Infections with bacteria of the genus CAMPYLOBACTER.
A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.
A species of bacteria that resemble small tightly coiled spirals. Its organisms are known to cause abortion in sheep and fever and enteritis in man and may be associated with enteric diseases of calves, lambs, and other animals.
A species of bacteria present in man and many kinds of animals and birds, often causing infertility and/or abortion.
A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of swine, poultry, and man. It may be pathogenic.
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
Food products manufactured from poultry.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
A species of thermophilic CAMPYLOBACTER found in healthy seagulls and causing ENTERITIS in humans.
Diseases characterized by injury or dysfunction involving multiple peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process may primarily affect myelin or nerve axons. Two of the more common demyelinating forms are acute inflammatory polyradiculopathy (GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME) and POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING. Polyradiculoneuritis refers to inflammation of multiple peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Wales" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, located in Europe. If you have any questions about a specific medical topic, I would be happy to help answer those!
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Peru" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Republic of Peru. If you have any questions about medical topics that I can help clarify, please let me know!
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'England' is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, known for its rich history, cultural heritage, and contributions to medical science. However, in a medical context, it may refer to the location of a patient, healthcare provider, or research study, but it is not a term with a specific medical meaning.
An infant during the first month after birth.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Denmark" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is a country located in northern Europe. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from cases of human PERIODONTITIS. It is a microaerophile, capable of respiring with OXYGEN.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A genus of gram-negative, aerotolerant, spiral-shaped bacteria isolated from water and associated with diarrhea in humans and animals.

Physiological characterization of viable-but-nonculturable Campylobacter jejuni cells. (1/1378)

Campylobacter jejuni is a pathogenic, microaerophilic, gram-negative, mesophilic bacterium. Three strains isolated from humans with enteric campylobacteriosis were able to survive at high population levels (10(7) cells ml-1) as viable-but-nonculturable (VBNC) forms in microcosm water. The VBNC forms of the three C. jejuni strains were enumerated and characterized by using 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride-4',6-diamino-2-phenylindole staining. Cellular volume, adenylate energy charge, internal pH, intracellular potassium concentration, and membrane potential values were determined in stationary-phase cell suspensions after 48 h of culture on Columbia agar and after 1 to 30 days of incubation in microcosm water and compared. A notable increase in cell volume was observed with the VBNC state; the average cell volumes were 1.73 microliter mg of protein-1 for the culturable form and 10.96 microliter mg of protein-1 after 30 days of incubation in microcosm water. Both the internal potassium content and the membrane potential were significantly lower in the VBNC state than in the culturable state. Culturable cells were able to maintain a difference of 0.6 to 0.9 pH unit between the internal and external pH values; with VBNC cells this difference decreased progressively with time of incubation in microcosm water. Measurements of the cellular adenylate nucleotide concentrations revealed that the cells had a low adenylate energy charge (0.66 to 0.26) after 1 day of incubation in microcosm water, and AMP was the only nucleotide detected in the three strains after 30 days of incubation in microcosm water.  (+info)

Campylobacter jejuni--an emerging foodborne pathogen. (2/1378)

Campylobacter jejuni is the most commonly reported bacterial cause of foodborne infection in the United States. Adding to the human and economic costs are chronic sequelae associated with C. jejuni infection--Guillian-Barre syndrome and reactive arthritis. In addition, an increasing proportion of human infections caused by C. jejuni are resistant to antimicrobial therapy. Mishandling of raw poultry and consumption of undercooked poultry are the major risk factors for human campylobacteriosis. Efforts to prevent human illness are needed throughout each link in the food chain.  (+info)

The risk of Guillain-Barre syndrome following infection with Campylobacter jejuni. (3/1378)

To estimate the incidence of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) following Campylobacter jejuni infection (CI) we studied three populations where outbreaks of CI had occurred involving an estimated 8000 cases. No case of GBS was detected in the 6 months following the outbreaks in the local populations. The point estimate for the risk of GBS following CI estimated in this study was 0 in 8000 (95% confidence interval 0-3).  (+info)

Clonality of Campylobacter sputorum bv. paraureolyticus determined by macrorestriction profiling and biotyping, and evidence for long-term persistent infection in cattle. (4/1378)

Eighteen strains of Campylobacter sputorum bv. paraureolyticus (isolated over a 12-month period from seven dairy cows contained in a single herd) were examined by resistotyping, and macrorestriction profiling using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The resistotypes of these strains were identical, although repeat testing indicated resistance to metronidazole was not a reliable trait for typing purposes. Five SmaI-derived genotypes were identified among the 18 strains. In 5 of 7 cows, isolates obtained from the same animal, but from different time periods, were genotypically indistinguishable, indicating persistence of infection. Macrorestriction profiles of 5 strains representing the 5 SmaI genotypes and 8 other strains of C. sputorum from various sources, were prepared using 4 endonucleases (SmaI, SalI, BamHI and KpnI). The only other strain of C. sputorum bv. paraureolyticus examined (a Canadian isolate from human faeces), was found to have a SmaI macrorestriction profile identical with one of the five clones isolated from the cattle. Moreover, SalI and BamHI profiles of all bv. paraureolyticus strains were similar, while digestion with KpnI was not observed. By contrast, the seven strains of C. sputorum bv. sputorum yielded various macrorestriction profiles with all the enzymes used, and features distinguishing the two biovars studied could be identified. This study indicates that C. sputorum can persist in cattle for at least 12 months and exhibits a clonal population genetic structure.  (+info)

Detection of small numbers of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli cells in environmental water, sewage, and food samples by a seminested PCR assay. (5/1378)

A rapid and sensitive assay was developed for detection of small numbers of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli cells in environmental water, sewage, and food samples. Water and sewage samples were filtered, and the filters were enriched overnight in a nonselective medium. The enrichment cultures were prepared for PCR by a rapid and simple procedure consisting of centrifugation, proteinase K treatment, and boiling. A seminested PCR based on specific amplification of the intergenic sequence between the two Campylobacter flagellin genes, flaA and flaB, was performed, and the PCR products were visualized by agarose gel electrophoresis. The assay allowed us to detect 3 to 15 CFU of C. jejuni per 100 ml in water samples containing a background flora consisting of up to 8, 700 heterotrophic organisms per ml and 10,000 CFU of coliform bacteria per 100 ml. Dilution of the enriched cultures 1:10 with sterile broth prior to the PCR was sometimes necessary to obtain positive results. The assay was also conducted with food samples analyzed with or without overnight enrichment. As few as +info)

