A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from DOGS; CATS; and humans.
A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.
A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.
A species of thermophilic CAMPYLOBACTER found in healthy seagulls and causing ENTERITIS in humans.
A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of swine, poultry, and man. It may be pathogenic.
Any type of abortion, induced or spontaneous, that is associated with infection of the UTERUS and its appendages. It is characterized by FEVER, uterine tenderness, and foul discharge.
A species of bacteria present in man and many kinds of animals and birds, often causing infertility and/or abortion.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A genus of gram-negative, aerotolerant, spiral-shaped bacteria isolated from water and associated with diarrhea in humans and animals.
A species of CAMPYLOBACTER comprised of three biovars based on their reaction to CATALASE and UREASE. They have been isolated from humans, CATTLE, and SHEEP.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.
Events, characteristics, or other definable entities that have the potential to bring about a change in a health condition or other defined outcome.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Glycopeptide antibiotic complex from Actinoplanes teichomyceticus active against gram-positive bacteria. It consists of five major components each with a different fatty acid moiety.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from cases of human PERIODONTITIS. It is a microaerophile, capable of respiring with OXYGEN.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)

High-resolution genotyping of Campylobacter upsaliensis strains originating from three continents. (1/3)

Ninety-six Campylobacter upsaliensis strains that originated from Australia, Canada, and Europe (Germany) and that were isolated from humans, dogs, and cats were serotyped for their heat-stable surface antigens. All of them were genotyped by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence PCR (ERIC-PCR) profiling, and 83 strains were genotyped by macrorestriction analysis with the endonuclease XhoI. Eighty-four percent of the strains belonged to five different serotypes (serotypes OI, OII, OIII, OIV, and OVI), with the proportions of strains in each serotype being comparable among the groups of strains from all three continents. Two serotypes, OIII and OIV, were prevalent at rates of 35 to 40%. Serotypes OI, OII, and OVI were detected at rates of 1.5 to 15%. Between 10 and 17.7% of the strains did not react with the available antisera. Analysis of the ERIC-PCR profiles revealed two distinct genotypic clusters, which represented the German and the non-European strains, respectively. XhoI macrorestriction yielded two genotypic clusters; one of them contained 80.2% of the German strains and 34.6% of the non-European strains, and the second cluster consisted of 65.4% of the non-European strains and 19.8% of the German strains. Fourteen strains from all three continents were analyzed for their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Only two minor variations were detected in four of the strains. In conclusion, C. upsaliensis has undergone diverging processes of genome arrangement on different continents during evolution without segregating into different subspecies.  (+info)

Speciation of Campylobacter coli, C. jejuni, C. helveticus, C. lari, C. sputorum, and C. upsaliensis by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. (2/3)

Multiple strains of Campylobacter coli, C. jejuni, C. helveticus, C. lari, C. sputorum, and C. upsaliensis isolated from animal, clinical, or food samples have been analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Whole bacterial cells were harvested from colonies or confluent growth on agar and transferred directly into solvent and then to a spot of dried 3-methoxy-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (matrix). Multiple ions in the 5,000- to 15,000-Da mass range were evident in spectra for each strain; one or two ions in the 9,500- to 11,000-Da range were consistently high intensity. "Species-identifying" biomarker ions (SIBIs) were evident from analyses of multiple reference strains for each of the six species, including the genome strains C. jejuni NCTC 11168 and C. jejuni RM1221. Strains grown on nine different combinations of media and atmospheres yielded SIBI masses within +/-5 Da with external instrument calibration. The highest-intensity C. jejuni SIBIs were cytosolic proteins, including GroES, HU/HCj, and RplL. Multiple intraspecies SIBIs, corresponding probably to nonsynonymous nucleotide polymorphisms, also provided some intraspecies strain differentiation. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of 75 additional Campylobacter strains isolated from humans, poultry, swine, dogs, and cats revealed (i) associations of SIBI type with source, (ii) strains previously speciated incorrectly, and (iii) "strains" composed of more than one species. MALDI-TOF MS provides an accurate, sensitive, and rapid method for identification of multiple Campylobacter species relevant to public health and food safety.  (+info)

Association of Campylobacter upsaliensis with persistent bloody diarrhea. (3/3)

 (+info)

'Campylobacter upsaliensis' is a species of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal illness in humans. It is one of several species within the genus Campylobacter, which are among the most common causes of bacterial foodborne diarrheal diseases worldwide.

