses was detected 24 ... 2014) Virus interference between H7N2 low pathogenic avian influenza virus and lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in ...
In this study, we generated recombinant RNA replicon particles based on single-cycle vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors. ... Although this outbreak was eventually controlled using inactivated virus vaccines, the epidemic caused significant economic ... Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen that causes an often fatal, hemorrhagic disease in ruminants. Different ... Although similar strategies using recombinant poxviruses (vaccinia, goatpox, and canarypox viruses), herpesviruses, and virus- ...
Such a hypothesis is supported by the work of Roth et al. (63) . Immunization with canarypox virus recombinants that expressed ... recombinant canarypox virus vectors expressing p53 protect mice against lethal tumor cell challenge. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA ... Simian Virus 40-transformed cells express new species of proteins precipitable by anti-simian virus 40 serum. J. Virol., 31: ... Rotter V., Witte O. N., Coffman R., Baltimore D. Abelson murine leukemia virus-induced tumors elicit antibodies against a host ...
This is done by incubating virus with antibody for a set time, adding cells, incubating the mixture to allow for several rounds ... a Phase II canarypox vaccine trial. "Data using the same samples and the same assays from the Duke and Seattle labs were ... The standardization exercise will provide important information on how to compare the results of assays that use virus grown ... Target cells are co-transfected with this and an env-containing DNA construct, producing infectious virus particles that cannot ...
Marburg virus (MARV) and Ebola virus (EBOV) belong to the family Filoviridae. MARV causes severe disease in humans with high ... the canarypox viral vector ALVAC alone, or a combination of both. Although previous data showed elevated levels of IgG ... The cocktail demonstrated resistance to virus escape and protected non-human primates (NHPs) against Ebola virus disease. These ... Survivors of Ebola Virus Disease Develop Polyfunctional Antibody Responses. Gunn, Bronwyn M; Roy, Vicky; Karim, Marcus M; ...
Canarypox virus. *Fowlpox virus. *Juncopox virus. *Mynahpox virus. *Pigeonpox virus. *Psittacinepox virus ... Swinepox virus is the sole member of the Suipoxvirus genus. Swine are the only known host for this virus. ... Other notable members include vaccinia virus which is used in the current smallpox vaccine; cowpox virus, first introduced by ... Myxoma virus was used in Australia in the 1950s as a pest control to try and eradicate feral European rabbits. Transmission of ...
... developed from a canarypox virus carrying the prM/E genes of West Nile virus that will protect horses against a West Nile virus ... such as West Nile virus in North America and Nipah virus in Malaysia and Singapore in 1999, resulted in serious illnesses and ... regulation of apoptosis by viruses infecting insects, and Semliki Forest virus infection of laboratory mice as models to study ... The first presentation gives an overview of the emergence of zoonotic viruses maintained by wildlife reservoir hosts and ...
Inhibition of murine prostate tumor growth and activation of immunoregulatory cells with recombinant canary pox viruses. J. ...
The RV144 trial, which tested Sanofi Pasteurs canarypox vector-based candidate ALVAC-HIV (vCP1521) and AIDSVAX B/E (the ... had been successful in lowering acute viral load in macaques challenged with a hybrid simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV ...
... and virus systems such as bacterial viruses, poxvirus (vaccinia, avipox virus, e.g., canarypox virus, fowlpox virus), ... Current U.S. Class: Interferon (424/85.4); Genetically Modified Micro-organism, Cell, Or Virus (e.g., Transformed, Fused, ... Trials with synthetic peptide-based virus vaccines in higher vertebrates have been reported to be successful although ... baculovirus, herpes virus; yeast; and the like; and, these systems may be used for producing recombinant PspA using the coding ...