Ganglioside GM1 mimicry in Campylobacter strains from sporadic infections in the United States. (6/1378)

To determine whether GM1-like epitopes in Campylobacter species are specific to O serotypes associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) or whether they are frequent among random Campylobacter isolates causing enteritis, 275 random enteritis-associated isolates of Campylobacter jejuni were analyzed. To determine whether GM1-like epitopes in Campylobacter species are specific to O serotypes associated with Guillan-Barre syndrome (GBS) or whether they are frequent among random Campylobacter isolates causing enteritis, 275 enteritis-associated isolates, randomly collected in the United States, were analyzed using a cholera-toxin binding assay [corrected]. Overall, 26.2% of the isolates were positive for the GM1-like epitope. Of the 36 different O serotypes in the sample, 21 (58.3%) contained no strains positive for GM1, whereas in 6 serotypes (16.7%), >50% of isolates were positive for GM1. GBS-associated serotypes were more likely to contain strains positive for GM1 than were non-GBS-associated serotypes (37.8% vs. 15.1%, P=.0116). The results suggest that humans are frequently exposed to strains exhibiting GM1-like mimicry and, while certain serotypes may be more likely to possess GM1-like epitopes, the presence of GM1-like epitopes on Campylobacter strains does not itself trigger GBS.  (+info)

Cloning, sequencing and molecular analysis of the Campylobacter jejuni groESL bicistronic operon. (7/1378)

The groESL bicistronic operon from the enteric pathogen Campylobacter jejuni was cloned and sequenced. It consists of two ORFs encoding proteins with molecular masses of 9.5 and 57.9 kDa, which showed a high degree of homology to other bacterial GroES and GroEL proteins. Northern blot analysis suggested that the groESL operon is transcribed as a bicistronic mRNA, and its steady-state level was markedly increased after temperature upshift. By primer extension assay, one potential transcription start point preceding the groESL genes could be demonstrated, and a putative promoter region compatible with both Escherichia coli and C. jejuni sigma70 consensus sequences was identified. A conserved inverted repeat, which is believed to be involved in the regulation of the groESL genes, was found between the -10 promoter box and the groES translation start site. The complete coding region of groEL was fused with pET-22b(+) and expressed in E. coli as a His6-tagged recombinant protein (rCjHsp60-His). After purification, the protein was recognized by an anti-HSP60 monoclonal antibody. ELISA and Western immunoblotting experiments showed that IgG and IgA antibody responses against rCjHsp60-His were not significantly increased in sera from 24 patients with sporadic Campylobacter infection when compared to sera from 16 healthy controls.  (+info)

Distinct immunoglobulin class and immunoglobulin G subclass patterns against ganglioside GQ1b in Miller Fisher syndrome following different types of infection. (8/1378)

We studied serum antibodies against gangliosides GQ1b and GM1 in 13 patients with Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) and in 18 patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) with cranial nerve involvement. Anti-GQ1b titers were elevated in all patients with MFS cases (immunoglobulin G [IgG] > IgA, IgM), and in 8 of the 18 with GBS. Lower frequencies of increased anti-GM1 titers were observed in MFS patients (3 of 13), as well as in GBS patients (5 of 18). During the course of MFS, anti-GQ1b titers of all Ig classes decreased within 3 weeks after onset. By contrast, anti-GM1 titers (mainly IgM) transiently increased during the course of MFS in five of six patients, suggesting a nonspecific secondary immune response. In patients with MFS following respiratory infections, IgG was the major anti-GQ1b Ig class (six of six patients) and IgG3 was the major subclass (five of six). In contrast, four of five patients with MFS following gastrointestinal infections showed predominance of anti-GQ1b IgA or IgM over IgG and predominance of the IgG2 subclass; anti-GQ1b IgG (IgG3) prevailed in one patient only. These distinct Ig patterns strongly suggest that different infections may trigger different mechanisms of anti-GQ1b production, such as via T-cell-dependent as opposed to T-cell-independent pathways. Thus, the origin of antibodies against GQ1b in MFS may be determined by the type of infectious agent that precipitates the disease.  (+info)

Campylobacter infections are illnesses caused by the bacterium *Campylobacter jejuni* or other species of the genus *Campylobacter*. These bacteria are commonly found in the intestines of animals, particularly birds, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food, water, or contact with infected animals.

The most common symptom of Campylobacter infection is diarrhea, which can range from mild to severe and may be bloody. Other symptoms may include abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and vomiting. The illness usually lasts about a week, but in some cases, it can lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacteria in the bloodstream), meningitis, or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Campylobacter infections are typically treated with antibiotics, but in mild cases, they may resolve on their own without treatment. Prevention measures include cooking meat thoroughly, washing hands and surfaces that come into contact with raw meat, avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and untreated water, and handling pets, particularly birds and reptiles, with care.

'Campylobacter' is a genus of gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestinal tracts of animals, including birds and mammals. These bacteria are a leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness worldwide, with Campylobacter jejuni being the most frequently identified species associated with human infection.

Campylobacter infection, also known as campylobacteriosis, typically causes symptoms such as diarrhea (often bloody), abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. The infection is usually acquired through the consumption of contaminated food or water, particularly undercooked poultry, raw milk, and contaminated produce. It can also be transmitted through contact with infected animals or their feces.

While most cases of campylobacteriosis are self-limiting and resolve within a week without specific treatment, severe or prolonged infections may require antibiotic therapy. In rare cases, Campylobacter infection can lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacterial bloodstream infection), meningitis, or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Preventive measures include proper food handling and cooking techniques, thorough handwashing, and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods.

'Campylobacter jejuni' is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that is a common cause of foodborne illness worldwide. It is often found in the intestines of warm-blooded animals, including birds and mammals, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water.

The bacteria are capable of causing an infection known as campylobacteriosis, which is characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the bloodstream and cause serious complications, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

'Campylobacter jejuni' is one of the most common causes of foodborne illness in the United States, with an estimated 1.3 million cases occurring each year. It is often found in undercooked poultry and raw or unpasteurized milk products, as well as in contaminated water supplies. Proper cooking and pasteurization can help reduce the risk of infection, as can good hygiene practices such as washing hands thoroughly after handling raw meat and vegetables.

'Campylobacter fetus' is a species of gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal infections in humans. It is commonly found in the intestinal tracts of animals, particularly cattle, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water.

The infection caused by 'Campylobacter fetus' is known as campylobacteriosis, which typically presents with symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. In some cases, the infection can also lead to serious complications such as bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood) and Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

It's important to note that while 'Campylobacter fetus' is a significant cause of foodborne illness, it can be prevented through proper food handling and preparation practices, such as cooking meats thoroughly and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods.