C. upsaliensis is often found in the intestines of animals, particularly cats and dogs, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water, or direct contact with infected animals. The bacteria are relatively sensitive to environmental conditions, such as heat, acidity, and drying, which makes them less likely to survive for long periods outside the host's body.

The symptoms of C. upsaliensis infection typically include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and nausea, which can last for several days to a week or more. In some cases, the infection may lead to complications such as bacteremia (bacteria in the bloodstream) or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a rare neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Diagnosis of C. upsaliensis infection typically involves laboratory testing of stool samples to detect the presence of the bacteria. Treatment usually involves supportive care, such as hydration and electrolyte replacement, and antibiotics may be prescribed in severe cases or for individuals at high risk of complications. Preventive measures include proper food handling and preparation, avoiding cross-contamination between raw meats and other foods, washing hands thoroughly after handling animals or their waste, and avoiding drinking untreated water from sources that may be contaminated with animal feces.

'Campylobacter' is a genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestinal tracts of animals, including birds and mammals. These bacteria are a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni being the most frequently identified species associated with human infection.

Campylobacter infection, also known as campylobacteriosis, typically causes symptoms such as diarrhea (often bloody), abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. The infection is usually acquired through the consumption of contaminated food or water, particularly undercooked poultry, raw milk, and contaminated produce. It can also be transmitted through contact with infected animals or their feces.

While most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting and resolve within a week without specific treatment, severe or prolonged infections may require antibiotic therapy. In rare cases, Campylobacter infection can lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacterial bloodstream infection), meningitis, or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Preventive measures include proper food handling and cooking techniques, thorough handwashing, and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods.

Campylobacter infections are illnesses caused by the bacterium *Campylobacter jejuni* or other species of the genus *Campylobacter*. These bacteria are commonly found in the intestines of animals, particularly birds, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food, water, or contact with infected animals.

The most common symptom of Campylobacter infection is diarrhea, which can range from mild to severe and may be bloody. Other symptoms may include abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and vomiting. The illness usually lasts about a week, but in some cases, it can lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacteria in the bloodstream), meningitis, or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Campylobacter infections are typically treated with antibiotics, but in mild cases, they may resolve on their own without treatment. Prevention measures include cooking meat thoroughly, washing hands and surfaces that come into contact with raw meat, avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and untreated water, and handling pets, particularly birds and reptiles, with care.

'Campylobacter jejuni' is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that is a common cause of foodborne illness worldwide. It is often found in the intestines of warm-blooded animals, including birds and mammals, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water.

The bacteria are capable of causing an infection known as campylobacteriosis, which is characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the bloodstream and cause serious complications, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

'Campylobacter jejuni' is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness in the United States, with an estimated 1.3 million cases occurring each year. It is often found in undercooked poultry and raw or unpasteurized milk products, as well as in contaminated water supplies. Proper cooking and pasteurization can help reduce the risk of infection, as can good hygiene practices such as washing hands thoroughly after handling raw meat and vegetables.

Campylobacter lari is a species of bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal illness in humans. It is one of several species within the genus Campylobacter, which are known to be significant causes of foodborne illness worldwide. C. lari is commonly found in the intestines of birds and other animals, and human infection typically occurs through the consumption of contaminated food or water.

The symptoms of a C. lari infection can include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. The illness is usually self-limiting and resolves within a few days to a week, although in some cases it may lead to more severe complications such as bacteremia (bacteria in the bloodstream) or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a serious neurological condition.

Prevention measures include proper food handling and cooking techniques, as well as good hygiene practices such as handwashing after using the bathroom and before preparing or eating food. If you suspect that you have a C. lari infection, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to receive appropriate treatment and prevent complications.

'Campylobacter coli' is a species of bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal illness in humans. It is one of the several species within the genus Campylobacter, which are gram-negative, microaerophilic, spiral or curved rods. 'Campylobacter coli' is commonly found in the intestines of animals, particularly swine and cattle, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water.