  • Prototype vaccine protection against two tier-3 and one tier-2 viruses was more effective than commercial vaccine. (
  • Such protection did not correlate with the presence of vaccine-induced NAbs to challenge viruses. (
  • A more recent phase-III RV144 trial, consisting of canarypox virus-vectored HIV-1 priming and AIDSVAX vaccine boosts, induced both CMI and humoral immunity and showed a modest overall vaccine efficacy of 31.2% . (
  • No cases of breakthrough infections caused by incomplete inactivation of the FIV vaccine viruses have been reported for the Fel-O-Vax? (
  • FIV vaccine comprises 1.5107C2.5107 inactivated contaminated Fet-J cells plus 50 g of inactivated whole viruses (IWVs), as the prototype FIV vaccine contains 500 g IWVs (FIVPet plus FIVShi) at a 50/50 ratio of BIBW2992 every strain, supplemented with cytokine(s) . (
  • Jarvi S.I., D. Hu, K. Misajon, B.A. Coller, T. Wong, M. Lieberman 2013.Vaccination of captive Nene against West Nile Virus using a protein-based vaccine (WN-80E). (
  • 2012. Reversion to virulence and efficacy of an attenuated canarypox vaccine in Hawai`i `amakihi (Hemignathus virens). (
  • 2011. Efficacy of a commercial canarypox vaccine for protecting Hawai`i `amakihi from field isolates of Avipoxvirus. (
  • The aim of this work was the development and evaluation of an antirabic vaccine candidate based on recombinant CNPV expressing the rabies virus (RV) glycoprotein G (RG). (
  • BACKGROUND: We present the rationale for a novel allo-priming approach to serve the elderly as a universal anti-virus vaccine, as well serving to remodel the aging immune system in order to reverse immunosenescence and inflammaging. (
  • NIAID), coordinator of the Elispot standardization exercise, says that she was spurred to action during analysis of data from HVTN 203, a Phase II canarypox vaccine trial. (
  • A vaccine is a substance that trains the immune system to recognize and protect against a disease caused by an infectious organism or virus. (
  • The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas stimulated the development of multiple ZIKV vaccine candidates. (
  • The companion vaccine trial RV305 was designed to permit the evaluation of the immunologic impact of late boosting with either the boosting protein antigen alone, the canarypox viral vector ALVAC alone, or a combination of both. (
  • The book finishes with presentations on a novel principle of attenuation for developing new generation live flavivirus vaccines, on tick-borne encephalitis, and on a recombinant vaccine developed from a canarypox virus carrying the prM/E genes of West Nile virus that will protect horses against a West Nile virus-mosquito challenge, and on diagnosis of zoonotic viral encephalitis. (
  • The RV144 trial, which tested Sanofi Pasteur's canarypox vector-based candidate ALVAC-HIV (vCP1521) and AIDSVAX B/E (the genetically engineered version of HIV gp120 originally developed by VAXGEN), resulted in the first evidence of vaccine-induced protection against HIV (see Raft of Results Energizes Researchers , IAVI Report , Sep. (
  • The vaccine candidate had been successful in lowering acute viral load in macaques challenged with a hybrid simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) strain (SHIV-89.6P), but a similar effect was not observed in humans (see Getting It Right Early , IAVI Report , Sep. (
  • Since the turn of the century, the pace of vaccine research and development has quickened-there are now more than 80 vaccine candidates in the pipeline, and about 30 of them target diseases for which there are no vaccines currently available, according to the third edition of the State of the World's Vaccines and Immunization ( ). (
  • With the recent demonstration in the RV144 Thai trial that a vaccine regimen that does not elicit neutralizing antibodies or cytotoxic T lymphocytes may confer protection against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, attention has turned to nonneutralizing antibodies as a possible mechanism of vaccine protection. (
  • The findings of the recently reported human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine trial in Thailand (RV144) have refocused interest on vaccine-elicited antibody responses. (
  • It has been generally safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic in adults and children, and it has been combined in a small trial with the canarypox recombinant vector CMV vaccine. (
  • A veterinary DNA vaccine to protect horses from West Nile virus has been approved. (
  • a genetically engineered HIV vaccine composed of a live, weakened canarypox virus (ALVAC™) into which parts of genes for non-infectious components of HIV have been inserted. (
  • Both trials will test very similar vaccine regimes: a dose of canary pox virus engineered to express HIV-1 proteins, followed by a booster shot of the HIV protein gp120. (
  • To explore whether CD40L can be used as an adjuvant for HIV-1 canarypox vaccine, we constructed recombinant canarypox viruses expressing CD40L. (