'Campylobacter coli' is a species of bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal illness in humans. It is one of the several species within the genus Campylobacter, which are gram-negative, microaerophilic, spiral or curved rods. 'Campylobacter coli' is commonly found in the intestines of animals, particularly swine and cattle, and can be transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water.

The most common symptom of infection with 'Campylobacter coli' is diarrhea, which can range from mild to severe and may be accompanied by abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and vomiting. The illness, known as campylobacteriosis, typically lasts for about a week and resolves on its own without specific treatment in most cases. However, in some cases, the infection can lead to more serious complications, such as bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood) or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a rare neurological disorder that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis.

Prevention measures include cooking food thoroughly, washing hands and surfaces frequently, and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods. 'Campylobacter coli' infections are also reportable to public health authorities in many jurisdictions, as they are considered a significant cause of foodborne illness worldwide.

Enteritis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the small intestine. The small intestine is responsible for digesting and absorbing nutrients from food, so inflammation in this area can interfere with these processes and lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss.

Enteritis can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial or viral infections, parasites, autoimmune disorders, medications, and exposure to toxins. In some cases, the cause of enteritis may be unknown. Treatment for enteritis depends on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotics, antiparasitic drugs, anti-inflammatory medications, or supportive care such as fluid replacement therapy.

Medical definitions of terms often come from authoritative sources such as those produced by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), or the World Health Organization (WHO). However, I couldn't find a specific medical definition for 'poultry products' in these resources. Instead, poultry products are commonly defined by food safety authorities such as the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) or the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

According to the USDA, "Poultry products" are items that are derived from the whole carcasses, parts, or portions of poultry carcasses, such as chicken, turkey, duck, goose, guinea fowl, and ratites (emus and ostriches). These products include, but are not limited to, meat, skin, fat, bones, organs, eggs, and egg products.

It's important to note that poultry products can be a source of various bacteria, parasites, and viruses, including Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria, and avian influenza viruses. Proper handling, cooking, and storage are crucial steps in preventing foodborne illnesses associated with the consumption of poultry products.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "poultry" is not a medical term. It is a agricultural and culinary term that refers to domestic birds (such as chickens, ducks, geese, and turkeys) that are kept for their eggs, meat, or feathers. The study and care of these birds would fall under the field of veterinary medicine, but "poultry" itself is not a medical term.

Poultry diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious disorders that affect domesticated birds, particularly those raised for meat, egg, or feather production. These diseases can be caused by various factors including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, genetic predisposition, environmental conditions, and management practices.

Infectious poultry diseases are often highly contagious and can lead to significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to decreased production, increased mortality, and reduced quality of products. Some examples of infectious poultry diseases include avian influenza, Newcastle disease, salmonellosis, colibacillosis, mycoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidiosis.

Non-infectious poultry diseases can be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, environmental stressors, and management issues. Examples of non-infectious poultry diseases include ascites, fatty liver syndrome, sudden death syndrome, and various nutritional deficiencies.

Prevention and control of poultry diseases typically involve a combination of biosecurity measures, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, good management practices, and monitoring for early detection and intervention. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of poultry diseases is crucial to implementing effective treatment and prevention strategies, and can help minimize the impact of disease outbreaks on both individual flocks and the broader poultry industry.

"Chickens" is a common term used to refer to the domesticated bird, Gallus gallus domesticus, which is widely raised for its eggs and meat. However, in medical terms, "chickens" is not a standard term with a specific definition. If you have any specific medical concern or question related to chickens, such as food safety or allergies, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate answer.

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the peripheral nervous system, leading to muscle weakness, tingling sensations, and sometimes paralysis. The peripheral nervous system includes the nerves that control our movements and transmit signals from our skin, muscles, and joints to our brain.

The onset of GBS usually occurs after a viral or bacterial infection, such as respiratory or gastrointestinal infections, or following surgery, vaccinations, or other immune system triggers. The exact cause of the immune response that leads to GBS is not fully understood.

GBS typically progresses rapidly over days or weeks, with symptoms reaching their peak within 2-4 weeks after onset. Most people with GBS experience muscle weakness that starts in the lower limbs and spreads upward to the upper body, arms, and face. In severe cases, the diaphragm and chest muscles may become weakened, leading to difficulty breathing and requiring mechanical ventilation.

The diagnosis of GBS is based on clinical symptoms, nerve conduction studies, and sometimes cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as pain management, physical therapy, and respiratory support if necessary. In addition, plasma exchange (plasmapheresis) or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) may be used to reduce the severity of symptoms and speed up recovery.

While most people with GBS recover completely or with minimal residual symptoms, some may experience long-term disability or require ongoing medical care. The prognosis for GBS varies depending on the severity of the illness and the individual's age and overall health.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

Foodborne diseases, also known as foodborne illnesses or food poisoning, are defined as disorders caused by the consumption of contaminated foods or beverages, which contain harmful bacteria, parasites, viruses, toxins, or chemicals. These agents can cause a range of symptoms, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and dehydration. The severity of the illness can vary from mild discomfort to severe life-threatening conditions, depending on the type of infectious agent and the individual's immune system and overall health status. Common examples of foodborne diseases include Salmonella, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Listeria, Staphylococcus aureus, and Norovirus infections. Proper food handling, preparation, storage, and cooking can help prevent the occurrence of foodborne diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "travel" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. In general, travel refers to the act of moving or journeying from one place to another, often over long distances. However, in a medical context, it might refer to the recommendation that individuals with certain medical conditions or those who are immunocompromised avoid traveling to areas where they may be at increased risk of exposure to infectious diseases. It's always best to check with a healthcare professional for advice related to specific medical situations and travel.

Domestic animals, also known as domestic animals or pets, are species that have been tamed and kept by humans for various purposes. These purposes can include companionship, work, protection, or food production. Some common examples of domestic animals include dogs, cats, cows, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, and chickens.

Domestic animals are distinguished from wild animals in that they are dependent on humans for their survival and are able to live in close proximity to people. They have often been selectively bred over generations to possess certain traits or characteristics that make them more suitable for their intended uses. For example, dogs may be bred for their size, strength, agility, or temperament, while cats may be bred for their coat patterns or behaviors.

It is important to note that the term "domestic animal" does not necessarily mean that an animal is tame or safe to handle. Some domestic animals, such as certain breeds of dogs, can be aggressive or dangerous if not properly trained and managed. It is always important to approach and handle any animal, domestic or wild, with caution and respect.