The most common symptom of infection with 'Campylobacter coli' is diarrhea, which can range from mild to severe and may be accompanied by abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and vomiting. The illness, known as campylobacteriosis, typically lasts for about a week and resolves on its own without specific treatment in most cases. However, in some cases, the infection can lead to more serious complications, such as bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood) or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a rare neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Prevention measures include cooking food thoroughly, washing hands and surfaces frequently, and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods. 'Campylobacter coli' infections are also reportable to public health authorities in many jurisdictions, as they are considered a significant cause of foodborne illness worldwide.

Septic abortion is a medical term used to describe a spontaneous abortion or miscarriage that is associated with infection. This occurs when the products of conception, such as the fetal tissue and placenta, are not completely expelled from the uterus, leading to an infection of the uterine lining and potentially the pelvic cavity.

The infection can cause fever, chills, severe abdominal pain, foul-smelling vaginal discharge, and heavy bleeding. If left untreated, septic abortion can lead to serious complications such as sepsis, infertility, and even death. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect a septic abortion. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection and possibly surgical intervention to remove any remaining products of conception.

'Campylobacter fetus' is a species of gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal infections in humans. It is commonly found in the intestinal tracts of animals, particularly cattle, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water.

The infection caused by 'Campylobacter fetus' is known as campylobacteriosis, which typically presents with symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. In some cases, the infection can also lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood) and Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

It's important to note that while 'Campylobacter fetus' is a significant cause of foodborne illness, it can be prevented through proper food handling and preparation practices, such as cooking meats thoroughly and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Arcobacter is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in various environments, including water, soil, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. These bacteria are microaerophilic, meaning they require a reduced oxygen environment for growth. Some species of Arcobacter have been associated with gastrointestinal illnesses in humans, although the significance of these associations is not fully understood.

Here is a medical definition of Arcobacter from StatPearls:

"Arcobacter are gram-negative, curved or spiral-shaped rods that are microaerophilic and oxidase positive. They can be found in various environments, including water, soil, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Some species have been associated with diarrheal illnesses in humans, but their significance as human pathogens is not well established."

Source: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Campylobacter and Arcobacter Infections.

"Campylobacter sputorum" is a type of bacteria that can be found in the respiratory tract and digestive system of some animals, including humans. It is a gram-negative, curved or spiral-shaped organism that can cause various types of infections, such as pneumonia and bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood). However, it is not a common cause of human illness and is generally considered to be less pathogenic than other Campylobacter species, such as C. jejuni and C. coli, which are major causes of foodborne illness worldwide.

It's important to note that "Campylobacter sputorum" is a complex group of bacteria with several subspecies, some of them are more pathogenic than others, and it can be found in different environments such as animals, water and soil. It has been associated with cases of respiratory tract infections, bacteremia, and occasionally, gastroenteritis. However, the majority of Campylobacter infections in humans are caused by C. jejuni and C. coli which are commonly found in poultry and other animals.

It's always important to consult a medical professional for any questions or concerns regarding medical definitions and health-related information.

Cefoperazone is a type of antibiotic known as a cephalosporin, which is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by interfering with the bacteria's ability to form a cell wall, which is necessary for its survival. Without a functional cell wall, the bacteria are not able to grow and multiply, and are eventually destroyed by the body's immune system.

Cefoperazone is often used to treat infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, skin, and soft tissues. It may also be used to prevent infections during surgery. Like all antibiotics, cefoperazone should only be used under the direction of a healthcare professional, as misuse can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

It is important to note that cefoperazone, like other antibiotics, can have side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. It may also cause allergic reactions in some people. If you experience any unusual symptoms while taking cefoperazone, it is important to contact your healthcare provider right away.

Epidemiologic factors are elements that contribute to the occurrence, distribution, and determinants of a health-related event or disease in a specific population. These factors can include demographic characteristics (such as age, sex, race/ethnicity), genetic predisposition, environmental exposures, behavioral risks, and societal structures. By identifying and analyzing epidemiologic factors, public health professionals can develop strategies to prevent or control diseases and health conditions within a population.