  • Co-immunization of mice with CD40L expressing canarypox and the canarypox vaccine expressing HIV-1 proteins, vCP1452, augmented HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in terms of frequency, polyfunctionality and interleukin (IL)-7 receptor α chain (IL-7Rα, CD127) expression. (
  • At last year's AIDS Vaccine meeting in Bangkok, investigators shared the first set of results from such analyses, identifying what they called "correlates of risk" associated with the Thai regimen-a vCP1521 canarypox viral vector prime followed by a gp120 B/E AIDSVAX boost. (
  • They have examined whether those vaccine-induced antibody responses selectively blocked certain HIV variants, and what genetic changes allow the virus to elude that targeting. (
  • For the first time, an investigational HIV vaccine has shown it can protect people from the virus -- a giant step forward in a field that has been humbled by repeated failure, experts said. (
  • For one thing, despite the success in preventing infection, Kim said, there was no effect on the other main goal of the trial -- to see if the vaccine could lower the amount of virus in the bloodstream of infected people. (
  • Because the course of distemper can be so extended, administering anti-distemper vaccines after the virus is already in a dog's body can be misinterpreted as a vaccine failure. (
  • The DNA sequence encoding this antigen will be combined into the DNA of the baculovirus expression platform, the basis of Sanofi's licensed recombinant seasonal flu vaccine, Flublok - the only FDA-approved recombinant protein-based flu vaccine - and used to rapidly produce large quantities of the coronavirus antigen which will be formulated to stimulate the immune system to protect against the virus. (
  • JE viruses isolated from human cases in Japan in 1935 and in Beijing in 1949 provided the prototype Nakayama, Beijing and P3 strains respectively that are in principal use in vaccine production. (
  • Nevertheless, during this time we have developed a relatively sophisticated understanding of the two essential elements required for vaccine design: the virus, and the host immune system. (
  • A killed AIDS vaccine has been considered, but the practical problem of proving that the HIV is completely inactivated (dead) and the failure of killed vaccines to protect monkeys against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV, the monkey equivalent of HIV) have led scientists to look for better and safer ways of making an AIDS vaccine. (
  • Other poxvirus vectors in testing include canarypox (made from a vaccine for birds) and fowlpox. (
  • The alphaviruses being developed as vaccine vectors include weakened forms of three viruses named VEE, Sindbis and SFV. (
  • Influenza vaccine A sterile suspension of killed influenza virus types A and B, either individually or combined. (
  • The influenza vaccine varies in its effectiveness, depending on whether the strain of the virus in the vaccine is related to the virus that is causing the influenza. (
  • As part of a larger, phase II clinical trial, we evaluated the ability of a recombinant canarypox HIV-1 vaccine to induce CTL that can be detected in both the systemic and mucosal compartments following i.m. immunization in 12 low- and high-risk HIV-1 seronegative volunteers. (
  • Recent vaccine studies have implicitly demonstrated the protective role of CD8 + CTL in macaques first immunized with SIV-, simian/human immunodeficiency virus-, or HIV-2-based vaccines, and subsequently challenged mucosally with more virulent SIV strains ( 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ). (
  • Moreover, the vaccine candidate protected against infection with an HIV-like virus in monkeys. (
  • In the 35 years of the HIV epidemic, only four HIV vaccine concepts have been tested in humans, and only one has provided evidence of protection in an efficacy trial-a canarypox vector prime, gp120 boost vaccine regimen tested in the RV144 trial in Thailand lowered the rate of human infection by 31% but the effect was considered too low to advance the vaccine to common use. (
  • An effective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine is the best hope for controlling the AIDS pandemic. (
  • In a model study we generated antigen-producing potato tubers expressing the major capsid protein VP60 of the Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) as an interesting veterinary vaccine candidate. (
  • To develop a vaccine against cytomegalovirus (CMV), a canarypox virus (ALVAC) expressing CMV glycoprotein (gB) was evaluated alone or in combination with a live, attenuated CMV viagra generic availability vaccine (Towne). (
  • The RV 144 HIV vaccine efficacy study showed a reduction in HIV-1 infection risk in Thai volunteers who received two priming vaccinations of vCP1521 ALVAC (attenuated recombinant canarypox virus expressing HIV group-specific antigen, polymerase, and envelope genes) followed by two additional ALVAC vaccinations and coadministration of purified bivalent gp120 proteins (AIDSVAX B/E). In this issue of the JCI, Rouphael et al. (
