Campylobacter: A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Campylobacter jejuni: A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.Campylobacter Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.Campylobacter coli: A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of swine, poultry, and man. It may be pathogenic.Campylobacter fetus: A species of bacteria present in man and many kinds of animals and birds, often causing infertility and/or abortion.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Campylobacter lari: A species of thermophilic CAMPYLOBACTER found in healthy seagulls and causing ENTERITIS in humans.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Turkeys: Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Enteritis: Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Poultry Products: Food products manufactured from poultry.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Flagellin: A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Campylobacter rectus: A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from cases of human PERIODONTITIS. It is a microaerophile, capable of respiring with OXYGEN.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Guillain-Barre Syndrome: An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Meat-Packing Industry: The aggregate enterprise of technically producing packaged meat.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Frozen FoodsArcobacter: A genus of gram-negative, aerotolerant, spiral-shaped bacteria isolated from water and associated with diarrhea in humans and animals.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Polyradiculoneuropathy: Diseases characterized by injury or dysfunction involving multiple peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process may primarily affect myelin or nerve axons. Two of the more common demyelinating forms are acute inflammatory polyradiculopathy (GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME) and POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING. Polyradiculoneuritis refers to inflammation of multiple peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Cloaca: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Campylobacter hyointestinalis: A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from the INTESTINES of PIGS with proliferative ENTERITIS. It is also found in CATTLE and in CRICETINAE and can cause enteritis in humans.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Campylobacter upsaliensis: A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from DOGS; CATS; and humans.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Hippurates: Salts and esters of hippuric acid.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nalidixic Acid: A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.DNA Gyrase: A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Shellfish: Aquatic invertebrates belonging to the phylum MOLLUSCA or the subphylum CRUSTACEA, and used as food.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Bacterial Shedding: The expelling of bacteria from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract.United StatesDNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Campylobacter sputorum: A species of CAMPYLOBACTER comprised of three biovars based on their reaction to CATALASE and UREASE. They have been isolated from humans, CATTLE, and SHEEP.Ribotyping: RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.Miller Fisher Syndrome: A variant of the GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME characterized by the acute onset of oculomotor dysfunction, ataxia, and loss of deep tendon reflexes with relative sparing of strength in the extremities and trunk. The ataxia is produced by peripheral sensory nerve dysfunction and not by cerebellar injury. Facial weakness and sensory loss may also occur. The process is mediated by autoantibodies directed against a component of myelin found in peripheral nerves. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1313; Neurology 1987 Sep;37(9):1493-8)Consumer Product SafetyTetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Helicobacter: A genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from the intestinal tract of mammals, including humans. It has been associated with PEPTIC ULCER.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Abortion, Septic: Any type of abortion, induced or spontaneous, that is associated with infection of the UTERUS and its appendages. It is characterized by FEVER, uterine tenderness, and foul discharge.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Salmonella enterica: A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.For-Profit Insurance Plans: Health insurance plans that are intended to be for profit.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Shigella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Salmonella Infections, Animal: Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.Gastritis: Inflammation of the GASTRIC MUCOSA, a lesion observed in a number of unrelated disorders.Bacteroidaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria found primarily in the intestinal tracts and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Its organisms are sometimes pathogenic.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Deoxyribonucleases, Type II Site-Specific: Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC 3.1.21.4.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Dysentery, Bacillary: DYSENTERY caused by gram-negative rod-shaped enteric bacteria (ENTEROBACTERIACEAE), most often by the genus SHIGELLA. Shigella dysentery, Shigellosis, is classified into subgroups according to syndrome severity and the infectious species. Group A: SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE (severest); Group B: SHIGELLA FLEXNERI; Group C: SHIGELLA BOYDII; and Group D: SHIGELLA SONNEI (mildest).Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.BerlinHot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Food Storage: Keeping food for later consumption.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis: The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Ammonium Hydroxide: The hydroxy salt of ammonium ion. It is formed when AMMONIA reacts with water molecules in solution.Molecular Mimicry: The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.Trimethylsilyl Compounds: Organic silicon derivatives used to characterize hydroxysteroids, nucleosides, and related compounds. Trimethylsilyl esters of amino acids are used in peptide synthesis.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
Contaminated food is a major source of isolated infections, with incorrectly prepared meat and poultry as the primary source of ... Moreover, surveys show that 20 to 100% of retail chickens are contaminated. This is not overly surprising, since many healthy ... "Campylobacter jejuni , Campylobacter Food Poisoning". www.about-campylobacter.com. Retrieved 2016-04-18. Ryan KJ, Ray CG, eds ... FJ Bolton; L Robertson (1982). "A selective medium for isolating Campylobacter jejuni/coli" (pdf). J Clin Pathol. 35: 462-476. ...