There are many diseases that can affect cats, and the specific medical definitions for these conditions can be quite detailed and complex. However, here are some common categories of feline diseases and examples of each:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include:
* Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), also known as feline parvovirus, which can cause severe gastrointestinal symptoms and death in kittens.
* Feline calicivirus (FCV), which can cause upper respiratory symptoms such as sneezing and nasal discharge.
* Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), which can suppress the immune system and lead to a variety of secondary infections and diseases.
* Bacterial infections, such as those caused by Pasteurella multocida or Bartonella henselae, which can cause abscesses or other symptoms.
2. Neoplastic diseases: These are cancerous conditions that can affect various organs and tissues in cats. Examples include:
* Lymphoma, which is a common type of cancer in cats that can affect the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and other organs.
* Fibrosarcoma, which is a type of soft tissue cancer that can arise from fibrous connective tissue.
* Squamous cell carcinoma, which is a type of skin cancer that can be caused by exposure to sunlight or tobacco smoke.
3. Degenerative diseases: These are conditions that result from the normal wear and tear of aging or other factors. Examples include:
* Osteoarthritis, which is a degenerative joint disease that can cause pain and stiffness in older cats.
* Dental disease, which is a common condition in cats that can lead to tooth loss, gum inflammation, and other problems.
* Heart disease, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which is a thickening of the heart muscle that can lead to congestive heart failure.
4. Hereditary diseases: These are conditions that are inherited from a cat's parents and are present at birth or develop early in life. Examples include:
* Polycystic kidney disease (PKD), which is a genetic disorder that causes cysts to form in the kidneys and can lead to kidney failure.
* Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which can be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in some cats.
* Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), which is a group of genetic disorders that cause degeneration of the retina and can lead to blindness.

Domestic animals, also known as domestic animals or pets, are species that have been tamed and kept by humans for various purposes. These purposes can include companionship, work, protection, or food production. Some common examples of domestic animals include dogs, cats, cows, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, and chickens.

Domestic animals are distinguished from wild animals in that they are dependent on humans for their survival and are able to live in close proximity to people. They have often been selectively bred over generations to possess certain traits or characteristics that make them more suitable for their intended uses. For example, dogs may be bred for their size, strength, agility, or temperament, while cats may be bred for their coat patterns or behaviors.

It is important to note that the term "domestic animal" does not necessarily mean that an animal is tame or safe to handle. Some domestic animals, such as certain breeds of dogs, can be aggressive or dangerous if not properly trained and managed. It is always important to approach and handle any animal, domestic or wild, with caution and respect.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

Enteritis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the small intestine. The small intestine is responsible for digesting and absorbing nutrients from food, so inflammation in this area can interfere with these processes and lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss.

Enteritis can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial or viral infections, parasites, autoimmune disorders, medications, and exposure to toxins. In some cases, the cause of enteritis may be unknown. Treatment for enteritis depends on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotics, antiparasitic drugs, anti-inflammatory medications, or supportive care such as fluid replacement therapy.

There is no medical definition for "dog diseases" as it is too broad a term. However, dogs can suffer from various health conditions and illnesses that are specific to their species or similar to those found in humans. Some common categories of dog diseases include:

1. Infectious Diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include distemper, parvovirus, kennel cough, Lyme disease, and heartworms.
2. Hereditary/Genetic Disorders: Some dogs may inherit certain genetic disorders from their parents. Examples include hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and degenerative myelopathy.
3. Age-Related Diseases: As dogs age, they become more susceptible to various health issues. Common age-related diseases in dogs include arthritis, dental disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS).
4. Nutritional Disorders: Malnutrition or improper feeding can lead to various health problems in dogs. Examples include obesity, malnutrition, and vitamin deficiencies.
5. Environmental Diseases: These are caused by exposure to environmental factors such as toxins, allergens, or extreme temperatures. Examples include heatstroke, frostbite, and toxicities from ingesting harmful substances.
6. Neurological Disorders: Dogs can suffer from various neurological conditions that affect their nervous system. Examples include epilepsy, intervertebral disc disease (IVDD), and vestibular disease.
7. Behavioral Disorders: Some dogs may develop behavioral issues due to various factors such as anxiety, fear, or aggression. Examples include separation anxiety, noise phobias, and resource guarding.