  • BACKGROUND: A key missing element in the development of a successful human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine is an immunogen that can generate broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies against primary isolates of the virus. (
  • A recombinant vaccine containing Aventis Pasteur's canarypox vector (ALVAC)-HIV and gp120 alum decreased the risk of HIV acquisition in the RV144 vaccine trial. (
  • d) The duration of immunity provided by vaccinations probably varies from one vaccine to the next, depending on the strain of virus/bacteria used, the adjuvents used in the vaccine and the production methods -- therefore, until each vaccine is tested for duration of action, it will be hard to make blanket judgments about how long vaccine intervals should be. (
  • We describe the development and preliminary characterization of a recombinant canarypox virus vectored (ALVAC®) vaccine for protective immunization of equids against African horse sickness virus (AHSV) infection. (
  • In contrast, a horse immunized with a commercial recombinant canarypox virus vectored vaccine expressing the haemagglutinin genes of two equine influenza H3N8 viruses was seronegative to AHSV and following infection with virulent AHSV-4 developed pyrexia, thrombocytopenia and marked oedema of the supraorbital fossae typical of the "dikkop" or cardiac form of African horse sickness. (
  • 3 ) on page 1009 of this issue, indicate that the ability of HIV-1 to escape virus-specific immunity is not limitless, but rather comes at a fitness cost to the virus, which may hold hope for the design of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. (
  • The RV144 vaccine comprises a canarypox ALVAC excellent using the E.92TH023 gp120 membrane-anchored insert and an AIDSVAX B/E gp120 enhance. (
  • This vaccine routine induced Env antibody reactions in 98.6% and Compact disc4 T cell responses in 90.1% of vaccinated topics (6) and induced tier 1 virus- however, not tier 2 virus-neutralizing antibodies (1). (
  • A significant hurdle in HIV-1 Env proteins vaccine design may be the preservation from the structural properties in soluble variations of Env proteins that imitate those on undamaged viruses (13), when the Env gp120 proteins are indicated mainly because monomers especially. (
  • Participants will receive a multi-antigen of modified canarypox virus (ALVAC) melanoma vaccine and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) every 3 weeks, followed by 4 weeks of high-dose interferon alpha-2b 5 times per week. (
  • More recent trials, using ALVAC ® , a canarypox vaccine, containing HIV antigens-encoding genes, mitigated viral load rebound after HAART interruption in several trials, but had no effect or even increased rebound in other trials, the latter result being probably linked to inappropriate immune activation. (
  • Guillaume-Vasselin V., Lemaitre L., Dhondt K.P., Tedeschi L, Poulard A., Charreyre C. and Horvat B.: Protection from Hendra virus infection with Canarypox recombinant vaccine. (
  • The capacity of the cells to generate antigen-specific CD8 T cell lines was initially validated using a recombinant canarypox virus expressing a defined immunodominant T. parva antigen (Tp1). (
  • the heightened immunologic reaction elicited by a second or subsequent exposure to a particular pathogenic microorganism (e.g., bacterium, fungus, virus), toxin, or antigen. (
  • B cell, macrophage, dendritic cell or other cell that ingests and processes foreign bodies such as viruses and displays the resulting antigen fragments on its surface to attract and activate the CD4+ T cells that respond specifically to that antigen. (
  • The relationship between immune-mediated selection pressure, the emergence of viral escape mutations within targeted CD8 + T cell epitopes, and the impact of these mutations on viral replicative fitness is best illustrated in the context of virus-specific CD8 + T cell responses restricted by human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B57. (
  • 4. The most recent tendency is to target dendritic cells with either inactivated autologous virus or virus antigen-encoding RNA. (
  • T. annulata - transformed cells were shown to express high levels of CD40 and CD80 and were susceptible to infection with BHV-1, vaccinia and canarypox viruses. (
  • Given the ease with which T. annulata -transformed cell lines can be established and maintained in vitro and their susceptibility to infection with poxvirus vectors, these cell lines offer a convenient and efficient in vitro system to analyse the fine specificity of virus-specific CD8 T cell responses in cattle. (
  • Also included are presentations on persistent infection and suppression of host response by alphaviruses, subversive neuroinvasive strategy of rabies virus, neurovirulence and host factors in flavivirus encephalitis, regulation of apoptosis by viruses infecting insects, and Semliki Forest virus infection of laboratory mice as models to study the pathogenesis of viral encephalitis. (