There are three branches which oversee humans, retail meat, and food animals. USDA - Operating under the Food Safety and ... 44/68 tested isolates were resistant to at least 1 drug (65%), and 4 of 5 chicken samples tested were drug resistant (80%). ... Three consistently found in poultry are: Salmonella, Campylobacter, and Escherichia coli. 2014: Outbreak of Salmonella in 634 ... FDA - Operating under the Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM). Works with CDC to monitor retail meat. CDC - Monitors human ...
Sampling of retail meats such as turkey, chicken, pork and beef consistently show high levels of Enterobacteriaceae. Rates of ... Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2013). Human Isolates Final Report (PDF). National Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring ... The Center for Disease Control identifies Salmonella and Campylobacter as two bacteria commonly spread to humans through food.[ ... Sources on contaminated meat put humans at direct risk by handling the meat or ingesting it before it is completely cooked.[88] ...
... has been reported in raw chicken meat in retail stores in the USA.[34] The reported prevalence in retail chicken meat is higher ... Bacteriophages specific to the species now known as C. coli and C. fetus (previously Vibrio coli and V. fetus), were isolated ... in skinless, boneless retail broiler meat from 2005 through 2011 in Alabama, USA". BMC Microbiology. 12: 184. doi:10.1186/1471- ... Campylobacter (meaning "curved bacteria") is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria.[1] Campylobacter typically appear comma or s- ...
... produced by molds isolated from fermented meats". J. Food Prot. 66 (11): 2123-9. PMID 14627292. Adejumo TO, Hettwer U, ... Food may be contaminated during all stages of food production and retailing. In order to prevent viral contamination, ... Most common bacterial foodborne pathogens are: Campylobacter jejuni which can lead to secondary Guillain-Barré syndrome and ... One of the cans had a defect and the meat inside was contaminated. This meat was then sliced using a meat slicer in a shop in ...
Most of the serotypes isolated from poultry are pathogenic only for birds. So avian sources of E. coli do not seem to be ... "Retail Establishments; Annex 3 - Hazard Analysis". Managing Food Safety: A Manual for the Voluntary Use of HACCP Principles for ... Earlier, poor hygienic methods of preparing meat in Scotland killed seven people in 1996 due to E. coli poisoning, and left ... "Detection of Campylobacter and Escherichia coli O157:H7 from filth flies by polymerase chain reaction". Med Vet Entomol. 18 (3 ...
"China Retail News. 18 September 2008. Archived from the original on 26 February 2010. Retrieved 2 April 2010.. ... The European Commission also called for tighter checks on other Chinese food imports;[126][127] isolated contaminated products ... All of these toxins end up in the final food products (all kinds of produce, meat, dairy products etc.). It goes without saying ... Campylobacter jejuni. *Clostridium perfringens. *Escherichia coli O104:H4. *Escherichia coli O157:H7 ...
A total of 47 Campylobacter isolates (28 C. jejuni and 19 C. coli) isolated from various retail meat samples (beef, beef livers ... In conclusion, retail meat Campylobacter isolates tested in this study particularly those from chicken livers showed ... coli that were isolated from different Oklahoma retail meat sources. ... Twelve of the screened Campylobacter isolates (8 C. jejuni and 4 C. coli) did not show any defined STs. All the defined STs of ...
... coli isolates with a broth microdilution assay. Campylobacter isolates were recovered from 188 (46%) of 412 samples. The ... of 208 Campylobacter isolates were ciprofloxacin resistant. Salmonella isolates were recovered from 95 (24%) of 397 samples. ... Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for Campylobacter isolates with a concentration gradient test and for ... and Escherichia coli isolated from fresh retail turkey purchased at grocery stores in Ontario, Canada. The antimicrobial ...
... in addition to contaminated retail chicken, other sources have also contributed to gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter ... that several new aminoglycoside resistance genes underlie the recent emergence of gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter, and that ... and genotypic profile comparison of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from humans and retail meats. Thakur S ... Novel gentamicin resistance genes in Campylobacter isolated from humans and retail meats in the USA Shaohua Zhao 1 , Sampa ...
Including strategies to support whole genome sequencing of Campylobacter isolates from people, meat sold at retail, and food ... Resistance to macrolides in Campylobacter has remained stable. In 2017, 28% of C. jejuni and 38% of C. coli isolates were ... How does antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter spread to people?. Campylobacter can spread from animals to people through ... Determining foods responsible for outbreaks of Campylobacter infections. *Investigating and controlling Campylobacter outbreaks ...