Campylobacter lari is a species of bacteria that can cause gastrointestinal illness in humans. It is one of several species within the genus Campylobacter, which are known to be significant causes of foodborne illness worldwide. C. lari is commonly found in the intestines of birds and other animals, and human infection typically occurs through the consumption of contaminated food or water.

The symptoms of a C. lari infection can include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. The illness is usually self-limiting and resolves within a few days to a week, although in some cases it may lead to more severe complications such as bacteremia (bacteria in the bloodstream) or Guillain-Barré syndrome, a serious neurological condition.

Prevention measures include proper food handling and cooking techniques, as well as good hygiene practices such as handwashing after using the bathroom and before preparing or eating food. If you suspect that you have a C. lari infection, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to receive appropriate treatment and prevent complications.

Polyradiculoneuropathy is a medical term that refers to a condition affecting multiple nerve roots and peripheral nerves. It's a type of neuropathy, which is damage or disease affecting the peripheral nerves, and it involves damage to the nerve roots as they exit the spinal cord.

The term "poly" means many, "radiculo" refers to the nerve root, and "neuropathy" indicates a disorder of the nerves. Therefore, polyradiculoneuropathy implies that multiple nerve roots and peripheral nerves are affected.

This condition can result from various causes, such as infections (like Guillain-Barre syndrome), autoimmune disorders (such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis), diabetes, cancer, or exposure to toxins. Symptoms may include weakness, numbness, tingling, or pain in the limbs, which can progress and become severe over time. Proper diagnosis and management are crucial for improving outcomes and preventing further nerve damage.

Gastroenteritis is not a medical condition itself, but rather a symptom-based description of inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, primarily involving the stomach and intestines. It's often referred to as "stomach flu," although it's not caused by influenza virus.

Medically, gastroenteritis is defined as an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines, usually resulting in symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. This condition can be caused by various factors, including viral (like rotavirus or norovirus), bacterial (such as Salmonella, Shigella, or Escherichia coli), or parasitic infections, food poisoning, allergies, or the use of certain medications.

Gastroenteritis is generally self-limiting and resolves within a few days with proper hydration and rest. However, severe cases may require medical attention to prevent complications like dehydration, which can be particularly dangerous for young children, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

"Food handling" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in the context of public health and food safety, it generally refers to the activities involved in the storage, preparation, and serving of food in a way that minimizes the risk of contamination and foodborne illnesses. This includes proper hygiene practices, such as handwashing and wearing gloves, separating raw and cooked foods, cooking food to the correct temperature, and refrigerating or freezing food promptly. Proper food handling is essential for ensuring the safety and quality of food in various settings, including restaurants, hospitals, schools, and homes.

Food contamination is the presence of harmful microorganisms, chemicals, or foreign substances in food or water that can cause illness or injury to individuals who consume it. This can occur at any stage during production, processing, storage, or preparation of food, and can result from various sources such as:

1. Biological contamination: This includes the presence of harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can cause foodborne illnesses. Examples include Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, and norovirus.

2. Chemical contamination: This involves the introduction of hazardous chemicals into food, which may occur due to poor handling practices, improper storage, or exposure to environmental pollutants. Common sources of chemical contamination include pesticides, cleaning solvents, heavy metals, and natural toxins produced by certain plants or fungi.

3. Physical contamination: This refers to the presence of foreign objects in food, such as glass, plastic, hair, or insects, which can pose a choking hazard or introduce harmful substances into the body.

Preventing food contamination is crucial for ensuring food safety and protecting public health. Proper hygiene practices, temperature control, separation of raw and cooked foods, and regular inspections are essential measures to minimize the risk of food contamination.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

In a medical context, "meat" generally refers to the flesh of animals that is consumed as food. This includes muscle tissue, as well as fat and other tissues that are often found in meat products. However, it's worth noting that some people may have dietary restrictions or medical conditions that prevent them from consuming meat, so it's always important to consider individual preferences and needs when discussing food options.

It's also worth noting that the consumption of meat can have both positive and negative health effects. On the one hand, meat is a good source of protein, iron, vitamin B12, and other essential nutrients. On the other hand, consuming large amounts of red and processed meats has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and certain types of cancer. Therefore, it's generally recommended to consume meat in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Wales" is not a medical term. It is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, located in Western Europe. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those!

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

Bacterial typing techniques are methods used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains or isolates based on their unique characteristics. These techniques are essential in epidemiological studies, infection control, and research to understand the transmission dynamics, virulence, and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens.

There are various bacterial typing techniques available, including:

1. **Bacteriophage Typing:** This method involves using bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to identify specific bacterial strains based on their susceptibility or resistance to particular phages.
2. **Serotyping:** It is a technique that differentiates bacterial strains based on the antigenic properties of their cell surface components, such as capsules, flagella, and somatic (O) and flagellar (H) antigens.
3. **Biochemical Testing:** This method uses biochemical reactions to identify specific metabolic pathways or enzymes present in bacterial strains, which can be used for differentiation. Commonly used tests include the catalase test, oxidase test, and various sugar fermentation tests.
4. **Molecular Typing Techniques:** These methods use genetic markers to identify and differentiate bacterial strains at the DNA level. Examples of molecular typing techniques include:
* **Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE):** This method uses restriction enzymes to digest bacterial DNA, followed by electrophoresis in an agarose gel under pulsed electrical fields. The resulting banding patterns are analyzed and compared to identify related strains.
* **Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST):** It involves sequencing specific housekeeping genes to generate unique sequence types that can be used for strain identification and phylogenetic analysis.
* **Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS):** This method sequences the entire genome of a bacterial strain, providing the most detailed information on genetic variation and relatedness between strains. WGS data can be analyzed using various bioinformatics tools to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), gene deletions or insertions, and other genetic changes that can be used for strain differentiation.

These molecular typing techniques provide higher resolution than traditional methods, allowing for more accurate identification and comparison of bacterial strains. They are particularly useful in epidemiological investigations to track the spread of pathogens and identify outbreaks.

Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic that is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including respiratory, urinary, and skin infections. It works by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase, which is an enzyme necessary for bacterial replication and transcription. This leads to bacterial cell death. Ciprofloxacin is available in oral and injectable forms and is usually prescribed to be taken twice a day. Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, and headache. It may also cause serious adverse reactions such as tendinitis, tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathy, and central nervous system effects. It is important to note that ciprofloxacin should not be used in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to fluoroquinolones and should be used with caution in patients with a history of seizures, brain injury, or other neurological conditions.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Medically, "milk" is not defined. However, it is important to note that human babies are fed with breast milk, which is the secretion from the mammary glands of humans. It is rich in nutrients like proteins, fats, carbohydrates (lactose), vitamins and minerals that are essential for growth and development.