  • an infection-fighting protein molecule in blood or secretory fluids that tags, neutralizes, and helps destroy pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, viruses) or toxins. (
  • West Nile virus (WNV) infection causes encephalitis and has been recognized as one of the most widespread arboviral infections in a variety of species, including humans, birds, and horses. (
  • Nipah Virus Infection (NiV) is an emerging infectious disease of public health importance in the South-East Asia Region. (
  • The bats are migratory.6 This has generated intensive surveillance for evidence of Nipah virus infection in bats in these countries. (
  • Bold, countries where Nipah virus infection in bats was demonstrated by antibody detection method. (
  • countries where Nipah virus infection in bats was confirmed by isolation. (
  • The presence of Nipah virus antibodies have indicated that dogs, cats, goats and horses were infected, but only if exposed to infected pigs in Malaysia.13 Their role in transmitting infection to humans was not determined. (
  • The finding "strongly suggests" that the immune mechanisms that block infection and those that control the virus after infection are different, he said. (
  • After human immunodeficiency virus infection, JE may be the leading cause of viral encephalitis worldwide. (
  • Numerous studies in which bNmAbs have been infused systemically or applied topically to the mucosae of non-human primates (NHP) demonstrate that immunodeficiency virus infection can be completely prevented [ 9 ]. (
  • See the Animal Infection and Immunity web page for more information on virus research within SVMS. (
  • Numerous studies attest to the critical role of class I MHC-restricted CD8 + CTL in controlling HIV-1 infection in humans and SIV or simian/human immunodeficiency virus infection in macaques ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 ). (
  • Because HIV-1 infection is acquired primarily through mucosal routes, the presence of virus-specific CD8 + CTL at the site of viral entry may be critical in restricting viral dissemination to the lymphoid tissue and the blood. (
  • Passive antibody transfer experiments in animal models have proven that neutralizing antibodies can confer protection against HIV or simian/human immunodeficiency virus infection ( 3 , 11 , 14 , 26 , 28 , 41 ). (
  • It has been shown that sustained control and clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) 3 infection is related to an effective immune response, in particular a T cell response targeted to the nonstructural (NS) 3 protein ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). (
  • In this review, we discuss mechanisms and functional consequences of virus-induced ubiquitination and deubiquitination for early events in gammaherpesviral infection. (
  • 10-80) of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies and were completely resistant to challenge infection with a virulent strain of AHSV-4. (
  • AHSV was detected by virus isolation and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in the blood of the control horse from 8 days onwards after challenge infection whereas AHSV was not detected at any time in the blood of the ALVAC-AHSV vaccinated horses. (
  • The control horse seroconverted to AHSV by 2 weeks after challenge infection as determined by both virus neutralization and ELISA assays, whereas six of eight of the ALVAC-AHSV vaccinated horses did not seroconvert by either assay following challenge infection with virulent AHSV-4. (
  • Essential genes are deleted so the virus cannot replicate and produce continued infection. (
  • A three-year post-doctoral position is currently available in our laboratory, to study immunobiology of Nipah virus infection in its natural host and develop novel prophylactic and therapeutic anti-viral approaches. (
  • Early in acute HIV-1 infection innate immune responses are activated and evidence suggests that they are important in the potential control of the virus. (
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection is Associated with Increased NK Cell Polyfunctionality and Higher Levels of KIR3DL1+ NK Cells in Ugandans Carrying the HLA-B Bw4 Motif . (
  • Cell type specificity and host genetic polymorphisms influence antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus infection. (
  • Now, researchers are mining the samples from the trial in the search for possible immune correlates of protection that could potentially allow researchers to rationally improve upon what Nelson Michael, director of the US Military HIV Research Program (MHRP), called the "early but nondurable efficacy" seen in RV144 with the ALVAC canarypox-based prime and AIDSVAX gp120 boost. (
  • Inoculation of mice with this virus induced high RV seroneutralizing antibodies (3.58 and 9.76 lU/ml after 1 or 2 immunizations, respectively) and protected 78% of intracerebrally RV-challenged animals. (