Genomic information for Campylobacter and E. coli isolates from retail meat and food animals. Until now, this information was ... No resistance to carbapenems was observed among Salmonella isolates from humans, retail meats, and animals. This is important ... Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Listeria, norovirus, Salmonella, STEC, Shigella, Vibrio, and Yersinia. ... Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Listeria, Salmonella, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Shigella, ...
Comparison showed that the clinical isolate (strain SB92/844) had 53.4% and 53.9% protein profile similarity with dairy isolate ... Proteomic profiles of three different L. monocytogenes isolates were studied using 1D SDS PAGE, 2DE and mass spectrometry. The ... strain V7) and seafood isolate (SB92/870), respectively. The identity of selected protein spots was achieved using MALDI-TOF ... Exploring PFGE for Detecting Large Plasmids in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolated from Various Retail Meats ...
... including a pair of isolates from the same meat sample (isolates 9 and 10 [Table 1]). One profile was shared by three isolates ... Campylobacter contamination of raw meat and poultry at retail sale: identification of multiple types and comparison with ... Although most isolates are reported simply asCampylobacter spp., available data suggest that over 90% of campylobacters ... Evaluation of phenotypic and genotypic methods for subtyping Campylobacter jejuni isolates from humans, poultry, and cattle.J. ...
Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter jejuni Isolated from Poultry Meat and Related Samples at Retail ...
Whole-genome sequencing of gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter coli isolated from U.S. retail meats reveals novel plasmid- ... Optical mapping and 454 sequencing of Escherichia coli O157 : H7 isolates linked to the US 2006 spinach-associated outbreak. ... Species-Wide Collection of Escherichia coli Isolates for Examination of Genomic Diversity. ...
Genetic diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from poultry meat products sold on the retail market ... Food isolate Listeria monocytogenes harboring tetM gene plasmid-mediated exchangeable to Enterococcus faecalis on the surface ...
Campylobacter contamination of raw meat and poultry at retail sale: identification of multiple types and comparison with ... analysis was applied to 276 Campylobacter jejuni strains and 87 Campylobacter coli strains isolated from humans, pigs, cattle, ... They were obtained from live poultry, retail chicken portions, live cattle, retail bovine liver, milk, live pigs, retail ... However, the majority of Campylobacter isolates belong to a limited number of HS serotypes (10, 26), so that phage typing is ...
Campylobacter was identified in 28 of 97 veal livers collected concurrently from slaughterhouses and retailers. Veal liver was ... associated with human Campylobacter infection, particularly when consumed undercooked. ... Saito S, Yatsuyanagi J, Harata S, Ito Y, Shinagawa K, Suzuki N, et al. Campylobacter jejuni isolated from retail poultry meat, ... A higher prevalence rate of Campylobacter in retail beef livers compared to other beef and pork meat cuts. Int J Environ Res ...
S. Zhao, S. R. Young, E. Tong et al., "Antimicrobial resistance of campylobacter isolates from retail meat in the united states ... "Comparison of genotypes and antibiotic resistances of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli on chicken retail meat and at ... from retail broiler meat and use of pulsed field gel electrophoresis for the typing of isolates," Journal of Microbiological ... H. Suzuki and S. Yamamoto, "Campylobacter contamination in retail poultry meats and by-products in the world: a literature ...
Kramer, J.M.; Frost, J.A.; Bolton, F.J.; Wareing, D.R. Campylobacter contamination of raw meat and poultry at retail sale: ... Molecular characterization of invasive and noninvasive Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol ... DNA relatedness and phenotypic characterization of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolates involved in food-borne ... Molecular subtyping of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni strains isolated from different animal species in the state of São ...
Novel gentamicin resistance genes in Campylobacter isolated from humans and retail meats in the USA. J Antimicrob Chemother 70: ... Whole-genome sequencing of gentamicin-resistant Campylobacter coli isolated from U.S. retail meats reveals novel plasmid- ... Of 917 Campylobacter isolates, 77.4% of C. jejuni isolates and 79.8% of non-C. jejuni isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin ... isolated from broiler chicken meat of Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian origin at Estonian retail level and from patients with ...
Macrolide antibiotic resistance in retail chicken isolates remains low, with 2011 results at 0.5% of Campylobacter jejuni and ... However, gentamicin resistance in C. coli markedly increased from 0.7% in 2007 (when it first appeared in the NARMS retail meat ... Multi-drug resistance is rare in campylobacter. Only nine out of 634 campylobacter isolates from poultry were resistant to ... "2011 Retail Meat Annual Report" of the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). ...
Tracing Campylobacter jejuni strains along the poultry meat production chain from farm to retail by pulsed-field gel ... Isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using SmaI and KpnI restriction enzymes and their ... Tracing ,em,Campylobacter jejuni,/em, Strains along the Poultry Meat Production Chain. Food safety Broilers ... The prevalence of C. jejuni in poultry products at retail stores was 58.97 per cent for flock 1 and 69.23 per cent for flock 2 ...