Other mammals also produce milk to feed their young. These include cows, goats, and sheep, among others. Their milk is often consumed by humans as a source of nutrition, especially in dairy products. However, the composition of these milks can vary significantly from human breast milk.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Peru" is not a medical term. It is a country located in South America, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and beautiful landscapes. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those!

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "England" is not a medical term or concept. It is one of the four constituent countries that make up the United Kingdom, along with Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. England is located in the southern part of Great Britain, which is the largest island of the British Isles.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

I'm not sure I understand your question. "Denmark" is a country located in Northern Europe, and it is not a medical term or concept. It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, and it consists of the Jutland peninsula and several islands in the Baltic Sea. The capital city of Denmark is Copenhagen.

If you are looking for information about a medical condition that may be associated with Denmark, could you please provide more context or clarify your question? I would be happy to help you with more specific information if I can.

Population surveillance in a public health and medical context refers to the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health-related data for a defined population over time. It aims to monitor the health status, identify emerging health threats or trends, and evaluate the impact of interventions within that population. This information is used to inform public health policy, prioritize healthcare resources, and guide disease prevention and control efforts. Population surveillance can involve various data sources, such as vital records, disease registries, surveys, and electronic health records.

'Campylobacter rectus' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause periodontal disease, an infection and inflammation of the tissues surrounding the teeth. It is normally found in the oral cavity and is associated with periodontitis, a severe form of gum disease. The bacteria are microaerophilic, meaning they require reduced levels of oxygen to grow. Infection with 'Campylobacter rectus' can lead to tissue destruction, bone loss, and potentially systemic infections in individuals with weakened immune systems. Proper oral hygiene and dental care are important in preventing infection and controlling the spread of this bacterium.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Flagellin is a protein that makes up the structural filament of the flagellum, which is a whip-like structure found on many bacteria that enables them to move. It is also known as a potent stimulator of the innate immune response and can be recognized by Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in the host's immune system, triggering an inflammatory response. Flagellin is highly conserved among different bacterial species, making it a potential target for broad-spectrum vaccines and immunotherapies against bacterial infections.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

An abattoir is a facility where animals are slaughtered and processed for human consumption. It is also known as a slaughterhouse. The term "abattoir" comes from the French word "abattre," which means "to take down" or "slaughter." In an abattoir, animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, and chickens are killed and then butchered into smaller pieces of meat that can be sold to consumers.

Abattoirs must follow strict regulations to ensure the humane treatment of animals and the safety of the meat products they produce. These regulations cover various aspects of the slaughtering and processing process, including animal handling, stunning, bleeding, evisceration, and inspection. The goal of these regulations is to minimize the risk of contamination and ensure that the meat is safe for human consumption.

It's important to note that while abattoirs play an essential role in providing a reliable source of protein for humans, they can also be controversial due to concerns about animal welfare and the environmental impact of large-scale animal agriculture.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Arcobacter is a genus of Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in various environments, including water, soil, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. These bacteria are microaerophilic, meaning they require a reduced oxygen environment for growth. Some species of Arcobacter have been associated with gastrointestinal illnesses in humans, although the significance of these associations is not fully understood.

Here is a medical definition of Arcobacter from StatPearls:

"Arcobacter are gram-negative, curved or spiral-shaped rods that are microaerophilic and oxidase positive. They can be found in various environments, including water, soil, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Some species have been associated with diarrheal illnesses in humans, but their significance as human pathogens is not well established."

Source: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Campylobacter and Arcobacter Infections.