It's important to note that regular veterinary care, proper nutrition, exercise, and preventative measures can help reduce the risk of many dog diseases.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

"Chickens" is a common term used to refer to the domesticated bird, Gallus gallus domesticus, which is widely raised for its eggs and meat. However, in medical terms, "chickens" is not a standard term with a specific definition. If you have any specific medical concern or question related to chickens, such as food safety or allergies, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate answer.

Poultry diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious disorders that affect domesticated birds, particularly those raised for meat, egg, or feather production. These diseases can be caused by various factors including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, genetic predisposition, environmental conditions, and management practices.

Infectious poultry diseases are often highly contagious and can lead to significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to decreased production, increased mortality, and reduced quality of products. Some examples of infectious poultry diseases include avian influenza, Newcastle disease, salmonellosis, colibacillosis, mycoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidiosis.

Non-infectious poultry diseases can be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, environmental stressors, and management issues. Examples of non-infectious poultry diseases include ascites, fatty liver syndrome, sudden death syndrome, and various nutritional deficiencies.

Prevention and control of poultry diseases typically involve a combination of biosecurity measures, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, good management practices, and monitoring for early detection and intervention. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of poultry diseases is crucial to implementing effective treatment and prevention strategies, and can help minimize the impact of disease outbreaks on both individual flocks and the broader poultry industry.

Teicoplanin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that is primarily used in the treatment of serious Gram-positive bacterial infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). It works by inhibiting the biosynthesis of bacterial cell walls.

Teicoplanin has a long half-life, which allows for once- or twice-daily dosing, and it is available in both intravenous and intramuscular formulations. Common side effects include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, as well as local reactions at the injection site. Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity are potential rare but serious adverse effects associated with teicoplanin use.

It is important to note that teicoplanin, like other glycopeptide antibiotics, should be used judiciously due to the risk of promoting antibiotic resistance and the potential for serious side effects.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "poultry" is not a medical term. It is a agricultural and culinary term that refers to domestic birds (such as chickens, ducks, geese, and turkeys) that are kept for their eggs, meat, or feathers. The study and care of these birds would fall under the field of veterinary medicine, but "poultry" itself is not a medical term.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

'Campylobacter rectus' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause periodontal disease, an infection and inflammation of the tissues surrounding the teeth. It is normally found in the oral cavity and is associated with periodontitis, a severe form of gum disease. The bacteria are microaerophilic, meaning they require reduced levels of oxygen to grow. Infection with 'Campylobacter rectus' can lead to tissue destruction, bone loss, and potentially systemic infections in individuals with weakened immune systems. Proper oral hygiene and dental care are important in preventing infection and controlling the spread of this bacterium.

Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. They are caused by pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or fungi that naturally infect non-human animals and can sometimes infect and cause disease in humans through various transmission routes like direct contact with infected animals, consumption of contaminated food or water, or vectors like insects. Some well-known zoonotic diseases include rabies, Lyme disease, salmonellosis, and COVID-19 (which is believed to have originated from bats). Public health officials work to prevent and control zoonoses through various measures such as surveillance, education, vaccination, and management of animal populations.

Flagellin is a protein that makes up the structural filament of the flagellum, which is a whip-like structure found on many bacteria that enables them to move. It is also known as a potent stimulator of the innate immune response and can be recognized by Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in the host's immune system, triggering an inflammatory response. Flagellin is highly conserved among different bacterial species, making it a potential target for broad-spectrum vaccines and immunotherapies against bacterial infections.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the peripheral nervous system, leading to muscle weakness, tingling sensations, and sometimes paralysis. The peripheral nervous system includes the nerves that control our movements and transmit signals from our skin, muscles, and joints to our brain.

The onset of GBS usually occurs after a viral or bacterial infection, such as respiratory or gastrointestinal infections, or following surgery, vaccinations, or other immune system triggers. The exact cause of the immune response that leads to GBS is not fully understood.

GBS typically progresses rapidly over days or weeks, with symptoms reaching their peak within 2-4 weeks after onset. Most people with GBS experience muscle weakness that starts in the lower limbs and spreads upward to the upper body, arms, and face. In severe cases, the diaphragm and chest muscles may become weakened, leading to difficulty breathing and requiring mechanical ventilation.