In summary, Campylobacter retail meat isolates exhibited wide diversity in cell culture model in the ability of adherence, ... It was found that the adherence and invasiveness of total 43 Campylobacter retail meat isolates in human intestinal epithelial ... The objectives of this study were to characterize the pathogenic abilities of various C. jejuni/coli retail meat isolates, ... Meanwhile, eight putative virulence genes, determined by PCR, were shown to be widespread among the Campylobacter isolates. C. ...
... but understanding and controlling campylobacter may prove to be an even tougher task. ... In 1992, a research study found that campylobacter could be isolated from 98% of chicken meat at retail. Additionally, C. ... How do campylobacter end up on chicken?. New salmonella, campylobacter performance standards for poultry lack scientific ... Sources of campylobacter. For many years, scientists pointed to the possible sources of campylobacter as being feed, wild birds ...
Contaminated food is a major source of isolated infections, with incorrectly prepared meat and poultry as the primary source of ... Moreover, surveys show that 20 to 100% of retail chickens are contaminated. This is not overly surprising, since many healthy ... "Campylobacter jejuni , Campylobacter Food Poisoning". www.about-campylobacter.com. Retrieved 2016-04-18. Ryan KJ, Ray CG, eds ... FJ Bolton; L Robertson (1982). "A selective medium for isolating Campylobacter jejuni/coli" (pdf). J Clin Pathol. 35: 462-476. ...
2008). Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter Isolated from Retail Poultry Meat and Broiler Chickens in ... 2008). Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter Isolated from Retail Poultry Meat and Broiler Chickens in ... Risk-based meat inspection and integrated meat safety assurance 04.03.2019. 03.03.2023. Mati Roasto. Eesti Maaülikool, ... 2007). Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler chickens in Estonia during periods 2002-2003 and ...
The proportion of isolates submitted to NARMS varies by pathogen.. NARMS Retail Meat Study (RMS). The RMS is a surveillance ... Campylobacter, Enterococcus, and Escherichia coli. The results generated by the NARMS retail meat program serve as a reference ... Retail meat samples are purchased from a random sample of stores within a three county radius of Albuquerque. The meat samples ... Ensuring a Safer Food Supply: Surveillance of New Mexicos Retail Meat. Butler L, Lathrop S, Torres P. New Mexico Epidemiology, ...
Salmonella and Campylobacter prevalence in retail chicken meat samples continue to decline, and both are at their lowest levels ... The NARMS program collects and isolates samples from humans, food producing animals, and retail meat, and tests them for ... cataloging antimicrobial resistance in enteric bacteria isolated from raw retail meat and poultry. The NARMS Integrated Report ... In 2014, no retail chicken isolates of either Salmonella or E. coli were found to be extremely drug resistant. ...
The samples were tested for Salmonella and Campylobacter at the Contra Costa County Public Health Laboratory. After the samples ... of 43 meat isolates among the 12 STs were from poultry. Among 94 isolates in the 12 STs, 26 (60%) of 43 retail meat isolates ... E. coli isolates from retail meat products.Between November 2016 and September 2017, we obtained 427 retail raw meat samples; ... The overall resistance frequency of the meat isolates was lower than that observed among ExPEC isolates from retail meats in ...
From 415 meat samples, they isolated 91 strains of Campylobacter, 59% of which were sensitive to all the antibiotics tested. ... Researchers from the Swiss Federal Veterinary Office collected raw poultry meat samples from 122 retail outlets across ... of Campylobacter strains isolated from poultry meat had resistance to at least one, and 45% to at least two antibiotics. ... Meat was more likely to be infected with Campylobacter if it was kept chilled, rather than frozen. However, the storage ...
  • ground turkey isolates showed a larger increase (from 1% to 10%) during the same time period. (aasv.org)
  • Campylobacter is a globally disseminated Gram-negative zoonotic bacterium that is the main cause of gastrointestinal disease in children and adults. (asm.org)
  • In summary, Campylobacter retail meat isolates exhibited wide diversity in cell culture model in the ability of adherence, invasion and transmigration. (umd.edu)
  • Serotyping has been suggested as the practical solution for large-scale surveillance of Campylobacter ( 22 ) and is current practice for routine reference typing in England and Wales, along with phage typing ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • iii) Campylobacter isolation, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing have been performed with different analytical methods making necessary the harmonisation and standardisation of diagnostic methods and iv) strengthening Campylobacter antimicrobial resistance surveillance programs and capacity building with the association between public health services and the academic world are necessary. (uach.cl)