"Venereal Campylobacter Infections in Cattle". Cattle Practice. 10 (1): 35-42. OCLC 195913839. Type strain of Campylobacter ... Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus infections are associated with gastroenteritis and, rarely, sepsis in people. Although ... Epidemiological clues in the breeding herd or flock can indicate Campylobacter fetus infections. Often, C. fetus may not be ... Clark, B. L.; Dufty, J. H. (May 1982). "The Duration of Protection Against Infection with Campylobacter Fetus Subsp. Venerealis ...
The first well recorded incident of Campylobacter infection occurred in 1938. Campylobacter found in milk caused diarrhea among ... "Campylobacter jejuni , Campylobacter Food Poisoning". www.about-campylobacter.com. Retrieved 2016-04-18. Gundogdu O, Wren BW ( ... Campylobacter is a genus of bacteria that is among the most common causes of bacterial infections in humans worldwide. ... Extraintestinal manifestations of Campylobacter infection are quite rare and may include meningitis, endocarditis, septic ...
Foodborne infections caused by Campylobacter spp. can be diagnosed by isolation of the organism from faeces and identification ... Black RE, Levine MM, Clements ML, Hughes TP, Blaser MJ (March 1988). "Experimental Campylobacter jejuni infection in humans". ... Other known sources of Campylobacter infections include food products, such as unpasteurised milk and contaminated fresh ... Further to this, in 1973, Campylobacter was proposed as a novel genus. Campylobacter coli are thought to be mainly transmitted ...
"Campylobacter Infection in Dogs". vca_corporate. Retrieved 2020-11-28. Goossens, H.; Pot, B.; Vlaes, L.; Van den Borre, C.; Van ... Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari and ... "Campylobacter Infection in Dogs". vca_corporate. Retrieved 2020-10-26. Carbonero, A.; Torralbo, A.; Borge, C.; García-Bocanegra ... Infection is typically self limiting, however there is antimicrobial therapy available. Campylobacter upsaliensis shares the ...
Campylobacter, and Salmonella. Pathogenic bacteria also cause infections such as tetanus, typhoid fever, diphtheria, syphilis, ... Bacterial skin infections include: Impetigo is a highly contagious bacterial skin infection commonly seen in children. It is ... Streptoccal infections include sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis. These infections can become serious creating a systemic ... Phage therapy, using bacteriophages can also be used to treat certain bacterial infections. Infections can be prevented by ...
... can cause a gastrointestinal infection, campylobacteriosis. The incubation period is 24-72 hours after infection ... "Campylobacter". European Food Safety Authority. Retrieved 2020-11-02. Campylobacter Infections at eMedicine Sauerwein RW, ... of chickens tested positive for the presence of Campylobacter. Campylobacter infections increased 14% in the United States in ... Campylobacter infection is the most common trigger of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Gastrointestinal perforation is a rare ...
Here she specialised in retrovirology and protection against infection caused by the bacteria Campylobacter jejuni. After ... Protection against Campylobacter jejuni infection. london.ac.uk (PhD thesis). University of London. OCLC 940318607. Science, ... and HIV co-infection. She has considered the molecular epidemiology and evolution of subtypes and resistance of HIV, the ...
Campylobacter and Salmonella infections on organic broiler farms. Wageningen University and Research Centre, Lelystad, The ... Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in the United States. International Journal for Parasitology 38 (11): 1257-78 ... This is probably a result of the alternative system leading to a lower infection level, since no difference in mortality pigs ... Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Animal-Friendly Pig Production Systems. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. vol. 45 ...
"Association with HeLa cells of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from human feces". Infection and Immunity. ... PglC is found in the pathogenic gram-negative organism Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni). Infection from C. jejuni results in ... McCarthy N, Giesecke J (March 2001). "Incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome following infection with Campylobacter jejuni". ... PglC from Campylobacter jejuni has yet to be structurally characterized, but an orthologue of PglC from Campylobacter concisus ...
Multistate Outbreak of Multidrug-Resistant Campylobacter Infections Linked to Contact with Pet Store Puppies , Multistate ... Outbreak of Human Campylobacter Infections Linked to Pet Store Puppies , September 2017 , Salmonella , CDC Company website ( ...
Relationship to Campylobacter jejuni infection and anti-glycolipid antibodies". Brain. 118 (3): 597-605. doi:10.1093/brain/ ... A link to Campylobacter jejuni was suspected when a young girl was admitted to Second Teaching Hospital. She had become ill ...
Reactive arthritis occurs in 1% of people following infections with Campylobacter species. Guillain-Barré syndrome occurs in ... In the US, infections causing gastroenteritis are the second most common infection (after the common cold), and they result in ... Risk of infection is higher in children due to their lack of immunity. Children are also at higher risk because they are less ... Some viral infections also involve fever, fatigue, headache and muscle pain. If the stool is bloody, the cause is less likely ...
"Recurrence of duodenal ulcer and Campylobacter pylori infection after eradication". Medical Journal of Australia. 151 (8): 431- ... The primary goal of the treatment is not only temporary relief of symptoms but also total elimination of H. pylori infection. ... Patients with MALT lymphoma should also be tested and treated for H. pylori since eradication of this infection can induce ... As culture with antibiotic sensitivities is not routinely performed when a H. pylori infection is diagnosed, it is generally ...
"Recurrence of duodenal ulcer and Campylobacter pylori infection after eradication". The Medical Journal of Australia. 151 (8): ... The infection will remain with him for three years. An extensive study in Dublin demonstrates that eradicating H. pylori ... 1987). "Campylobacter pylori and recurrence of duodenal ulcers-a 12-month follow-up study". The Lancet. 2 (8568): 109-11. doi: ... 1987). "Association of Campylobacter pylori on the gastric mucosa with antral gastritis in children". New England Journal of ...
"Jackdaws as potential source of milk-borne Campylobacter jejuni infection". The Lancet. 335 (8698): 1160. doi:10.1016/0140-6736 ... The bacterium Campylobacter jejuni has been isolated from their beaks and cloacae so milk can become contaminated as they drink ... The illness appeared to be a co-infection of this with Salmonella and the virus has been provisionally named the crow ... This activity was linked to cases of Campylobacter gastroenteritis in Gateshead in northeast England and led the Department of ...
Regardless of where they are from, any puppies and dogs may carry Campylobacter germs. "Campylobacter infection: MedlinePlus ... "Multistate Outbreak of Multidrug-Resistant Campylobacter Infections Linked to Contact with Pet Store Puppies". US Centers for ... This occurs only with infection of C. jejuni and C. upsaliensis. In patients with HIV, infections may be more frequent, may ... "A meta-analysis on the effects of antibiotic treatment on duration of symptoms caused by infection with Campylobacter species ...
After a Campylobacter infection, the body produces antibodies of the IgA class; only a small proportion of people also produce ... In many cases, the exact nature of the infection can be confirmed. Approximately 30% of cases are provoked by Campylobacter ... only very few people with Campylobacter or CMV infections develop Guillain-Barré syndrome (0.25-0.65 per 1000 and 0.6-2.2 per ... Links between other infections and GBS are less certain. Two other herpes viruses (Epstein-Barr virus/HHV-4 and varicella ...
"The 14 C-urea breath-test for the detection of gastric Campylobacter pylori infection". Med J Aust. 151 (8): 435-9. doi:10.5694 ...