  • ADCC is an natural killer (NK) cell-mediated destruction of virus-infected cells that are targeted for destruction by antiviral antibodies. (
  • A rapid immunoassay for detecting and quantifying West Nile virus (WNV)-neutralizing antibodies in sera was developed as an alternative to the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), the gold standard test for WNV. (
  • Another viral vector that is being tested in human clinical trials is adenovirus type 5 (Ad5), which is related to the virus that causes some forms of the common cold. (
  • Differences in pathogenicity may be related to nucleotides that code for specific regions in the prM, E, or nonstructural proteins of the virus ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • The aim is to get the immune system to recognize the HIV proteins and prepare long-lived memory cells that will "remember" the HIV proteins and act against the whole virus if a person later becomes exposed naturally through high-risk behavior. (
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV) particles consist of seven structural proteins that are organized into two capsids. (
  • In addition, BTV also encodes three non-structural (NS) proteins of which protein 2 (NS2) is the RNA binding protein and is also the major component of virus encoded inclusion bodies (VIBs), which are believed to be virus assembly sites. (
  • CD40L expressed from canarypox virus matured human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) in a tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) independent manner, which underwent less apoptosis, and could expand ex vivo Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific CTL responses from healthy human individuals and ex vivo HIV-1-specific CTL responses from HIV-1-infected individuals in the presence or absence of CD4 + T cells. (
  • SI bien estos sistemas no están disponibles comercialmente, la plataforma de obtención de virus canarypox (CNPV) recombinantes ya ha sido implementada en nuestro laboratorio. (
  • El objetivo de este trabajo fue obtener y evaluar un candidato a vacuna antirrábica basado en CNPV recombinantes que expresan la glicoproteína G (RG) del virus rábico (RV). (
  • Se construyó un virus recombinante que expresa la secuencia codificante de RG (CNPV-RG). (
  • Los resultados obtenidos constituyen la primera etapa en la evaluación del CNPV-RG como candidato a vacuna antirrábica. (
  • Although these systems are not commercially available, the platform to obtain recombinant canarypox viruses (CNPV) has been previously set up in our laboratory. (
  • A recombinant virus (CNPV-RG) expressing the RG coding sequence was designed. (
  • In this study, we generated recombinant RNA replicon particles based on single-cycle vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors. (
  • This virus can only be contracted through vectors and consumption of infected items, but they can be filtered by a special water filter. (
  • The polyomavirus of pet birds belongs to the family Papovavirus, the same group of viruses that causes benign skin tumors (papillomas or warts) in birds. (
  • We found psittacine pox virus in 23 of 27 sick birds and 4 of 67 healthy birds. (
  • For birds suffering from the virus, you may want to swab the sores with iodine. (
  • You can also add antibiotics and vitamins to the water to keep the birds in general good health while they fight the virus. (
  • Studies performed in the Nile Delta region demonstrated that the virus was infectious in a wide range of species, including birds and non-human mammals, and that WNV was endemic along the Nile, with a 60% seroprevalence rate in humans 5 . (
  • The virus subsequently spread to practically all the states of the USA, affecting birds, horses and humans 10 - 14 . (
  • This virus has the highest mortality rate in upland game birds such as pheasant, quail, and chukar partridge, as well as in songbirds, seabirds such as gulls, parrots, and some raptors such as the peregrine falcon. (
  • More than 60 mil ion persons have now been infected with HIV since 1983, when the virus was determined to be the cause of AIDS. (
  • The establishment in vitro of cell lines enriched for virus-specific T cells provides a more sensitive means of dissecting the specificity of the response. (
  • Newcastle disease (ND), which is caused by infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Avian orthoavulavirus-1, also known as avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1), and formerly known as Newcastle disease virus (NDV), may cause neurological signs and encephalitis. (
  • The viral encephalitides of Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses have been of public health concern for years. (
  • The following 13 presentations include overviews of molecular determinants of virulence of West Nile virus in North America, genetic determinants of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, evolution and dispersal of encephalitic flaviviruses, and West Nile and other zoonotic viruses in Russia. (