The diagnosis of GBS is based on clinical symptoms, nerve conduction studies, and sometimes cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as pain management, physical therapy, and respiratory support if necessary. In addition, plasma exchange (plasmapheresis) or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may be used to reduce the severity of symptoms and speed up recovery.

While most people with GBS recover completely or with minimal residual symptoms, some may experience long-term disability or require ongoing medical care. The prognosis for GBS varies depending on the severity of the illness and the individual's age and overall health.

Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter upsaliensis". ... Campylobacter upsaliensis is a gram-negative bacteria in the Campylobacter genus. C. upsaliensis is found worldwide, and is a ... Campylobacter upsaliensis shares the characteristic appearance of other Campylobacter species: it is a curved to spiral, gram- ... C. upsaliensis is the second most common Campylobacter species isolated in humans with diarrhea (behind Campylobacter jejuni). ...
... we discovered that the second most frequently isolated species was Campylobacter upsaliensis (6 [4%] of 155 isolates). The ... While evaluating quinolone resistance in a sample of Campylobacter isolates recovered from patients with campylobacteriosis in ... Campylobacter upsaliensis: Another pathogen for consideration in the United States Jaime A Labarca 1 , Joan Sturgeon, Lee ... Campylobacter upsaliensis: Another pathogen for consideration in the United States Jaime A Labarca et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 ...
Campylobacter and Arcobacter. The genus Campylobacter includes 18 species and subspecies; 11 of these are considered pathogenic ... The major pathogens are Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter fetus.. Scanning electron microscope image of Campylobacter ... Extraintestinal Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections: host factors and strain characteristics. J Infect Dis. ... The family Campylobacteraceae includes 2 genera: Campylobacter and Arcobacter. The genus Campylobacter includes 18 species and ...
Campylobacter upsaliensis Sandstedt and Ursing 1991 VL. Other collections numbers:. Butzler Brug 4. ... Campylobacter upsaliensis Sandstedt and Ursing 1991 VL. Other collections numbers:. Butzler Brug 5. ... Campylobacter upsaliensis Sandstedt and Ursing 1991 VL. Other collections numbers:. Butzler Brug 9. ... PIETER, Labo Microbiologie (Campylobacter sp.) <- Brugmann Ziekenhuis Brussel Belgium. Conditions for growth:. Medium 49, 37°C ...
Campylobacter upsaliensis: an overlooked problem?. By Scott Weese on November 20, 2009. ... Campylobacter bacteria are important causes of disease in people. Many Campylobacter species exist, and these different species ... Campylobacter is a bacterium that can cause diarrhea in people and animals, and which can also be found in the intestinal ... Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of diarrhea in people worldwide, and is most commonly associated with ...
Campylobacter infections are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. They produce both diarrheal and systemic ... Campylobacter upsaliensis may cause diarrhea or bacteremia, whereas Campylobacter hyointestinalis, which has biochemical ... Campylobacter cinaedi (sp. nov.) and Campylobacter fennelliae (sp. nov.): two new Campylobacter species associated with enteric ... Buss JE, Cresse M, Doyle S, Buchan BW, Craft DW, Young S. Campylobacter culture fails to correctly detect Campylobacter in 30% ...
5. Amino acid sequence determination of protein biomarkers of Campylobacter upsaliensis and C. helveticus by "composite" ... 8. Sub-speciating Campylobacter jejuni by proteomic analysis of its protein biomarkers and their post-translational ... 4. Composite sequence proteomic analysis of protein biomarkers of Campylobacter coli, C. lari and C. concisus for bacterial ... Genomic and proteomic identification of a DNA-binding protein used in the "fingerprinting" of campylobacter species and strains ...
Campylobacter upsaliensis (organism) Code System Concept Status. Published. Code System Preferred Concept Name. Campylobacter ...