Quinalones are often used to treat severe cases of human infection with Campylobacter spp., and they are also used in ... Flumequine was used in veterinarian medicine for the treatment of enteric infections (all infections of the intestinal tract), ... flumequine was also used to treat urinary tract infections in humans. Flumequine, was used transiently treat urinary infections ... It was occasionally used in France (and a few other European Countries) to treat urinary tract infections under the trade name ...
"Campylobacter and Listeria infections still rising in the EU - say EFSA and ECDC - European Food Safety Authority". www.efsa. ... Invasive infection by L. monocytogenes causes the disease listeriosis. When the infection is not invasive, any illness as a ... "Sigma B contributes to Listeria monocytogenes gastrointestinal infection but not to systemic spread in the guinea pig infection ... and from perinatal/neonatal infections greater than 80%. In infections during pregnancy, the mother usually survives. Reports ...
"Anti-ganglioside GM1 antibodies in Guillain-Barré syndrome and their relationship to Campylobacter jejuni infection". Ann. ... Antibodies to a GM1 epitope as well as to one with the GT1a or GD3 epitope were found in different strains of Campylobacter ... Sinha S, Prasad KN, Jain D, Pandey CM, Jha S, Pradhan S (2007). "Preceding infections and anti-ganglioside antibodies in ... 1995). "Ganglioside-like epitopes of lipopolysaccharides from Campylobacter jejuni (PEN 19) in three isolates from patients ...
The most common triggers are intestinal infections (with Salmonella, Shigella or Campylobacter) and sexually transmitted ... The most common triggering infection in the US is a genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. Other bacteria known to cause ... and Campylobacter spp. A bout of food poisoning or a gastrointestinal infection may also precede the disease (the last four ... By the time the patient presents with symptoms, often the "trigger" infection has been cured or is in remission in chronic ...
Campylobacter infections are transmitted to a host via contaminated water and food, sexual activity, and interaction with ... Campylobacter can cause disease in both humans and animals, and most human cases are induced by the species Campylobacter ... This causes a urinary tract infection. Infections caused by exogenous bacteria occurs when microbes that are noncommensal enter ... This is considered an endogenous infection. A prime example of this is when the residential bacterium E. coli of the GI tract ...
Also, some risk is present for consumers of poultry meat and eggs to bacterial infections such as Salmonella and Campylobacter ...
"Autoimmunity Links Vinculin to the Pathophysiology of Chronic Functional Bowel Changes Following Campylobacter jejuni Infection ... Autoimmunity following infection by a pathogen producing CdtB, such as C. jejuni, may be the leading cause of MMC impairment. ...
"Autoimmunity Links Vinculin to the Pathophysiology of Chronic Functional Bowel Changes Following Campylobacter jejuni Infection ...
Campylobacter infection can be confirmed by rising antibody titers, culture on a selective medium, or histological examination ... Campylobacter is spread horizontally via the fecal-oral route. Campylobacter fetus can also cause venereal disease and abortion ... Gastrointestinal campylobacteriosis is caused by Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. Although it is a commensal in the ...
Auto-immune responses are known to occur following other infections, including campylobacter (Guillain-Barré syndrome), ... localized infection can occur when the infection has not yet spread throughout the body. Only the site where the infection has ... Asymptomatic infection exists, but occurs in less than 7% of infected individuals in the United States. Asymptomatic infection ... Up to 30 days after suspected Lyme infection onset, infection can be confirmed by detection of IgM or IgG antibodies; after ...
... and caused an epidemic of thousands of cases of diarrhea and vomiting primarily due to Norovirus and Campylobacter infections. ... Escherichia coli Salmonella Campylobacter Clostridium difficile Norovirus Rotavirus Adenovirus Nokian kaupunki: Talousveden ...
"Reactive nitrogen species contribute to innate host defense against Campylobacter jejuni". Infection and Immunity. 76 (3): 986- ...
Campylobacter infections are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. They produce both diarrheal and systemic ... encoded search term (Campylobacter Infections) and Campylobacter Infections What to Read Next on Medscape ... Campylobacter infections are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. They produce both diarrheal and systemic ... Epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni infections in Sweden, November 2011-October 2012: is the severity of infection associated ...
Contaminated raw milk is linked to outbreak of infections in Utah. ... Contaminated raw milk is linked to outbreak of infections in Utah. ... Campylobacter infection is a reportable disease in Utah, and all Campylobacter isolates undergo PFGE analysis (1). Patients A ... Experimental Campylobacter jejuni infection in humans. J Infect Dis 1988;157:472-9. CrossRef PubMed ...
Campylobacter bacteria are one of the most common causes of foodborne illness (food poisoning). Symptoms can last for about a ... Can a Campylobacter infection be severe?. Campylobacter infections are very contagious, meaning you can get an infection easily ... What is Campylobacter infection?. Campylobacter infection is a type of stomach flu (gastroenteritis). Some people call it food ... How is Campylobacter infection diagnosed?. The most common test to detect a Campylobacter infection uses a stool sample. Your ...
Campylobacter pylori has been associated with gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and nonulcer dyspepsia. Evidence that C ... A sensitive and specific serologic test for detection of Campylobacter pylori infection Gastroenterology. 1989 Apr;96(4):1004-8 ... Campylobacter pylori was cultured from the two ELISA-negative but infected patients and these isolates did possess HM-CAP ... Campylobacter pylori has been associated with gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and nonulcer dyspepsia. Evidence that C ...
Outbreak of Multidrug-resistant Campylobacter Infections Linked to Contact with Pet Store Puppies ... Isolate dogs with Campylobacter illness to prevent the spread of the bacteria. Campylobacter infections are often self-limited ... Multidrug-Resistant Campylobacter Infections Linked to Contact with Pet Store Puppiesplus icon *Brote de infecciones por ... Although the investigation is over, people can still get a Campylobacter infection from dogs. Always take steps to stay healthy ...
... infection or Campylobacterosis is a bacterial intestinal infection cased by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter upsaliensis ... What is campylobacteriosis infection?. Campylobacteriosis is a bacterial intestinal infection caused by Campylobacter jejuni ... Poultry and meat products are the main sources of human campylobacter infection. Humans usually acquire an infection by ... What are the clinical signs of Campylobacter infection?. In the dog, typical symptoms include watery to mucoid diarrhea, ...
... jejuni strain 81-176 infection. Following peroral reassociation both C. jejuni and L. johnsonii were able to stably colonize ... Campylobacter jejuni infections are progressively increasing worldwide. Probiotic treatment might open novel therapeutic or ... Human Campylobacter jejuni infections are progressively rising worldwide1, 2. Whereas C. jejuni act as commensal bacteria ... Lactobacillus gasseri SBT2055 reduces infection by and colonization of Campylobacter jejuni. PLoS One 9, e108827, doi:10.1371/ ...
... many of which have a worse prognosis than the acute infection itself.… ... There are numerous medical complications associated with Campylobacter infection, ... many of which have a worse prognosis than the acute infection itself. Campylobacter infections can cause extraintestinal ... Campylobacter (camp-UH-low-back-ter) is a genus of bacteria that is among the most common causes of bacterial infections in ...
Binational outbreak of Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Campylobacter jejuni infection, Mexico and USA, 2011 - Volume ... Common source outbreaks of Campylobacter infection in the USA, 1997-2008. Epidemiology and Infection 2012; 1: 1-10.Google ... Increasing Campylobacter Infections, Outbreaks, and Antimicrobial Resistance in the United States, 2004-2012. Clinical ... Microfluidics meets metabolomics to reveal the impact of Campylobacter jejuni infection on biochemical pathways. Biomedical ...