  • West Nile virus (WNV) causes epidemics of febrile illness, meningitis, encephalitis, and flaccid paralysis. (
  • The virus initially was called Japanese B encephalitis (the modifying B has fallen into disuse) to distinguish the agent from the etiology of Von Economo's type A encephalitis, which had different epidemiologic characteristics. (
  • Accumulating data suggest that not all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-specific immune responses are equally effective at controlling HIV-1 replication. (
  • It is now well established that virus-specific immune responses, and in particular HIV-1-specific CD8 + T cell responses, contribute to the control of viral replication in infected individuals. (
  • Emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), such as chikungunya and Zika viruses, are a major threat to public health in countries like Brazil where biodiversity is high and medical care is sometimes precarious. (
  • The Influenza NS1 Protein: What Do We Know in Equine Influenza Virus Pathogenesis? (
  • Equine influenza virus (EIV) is considered the most important respiratory pathogen of horses as outbreaks of the disease lead to substantial economic losses. (
  • The first presentation gives an overview of the emergence of zoonotic viruses maintained by wildlife reservoir hosts and describes a conceptual model of processes that would account for the transmission of viruses among species. (
  • Distribution of bat species previously shown to have Nipah virus (adopted from 2007 International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources Red List of Threatened Species. (
  • The pathogenesis and transmission potential of this virus, along with two genetically related and widely studied viruses, chicken/California/2002 and chicken/Belize/2008, were evaluated in both 3-week- and 62-week-old chickens given a low, medium, or high challenge dose. (
  • There is only one serotype of the virus and it is relatively homogenous genetically. (
  • 2019) Pathogenicity and transmission of virulent Newcastle disease virus from the 2018-2019 California outbreak and related viruses in young and adult chickens. (
  • Emergence and Control of Zoonotic Viral Encephalitides is a timely book that gives an overview of agent, host, environmental, and other factors that have led to the emergence and transmission of several zoonotic viral encephalitides, including flaviviruses, alphaviruses, and rabies virus. (
  • formerly Newcastle disease virus) were present in every year in all AEZs. (
  • In May of 2018, virulent Newcastle disease virus was detected in sick, backyard, exhibition chickens in southern California. (
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen that causes an often fatal, hemorrhagic disease in ruminants. (
  • Once the disease is full-blown, the virus is present in all secretions, urine, feces, tears and saliva. (
  • Disease severity can also be influenced by the strain of distemper virus the dog has been exposed to - some 'wild' strains appear worse (more virulent) than others. (
  • A virus that causes a skin disease in cows was given to people to protect them from the related human virus that causes smallpox. (
  • Often this is done by growing the virus for a long time in artificial conditions in tissue culture until the virus mutates-its genetic material changes-so that this "live-attenuated" (weakened) virus is safe and it protects against disease. (
  • West Nile fever is a disease caused by the West Nile Virus (WNV), an RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. (
  • The West Nile virus (WNV) was first isolated in 1937 from a patient presenting with a febrile disease residing in the West Nile district in northern Uganda 1 , 2 . (
  • This zoonotic virus, ranked by WHO among top 8 emerging pathogens likely to cause major epidemics, provokes severe disease with high fatality rates, without any existing licensed prevention and treatment, representing thus an ongoing threat to human health globally, and providing an important focus for further research. (
  • The most well known member of the genus is variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. (
  • In addition, CD40L expressed from canarypox virus could significantly augment CD4 + T cell responses against HIV-1 in mice. (
  • viruses with mutations in those regions of the gene tended to evade such responses. (
  • The primed CD8 + responses were functional in vivo, resulting in elimination of hepatitis C virus NS3/4A-expressing liver cells in transiently transgenic mice. (
  • The virus, however, has developed several means to evade these responses, the most notable of which is its ability to rapidly acquire mutations that impair its recognition by epitope-specific CD8 + T cells ( 1 ). (
  • The concept of drug-induced selection pressure can also be applied to selective pressures imparted by virus-specific CD8 + T cell responses. (