Campylobacter infections are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. They produce both diarrheal and systemic ... Campylobacter upsaliensis may cause diarrhea or bacteremia, whereas Campylobacter hyointestinalis, which has biochemical ... Campylobacter cinaedi (sp. nov.) and Campylobacter fennelliae (sp. nov.): two new Campylobacter species associated with enteric ... Buss JE, Cresse M, Doyle S, Buchan BW, Craft DW, Young S. Campylobacter culture fails to correctly detect Campylobacter in 30% ...
A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from DOGS; CATS; and humans.. Terms. Campylobacter upsaliensis Preferred Term Term UI ... Campylobacter [B03.660.150.235.250.500] * Campylobacter coli [B03.660.150.235.250.500.100] * Campylobacter fetus [B03.660. ... Campylobacter upsaliensis. Tree Number(s). B03.440.180.800. B03.660.150.235.250.500.850. Unique ID. D044885. RDF Unique ... Campylobacter upsaliensis Preferred Concept UI. M0446479. Registry Number. txid28080. Scope Note. ...
A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from DOGS; CATS; and humans.. Terms. Campylobacter upsaliensis Preferred Term Term UI ... Campylobacter [B03.660.150.235.250.500] * Campylobacter coli [B03.660.150.235.250.500.100] * Campylobacter fetus [B03.660. ... Campylobacter upsaliensis. Tree Number(s). B03.440.180.800. B03.660.150.235.250.500.850. Unique ID. D044885. RDF Unique ... Campylobacter upsaliensis Preferred Concept UI. M0446479. Registry Number. txid28080. Scope Note. ...
In persons with compromised immune systems, Campylobacter occasionally spreads to the bloodstream and causes a serious life- ... Campylobacteriosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Campylobacter. Most people who become ill with ... Campylobacter jejuni. Less common species, such as C. coli, C. upsaliensis, C. fetus, and C. lari, can also infect people. ... Campylobacter infections increased by 12% in 2018 compared with 2015-2017. More Campylobacter infections are probably being ...
Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter upsaliensis, and a novel Campylobacter sp. in a captive non-human ...
Campylobacter upsaliensis , Humanos , Animais , Cães , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , ... Campylobacter upsaliensis is an emerging pathogen implicated in human gastroenteritis. Contact with pets, especially dogs, has ... Multidrug resistance and high genotypic diversity in Campylobacter upsaliensis from household dogs in Metro Manila, Philippines ... Fourteen (14) C. upsaliensis isolates were obtained from household dogs in Metro Manila, Philippines. Antimicrobial ...
Campylobacter upsaliensis - Preferred Concept UI. M0446479. Scope note. A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from DOGS; CATS; ... A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from DOGS; CATS; and humans.. Annotation:. infection: coord IM with CAMPYLOBACTER ... Campylobacter upsaliensis Spanish from Spain Descriptor. Campylobacter upsaliensis. Scope note:. Especie de CAMPYLOBACTER ... Campylobacter upsaliensis Descriptor French: Campylobacter upsaliensis Tree number(s):. B03.440.180.800. B03.660.150.235. ...
Campylobacter (jejuni, coli, and upsaliensis). Clostridium difficile (toxin A/B). Plesiomonas shigelloides ...
Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli may be pathogenic in dogs, yet Campylobacter upsaliensis, the most common isolate ... Healthy puppies and kittens as carriers of Campylobacter spp., with special reference to Campylobacter upsaliensis. Journal of ... Prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in a cross-sectional study of dogs attending veterinary practices in the UK and risk ... However, given that Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia (Fukushima et al., 1984; Fantasia et al., 1985) and E. coli O157 ( ...
Campylobacter jejuni (5). *Candida glabrata (5). *Arcobacter butzleri (4). *Campylobacter upsaliensis (4) ...
Campylobacter upsaliensis patients were more likely female (OR = 1.6), Hispanic (OR = 1.6), have a blood isolate (OR = 2.8), ... we compared patients with Campylobacter jejuni with patients with infections caused by other Campylobacter species. ... Campylobacter coli patients were more often ,40 years of age (OR = 1.4), Asian (OR = 2.3), or Black (OR = 1.7), and more likely ... Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of enteric bacterial illness in the United States. Traditional molecular subtyping ...