... and antibiotic treatment is recommended for severe infections. Every year, many people get Campylobacter jejuni infections that ... in animals raised for food are critical for preventing macrolide antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter jejuni infections in humans ... Careful use of macrolide antibiotics and strategies that reduce antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter ... Campylobacter jejuni is one of the major causes of foodborne illness in the United States, ...
Campylobacter coli, and Campylobacter fetus. Although C. jejuni and C. coli cause infectious enteritis primarily in ... is a gram-negative bacillus that causes infectious enteritis and consists of several species, including Campylobacter jejuni, ... immunocompetent hosts, C. fetus causes extraintestinal infections such as septicemia, meningitis, and perinatal infections in ...
Campylobacter serology test is a blood test to look for antibodies to bacteria called campylobacter. ... Campylobacter serology test is a blood test to look for antibodies to bacteria called campylobacter. ... Campylobacter infection can cause diarrheal illness. A blood test is rarely done to diagnose campylobacter diarrheal illness. ... Campylobacter infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 26th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020: ...
Rotavirus mono-infection was detected in 61 (20.1%), and Campylobacter mono-infection was detected in 81 (26.7%) samples. ... The main objective of this study was to determine Campylobacter co-infection associated with rotavirus diarrhoea in children ... Of 303 samples, 91 (30.0%) were positive for co-infection with rotavirus and Campylobacter. ... Patients age, month of infection, untreated water and frequent soil contact were the major risk factors for infections. ...
In June 2013 Westchester County Health Department announced an outbreak of Campylobacter among attendees of an outdoor food ...
Adolescent Adult Age Factors Campylobacter Fetus Campylobacter Infections Child Child, Preschool Colorado Dysentery, Bacillary ... Title : Campylobacter jejuni infection in Colorado: unexplained excess of cases in males. Personal Author(s) : Hopkins, R S; ... Hopkins, R S and Olmsted, R N "Campylobacter jejuni infection in Colorado: unexplained excess of cases in males." 100, no. 3 ( ... Hopkins, R S and Olmsted, R N "Campylobacter jejuni infection in Colorado: unexplained excess of cases in males." vol. 100, no ...
Campylobacter infections are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. They produce both diarrheal and systemic ... encoded search term (Campylobacter Infections) and Campylobacter Infections What to Read Next on Medscape ... Campylobacter infections are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. They produce both diarrheal and systemic ... Most reported bacteremias have been due to Campylobacter fetus fetus infection. Campylobacter lari, which is found in healthy ...
Campylobacter Infections - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer ... Symptoms of Campylobacter Infections Campylobacter symptoms usually develop 2 to 5 days after exposure and continue for about 1 ... About 25 to 40% of people who develop Guillain-Barré syndrome have had a previous Campylobacter infection. ... Campylobacter bacteria, usually Campylobacter jejuni, cause inflammation of the colon (colitis) that results in fever and ...
Campylobacter Infection in Children. What is Campylobacter infection in children?. Campylobacter infection is a mild to serious ... What causes Campylobacter infection in a child?. The illness is caused by Campylobacter bacteria. The infection is more common ... Key points about Campylobacter infection in children. *Campylobacter infection is a mild to serious digestive illness. The ... How can I help prevent Campylobacter infection in my child?. In most cases, the infection is caused by not handling food safely ...
Did you know that Campylobacter infection can be the main cause of diarrhea in people? It can affect millions of people a year! ... Which are n the symptoms of a Campylobacter infection The main symptoms of a Campylobacter infection start from two days after ... What to know about the infection by Campylobacter One of the main causes of diarrhea is Campylobacter infection, which is among ... Campylobacter infection present in dogs. There are many diseases that we can get from pets, so we must inform ourselves very ...
Campylobacter Infection in Dogs. Home » Pet Health » Pet Health Library » Library. What is campylobacteriosis infection?. ... Poultry and meat products are the main sources of human campylobacter infection. Humans usually acquire an infection by ... Campylobacteriosis is a bacterial intestinal infection caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter upsaliensis. It is a ... What are the clinical signs of Campylobacter infection?. In the dog, typical symptoms include watery to mucoid diarrhea, ...
Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You get it from eating raw or undercooked poultry. You can also get it ... Campylobacter நோய்த்தொற்றுகள் ஏற்படுதல். வழக்குகளின் எண்ணிக்கை. பின்வருவன உலகளாவிய வகையில் ஒவ்வொரு ஆண்டும் Campylobacter ... Campylobacter நோய்த்தொற்றுகள் ஆபத்து காரணிகள். பின்வரும் கரணங்கள் Campylobacter நோய்த்தொற்றுகள் வாய்ப்பை அதிகரிக்கக்கூடும்: * ... Campylobacter நோய்த்தொற்றுகள் எந்த வயதிலும் ஏற்படக்கூடும். பொதுவான பாலினம். Campylobacter நோய்த்தொற்றுகள் எந்த ...
Campylobacter jejuni Infections Associated with Raw Milk Consumption--Utah, 2014.. Kenneth R Davis, Angela C Dunn, Cindy ... Additional cases of C. jejuni infection were identified in October, and UDAF permanently revoked dairy As permit to sell raw ... of specimens from three patients infected with Campylobacter jejuni yielding indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis ... milk on December 1. During May 9-November 6, 2014, a total of 99 cases of C. jejuni infection were identified. Routine somatic ...
How Campylobacter is Transmitted from Animals to Humans What Disease does the Bacteria Campylobacter Jejuni cause and how ... What is Campylobacter?. Campylobacter is an infectious disease that is the leading cause of bacterial diarrheal illness and can ... How to Reduce the Risk of getting Campylobacter Infection from Animals. Medical Science ... The specie of Campylobacter responsible for most human illness cases is the Campylobacter jejuni. With over 1 million persons ...
... Mdegela, R. H.; Nonga ... Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter infections in humans, chickens and crows in Morogoro, Tanzania. Login ... Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter infections in humans, chickens and crows was determined in a cross-sectional study ... Age of humans and location of chickens were identified as risk factors for thermophilic Campylobacter infections. Positive ...
Monitoring chicken flock behaviour provides early warning of infection by human pathogen Campylobacter ... Monitoring chicken flock behaviour provides early warning of infection by human pathogen Campylobacter ...
"Venereal Campylobacter Infections in Cattle". Cattle Practice. 10 (1): 35-42. OCLC 195913839. Type strain of Campylobacter ... Campylobacter fetus subspecies fetus infections are associated with gastroenteritis and, rarely, sepsis in people. Although ... Epidemiological clues in the breeding herd or flock can indicate Campylobacter fetus infections. Often, C. fetus may not be ... Clark, B. L.; Dufty, J. H. (May 1982). "The Duration of Protection Against Infection with Campylobacter Fetus Subsp. Venerealis ...
Campylobacter from retail poultry: MLST analysis and the origin of human infection ... Campylobacter from retail poultry: MLST analysis and the origin of human infection ...
Using data on laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli infections from the Foodborne Diseases Active ... An analysis of Campylobacter infections in the United States found that their incidence remained stable or decreased from 2012 ... "Evaluation of antimicrobial use and infection prevention practices could help identify ways to reduce resistant Campylobacter ... Small study finds brain alterations after COVID Omicron infection After infection, anxiety scores were significantly higher, ...

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