  • Over the last decade, several outbreaks caused by emerging zoonotic viral encephalitides, such as West Nile virus in North America and Nipah virus in Malaysia and Singapore in 1999, resulted in serious illnesses and deaths in persons, domesticated food animals, and wildlife. (
  • Mathieu C., Porotto M., Figueira T., Horvat B, Moscona A. : Fusion inhibitory lipopeptides engineered for prophylaxis of Nipah virus in primates. (
  • Sera from immunized animals neutralized a panel of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 primary isolate viruses at titers that were significantly higher than that of the corresponding monomeric gp120 protein. (
  • The effects of this virus might increase the difficulty of breathing, eating, and drinking significantly. (
  • Genetic variation of the virus has been further characterized and continues to be explored. (
  • In the Picornaviridae family two new candidate genera as well as a close genetic relative of the human pathogen Aichi virus were characterized. (
  • The close genetic similarities noted between some rodent and human viruses might reflect past zoonoses. (
  • Transmission of leporipoxviruses is primarily through the mosquito although other biting insects such as fleas may also transmit virus. (
  • In this review, we summarize the basic biological and ecological characteristics of this virus and the clinical presentation and treatment of febrile illnesses caused by WNV. (
  • Outbreaks in Egypt, occurred between 1951 and 1954, also led to a better understanding of the various clinical and epidemiologic aspects of the virus 4 , 5 . (
  • Adeno-associated virus is not an adenovirus but is often found in adenovirus infections. (
  • A mouse papillomavirus genome and fragments of a novel adenovirus and adenovirus-associated virus were also sequenced. (
  • Engineered and multimerized human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope glycoproteins are described. (
  • However, these human trials did not use inactivated whole virus (IWV) approach due to safety concerns raised over potential incomplete inactivation [1, (
  • Given the relatively low frequencies of virus-specific CD8 T cells in circulating memory T cell populations (typically ranging from 1/500 to 1/20 000 in human peripheral blood) [ 8 , 9 ], such assays have limited sensitivity. (
  • Tuberculosis (TB) represents the largest cause of death in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in part due to HIV-related CD4+ T cell loss, rendering patients immunocompromised and susceptible to a loss of Mycobacterium tuberculosis control. (
  • It is the final stage of an immunodeficiency disorder caused by a retrovirus called Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (Amadi et al. (
  • ref1 , ref2 ) But since the CDV is such a close relative of the human measles virus, anyone vaccinated for measles, or having had a prior case of measles would probably not be at risk. (
  • In China, few specific data are available, but the virus was isolated from a human case in 1940 and the inference of long standing endemic transmission in eastern China is supported by early seroprevalence studies yielding rates exceeding 85% (10). (
  • Gammaherpesviruses like Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) subvert the ubiquitin proteasome system for their own benefit in order to facilitate viral gene expression and replication. (
  • To investigate the contribution of NS2 in virus replication and assembly we have constructed inducible mammalian cell lines expressing full-length NS2. (
  • Unlike full-length NS2, neither the amino-, nor carboxyl-terminal fragments formed complete IB structures and each appeared to interfere in overall virus replication when similarly expressed. (
  • Together, these data demonstrate that NS2 is sufficient and necessary for IB formation and a key player in virus replication and core assembly. (
  • In a number of animal and plant viruses the replication and transcription complexes as well as nucleocapsids, assembly intermediates and virions, accumulate in specific virus induced structures within the host cell cytoplasm described as 'virus assembly factories' or 'virus inclusion bodies' (VIBs) [ 1 - 6 ]. (
  • Similar to other members of the Reoviridae family, orbiviruses use such specific sites for virus replication and the assembly of virion particles. (
  • A new study now demonstrates that multiple immune-driven sequence polymorphisms in the highly conserved HIV-1 Gag region of transmitted viruses are associated with reduced viral replication in newly infected humans. (
  • The underlying factors responsible for this apparent paradox-efficient control of virus replication despite viral escape from CD8 + T cell-mediated immune pressure-appear to be related to the reduced replicative fitness of viruses containing escape mutations in the TW10 epitope. (
  • Myxoma virus was used in Australia in the 1950s as a pest control to try and eradicate feral European rabbits. (