Publication: Pathogenicity investigation of Campylobacter jejuni, C. upsaliensis and C. helveticus isolated from dogs and cats ... Project Title: Exploring the virulence of Campylobacter spp. using Galleria mellonella and whole genomes ...
Campylobacter lari. Campylobacter ... Campylobacter upsaliensis. Campylobacter upsaliensis. Campylobacter upsaliensis. ... Campylobacter lari. Campylobacter ... Campylobacter upsaliensis. Campylobacter upsaliensis. Campylobacter upsaliensis. ... Campylobacter lari. Campylobacter ... Campylobacter upsaliensis. Campylobacter upsaliensis. Campylobacter upsaliensis. ... Campylobacter lari. Campylobacter ... Campylobacter upsaliensis. Campylobacter upsaliensis. Campylobacter upsaliensis. ...
Campylobacter spp.. Campylobacter is a small, curved, motile, microaerophilic, gram-negative rod, which is often isolated from ... are frequently isolated (e.g., C. upsaliensis), and their pathogenic significance is less clear. Clinical signs range from mild ... Campylobacter species can be isolated in feces from animals with clinical signs and from up to 50% of normal dogs. Clinically ... The organism most reported to cause clinical signs in companion animals is C. jejuni. However, other Campylobacter spp. ...
jejuni (68.8%), Campylobacter coli (8.3%), Campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei (6.3%), Campylobacter upsaliensis (4.2%), and ... jejuni (68.8%), Campylobacter coli (8.3%), Campylobacter jejuni subsp. doylei (6.3%), Campylobacter upsaliensis (4.2%), y ... were surveyed for the presence of Campylobacter. The positive results for Campylobacter among the analyzed samples were ... The Campylobacter count averaged 7.0 log10 colony-forming units (CFU)/g in cecal droppings, 5.15 log10 CFU/carcass after ...
Campylobacter,/i, clones in Grenada. This is the first report of genotyping of ,i,Campylobacter,/i, isolates from sheep and ... Campylobacter,/i, spp., antibiotic resistance, and multilocus sequence types. Fifteen ,i,Campylobacter,/i, isolates were ... Campylobacter,/i, isolates showed no significant difference between sheep and goats for type of antimicrobial resistance or ... upsaliensis on the basis of amplicon size of the IpxA gene was also used [19]. ...
Campylobacter rectus B03.660.150.235.250.500.740 Campylobacter sputorum B03.660.150.235.250.500.850 Campylobacter upsaliensis ... Campylobacter rectus B03.440.180.700 Campylobacter sputorum B03.440.180.800 Campylobacter upsaliensis B03.440.190 Chlamydiales ... Campylobacter B03.440.180.200 Campylobacter coli B03.440.180.325 Campylobacter fetus B03.440.180.375 Campylobacter ... Campylobacter B03.660.150.235.250.500.100 Campylobacter coli B03.660.150.235.250.500.220 Campylobacter fetus B03.660.150.235. ...
Campylobacter sputorum. *Campylobacter upsaliensis. Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more specific than " ... Oligodeoxynucleotide probes for Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis based on 16S rRNA sequences. J Clin ... Evidence that the Campylobacter fetus sap locus is an ancient genomic constituent with origins before mammals and reptiles ... "Campylobacter fetus" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ...
... and reliable detection of thermophilic Campylobacter (C. jejuni, C. coli, C. upsaliensis and C. lari) from food and ... PRImeDETECT™ Campylobacter PCR Detection Kit PRImeDETECT™ Campylobacter Detection is an ideal tool for an specific, rapid, ... PRImeDETECT™ Campylobacter PCR Detection Kit. Canvax, Food & Beverage, Foodborne Pathogen, PCR & qPCR Reagent, PCR Detection ...
AN - infection: coord IM with CAMPYLOBACTER INFECTIONS (IM) HN - 2004 MH - Campylobacter upsaliensis UI - D044885 MN - B3.440. ... AN - infection: coord IM with CAMPYLOBACTER INFECTIONS (IM) HN - 2004 MH - Campylobacter lari UI - D044863 MN - B3.440.180.500 ... AN - infection: coord IM with CAMPYLOBACTER INFECTIONS (IM) HN - 2004 MH - Campylobacter rectus UI - D044883 MN - B3.440. ... AN - infection: coord IM with CAMPYLOBACTER INFECTIONS (IM) HN - 2004 MH - Campylobacter sputorum UI - D044884 MN - B3.440. ...

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